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Open View Farm

Master Plan + Sustainability Study

Kate Cairoli + Amy Wolfson The Conway School Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning and Design Spring 2013


Index Goals + Existing Conditions............................................................1 Program............................................................................................2 Context + Watershed.....................................................................3 Slopes + Drainage...........................................................................4 Bedrock +Soil, Access + Circulation..............................................5 Vegetation.......................................................................................6 Biodiversity.......................................................................................7 Views + Legal...................................................................................8 Summary Analysis............................................................................9 Design Focus Area Summary Analysis........................................10 Design Alternative: Community Welcome................................11 Design Alternative: Fecundity.....................................................12 Design Alternative: Beyond Coal................................................13 Final Design....................................................................................14 New Cabin Focus Area................................................................15 Wetlands Focus Area....................................................................16 Barn Focus Area: Drainage..........................................................17 Barn Focus Area............................................................................18 Retreat Center Focus Area..........................................................19 Plant Palette: New Cabin............................................................20 Plant Palette: Wetlands................................................................21 Plant Palette: Rain Garden..........................................................22 Plant Palette: Forest Garden.......................................................23 Planting Details 1...........................................................................24 Planting Details 2...........................................................................25 Planting Details 3...........................................................................26 Cost Estimate.................................................................................27 Sustainable Design Details...........................................................28 References.....................................................................................29


Emmy + Aimee’s Vision

Newhall Road runs north through the southern portion of the property. Aimee, Emmy, and their family live in a farmhouse at the north end of the road. A barn to the west of the farmhouse houses thirty-five sheep and one llama. The animals graze in a pasture to the south of the barn, to the east of the driveway, and in other spaces that are contained by moveable fences throughout the property.

YURT Forest

Through openness, warmth, and sustainability, the farm provides access for people from all walks of life, and fosters learning from and connecting to nature.

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WELCOMING + ACCESSIBLE

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Ponds and Wetlands

Open View Farm produces many resources on the land that support the core values of the farm, such as edibles, materials for crafts, and other useful materials. Sustainable practices are used on the farm that support and improve the surrounding natural environment, reduce the carbon footprint of the farm, and provide opportunities to demonstrate to visitors various sustainable techniques.

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Pasture

POLLINATOR GARDEN + BIRD BOX

SOLAR + WIND POWER

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Approximately three wetlands (not delineated) exist on the property, two of which surround ponds. An intermittent stream runs through the eastern lower half of the property. Other wet spots exist throughout the property, including a spring in the pasture to the southwest of the barn.

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Open View Farm balances public and private space seamlessly so that visitors feel welcome and know where they can go, while the owners have a place to retreat, regroup, and re-energize.

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Goals

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CSA Gardens

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Prime Farmland Farmland of Statewide Importance

Visitors have many opportunities to learn about the farm and the surrounding environment. Visitors feel welcome when they arrive at the farm. Open View Farm is accessible to people with varying levels of mobility.

RAISED PERMACULTURE BEDS Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

A utility right-of-way owned by Western Massachusetts Electric Company bisects the property from west to east. The recently replaced power lines are now very prominent because vegetation that previously blocked them was removed.

Seventy-five percent of the property is forested, some of which contains hiking trails. Invasive plant species thrive in many areas, especially in places that were previously cleared for agriculture such as around the ponds and to the east of the larger pasture.

Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | Conway, MA www.csld.edu Spring 2013

NEW CABIN

482 NEWHALL ROAD CONWAY, MA 01341

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Goals + Existing Conditions

Open View Farm is a 130-acre property in Conway, Massachusetts, owned by Emmy Howe and Aimee Gelnaw. It is a place for Emmy, Aimee, and their family and friends to work, be together and enjoy nature. Groups of people come to the farm periodically for craft days, retreats, and camp, and to join in the routine farm activities.

Amy Wolfson | Kate Cairoli The Conway School

Existing Conditions

MASTER PLAN + SUSTAINABILITY STUDY OPEN VIEW FARM

Clients

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4. Design an outdoor classroom for Groups of school children Campers Workshops 5. Design a welcoming entrance Clear wayfinding Aesthetically appealing entrance Move paths to avoid snow falling from roofs 6. Design permaculture and community gardens Accessible to visitors with limited mobility A place to store tools is within 100' Water is within 100' 7. Integrate existing farm activities CSA gardens remain as they are for incubator farmer program Existing pastures remain, additional grazing added 8. Suggest sustainable management practices for the farm and land To provide access to areas overgrown with invasive species To provide space for native species Integrate agricultural practices and wildlife habitat

Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | Conway, MA www.csld.edu Spring 2013

3. Site tent platforms or yurts to accommodate visitors 4-6 Privacy for each platform Within 600' of retreat center

482 NEWHALL ROAD CONWAY, MA 01341

2. Site a tractor shed To store tractor and equipment out of sight and protect from weather

Amy Wolfson | Kate Cairoli The Conway School

1. Site a cabin (existing farmhouse will become the retreat center) Accessible to retreat center and barn (<5% grade, within 600') Energy efficient With view of sheep pastures and retreat center

MASTER PLAN + SUSTAINABILITY STUDY OPEN VIEW FARM

Program

10. Address drainage issue to north of barn Divert water away from building 12. Parking for 12 cars 5 for Aimee, Emmy, tenants, and workers To accommodate visitors 13. Natural pool Cool gathering place in summer for family and friends Within 100' of the new cabin

Program

9. Suggest renewable energy opportunities To reduce costs, carbon footprint, and educate visitors

2/29 Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.


