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Re-Envisioning an Ecological Relationship A Landscape Master Plan For

UMassFive Federal Credit Union Hadley, MAssachusetts

Jon Kelly and Jessica Orkin The Conway School Spring 2013


Vision

The wetland on the UMassFive property is part of a larger complex of extensive wetlands in Hadley. Directly east of the parking lot the wetland is a strong presence on the UMassFive property, both visually and physically.

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and not based on a legal survey

With an expanding staff and membership, UMassFive built its new corporate headquarters in Hadley, Massachusetts in 2001. Though the headquarters has supported the credit union's growth over time, its proximity to a complex wetland ecosystem has been a challenge from the outset. Unfavorable soil conditions have resulted in structural stress in the parking lot, and site development has in turn put stress on the wetland ecosystem. By re-evaluating its relationship with the local wetland, UMassFive hopes to remedy the environmentally unsustainable aspects of its campus. UMassFive’s goals for the property and the design solutions offered here consider the health of its members, employees, and the wetland environment in which it is situated, acknowledging the broader impacts and implications that its site may have on local ecosystems and beyond.

Index 1

Client Vision

2

Goals and Existing Conditions

3 4 5 6

Regional Analysis Regional Context: The Big Picture Soils History of Development Impervious Surfaces

7 8 9 10

Site Analysis Legal Parking Lot Stormwater, soils, and drainage Vegetation and Microclimates

11

Water and Wetlands Summary

12 13 14

Design Phase I: Re-envisioning the relationship Design Phase II: A step further Design Phase III: Finishing touches

15 16

Plants for people and place Plant Palette Appropriate for UMassFive

17

Neighborhood Vision

18

A Model for Sustainability

The parking lot on the property is directly adjacent to the wetland. UMassFive has the minimum amount of parking required by zoning laws in Hadley: 2 square feet of parking per 1 square foot of floor space in the building for a total of 90 spaces.

Index and Vision

As a progressive, community-oriented, cooperative organization, the UMassFive College Credit Union approached the Conway School for a community-based landscape master plan. Already offering innovative financial solutions like its zero-interest Community Supported Agriculture loan, which aims to get healthy, local food into the hands of less financially secure individuals, UMassFive hopes to find similarly sustainable solutions to the challenges presented by local site conditions.

Master Landscape Design - UMassFive College Federal Credit Union - Hadley, Massachusetts Jon Kelly & Jessica Orkin — The Conway School — Spring 2013

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Goals and Existing Conditions

UMassFive Goals

Existing Conditions • •

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and not based on a legal survey

• • • • • • • •

3.25-acre parcel, located between Westgate Center Drive to the west and a perennial stream to the east 1.4 of the 3.25 acres is a wetland. A small portion of a much larger wetland complex is located on the east side of the property. 1.8 acres is considered "upland" from the wetland and 1 acre of that upland is impervious surface (the building and the parking lot). Four parking lots surround the building: member parking to the south, staff and member parking to the east, and staff parking to the north. The drive-through consists of two teller lanes and one ATM lane. Planted beds surround the building and edge parking lots. The turf west of the building and around the parking lot requires irrigation in hot, dry weather. Detention ponds in the northwest and southwest corners slow and filter stormwater runoff. The perennial stream flowing south to north along the eastern boundary carries local runoff into the wetland complex downstream. At the time of construction, a portion of the wetland was filled in what is now the northeast lot. An 800-square-foot wetland replication area was created east of the northwest lot to mitigate the loss of wetland.

Introducing Positives

Overcoming Negatives

❶ Evaluate parking lot’s current structural and functional conditions.

❷ Evaluate the potential for “green” stormwater management to help protect the wetlands’ health.

❸ Design an edible landscape, with harvest to be donated to the Amherst Survival Center.

❹ Provide outdoor employee amenities, such as walking paths, dining spaces, and places for meetings.

❺ Connect to nearby bike and walking paths to increase regional access and promote alternative means to get to work.

❻ Recommend how to increase the wildlife habitat in the wetland on the property.

A Look at the UMassFive Parking Lot Issues

Drive Through to Exit

Staff Parking Lot

Member Parking Lot

Water is seeping up through the asphalt, creating a persistent puddle in the warm months and a patch of ice in the colder months. Other issues include frost heave damage and ruts in the asphalt where cars park. These areas are patched annually, at a cost of $5,000/yr.

Staff parking lots display dark, damp areas where water is expressing through cracks. Individual parking spaces have deep ruts in the asphalt, looking as if the cars are sinking into the asphalt.

The member parking lot is also cracked and puddling. The curbs are damaged from frost heave, exacerbated by plowing in the winter.

The wetland resource located directly to the east of the parking lot may be one clue to what is causing some of the problems. But to understand the issues with the water and the wetlands and their effect on the parking lot, it is necessary to look outside of the property boundary.

Goals and Existing Conditions

Hadley directed commercial development along busy Route 9 as a strategy to protect the town's rich and historic farmland. This development, however, has had consequences for the sensitive wetland ecosystems near Route 9. Since UMassFive opened its headquarters in 2001, the nearby wetlands have negatively affected its parking lot, and parking-lot run-off has affected the wetlands. The credit union would like to address both these situations.

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Regional Context - The Big Picture The flat topography and loamy soils found in the area are the direct result of glaciation processes occurring thousands of years ago. These conditions were the foundation for the rich wetland complexes that have since formed in the region. UMassFive and the surrounding developed lands are situated squarely within one of these richly diverse ecosystems.

Regional Drainage Map

Regional Context Map

Glacial Lake Hitchcock

The soil structure of the ancient lake bottom resulted in rich agricultural and wetland-appropriate soils.

Legend Hadley

Subregional Watershed

UMassFive Credit Union

BioMap2 Core Habitat

Sub-Regional Watershed

Wetlands

Wetlands

Open Water

Open Water 0 0.5 1

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and not based on a legal survey

Hadley at a Glance

Today, the Connecticut River cuts through the broad expanse of the former lake bed, ringed by a series of ridges to the east and west and the Holyoke Range to the south. Water drains into the flat valley and eventually the Connecticut River, which empties into Long Island Sound to the south. Based on the flat topography and underlying soil structure, many wetlands formed throughout the region. A prime example of this is the large series of wetlands occupying Hadley’s central core. Though protected to some degree today, these wetlands and the abundant wildlife they support have been affected by development throughout the settled history of the region. Despite development, the state’s BioMap2 study still recognizes these wetland complexes and surrounding forests as core and critical natural habitat, supporting multiple species of interest and conservation concern. UMassFive and the surrounding businesses are located within Hadley’s commercial district along the east-west Route 9 corridor connecting Amherst, Hadley, and Northampton. The perennial stream along the eastern property boundary flows south to north through a large wetland complex and into the Mill River to the north, which cuts west and empties into Lake Warner and the Connecticut River beyond. The University of Massachusetts Amherst sits to the northeast, while downtown Amherst is located uphill to the east.

UMassFive

Legend

Miles 2

¯

UMassFive Parcel Boundary

0 0.25 0.5

Water flows from ridges to the east, west and south into Hadley’s mostly flat valley.

The credit union's location at the southern edge of the regional sub-watershed has implications for ecosystems and natural resources downstream, regional hydrological processes, and ultimately the structural integrity of the UMassFive parking lot. Because runoff and surface water from the site flows through the large wetland complex, the quality of that water can have significant impacts on the ecosystems present.