Utility Rightof-Way

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Connecticut River

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Waste from livestock could contaminate the wetlands and then rivers, especially if livestock are not fenced out of water resources on the property. The steep terrain on the property could be at risk for erosion and lead to sediment deposition in the ponds and rivers if the soil is left bare of vegetation, such as during construction of new buildings on the property. Therefore, it will be important to mitigate erosion during the construction of buildings. Additionally, rotational grazing will help prevent areas in the pastures from becoming bare and at risk for erosion.

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Some examples of pollution in waterways include excess nutrients (including nitrogen and phosphorus), sediments, and bacteria. Sediment can clog the gills of fish and suffocate them, herbicides and other chemicals contaminate the water, and excess nutrients encourage the growth of algae that can deprive the water of oxygen.

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Eutrophication

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Excess nutrients (phosphorus + nitrogen) enter the water when it rains.

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Sout Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

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Open View Farm is part of the Deerfield River watershed, which flows into the Connecticut River. The northern third of the property drains into the Deerfield River while the southern twothirds of the property drains into the South River before it joins the Deerfield River.

Sunlight

Algae bloom. Phytoplankton thrive on excess nutrients, then block sunlight, causing other plants to die.

Conway Center

Open View farm is between the Deerfield River and the South River. The runoff that does not go directly into the Deerfield River travels there shortly after running into the South River. Open View Farm abuts the South River State Forest, and there are opportunities to connect to trails in the State Forest.

South River

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Plants thrive initially Thin Till on the high nutrient Bacteria decomposers levels, but dieFarmland once break down large amount Prime sunlight and oxygen of dead plant material, further depleting oxygen levels are depleted. Farmland of Statewide Importance levels.

Ecosystem death Oxygen levels are so low that the water can no longer support life.

Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | Conway, MA www.csld.edu Spring 2013

Barn

482 NEWHALL ROAD CONWAY, MA 01341

Deerfield River

South River State Forest Open View Farm

Open View Farm

Context + Watershed

South River State Forest

Amy Wolfson | Kate Cairoli The Conway School

Boston

Open View Farm is located 100 miles west of Boston and 3 miles from the center of Conway. Since most visitors come from the Boson area, they need a place to stay either on the property or nearby. The property is bordered to the northeast by the South River State Forest. There is the potential for trails to connect from Open View Farmâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s woods to the trails in the state forest. The property is bordered to the southeast by A the Conway Sportmens Club and gunshots can be heard from the Section property. There are residential properties to the south of the farm on Newhall Road.

MASTER PLAN + SUSTAINABILITY STUDY OPEN VIEW FARM

Context + Watershed

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Farm structures and pastures are located on slopes that are less than ten percent.

Observations

Direction of surface water

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Water flows down from multiple high points throughout the northern half of the property. Water in the northern part of the property flows to the Deerfield River. Some water flows down into the wetlands and ponds to the west of Newhall Road. Some water flows into the intermittent stream, and then into the South River.

Thin Till Prime Farmland

Highest Point

The section (A-A', below) shows the sloping pattern from west to east. The lowest point in this cross section is the intermittent stream.

Farmland of Statewide Importance

Most water flows away from the structures; however, some water is flowing into the northern part of the barn, eroding land behind a stone wall to the north of the barn and could be damaging the structure of the barn. The section (B-B', below) shows a view of the hillside sloping toward the barn from north to south. Other water is diverted to and off the side of Newhall Road. Some water from the barn and the pasture to the south of the barn is flowing into the wetlands and ponds.

Implications

Steep slopes in some locations will limit siting structures. Structures should be sited on slopes less than fifteen percent to minimize cost and difficulty of construction. The lighter areas on the map are places that are easier and less expensive for building structures.

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Drainage Problem

Implications

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It will be important to site the new house and tractor shed so that water runs away from the structures. Water will need to be diverted away from the barn so that more damage is not done.

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Steep slopes also mean there is erosion potential that will need to be accounted for in design and implementation. Slopes will also impact accessibility within the property. Paths and parking need to be between two percent and five percent to be accessible to people with limited mobility. This is more easily done if a path is sited along a slope instead of across contours.

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The drainage pattern on the property helps create the intermittent stream, wetlands, and wet meadows. Water flowing from the barn and pasture could contaminate the pond and wetlands by adding excess nutrients.

Abundant Outcrop and Shallow Bedrock

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Thin Till

Prime Farmland

Prime Farmland

Farmland of Statewide Importance

Farmland of Statewide Importance

Drainage Problem

Property Line

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House and Gazebo Utility Right-of-Way

Barn

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

Intermittent Stream

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Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | Conway, MA www.csld.edu Spring 2013

0 - 5% slope

Steep slopes are prevalent throughout the north and east of the property.

482 NEWHALL ROAD CONWAY, MA 01341

10 - 15% slope

Observations

100'

Slopes + Drainage

5 - 10% slope

Amy Wolfson | Kate Cairoli The Conway School

>15% slope

Drainage

MASTER PLAN + SUSTAINABILITY STUDY OPEN VIEW FARM

Slopes

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Implications

Thin Till Prime Farmland

Farmland of Statewide Importance Rocky outcroppings and shallow bedrock make building structures more difficult and expensive. The shallow bedrock could also make siting a septic system difficult. Shallow bedrock also means not as much water drains into the soil as soil on deeper bedrock. Much more water will run off during storm events, potentially causing drainage problems, or negatively affecting water bodies. The calcium from this bedrock produces fertile soil, which is very good for agriculture. Calcium-rich soil often leads to high biodiversity. Thin till is good for pastures, but not other forms of agriculture.

There is a good opportunity to increase productivity along Newhall Road by using some of the land for agriculture since it is Prime Farmland. Much of this land might be good for building because most of it is not on shallow bedrock and has good drainage. However, because there is a limited amount of Prime Farmland on the property, and this is a working farm that uses land to grow food, it will be important to conserve the Prime Farmland for agriculture as much as possible, even though some of this land might be good to built upon. Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

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Areas around the house and barn are used most often. Despite the large amount of activity happening here, there are few clear pathways.

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Implications

Abundant Outcrop and Shallow Bedrock Thin Till Prime Farmland

Farmland of Statewide Using the existing farmhouse as a retreat center couldImportance mean heavier use in the already heavily used areas. Clear pathways and parking will improve use of the areas around the barn and house and make visitors feel more welcome and at ease.

It is possible that clearing some invasive species would make it easier to access spaces such as the ponds and the land to the east of the intermittent stream, thus making these spaces more used. This would require regular maintenance. Some trails need to be improved so that more areas can be accessed. However, some areas are critical wildlife habitat that may be better left untouched and inaccessible in order to sustain the ecosystem that currently exists (see sheet 7).

Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | Conway, MA www.csld.edu Spring 2013

482 NEWHALL ROAD CONWAY, MA 01341

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Bedrock + Soil Access + Circulation

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The areas that receive medium use by people are mostly in spaces overgrown with invasive species and around the driveway. It seems that invasive species are keeping people from using these spaces more frequently.

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Light use area

Most of the property is not used often by people. Since most of the property is steep and forested, people do not go into these areas as much as other areas. The trails throughout the property are used sparingly. These trails are not accessible to people with limited mobility. Trails are not regularly maintained, which makes them less appealing to walkers and hikers on the property. Also, the trail access north of the house has been compromised because the utility company recently installed utility poles and in so doing removed the trail to the woods.

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Abundant Outcrop and Shallow Bedrock

CSA Gardens House

250'

Medium use area

PF stretches along the driveway and through the areas where the house and existing CSA gardens are. Many of the factors that qualify soil as prime farmland, such as a very low water table, low rock content, and a low likelihood of erosion, also make the soil good for building structures. FSI borders the wetland areas to the west of Newhall Road and runs in a strip to the northeast of the PF.

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Heavy use area

Observations

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Tractor route

Prime Farmland (PF) and Farmland of Statewide Importance (FSI) are designations by the United States Department of Agriculture. PF signifies land that has the best combination of physical and chemical characteristics for producing food, feed, forage, fiber, and oilseed crops. FSI is land other than PF which has a good combination of physical and chemical characteristics for the production of crops.

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Areas hard to access, but interesting Hiking trails Walking routes not on defined paths

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Prime Farmland

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Trail to South River Sate Forest

The bedrock in much of Conway is part of the Waits River - Gile Mountain Prime Farmland formation, which is primarily Rocky calcareous schist mixed with Abundant Outcrop and Shallow Bedrock Outcroppings narrow bands of heavily weathered marble. Rocky Thin Till Thin Till outcroppings and shallow bedrock cover most of the Prime Farmland property, mainly in the forested area. Farmland of Statewide Importance

Farmland of Statewide Importance

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Observations

Amy Wolfson | Kate Cairoli The Conway School

Farmland of Statewide Importance

Access + Circulation

MASTER PLAN + SUSTAINABILITY STUDY OPEN VIEW FARM

Bedrock + Soils

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Observations Mixed Hardwood

Wet Meadow

Early Successional

Pasture

Lawn + Dry Meadow

Garden Beds / Agriculture Invasive Species

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Elaeagnus umbellata Autumn Olive

Celastrus orbiculatus Oriental Bittersweet

The previously cultivated areas to the east and west of current pastures were abandoned and invasive species are now growing profusely in these areas. While the dense growth makes it hard for people to access these areas, the vegetation provides food and habitat for many animal species. Invasive species on the property include multiflora rose, bitterweet, autumn olive, and though not technically an invasive species, very aggressive wild grape. Currently the intense growth of multiflora rose to the west of the driveway inhibits people from accessing the ponds and willows. The forest on the property is mixed hardwood, with some hemlock groves along the intermittent stream in the gully to the southeast of the property.