Muskrat

American Bullfrog

¯

Blue Heron

Painted Turtle

Swallowtail Butterfly

Eastern Bobcat

An abundance of wildlife activity on the UMassFive property and surrounding wetland indicates that at least the foundations of a healthy ecosystem are present. Birds, mammals, amphibians, and insects all rely on the vitality of the environment for their health and well being. Yellow-throated warbler and American robin songbirds coexist with wetland species like the red-winged blackbird and aquatic predators including blue and green heron, king fisher, and the trophic predator red-tailed hawk. Muskrats swim about, turtles sun on logs, and bullfrogs croak. Rabbit, fox, and even bobcat have been spotted. All photos courtesy of Wikicommons

Miles 1

The states BioMap2 recognizes the wetland complex and surrounding forests as core and critical habitat for wildlife and biodiversity supporting multiple species of interest and conservation concern.

Biomap2, Hadley, MA • • • • • • •

Total Area: 15,752 acres (24.6 square miles) Human Population in 2010: 5,250 Open Space Protected in Perpetuity: 4,533 acres, or 28.8% of total area* BioMap2 Core Habitat: 7,270 acres BioMap2 Core Habitat Protected: 2,539 acres or 34.9% BioMap2 Critical Natural Landscape: 3,727 acres BioMap2 Critical Natural Landscape Protected: 1,328 acres or 35.6*

BioMap2 Components • • • •

Core Habitat 4 Exemplary or Priority Natural Community Cores 3 Aquatic Cores 3 Species of Conservation Concern Cores 3 birds, 1 reptile, 2 amphibians, 3 fishes, 9 insects, 5 mussels, 15 plants

Critical Natural Landscape • 1 Landscape Block • 4 Wetland Core Buffers • 2 Aquatic Core Buffers *Calculated using MassGIS data layer “Protected and Recreational Open Space – March 2012.”

Regional Context - The Big Picture

Hadley

Hadley is situated in Western Massachusetts within the broad, flat plain of the Connecticut River valley formed by glaciation processes that occurred 18,000 years ago. During its retreat, an ancient glacier formed Lake Hitchcock as melting waters pooled north of a sand and gravel dam. As fast-flowing streams entered the lake, heavier sediments dropped, creating deltas of gravel and coarse sand while finer particles flowed further into the lake. The soil structure of the lake bottom formed in layers of clay, silt, and sand that resulted in the rich, agricultural soils found there today. Though extremely fertile, these malleable waterretaining soils present problems for construction and drainage.

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Regional Context - soils The soils around UMassFive are naturally wet with a relatively high water table and a high potential for frost heave in the winter. These characteristics are typical of wetland environments and generally not conducive for building and development without extensive engineering and structural support. Regional soil surveys provide coarse data which can provide a useful window into the structure and characteristics of soils in the neighborhood. Surveyors use scientific data to predict soil types and boundaries within a given area but don’t actually test each area in question. Therefore, existing conditions and site-specific soil tests should inform the understanding of any particular site. In addition, soil conditions change over time in response to environmental and human pressures. This sheet takes a broad look at area soil characteristics, while more specific soil conditions for the UMassFive site can be found on sheet 9. Soil Texture

Hydric Soils

Frost Heave

Water Table

Legend Neigboring Parcel Boundaries silt loam

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and not based on a legal survey

UMassFive Parcel Boundary

UMassFive Parcel Boundary

loamy fine sand

UMassFive Parcel Boundary

Neigboring Parcel Boundaries

Neigboring Parcel Boundaries

gravelly fine sandy loam

Neigboring Parcel Boundaries

0-9"

High

Partially Hydric

23-39"

fine sandy loam Not rated or not available Wetlands 0

Legend

Legend

Legend

loamy sand

375

750

¯

Feet 1,500

The coarse soil survey of the area shows large amounts of silt loam and fine sandy loam present. Silt loam is predominantly silt but may contain up to 30% clay. Fine sandy loam is again a mixture of silt and clay though with more sand present. Particle size for soils of these types is generally medium to fine which can limit drainage, resulting in saturation. Silt soils are inherently unstable in the presence of water and can actually begin to "flow" when saturated. Silts are not easily compressed and present engineering challenges when required to support heavy loads. Silts change volume when exposed to water and have a high potential for frost heave in colder months. The finer particle clay soils are even more impervious, extremely difficult to compact when wet, and also tend to heave in colder months.

Not Hydric Unknown Hydric 0

375

750

¯

>40" Wetlands

Feet 1,500

0

Most of the soils in the area are partially hydric. Soils of this type tend to hold water in their pores, becoming easily saturated during rain events and water table fluctuations. Hydric soils are indicative of wetland habitats and one of the characteristics used in the legal definition of a wetland. Plants capable of growing in these saturated soils are limited to those with the ability to withstand the characteristic lack of oxygen. These soils are not ideal for structural support without properly amending the soil structure. The patches of non-hydric soils are less easily saturated and support a broader range of plant species. Soils of this type more readily support development though soil structure must still be considered.

375

750

¯ Feet 1,500

The water table is the point at which soils become saturated with water. Generally these conditions are found less than nine inches below the surface in this neighborhood, though some sections, including approximately two-thirds of the UMassFive property, have a water table in the two to three foot range. Areas where the water table is so close to the surface will be more dramatically affected when groundwater rises. Construction in these areas requires specific engineering processes to combat the naturally unstable and erosive qualities of the water lying just below the surface. Additionally, plants chosen for this type of landscape will need to be wet-tolerant, limiting the available choices, especially if agriculture is desired.

Moderate Low Not rated 0

375

750

¯ Feet 1,500

Most of the soils in this neighborhood are prone to frost heaving in winter. Frost heave occurs as the ground freezes and any water trapped in the soil expands, then collapses as it thaws. This becomes problematic for structures including parking lots and curbs built over saturated areas or those with a high water table. As ice forms under the asphalt it pushes the material up, then support is lost as the ice melts. This process of contraction and expansion weakens the structural integrity of the asphalt, resulting in cracks, depressions, and potholes. According to the NRCS, “silty and highly structured, clayey soils that have a high water table in winter are the most susceptible to frost action.” As noted previously, these are the exact materials deposited in layers throughout the valley during the glacial retreat.

Regional Context - Soils

UMassFive Parcel Boundary

Master Landscape Design - UMassFive College Federal Credit Union - Hadley, Massachusetts Jon Kelly & Jessica Orkin — The Conway School — Spring 2013

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Regional Context - History of Development History of Development in Westgate Center Drive As the first entity to enter the area in 1992, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Department developed its parcel on Westgate Center Drive just south of the Route 9 and Route 116 intersection. Extensive permitting was required by the Hadley Conservation Commission due to the proximity to the wetland complex present in the area.

Perennial Stream

Westgate Center Drive Development

In 1994 Staples opened its store in the neighborhood. Although it is located upland of any wetlands, it also has wetlands and detention ponds located to the south.

Applebee's restaurant, which opened in 1996, is located north of UMassFive. Applebees is adjacent to wetlands and the perennial stream running along its eastern boundary.

In 1998, UMassFive first began looking at this parcel of undeveloped land. They had the wetland delineated and received permits from the town of Hadley and the Hadley Conservation Commission to proceed with development. In 2001, UMassFive first opened its doors to the public on Westgate Center Drive.

In the 1970s, most of the area around what is today Westgate Center Drive was largely undeveloped and used for agricultural purposes. Farmland is one of the best surfaces for rainwater infiltration, which may explain why local residents remember the perennial stream that runs east of UMassFive as an intermittent trickle of water.

Journey-to-work, Hadley 2000 & 2011 100%

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and not based on a legal survey

90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Drive Alone Hadley Census - 2000 Hadley Census - 2011

Carpool

Public Transit

Walked

Worked at Home

In the latest census (2007-2011), 85.7% of Hadley residents who responded commuted alone to work.

Legend Wetland

The amount of development at Westgate Center Drive has not changed substantially since 2001 when UMassFive's facility was built.

Regional Context - History of Development

Historical Photo - 1970s

Master Landscape Design - UMassFive College Federal Credit Union - Hadley, Massachusetts Jon Kelly & Jessica Orkin — The Conway School — Spring 2013

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Regional Context - Impervious Surfaces

In Hadley, current zoning regulations require two square feet of parking area for every square foot of floor area on a commercially developed property. Though that parking area is not required to be paved, it must be retained as "reserved space," in case the need for paving arises in the future. Additionally, the "reserved space" must be counted when determining the size of onsite detention basins meant to filter runoff on the property. Most businesses have paved the entire square footage of parking area required.

Undeveloped Sites

Suburban Sites

35-50% Impervious Surface 30% Runoff 35% Evapotranspiration

0% Impervious Surface 10% Runoff 40% Evapotranspiration

Urban Sites

50- 100% Impervious Surface 55% Runoff 30% Evapotranspiration

Increase of impervious surfaces mean less evapotranspiration, less infiltration and a greater increase in rainwater runoff. Westgate Center Drive falls just shy of the 35-50% impervious surface range, a mixture of development with open space. The amount of impervious surface in an area can cause water tables to fluctuate.

Impervious Surface Increases from 1997-2011 Wetlands

2001: From 31.5 acres (1997) to 38 acres of Impervious surfaces 19% of the 194.5 total acreage

2004: From 38 acres (2001) to 46 acres of Impervious surfaces 23% of the 194.5 total acreage

2011: From 46 acres (2004) to 49.5 acres of Impervious surfaces 25% of the 194.5 total acreage

Re-examining outdated zoning laws, exploring creative parking strategies, and reducing overall demand for parking by promoting alternative means of transportation could combine to reduce impervious surfaces, to the benefit of Hadley’s ecological integrity.

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and not based on a legal survey

Impervious Surface in 1997 UMassFive

2011

1997 In 1997 Westgate Center Drive was largely developed. Of the total area of 194.5 acres, 16% or 31.5 acres were impervious surfaces.

In the 194.5-acre area above, impervious surfaces increased by approximately 10% over the past two decades to cover 25% of the area. Some biologists believe that extremely detrimental impacts to area ecosystems and their processes begin to occur when impervious cover climbs above 20% (Motzkin). *Shaded colors indicate approximate zone of new development, including pervious and impervious surfaces. Calculations above reflect actual impervious surface areas.

Regional Context - Impervious Surfaces

Stormwater runoff is correlated to development. Asphalt, concrete, and building roofs all restrict the ability of rainwater to infiltrate onsite, increasing negative stormwater runoff impacts on local waterways. Increased velocities and temperatures can be detrimental to aquatic flora and fauna. Chemicals and petroleum residues leached from asphalt can have similarly negative impacts. Dark-surfaced asphalt also contributes to the urban “heat island” effect by trapping heat and later releasing it into the atmosphere, driving up energy consumption and so adding to the carbon footprint of the area.

Master Landscape Design - UMassFive College Federal Credit Union - Hadley, Massachusetts Jon Kelly & Jessica Orkin — The Conway School — Spring 2013

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Site Analysis - Legal Development on most of the UMassFive property is restricted by local zoning and wetland bylaws. There are set-backs of 40 feet, 50 feet, and 15 feet in the front, side, and rear yards respectively, and a variance permit is required for any development, construction, or permanent signs placed there.

on the site directly impact the wetland resources these controls were designed to protect. If the same Notice of Intent were filed today, it is likely that the parking lot design would not be approved by the Conservation Commission based on the bylaw adopted in 2008.

The wetlands, occupying roughly half of the property, impose the greatest restrictions. A forerunner in recognizing the importance of local waterways and wetland ecosystems, the state of Massachusetts passed the Wetlands Protection Act in 1972 (WPA), which established the types of wetland resources to be protected and specific protocols designed to do so. Buffer zones extend from wetland resource boundaries and prescribe a permitting process and performance standards for any activity occurring within them. These buffers filter runoff and provide edge habitat while maintaining wetland health.

Though it's not possible for UMassFive to move out of the 35-foot no-disturb zone without tearing down a portion of the building, removal of some parking area is possible. By reducing asphalt along the wetland resource boundary and replacing it with native, wetland vegetation, more water could be filtered and infiltrated before reaching the wetland resource, and wildlife forage and habitat could be increased. This would have the added benefit of addressing the most severe problem areas of water seepage in the parking lot. Current zoning regulations related to the amount of parking surface required on a commercially developed site will determine the amount of paving that can be removed and what may be done with the area (see parking lot analysis on sheet 6 for full discussion).

200' Riverfront Resource

Performance standards should ensure that the resource area remains unaltered by work completed. Alterations include changing per-existing drainage and sedimentation patterns, lowering of water table, destruction of vegetation, and changing of the water temperature or other physical, biological, or chemical characteristics of the wetland resource. Many towns enact more stringent codes in the form of local wetland bylaws. Adopted in 2008, Hadley's wetland bylaw sets forth a 35-foot no-disturb zone within the state mandated buffers. The bylaw states that "no one shall fill, erect, or otherwise alter any land within 35 feet of a wetland or stream as defined in the Wetlands Protection Act, except for the normal maintenance or improvement of land in agricultural or aquacultural use." Currently, at least a portion of all parking lots at UMassFive (all built before the 2008 bylaw) sit within this 35-foot no-disturb zone. The northeast corner of the building and a significant amount of parking surface are situated within the state regulated 100-foot buffer, with significant amount of hardscape falling within the 200-foot riverfront area as well. Though not in violation of state or local regulations based on UMassFive's full participation in the correct permitting process at time of construction, the building and parking lot

100' Wetland Buffer 35' Wetland Buffer

Legend Wetland Perennial Stream 200' Riverfront Resource Boundary 35' Hadley Wetland Resource Buffer 100' Massachusetts Wetland Resource Buffer includes 35' Hadley Buffer Property Setbacks 0'

20'

40'

80'

Site Analysis - Legal

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and not based on a legal survey

Two wetland types are found on UMassFive property — the perennial stream along the eastern boundary and the bordering vegetated wetland (BVW) to the west of the stream. The stream is protected by a 200' riverfront area buffer from its western edge and the BVW by a 100' buffer from its western edge. Any work occurring within these buffers will require a Notice of Intent detailing the scope of the project to be filed with the Conservation Commission. The Conservation Commission then responds with an Order of Conditions to be met if the project is to proceed.