Habitat

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Implications

In order to fulfill the client goals of accessing parts of the property where the invasive species are growing profusely, a management plan will need to be implemented. Defining areas to limit the growth of invasive species may promote more biodiversity on the property.

The mixed hardwood forest could be managed in accordance with sustainable forestry practices and in a way that supports wildlife habitat; wood could be used for building projects on the farm, to heat the buildings in the winter, and to make biochar for carbon sequestration. Biochar provides an educational opportunity for visitors, sequesters carbon, and could supplement the farm and community garden’s compost piles, enriching the soil.

Found in old fields, roadsides, pastures, open woods, forest edges, and riparian areas. Grows most vigorously in full sun, grows in shade, and will persist for many years under a tree canopy. Open habitats are vulnerable to infestation due to the constant “seed rain” from birds.

Clearing Practices

Farmland species, but will likely have to also do some The clients intend to use goats to manage thePrime invasive removal with a tractor and brush hog. If a field edge is not clearly defined and mowed or grazed regularly, Farmland of Statewide Importance the invasive species will continue to spread and early successional growth typical of old agricultural fields will continue in open grassland areas.

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

Rosa multiflora Multiflora Rose

Mechanical: Cutting of individual plants may be preferable to minimize habitat disturbance. Small plants can be dug out or larger ones can be pulled out using a chain or cable and a tractor, making sure to remove all roots. Repeated mowing for 2–4 years can be effective. Animal: Goats, sheep, or pigs can graze and eat the multiflora rose. Chemical: Application of a systemic glyphosate-based herbicide* to freshly cut stems, to regrowth, or to foliage is very effective, especially if done late in the growing season.

Maintenance •

Frequent, repeated cutting or mowing at the rate of three to six times per growing season, for two to four years. Regular monitoring of such areas is recommended so invading plants can be pulled while they are still in the seedling stage.

Habitat • •

Grows well in many soils. Often invades grasslands, fields, open woodlands, and disturbed sites.

Habitat

Clearing Practices •

Combination Method: cutting the plant off at the main stem and applying herbicide to the stump has been effective in killing root systems and preventing re-sprouting. Mechanical: Mowing can help to maintain open areas by preventing seedlings from sprouting, but cutting or mowing stimulates immature plants, unless they are treated with herbicides. Chemical: Application of a systemic glyphosate-based herbicide* to freshly cut stems, regrowth, or foliage in spring or fall. Animal: Goats and sheep will eat autumn olive. Goats are particularly effective. They should graze heavily in the spring and early summer for multiple years to kill the shrubs.

Maintenance •

Regular monitoring of such areas is recommended so invasive plants can be pulled while they are still in the seedling stage.

Grows in forest edges, deep forests, thickets, open fields, roadsides, fence rows, and beaches. Grows in low light and full sun.

Clearing Practices •

Mechanical: Vines can be pulled out by the root and removed from the site. If fruits are present, they should be bagged and disposed of. Chemical: Application of gyphosate* and triclopyr** as foliar spray or applying them to cut stumps in more environmentally sensitive areas is effective. Animal: Sheep and goats will eat bittersweet. Using animals to get rid of bittersweet is best combined with clearing beforehand and regular grazing.

Maintenance

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Regular cutting over several growing seasons. Mow small shoots weekly for a year (less frequent mowing stimulates roots to resprout). Cut large root shoots to the ground every two weeks.

Chemicals should not be used where animals graze or near wetlands and water resources. *Glyphosate-based herbicide, found in Roundup, can have many negative effects when used. It can enter the food chain and contaminate rivers, and agricultural workers have experienced pregnancy problems. **Triclopyr is midly toxic to animals.

Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | Conway, MA www.csld.edu Spring 2013

multiflora rose

482 NEWHALL ROAD CONWAY, MA 01341

autumn olive

Vegetation

The three most prevalent invasive species on the property are: wild grape climbing a white pine

Amy Wolfson | Kate Cairoli The Conway School

Invasive Species Information and Management

MASTER PLAN + SUSTAINABILITY STUDY OPEN VIEW FARM

Vegetation

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According to BioMap2: Conserving the Biodiversity of Massachusetts in a Changing World, core habitats are “key areas that are critical for the long-term persistence of rare species and other Species of Conservation Concern, as well as a wide diversity of natural communities and intact ecosystems across the Commonwealth.”

Purple Clematis (SC)

Protected wetlands and riparian buffers maintain water quality and help recharge ground water, and provide critical habitat and resting areas for migratory waterfowl.

Pollinator insectaries encourage beneficial insects and pollinators.

Wildlife-friendly timing of mowing means avoiding mowing during critical wildlife breeding periods and can help promote biodiversity. Mowing in late summer (August - September) will avoid the wetter times of year and allow birds enough time for nesting.

Use native, perennial plants whenever possible to reduce maintenance and provide habitat for beneficial pollinators and insects and other wildlife.

Protect corridors, connectivity, and wildlands networks to allow migration of large predators and other wildlife. North-south migration corridors may become even more critical with temperature changes associated with climate change.

Observations

The area identified as Core Habitat on Open View Farm has multiple Species of Conservation Concern. The Priority Habitat of Rare Species and Core Habitat span most of the northern two-thirds of the property. There is also Core and Priority Habitat along the South River to the south of the property line, which suggests that there may be an important wildlife corridor connecting these two core habitats north-south through the woods on Open View Farm’s property. The core habitat also runs along the utility right-of-way, likely because the early successional, open corridor provides a dynamic and regionally scarce environment for many species.

Bald Eagle (T)

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Implications

All of the core habitat and the connecting wildlife corridor represent a unique opportunity to support wildlife diversity through good stewardship of the land. Additionally, there are educational opportunities for visitors to learn about the varied species that live on the property and the habitats in which they thrive.

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Why Does Biodiversity Matter?

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According to the United Nations Environmental Program, a diverse gene pool with varied characteristics means that plants and animals can adapt to changing and unpredictable conditions (such as disease, climate change, etc.). When ecosystems are preserved and species diversity is supported, all of the beneficial functions of those ecosystems continue, such as decomposing organic matter and replenishing the nutrients in the soil, controlling pest populations (such as bats eating mosquitoes), pollinating fruit trees, filtering pollutants from water, cleaning the air, sequestering carbon, preventing flooding, and reducing erosion. All of these ecosystem services can also benefit a healthy farming operation.

Ecosystem services provided by healthy and thriving natural habitat: • nitrogen fixation, • sediment filtration, • erosion reduction, • protection from wind and weather. Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

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Vesper Sparrow (T)

Wood Turtle (SC)

Priority Habitat for Rare Species

Fencing livestock out of water bodies and planting native vegetation around them protects water resources from contamination from animal waste.

Bird and bat boxes with predator protection and native pollinator gardens encourage beneficial insects.

BioMap2 Core Habitat Jefferson Salamander (SC)

Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | Conway, MA www.csld.edu Spring 2013

Wildlife Habitat + Agriculture: Ecological Farming Practices

482 NEWHALL ROAD CONWAY, MA 01341

BioMap2, a map of the state’s listed species and rare habitats, was developed by the Division of Fisheries and Wildlife’s Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program(NHESP) and The Nature Conservancy’s Massachusetts Program. It was created to help protect the state’s biodiversity and focuses on ecosystem resilience to cope with climate change. BioMap2 uses data collected over the past thirty years to document and map rare species habitat throughout the commonwealth. Rare species are protected and regulated under the Massachusetts Endangered Species Act (MESA). Additionally, projects and activities within Priority Habitat of Rare Species and Estimated Habitat of Rare Wetland Species must be filed with NHESP for review and approval.

Biodiversity

Selected Massachusettslisted species in the core habitat include: T= Threatened; SC = Species of Concern

BioMap2

Amy Wolfson | Kate Cairoli The Conway School

“Consider this: all the ants on the planet, taken together, have a biomass greater than that of humans. Ants have been incredibly industrious for millions of years. Yet their productiveness nourishes plants, animals, and soil. Human industry has been in full swing for little over a century, yet it has brought about a decline in almost every ecosystem on the planet. Nature doesn’t have a design problem. People do.” - William McDonough, Michael Braungart

MASTER PLAN + SUSTAINABILITY STUDY OPEN VIEW FARM

Biodiversity

South River

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Abundant Outcrop and Shallow Bedrock Thin Till Prime Farmland

Dwarf Scouring Rush (SC) Rotational grazing improves productivity and health of soil and prevents animals from overusing certain areas.


25' Set-Backs 100' Wetland Buffer

View to north on arrival; power lines visible.

If Aimee and Emmy want to minimize the driveway length to their new house, they may want to seek a variance for the 50-foot setback from the public way in order to build closer to Newhall Road and have a shorter driveway.

A

Plantings are allowed in the utility right-of-way as long as they are not within 15 feet of the existing power lines. No structures may be built in the utility right-of-way, and no grade changes are allowed. Aimee and Emmy should consult with the utility company about the management practices used, and potentially make an agreement to graze sheep or goats in the utility right-of-way to replace the utility company’s current practice of applying herbicides.

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Till View toThin southeast of property from south of the barn to distant hills. Prime Farmland

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Utility Right-of-Way

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

250' 0

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Farmland of Statewide Importance

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Wetlands + Ponds

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Newhall Road

Farmland of Statewide Importance

A view of the vegetation around wetlands and two ponds to the west of Newhall Road, visible on approach to Open View Farm. Wetlands in Massachusetts are subject to regulations, therefore delineating the wetlands is recommended to avoid violating the wetland protection laws. Open View Farm may have an exemption from some of these regulations because of the agricultural use of the property, but it is still good practice to protect water resources and the habitat for wildlife.