Master Landscape Design - UMassFive College Federal Credit Union - Hadley, Massachusetts Jon Kelly & Jessica Orkin — The Conway School — Spring 2013

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Site Analysis - Parking Lot Northwest Lot Staff Lot

Northeast Lot Staff Lot

17 Spaces 20% of Total Spaces approximately 4200 sf 12% of Paved Surface

21 Spaces 25% of Total Spaces approximately 5900 sf 16% of Paved Surface

East Lot Staff Lot

South Lot Member Lot

21 Spaces 25% of Total Spaces approximately 5900 sf 16% of Paved Surface

30 Spaces (4 ADA) 33% of Total Spaces approximately 9075 sf 25% of Paved Surface

Drive-Up Banking 2 Teller Lanes 1 ATM Lane approximately 3600 sf 10% of Paved Surface Total Parking Lot 90 Spaces 30 Member • 26 Regular • 4 ADA 60 Staff • 56 Regular • 4 Mail/Delivery

Though the entire paved surface is challenged by site conditions related to soil structure and the adjacent wetland, certain areas show more wear than others. The most challenging of these is the large, year-round puddle present in the passage from the east lot to the north. Corresponding to the portion of the wetland resource area originally filled and mitigated for, the standing water in this area freezes in winter, creating hazardous driving and walking conditions. The southern row of spaces in the northeast lot remains similarly damp. An eight-foot-wide section of asphalt spanning the entire row was replaced less than a year ago and already appears significantly worn. Dampness and puddling also occur in the area connecting the south and east lots. Cracked, crumbling, and shifted curbs line the parking lot. Deep ruts from the weight of cars are present in the north lot despite the presence of a geotextile fabric meant to increase the load-bearing capacity of the asphalt above, while less severe rutting occurs elsewhere. Cracks, fissures, and potholes throughout are further indicators of the structural challenges present.

The parking area at UMassFive constitutes approximately 80% of the impervious surface onsite. Currently, on some days up to 69 employees work in the building; there are 60 parking spaces in the staff lot. High turnover in the member lot provides ample parking for members at most times of the day. Reducing asphalt onsite would benefit the surrounding wetlands and dependent wildlife and would also save UMassFive money in maintenance fees, but onsite demand for parking would have to be reduced or alternative parking strategies explored. This end could be achieved by reducing member transactions onsite, sharing parking with other businesses, providing the means for employees to use alternative transportation options to get to work, or moving some staff and departments to other facilities nearby.

Legend Wetland Vehicular Traffic Movement Water Seepage on Asphalt Staff Entrance Member Entrance

0'

20'

40'

80'

Site Analysis - Parking Lot

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and not based on a legal survey

Currently, UMassFive has four distinct parking lots totaling 90 spaces, approximately 69 of which are filled by staff on a typical day. Members park in the south lot and access the building from this side. Employees and service vehicles park in the east lot and use the staff entrance there. The north lots are reserved for staff as well. Vehicles enter the south entrance of the site, traveling one way around the building (excepting the two-way member lot) and eventually exit to the north. The unclearly marked exit route results in cars cutting through the teller lanes north of the building even though they are not using drive-up services, a practice UMassFive staff would like to eliminate. A conflict point exists where staff exit lanes and teller-lane exit lanes meet in a small area with limited sightlines.

Master Landscape Design - UMassFive College Federal Credit Union - Hadley, Massachusetts Jon Kelly & Jessica Orkin — The Conway School — Spring 2013

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Site Analysis - Stormwater, Soils, and Drainage Legend Roof Stormwater - .41 acres Parking Lot Stormwater - .83 acres Turf Stormwater - .61 acres Wetland Stormwater - 1.4 acres Acres

Stormwater Runoff Analysis Stormwater runoff quantities for a given area can be understood by breaking the area down into its differing surface types of varying permeability.

UMassFive has four surface types — the impervious roof, the parking lot, the vegetated wetland, and the turf area around the building. By modifying any one of those surface types, the amount of stormwater runoff can be modified as well. Reducing the amount of completely impervious surface on-site has the potential for greatest impact in terms of stormwater runoff reduction. Removing asphalt and increasing vegetation will not only reduce the amount but also slow, filter, and clean that runoff as it filters down to recharge groundwater levels or drains downstream through sensitive habitats. Similarly, by replacing the current impervious roof with a living, green roof, stormwater runoff from this area could be reduced by half. Removing turf and replacing it with appropriate wetland trees, shrubs, and other herbaceous material will provide the same benefits though to a lesser degree.

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and not based on a legal survey

Soils and Drainage Soils at UMassFive are generally one of two types with similar characteristics. Across the property, silty loam soils top silty clay soils. A high water table just below the surface and poor drainage characterize the eastern half of the property containing the wetland. The western portion is moderately well draining with ground water two to three feet beneath the surface. The property gently slopes east to west towards the perennial stream. A system of four catch basins and underground pipes channel runoff from the building, parking lots, and turf area west of the building into a large detention pond in the southwest corner of the property. Though runoff is slowed significantly, the poorly draining soils below do not allow for infiltration onsite and much of the runoff is sent downstream. The flat topography of the river valley results in a very slow rate of flow downstream. The water level is consistently higher than the culvert below Route 9 on both sides of the road, perhaps indicating that the overall water level for the area at least immediately surrounding the stream bed has risen. Siltation may be one factor affecting this level. As rain events, spring meltwater, and irrigation practices flush silt and other easily transported sediments downstream, these materials eventually settle and fill in area streams and wetland ecosystems.

The increased amount of sediment displaces water present, resulting in higher water levels. By reducing impervious surfaces on the more well draining soils on-site, less runoff is forced onto the poorly drained soils to the east. Because that water that originally had no where to go is allowed to filter down, it is possible that the wetland will be less likely to enlarge. However, the relative abundance of water in the area will continue to have negative implications for the clay Legend soils beneath the parkWetland Resource Boundary ing lot. Even if proper backfill is used when Poorly Drained Hydric Soils repaving, parking lots will be perched atop soils Moderately Well-Drained Soils that will have a tendency to shift when water is Surface Drainage present. Underground Catch Basin Downspouts Underground Catch Basin Water Flow

0'

20'

40'

80'

Site Analysis - Stormwater, Soils, and Drainage

Completely impervious surfaces such as conventional asphalt and roofing materials produce the largest amount of runoff, heavily vegetated areas with well-draining soils the least, and a whole range of rates fall in between. Soil texture and porosity, area drainage patterns, type and amount of vegetation, area topography, and local hydrological cycles all play a role in how much water an area can accept and how much runs off-site to affect other areas downstream.

Master Landscape Design - UMassFive College Federal Credit Union - Hadley, Massachusetts Jon Kelly & Jessica Orkin — The Conway School — Spring 2013

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The vegetation onsite can be divided into two groups: that related to the managed areas around the building and parking lot and the unmanaged wetland beyond. The beds around the building are sparsely planted with rhododendrons, junipers, and lilies. More beds of similar ornamental species line the north and south edges of the parking lot. Red maples and green ash create pockets of shade around the parking lot on an otherwise exposed site. A large area of turf on the west side slopes from the street toward the building, and more turf edges the parking lot to the east and northwest. Current landscape maintenance practices include the use of chemical fertilizers, herbicides, and insecticides to combat crabgrass, weeds, and insects. Fertilizer is applied throughout the year and twice in the summer. Excess nutrients from fertilizer runoff, which can have negative impacts on area streams and water quality, are a very common by-product of high-maintenance lawn areas. A reduction in turf would in turn allow a reduction in fertilizer, to the benefit of local flora and fauna.