Views + Legal

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50' Set-back from public way

100' Wetland Buffer

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The zoning for Open View Farm is rural residential and agricultural district which specifies the setbacks for the property line and public way: buildings must be built at least 25 feet from any boundary, at least 50 feet from any public way.

Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | Conway, MA www.csld.edu Spring 2013

If more than 25 people visit the property regularly, a public water supply may be required, and the well may be subject to more stringent regulations. Subdiving the property may be a way to avoid the public water supply issue.

482 NEWHALL ROAD CONWAY, MA 01341

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Zoning codes in Conway allow one residential building per lot. Therefore, subdivision will be necessary if an additional dwelling is built, unless it is a studio without an oven. If the property is subdivided, the new lot needs to have 200’ of frontage along the public road and must be a minimum of one acre.

Amy Wolfson | Kate Cairoli The Conway School

There are beautiful views all around the property, especially to the southeast. The power lines to the north of the house were recently replaced and are now obvious from the house. Preserving the open views to the southeast when siting the tent platforms and new house will help maintain the character of the property. Obscuring the power lines to the north will improve the aesthetics to the north of the house and meet the goal of making the entrance to the property more appealing and welcoming.

MASTER PLAN + SUSTAINABILITY STUDY OPEN VIEW FARM

Legal

Views

8/29


<10 % Slope 10-15% Slope > 15% Slope Priority Habitat for Rare Species

Structures should be sited on slopes under fifteen percent due to cost and difficulties of building on steeper slopes. Ideally, the new cabin will be easily accessible to the retreat center and should therefore be sited on slopes less than ten percent and within 600 feet of the retreat center (existing farmhouse).

BioMap2 Core Habitat Potential Wildlife Corridor

Taking into account other development constraints, such as steep slopes, the wildlife corridor, proximity to the retreat center, prime farmland, and preservation of views, leaves three areas (shown on map as A, B, and C) that would be good for building structures. These are near Newhall Road, with potential paths leading to the retreat center on slopes less than ten percent and on the edge of the view to the southeast. A closer look at these areas is shown on the following sheet.

Utility Easement

A Barn

Access and circulation on the property should be clustered to limit impact on the environmentally sensitive areas in the north of the property. This is not to say that hikers should not use the trails through the property. But heavier use and a broader trail network should be avoided. Development and management should be closer to the already busy and developed areas, leaving sensitive resource areas, such as the wetlands and intermittent stream, more wild. Increasing use in the already heavily used areas will necessitate an improvement in access and circulation using accessible paths and signs.

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

all Ne wh

This map also shows overlapping environmental features that are important to this site and the larger ecosystem. Core Habitat areas and areas with steeper slopes are currently accessed sparingly by hikers and walkers. This is probably a good thing because these sensitive areas with rare species should be protected from most development and heavy access by people because of the potential for erosion on steep slopes and damage to important habitat. Erosion could also affect water quality to the south of the steep slopes in the ponds and intermittent stream.

Roa d

Stewarding the Land

B

Accessible to existing farmhouse Open View View of Power Lines Prime Farmland

± 0

C

House

potential wildlife corridor

100’ Buffer + Wetlands

0

250

Feet 500

Abundant Outcrop and Shallow Bedrock

Heavy Use

Thin Till

250'

500'

Prime Farmland Farmland of Statewide Importance

Invasive Plant Species

Summary Analysis

Keeping development out of the NHESP Core Habitat will help maintain priority habitat for sensitive plants and animals. Any building in the Priority Habitat for Rare Species will need to be approved by the NHESP. It will also be important to protect the potential corridor connecting the core habitat from development on the property with that surrounding the farm. Approximately thirty percent of the property is free from these restrictions and considerations.

Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | Conway, MA www.csld.edu Spring 2013

Legal Property Setbacks

482 NEWHALL ROAD CONWAY, MA 01341

Legend

This map shows important factors when siting structures such as a cabin, tractor shed, or yurts, on Open View Farm. Structures are not allowed within the 25’ setback around the property and an additional 25’ along the public way of Newhall Road. Structures are not allowed to be built within the utility easement or within 100' of intermittent streams or wetlands.

Amy Wolfson | Kate Cairoli The Conway School

Siting Structures

MASTER PLAN + SUSTAINABILITY STUDY OPEN VIEW FARM

Summary Analysis

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This map shows a confluence of issues occurring in the design focus area including the drainage problem affecting the barn is an area that is heavily used. Improving the access and circulation in and around the barn and house area could be a good opportunity to also improve the drainage around the barn. Additionally, some water is draining into areas with abundant invasive species, which could be helping to promote their growth. In addition, any re-grading to the north of the house and barn may affect the drainage pattens and soil.

Farmland

Prime farmland also intersects with areas that are heavily used. Some of the prime farmland is not currently being farmed. Much of it is being used for grazing sheep. This land could be put under conservation with an Agricultural Preservation Restriction or easement to ensure its continued use for agriculture. If these areas are not maintained, they will probably become more like the surrounding areas that have a high concentration of invasive species. Trees that could help block the negative view of the power lines would also be in areas with prime agricultural soils. The house and gazebo already cover some of these soils. The CSA gardens use the land for agriculture.

Legal Property Setbacks

B

Barn

potential wildlife corridor

A

Legend

House

Accessible to Existing Farmhouse

<10 % Slope 10-15% Slope > 15% Slope Priority Habitat for Rare Species BioMap2 Core Habitat

Open View View of Power Lines Prime Farmland Heavy Pedestrian Use

Ne wh al

l Ro

ad

Invasive Plant Species

C

Potential Wildlife Corridor

Utility Easement 100’ Buffer + Wetlands

±

0

0

250

Abundant Outcrop and Shallow Bedrock

Feet 500

250'

Thin500' Till

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

Prime Farmland

Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | Conway, MA www.csld.edu Spring 2013

Drainage

482 NEWHALL ROAD CONWAY, MA 01341

The areas that are good for siting structures (A, B, and C) are places where Aimee and Emmy’s new cabin and the tractor shed are sited in the design alternatives and the final design in the following pages. There are pros and cons associated with each location, which are explained in the alternatives design sheets.

Surface Water Movement Drainage Problem North of Barn

Design Focus Area Summary Analysis

Siting Structures

Amy Wolfson | Kate Cairoli The Conway School

The focus area for the design alternatives presented on the next few sheets is shown in the summary analysis below. These areas are used more than other parts of the property. The three areas (A, B, and C) that are good for siting structures are also located in this map.

MASTER PLAN + SUSTAINABILITY STUDY OPEN VIEW FARM

Design Focus Area Summary Analysis

10/29


Outdoor Shower and Greywater

Retreat Center Parking

The existing gazebo is renovated into a new cabin to the east of the house. This does not require subdividing the property, but an additional well and septic system might still be needed due to the number of people visiting the property. Visiting the cabin is an educational opportunity for guests to learn about green architectural design. An outdoor shower is connected to the cabin, and its greywater is directed toward the surrounding vegetation. A more private outdoor space for the owners is at the southeastern side of their cabin, taking advantage of the warmer microclimate which is especially pleasant in the fall and spring. The greywater system filters and reuses water from the house and outdoor shower to water plants downhill including the forest garden (for more information of greywater systems see sheet 28).

Tent Platforms

Fire Pit

New Cabin

Edible Forest Garden

Barn

Amphitheater

Spaces for Guests Tent platforms are clustered to the northeast of the new cabin. Guests can gather around the nearby fire pit, learn about greywater systems, or enjoy their own private space around their tents. A compost toilet to the north of the tent platforms alleviates some of the demand on the septic system and well, which get overloaded when groups visit the farm.

Rotational Grazing Pastures

Boardwalk Shaded Outdoor Seating

A community garden with raised beds is sited along Newhall Road to the south of the retreat center. Visitors can park off the road (outside the setback), grab tools in the nearby shed, and enjoy shady outdoor seating with the beautiful view to the southeast.

Shed Parking

Community Garden 0

PROS

• • • • •

Subdividing the property is not necessary because the new cabin is an addition to the existing house, as long as it is connected with a covered walkway. The footprint of all the structures is compact. Renovating the existing gazebo may save money. New cabin and sustainable practices serve as educational opportunities. There are several outdoor gathering spaces for outdoor education with school, camp, and retreat groups. Good view to southeast is not blocked.

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

CONS

• •

• • • • •

50'

100'

±

New cabin does not have much privacy from visitors. Not as much parking near the retreat center compared to other alternatives (4 parking places are to the south near the community gardens, 8 are near the retreat center). Existing water and septic capacities may not be sufficient. May need to comply with public water supply requirements. Large areas of land will need to be mowed or grazed with sheep. Utility line will still be visible. CSA gardens are within 100 ' of where the utility company sprays herbicide.

0

250

Trails and a boardwalk connect various parts of the property, especially around the pondAbundant and Outcrop withinandaShallow 500'-radius of the retreat Bedrock Feet center. These pathways lead visitors to interesting destinations such 500 as bird boxes, bee boxes, and bat boxes, so they can learn about Thin Till wildlife on the way. Prime Farmland

The outdoor classroom, fire pit, and amphitheater provide places for gathering and learning. Farmland of Statewide Importance Guests will also learn about other sustainable practices by visiting the edible forest garden and rotational grazing pastures where sheep keep invasive plants at bay.

Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | Conway, MA www.csld.edu Spring 2013

Outdoor Classroom

Tractor Shed Parking

New Cabin

482 NEWHALL ROAD CONWAY, MA 01341

Composting Toilet

Design Alternative: Community Welcome

Bee Boxes

Amy Wolfson | Kate Cairoli The Conway School

Community Welcome is a design for Open View Farm that focuses on education, demonstration, and community.

CSA Gardens

MASTER PLAN + SUSTAINABILITY STUDY OPEN VIEW FARM

Community Welcome

11/29


Arriving at Open View Farm, rotational grazing pastures extend to the east under an orchard where sheep are grazing, keeping invasives at bay. The hillside orchard does not block the view to the southeast, and is out of the frost pocket at the bottom of the hill. The eastern forest edge is expanded with finger-like projections to create habitat for wildlife.