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and not based on a legal survey

The bordering vegetated wetland is a mixture of trees, shrubs, and invasive reed canary grass. Native species are abundant, including speckled alders, gray and silky dogwoods, crabapple, viburnums, elderberries, and more. Though the reed canary grass is listed as an invasive species in most of New England including Massachusetts, it does provide some phytoremediation by improving soil quality in degraded areas.

For the most part, a low- to no-maintenance approach is beneficial in the wetland itself. By not mowing or otherwise disturbing the vegetation within the wetland, species habitat is protected. The thick vegetation provides valuable forage for wildlife, and helps filter runoff before it reaches the stream and flows offsite, though the invasive species onsite should be monitored and possibly managed to ensure native habitat is not compromised. The largely hydric soils in this wetland environment will affect what plants will grow here. Plants that can tolerate the low levels of oxygen associated with these saturated soils will do best. Examples include elderberry, currant, and blueberry. All of these can be enjoyed by animals and people alike. Several microclimates exist on the property. The exposed, sunny southern side of the building is ideal for growing annual and perennial vegetables but will also tend to get hot during the warmer months. The east side of the building is sunny in the morning and shaded in the afternoon. If not for the large parking area located here, this location would be appropriate for an employee gathering space due to the relatively comfortable afternoon shade. The west side of the building receives shade in the morning and sun in the afternoon. Plants which tolerate partial shade should be chosen for both of these areas. The long bed just north of the teller lanes receives the most shade on the property. This is also the area that tends to stay wet through all seasons. Wet-tolerant, shade-loving species will thrive here.

Invasive Plant Species at UMassFive

Legend Maintained Beds Autumn Olive

Purple Loosetrife

Phragmites

Multi-flora Rose

Japanese Knot-weed

Tartarian Honeysuckle

Invasive species are aggressive in their ability to out-compete native plants. These plants are often able to colonize depleted soils more readily than native species. Due to their vigorous growth patterns, invasives can create monocultures, dominating an area and choking out native species and the habitat and forage they provide. Disturbed areas often support invasive species due to the degraded nature of the site. Despite their obvious drawbacks, some argue that invasives hold many values of their own. Multi-flora rose provides safe habitat and winter forage when little else is available. Reed canary grass provides soil stabilization and some phytoremediation as it improves soil quality. Autumn olive also provides wildlife forage and in humans has been shown to increase lycopene, a chemical thought to reduce prostate cancer. Though benefits may exist, the threats posed by these invasive species are real. A thorough study of the extent and impact of invasives in the area and larger wetland complex beyond could have beneficial impacts on the function of these ecosystems if a proper management plan is enacted. Photos courtesy of Wikicommons

Mowed Turf Maintained Trees Wetland Plants Detention Pond Plants Full Sun Partial Sun/Shade Cold Winter Wind Warm Summer Breeze

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Site Analysis - Vegetation and Microclimates

Site Analysis - Vegetation and Microclimate

Master Landscape Design - UMassFive College Federal Credit Union - Hadley, Massachusetts Jon Kelly & Jessica Orkin — The Conway School — Spring 2013

10/18


Water and Wetlands Summary

Complex wetland ecosystems are formed through the combined interaction of local hydrology, soils, slope, vegetation, climate, and human or animal disturbance patterns. These characteristics all have significant impacts on the underlying relationships between surface and groundwater flows, which in turn determine how, where, and at what rate water moves through an area. While surface water flows can be easy to measure and track, groundwater cannot be readily observed and is more difficult to understand.

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and not based on a legal survey

Glacially derived, poorly draining soils with a high water table and a tendency to be saturated result in prime wetland conditions across much of Hadley. The increase in impervious surfaces in the area forces even more runoff onto these wet soils. That water can't readily infiltrate, and the flat topography at some of the lowest elevations in the valley inhibits flow of water downstream. Obstruction to normal flow can cause water to change course or

be impounded behind the obstruction, raising water levels upstream. Obstructions, including blocked culverts related to development and beaver dams, often alter the size, shape, and function of wetlands. In addition, the rate at which plants draw, store, and release water to the atmosphere varies seasonally in response to plant growth cycles and this variation can result in seasonal water table fluctuation. The rate will vary further based on the type and density of the vegetation present. During the growing season when plants are active, they draw more water, reducing groundwater levels and lowering the water table. The water level begins to rise in the fall as plants drop their leaves in preparation for winter. In the dormant winter months, when evapotranspiration rates are low, plants draw and store less water, resulting in a higher table.

The high water level at the perennial stream at Route 9 culvert could indicate higher water tables in the area or obstructions downstream.

This active beaver dam is located north of UMassFive in the wetlands west of UMass Amherst.

Because the water cycle in an area is so complex, it becomes difficult to isolate any one factor as the ultimate cause of the site's parking lot issues. And this cycle will continue to play a large role in site conditions and function of the UMassFive facility and within the surrounding neighborhood. Because conditions here favor a wetland environment and the ecosystems they support, design solutions must acknowledge these conditions. Existing challenges such as frost heave and cracks in the parking could persist unless innovative solutions are employed.

Water Flows in a Wetland

Seasonal Water table Winter

Fall

Precipitation

Design Steps towards Ecological Solutions Spring

Evapotransporation Surface Water In

Ground Water In Surface Water Out

Ground Water Out

The amount of water in a wetland fluctuates seasonally and in response to its local and regional context.

Water table begins to rise as plants lose leaves and growth cycle slows.

High water table due to low water draw during dormant season.

Low water due to increased storage within the plants during active growth cycle.

UMassFive can implement sustainable solutions for its headquarters site in phases (sheets 12-14). These steps will reduce the organization's negative impacts on the local wetland system while reducing maintenance costs related to having developed a site which does not support a conventionally designed asphalt parking lot. A progressive step in the right direction, these solutions will have a positive impact and can serve as a model for others to follow. But because of the regional nature of the challenges faced by the credit union, implementing similar solutions at the neighborhood and regional level will have greater impact. For this reason, the final design illustrates a more sustainable Westgate Center Drive neighborhood.

Water and Wetlands Summary

The site conditions at UMassFive reflect many of the larger regional patterns present in the valley. In exploring the first project goal of evaluating the parking lot's structure and function, it became apparent that these larger patterns would have strong implications for that and other goals, including those related to stormwater management, wildlife habitat, the edible landscape, employee amenities, and regional connectivity.

Master Landscape Design - UMassFive College Federal Credit Union - Hadley, Massachusetts Jon Kelly & Jessica Orkin — The Conway School — Spring 2013

11/18


Design Phase I: Re-Envisioning the Relationship

❷ Cracked and frost-heaved curbs are removed and replaced by regularly spaced large stones that define the parking lots' edges and protect adjacent vegetation from cars and plows. Wet-loving natives are thickly planted around parking lot edges to help slow and filter runoff as it moves towards the more sensitive wetland environment. To capture sediment before it reaches the wetland, a swale lines all sides of the parking lots except the Westgate Center Drive edge. This swale will need to be monitored and maintained as needed. These design features, which replace existing turf and ornamental plantings, create a more ecologically sound buffer between the parking lot and wetland by filtering runoff before it reaches the sensitive ecosystem.

❹ In order to promote species diversity and augment the already healthy wetland habitat, a few well-placed, semi-mature trees are planted in the wetland itself. Not only do trees improve habitat, but through transpiration can help combat water table issues if replicated on a community scale level. UMassFive can begin that process through leading by example on their own site. Additionally, as these trees mature, they will begin to shade out the thick reed canary grass, opening the door for native species to move back in. Measures will need to be taken when planting to ensure the reed canary grass does not choke out the newly planted trees.

Perennial Stream New Entrance

❺ Edible plantings enhance the sunny south-facing member entrance area. East of the front door, a living wall of kales and chives thrives in containers attached to the wall, with peach or pear espaliers flanking either side. Grape vines climb the wall west of the bank of windows. An herb spiral in the bed west of the entrance wraps towards the front of the building to connect these spaces. ❻ The lawn area to the west of the building becomes a simulated dry river bed planted with a mixture of native and medicinal herbs. A gravel path meanders through the area with cut-flower plantings for members and staff to enjoy. All of these plants attract and support the health of native pollinator species while also providing a pleasant approach and view from the street. A buffer of beach plums lines the edge of the space along Westgate Center Drive. These salt-tolerant plants are a line of defense against dust and exhaust from passing motorists and also provide filtration services for water flowing into the planted depression.

Staff Lot

Wetland Drive Through

UMassFive

Staff Lot

❺ Member Lot

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Design Phase I: Re-Envisioning The Relationship

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and not based on a legal survey

❶ Twenty parking spaces are removed in the north lots, removing 10% of the overall paved surface area. The northeast staff lot, the area with water seepage, puddling, and cracking problems, is targeted for the initial phase of asphalt reduction, and this area is planted with appropriate wetland plants. Access and circulation is significantly affected in this design by separating the north lots from the east and south. A new entrance from the street is cut into the northwestern corner of the northwest lot. Employees parking here and members using drive-up services will continue to leave through the existing exit. Staff members parking in the east lot and members parking in the south lot will enter and exit through the existing entrance at the southwestern corner of the property. Signs are posted to effectively direct traffic throughout the site.

❸ An employee gathering space replaces a portion of the parking area that was removed in the northeast lot. Wetland gardens surround a gravel patio here with tables and chairs allowing employees an uninterrupted view of the wetlands beyond. Wet-tolerant, edible shrubs, such as blueberry, elderberry, or currant, screen the area from the south and west to create privacy from the parking lot and drive-through lanes.

Westgate Center Drive

Phase I marks the beginning of a multi-year, multi-phase process that re-evaluates the relationship UMassFive and other businesses have with the wetland ecosystem around them. As UMassFive opens the community discussion of the implications of owning and operating a business within an environmentally sensitive wetland habitat and how that could shape future growth and planning strategies, it simultaneously looks to site-specific solutions to begin this regenerative process. These initial steps address the key problem area in the parking lot and other goals, but more importantly symbolize a new approach for the credit union. By reducing pavement onsite and establishing a stronger buffer zone between the parking lot and the adjacent wetland, UMassFive establishes itself as a community leader dedicated to moving away from ecologically unsound decisions made in the past.

The new outdoor employee area after the 17 parking spots are removed in the north lot. This area is now free of asphalt and filled with a native wetland meadow.

Master Landscape Design - UMassFive College Federal Credit Union - Hadley, Massachusetts Jon Kelly & Jessica Orkin — The Conway School — Spring 2013

12/18


Design Phase II: A Step Further

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and not based on a legal survey

❷ UMassFive continues to augment the wetland buffer zone by planting the former northeast staff lot with appropriate wetland plants and encouraging the natural process of succession to occur in this area. The area around the new trellis east of the building is similarly planted with native wetland plants to aid in filtering and slowing runoff as it approaches the wetland beyond.

❹ An extensive green roof is installed to help decrease stormwater runoff while also filtering some of the runoff that continues to occur. The green roof reduces the amount of impervious surface on site by a further 23%. The design calls for a low-maintenance planting plan consisting of sedums and sedges that should require minimal access to the roof once established. Though not accessible by the public, the plants used attract and support native pollinator species. Though low-maintenance once established, there will be significant planning and design associated with the installation. A structural engineer, architect, and landscape designer will be needed to ensure proper functioning of this feature.

Perennial Stream New Entrance Staff Lot

Wetland Drive Through

❹ UMassFive

❸ Staff Lot

Member Lot

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20'

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80'

The new extended employee area after 10 parking spaces are removed to the east. A trellis, tables, and benches overlook the wetland. Trumpet vine on the trellis draws humming birds and butterflies.

Design Phase II: A Step Further

❶ Thirteen more parking spaces are removed with a total of 57 spaces left. An additional 10% of paving is removed. The northeast parking lot is replanted as a wetland environment, and the northwest staff lot has added a few more spaces in the former lane entering the northeast lot. Though six spaces are lost from the northeast lot, five are added in the northwest for a total loss of only one space in this area. An additional ten spaces are removed from the east staff lot along the wetland boundary, further enhancing the wetland buffer zone.

❸ A trellis covered in trumpet vines and other pollinator attractors replaces the parking spaces removed from the east staff lot. With tables and benches underneath, a new space opens for staff to escape the confines of the building and appreciate the wildlife and wetlands the credit union is committed to nurturing. A low shrub hedge provides separation from the parking lot to the west, but still addresses safety concerns by maintaining good visibility just outside the staff door.

Westgate Center Drive

Phase II builds upon the foundation established in “Re-Envisioning the Relationship.” UMassFive has established the legitimacy of its efforts and members support the bank as it progresses into its next phase, removing more asphalt from its parking lot, adding a green roof, and planting more trees and shrubs in the wetland for wildlife support and habitat. Educational kiosks are placed next to these design changes, informing the public and UMassFive members of the environmental and social benefits behind each initiative.

Master Landscape Design - UMassFive College Federal Credit Union - Hadley, Massachusetts Jon Kelly & Jessica Orkin — The Conway School — Spring 2013

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Design Phase III: Finishing Touches

❸ Additional trees and shrubs in the wetland increase habitat and forage for wildlife, helping to connect critical wildlife corridors, one north of UMassFive and one located south of UMassFive, both recognized as important in BioMap2 (see sheet 3). The new vegetation further supports the neighborhood wetland restoration process and increases the overall transpiration rate for the area. Ecosystems downstream are positively impacted as the runoff onsite is cleaner and cooler when it reaches them.

Staff Lot

❹ Tables and chairs and a gravel patio in the former east staff lot create an open air employee gathering space between the building and the trellis to the east. A short path loops around the area, connecting to the staff and cafe entrances. Flowers and edible plants edge the path.

❶ 25% more paved area is removed from phase II when 21 parking spaces are removed. Eleven spots remain in the north employee parking lot, further reducing stormwater runoff onsite. Drive-up services are no longer offered at this branch, negating the need for the drive-through lanes. The east staff lot is completely removed and the north staff lot is reduced to a line of 10 spaces along Westgate Center Drive. The member lot is reduced by 4 spaces bringing the total number of spaces on site to 36.

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and not based on a legal survey

New Entrance

Perennial Stream

Wetland

❷ UMassFive Office Campus

Combined Lot

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The extensive employee gathering space that used to be the east parking lot. Tables and chairs provide ample seating under shade trees. Paths meander through gardens of flowers and wetland meadow plants. The drive-through is now a gym and cafe that opens out to the gardens.

Design Phase III: Finishing Touches

The phase out of the branch and teller lanes allows the landscape to have more of a campus feel. As parking demands have been significantly reduced by this phase, even more asphalt is removed. Open office space in the building is leased out to other local businesses looking for start-up space, with new tenants parking in the new garage built across the street. The natural setting and employee amenities attract diverse tenants who appreciate the design aesthetics of an ecologically thoughtful landscape.

❷ The covered space formerly used for drive-up services is now enclosed and houses a company gym and cafe. Floor-toceiling windows provide light and views into the expanded wetland.

Westgate Center Drive

Phase III brings UMassFive into a new era of banking. With mobile technology widely embraced by its members, face-toface banking has become almost obsolete. An increased ATM presence and the addition of drive-up kiosks at area shopping plazas provide more convenient banking access for members. As a result, the corporate headquarters no longer needs to house a branch for daily transactions. Executive offices are still in use and financial planning, mortgage, and loan services are still offered, but the need for keeping cash on site has been eliminated, easing security concerns.

Master Landscape Design - UMassFive College Federal Credit Union - Hadley, Massachusetts Jon Kelly & Jessica Orkin — The Conway School — Spring 2013

14/18


Plants for People and Place Edible Landscape

Wildlife Habitat

Environmental Remediation

UMassFive is committed to supporting local organizations that are fighting hunger in the community. By planting an edible landscape, UMassFive hopes to offer some additional food items to the daily meal program offered by the Amherst Survival Center. Being a banking institution, and not a farm, it will be important to consider plants that will not require a lot of maintenance, and will fit a professional setting. According to Andrea Bellemy, from Heavy Petal in California, there are two types of low maintenance edible plants. 1. Those that require initial, upfront labor such as planting, watering, composting, staking, and pruning, but once those things are done, the plants need little annual maintenance. 2. Edibles that are generally low maintenance are perennial plants, ones that come back year after year. Most resist pests and disease, and don't require staking or pruning.

Doug Tallamy, the author of Bringing Nature Home encourages the creation of biological oases that support a healthy and diverse insect population by reworking landscapes to incorporate native plants and reduce the impact of invasives so that these insect populations can thrive. Much of the success of an insect population rests on the plant material present. A diversity of native plants supports a diversity if insect, bird, amphibian, and mammal species.. Plants have evolved in response to particular insect behaviors. Native plants and native insects have evolved together, forming a symbiotic relationship over hundreds of thousands of years. However, plant species that are not native do not as readily support diversity. A study from the University of Delaware compared suburban properties; three were converted to native landscapes and three were left with ornamental landscapes. The three landscapes converted to natives showed a significant increase in caterpillar species which then increased bird abundance, diversity, species richness, biomass and breeding pairs of native wildlife species.

When coming from impervious surfaces, stormwater frequently carries sediment, salt, chemicals (pesticides and fertilizer), litter, and other pollutants like motor oil, zinc from car tires. By removing asphalt on site and adding a native vegetative buffer, UMassFive can support wetland health by using plants that filter and clean stormwater before it enters the perennial stream.

Some Low Maintenance Plants to Consider: Arugula and Herbs Kale By far the easiest edibles are herbs. Hardy herbs like rosemary, mint, thyme, lavender, chives, and dill are easy to grow, beautiful and tasty.

Plants for stormwater runoff can purify water by removing suspended solids (sediment), and a wide variety of nutrients and minerals, such as nitrates, phosphorus, and heavy metals.

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and not based on a legal survey

Garlic

A vegetative buffer between a parking lot and a wetland should have plants that are native to the area and therefore already suited to local ecosystems. According to the Boise, Idaho Public Works Department, a vegetative buffer for stormwater purposes should have plants that: • Handle site conditions (flood, drought, heat, freeze) • Take up nutrients quickly • Filter pollutants • Capture and hold sediment • Add other benefits to the ecosystem by supporting pollinators and wildlife. • Require little maintenance.

Relatively easy edible. Plant bulbs in the fall and harvest in the summer.

Blueberries

Require little maintenance in general.

Rhubarb

Very easy plant produces an edible stalk. Its lush leaves look beautiful but are poisonous. A diversity of native plants supports a diversity of insect, bird, amphibian, and mammal species.

Plants for People and Place

These perennial edibles also have simple, attractive flowers.

Master Landscape Design - UMassFive College Federal Credit Union - Hadley, Massachusetts Jon Kelly & Jessica Orkin — The Conway School — Spring 2013

15/18


Plant Palette Appropriate for UMassFive Plant Criteria

Edible Landscape

Easy to maintain. Multi-purpose use. Supports people and adds habitat diversity for pollinators and birds. Visually appealing.

Wildlife Habitat • • • • •

Easy to maintain. Native. Creates a foundation to support insects, which support the larger ecological food pyramid. Beneficial to wildlife and the wetland. Visually appealing.

Edible Landscape Common Name Herbs (Full sun)

• • • • •

Easy to maintain. Native. Tolerant of urban runoff and pollution (salts and chemicals from vehicle use). Beneficial for pollinator insects. Visually appealing.

In this conceptual planting plan, broad areas are planted for remediation and wildlife habitats (east and north of the building), and edible plants are distributed in pockets throughout.

Wildlife Habitat

Botanical name: Genus Botanical name: Species

Common Name Botanical name: Genus Botanical name: Species Forbs (Partial sun, wet tolerant) Goldenrod

Solidago

riddellii

Asters

Aster

novae-angliae

Lavender

Lavendula

angustifolia

Echinacea

Echinacea

purpurea

Sage

Salvia

officinalis

Joe Pye Weed

Eupatorium

purpureum

Parsley (flat leaf)

Petroselenium

crispum

Morning Glory

Petroselenium

crispum

Chives

Allium

schoenoprasum

Lupine

Allium

schoenoprasum

Rosemary

Rosmarinus

officinalis

Violet

Rosmarinus

officinalis

Thyme

Thymus

vulgaris

Black-eyed Susan

Thymus

vulgaris

Lemon Balm

Melissa

officinalis

Milkweed

Asclepias

tuberosa

Oregano

Origanum

vulgore

Little Bluestem

Schizachyrium

scoparium

Cardinal Flower

Lobelia

cardinalis

Edible Trees (Partial sun, wet tolerant) Paw Paw

Asimina

triloba

Phlox

Phlox

paniculata

Seckel Pear

Pyrus

communis

Bee Balm

Monarda

fistulosa

Verbena

Verbena

officinalis

Edible Shrubs (Partial sun, wet tolerant)

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and not based on a legal survey

Environmental Remediation

American Hazelnut

Corylus

americana

Trees (Partial sun, wet tolerant)

Elderberry

Sambucus

nigra

White Oak

Quercus

alba

Juneberry

Amalanchier

medik

Arrowwood

Viburnum

dentatum

Blueberry Purple Flowering Rasperry

Vaccinium

cyanococcus

River Birch

Betula

nigra

Rubus

odoratus

Black Walnut

Juglans

nigra

Sea Berry

Hippophae

rhamnoides

Black Willow

Salix

nigra

Jam Berry

Aronia

alnifolia

Plants for Wildlife Joe Pye Weed

Environmental Remediation

Vines (For on building structure and employee trellis) Trumpet Vine

Campsis

radicans

Virginia Creeper

Parthenocissus

quinquefolia

Common Name Botanical name: Genus Botanical name: Species Forbs (Partial sun, flood and drought tolerant) Bushy Aster

Aster

dumosus

Heath Aster

Aster

ericoides

Dwarf Cornus

Cornus

canadensis

Glade Fern

Diplazium

pycnocarpon

Interrupted Fern

Onmunda

daytoniana

Switchgrass

Panicum

virgatum

New York Fern

Thelypteris

noveboracensis

Blue Flag Iris

Iris

virginica

Little Bluestem

Schizachyrium

scoparium

Cardinal Flower

Lobelia

cardinalis

Summersweet

Clethera

alnifolia

Bee Balm

Monarda

fistulosa

Shrubs (Partial sun, flood and drought tolerant)

Edible - Lavender Photos courtesy of Wikicommons

Red Chokeberry

Aronia

arbutifolia

Black Chokeberry

Aronia

melanocarpa

Sweet Pepperbush

Clethera

alnifolia

Red Osier Dogwood

Cornus

sericea

Spicebush

Linderea

benzoin

Northern Bayberry

Myrica

pensylvanica

Nanny Berry

Viburnum

lentago

Inkberry

Ilex

glabra

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Pollution-Tolerant Little Bluestem

Plant Palette Appropriate for UMassFive

• •

Master Landscape Design - UMassFive College Federal Credit Union - Hadley, Massachusetts Jon Kelly & Jessica Orkin — The Conway School — Spring 2013

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Neighborhood Vision Legend

Design Features:

New Vegetation

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and not based on a legal survey

UMassFive member and communal support increases through a public education component that promotes the benefits of taking a broader contextual view of ecological systems and processes and responding to those needs. These appropriate responses are illustrated on-site, facilitating the larger discussion by displaying the improved function of the facility as well as the increased benefits to the ecological system in question. Throughout this process, UMassFive documents the economic, environmental, and community costs and benefits of its new approach. With this hard data in hand, it becomes possible to show other businesses that their model of increased ecological sensitivity increases the health of the local ecosystems, creates cost savings over time, and drives up membership as community approval ratings increase. In this way, one neighborhood illustrates the benefit of collaborative strategies that ripple across scales.

New Wetland Meadow

❷ Route 9 becomes walkable and bikable. A free electric bus with bike rack travels Route 9 providing public transit between Northampton, Hadley, and Amherst.

Agricultural Fields Green Roof

Trails

❸ A green neighborhood parking garage for visitor and employee parking replaces a portion of Staples parking lot.

Asphalt

❹ All businesses in the neighborhood install green roofs for stormwater mitigation. ❺ Bike lanes are put into place on Westgate Center Drive.

Through a collaborative partnership, UMassFive, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Department, the local Conservation Commission, Hadley Planning Department, and neighboring businesses all have the opportunity to positively impact the local environment while educating the public on the reasons for and benefits of this process. UMassFive and its partners engage in an education campaign to increase community understanding of the need for such change. U.S. Fish and Wildlife offer their expertise in wetland restoration and evaluate the health and function of the larger wetland complex spanning the sub-regional watershed, recommending strategies for increased ecosystem support.

❶ Increased native trees, shrubs, and other vegetation increase transpiration, filtration, aesthetics, and wildlife support.

Wetlands

❻ ❼

❶ ❽ ⓫

❻A bus stop has been added to the circular part of Westgate Center Drive, and a planted area replaces paving in the center part of the circle. ❼ Neighborhood walking paths connecting UMassFive, Applebee's, Staples, Fish and Wildlife, Howard Johnson, and Midas create an approximately 1.2-mile loop for employees and customers. Interpretive signs along the route teach about the wetland complex and changes to Westgate Center Drive. ❽ The new parking garage allows parking surfaces to be reduced and replaced with native wetland vegetation. ❾ Bike trails connecting Westgate Center to the Norwottock Bike Trail and Hampshire Mall.

❿ Park and Ride is located at Hampshire Mall with van services in the AM and PM for employees of Westgate Center Drive. ⓫ UMassFive adds a drive-up kiosk at Hampshire Mall.

Buffered bike lanes and walking paths create a more attractive and accessible Westgate Center Drive.

Neighborhood Vision

Though an increase in the amount and type of vegetation described on the preceding sheets addresses UMassFive's goals at the site level, the initial analyses indicate the need for a broader view. Due to the presence of a complex set of regional factors, solutions to site-specific challenges must be addressed at the neighborhood and regional level. As such, the site-specific phased responses implemented by UMassFive are a sustainable model for a larger neighborhood vision plan which seeks to remedy the challenges resulting from the current development practices along Westgate Center Drive. In order for significant change with lasting impact to occur, solutions will need to be directed at all levels —individual, neighborhood, and regional. Physical solutions may entail new planning strategies and regulatory amendments.

Master Landscape Design - UMassFive College Federal Credit Union - Hadley, Massachusetts Jon Kelly & Jessica Orkin — The Conway School — Spring 2013

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A Model for Sustainability

Norwottock Bike Trail

1.2 Mile Walking Trail

US Fish and Wildlife

Connection to the Norwottock Bike Trail Agricultural Fields

UMassFive Restored Wetlands

Bus Stop Green Roof

Green Parking Garage

Howard Johnson

Staples

Native Wetland Buffer Native Wetland Meadow

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and not based on a legal survey

Route 9

UMassFive and other Westgate Center Drive neighborhood businesses and agencies initiate environmentally sensitive design solutions to increase the quality of habitat and wetland resources to the benefit of local flora, fauna, and human populations. The abundant native vegetation, which replaces the asphalt removed by area businesses and government agencies, has significantly increased the canopy cover and dramatically reduced the developments' heat island effect. This vegetation also slows, cleans, and infiltrates more water onsite. Habitat and species diversity have expanded as well.

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife wetland restoration project has decreased large stands of invasive monocultures, increased biodiversity, and improved water quality throughout the wetland complex. Green roofs filter runoff, reduce temperature fluctuations, and increase the aesthetic appearance of the neighborhood. A new bus stop, centrally located on Westgate Center Drive, makes riding the bus more convenient for employees. New bike lanes and connections to the Norwottuck Rail Trail improve safety and accessibility for cyclists.

The 1.2-mile neighborhood walking trail through the retrofitted neighborhood features educational kiosks which discuss the sustainable design solutions and reasons for implementation in an effort to engage and educate local employees and the community at large. By seeking sustainable solutions based on site-specific conditions, UMassFive and its partners illustrate the possibilities for reduced energy consumption, improved water and air quality, healthier, more satisfied employees, and a stronger community.

A Model for Sustainability

Applebee's

Walkable and Bikable

Master Landscape Design - UMassFive College Federal Credit Union - Hadley, Massachusetts Jon Kelly & Jessica Orkin — The Conway School — Spring 2013

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UMassFive Federal Credit Union: Re-envisioning an Ecological Relationship