Keyhole garden beds Tractor Shed

Welcoming Entrance

Cabin

Retreat Center Greenhouses

Tent Platforms

Edible Forest Garden

To the west, rice paddies grow in the wet soils. Biofiltration in the wetland mitigates contamination from sheep in the barn. Approaching the retreat center, blueberry bushes and community gardens welcome visitors to the front door and take advantage of the rich soils.

Arbor

Barn Comunity Gardens

Increased Forest Edge Biofiltration Bird boxes

Orchard

Willows Rice Paddies

Spaces for Guests

Bat boxes

Parking is integrated into existing paved areas and is located on the new driveway to the north of the barn, which also provides easy access to the tractor shed and the owners’ new cabin. The new cabin has an open view to the south and plenty of privacy, but still has easy access to the retreat center.

Rotational Grazing

0

PROS • • • •

Increases productivity of landscape. Provides privacy for the new cabin. Cabin is oriented well for solar gain. Wildlife habitat and a healthy ecosystem on the property can provide ecosystem services such as keeping pest populations in check, fixing nitrogen, and providing protection from weather. • Views to southeast will be not be blocked by orchard trees because they are planted on the hillside below the site line from the retreat center and new cabin.

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

CONS

50'

100'

• Barn smells might reach the new cabin. • The eastern and northeastern trails cross steep terrain and will not be accessible to all visitors. • New cabin would probably not serve as a educational opportunity for visitors because it is tucked away from the retreat center and gathering spaces. • Management of areas around garden beds and pastures would require rotational grazing or some other form of intensive management, such as mowing. • Location of new cabin would require approval by NHESP because it is within the Priority Habitat for Rare Species. • Subdividing the property to separate out the cabin is possible, but proximity of existing farm might make it less desirable to sell the lot should the need arise.

±

0

Tent platforms to the east of the retreat center Abundant Outcrop and close Shallow Bedrock have their and are Feet own gathering space 250 to the500 shady arbor and the edible forest garden, Thin Till which provides a diversity of vegetation and Prime Farmland habitat. To the north of the retreat center, keyhole garden beds and an herb spiral Farmland of Statewide Importance provide food and educational opportunities. CSA garden beds are placed on contours to maximize the use of the hillside. A berm to the north of CSA gardens protect them from herbicide runoff from the utility rightof-way. Evergreens soften the view of the utility poles to the north and could also be grown and sold as Christmas trees, and a path winds through pollinator gardens and berries to the forest trails beyond.

Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | Conway, MA www.csld.edu Spring 2013

Agriculture and Wildlife Habitat

482 NEWHALL ROAD CONWAY, MA 01341

CSA Gardens

Design Alternative: Fecundity

Evergreens

Amy Wolfson | Kate Cairoli The Conway School

Fecundity is a design for Open View Farm that focuses on creating a productive landscape that supports wildlife and biodiversity with educational opportunities.

Berm

Berries

MASTER PLAN + SUSTAINABILITY STUDY OPEN VIEW FARM

Fecundity

12/29


Green Roof Tractor Shed

Outdoor Dining Biochar

Barn

Tent Platforms Gathering Space Cistern

Sheep grazing in orchard and forest

Algae Propogation

Tent Platforms WetTolerant Trees

±

Cabin

Natural pool

Photovoltaics 0

0

250

50'

Abundant Outcrop and Shallow Bedrock

Feet 500

Thin Till

100'

PROS

Prime Farmland

Farmland of Statewide Importance • Subdiving a lot with the cabin would be straight-forward and the lot could be sold at some point in the future should the need arise. • Trees within focus area could sequester over 4800 lbs of carbon each year. • Subdividing property and separating tent platforms means no need to worry about public water source regulations. • Renewable resources (solar and wood) power and heat the buildings. • Views of utility lines are softened. • The new cabin has private space.

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

CONS

• View from the retreat center to southeast may be compromised by the new cabin. • With new driveway and cabin, there is less land for traditional agriculture. • Emmy and Aimee may feel isolated from the hub of activity. • A 350' driveway to cabin will be expensive to maintain in the winter. • Access from the cabin to the hub on <5% paths is greater than 300’ from the retreat center.

The new cabin is to the southeast of Newhall Road and is oriented to the south/southeast to take advantage of solar gain. It feels separate and private but it is still within 300' of the retreat center. Solar hot water collectors are on the roofs of all buildings and photovoltaics are placed on all buildings and in some open spaces as well. Tent platforms are separated into two groups, allowing guests the option to stay near the new cabin or to have more privacy in the woods to the northwest of the barn. A pool constructed with locally sourced stone lies east of the new cabin and provides a cool gathering space for family and friends. Wet-tolerant trees line the west of the driveway, sequestering carbon and thriving in the wet soils. Trees are planted on the hillside from shorter at the top to taller at the bottom in order to maintain the view. The trees that are cut can be used for heating buildings and biochar. The latter sequesters carbon and can be mixed with compost to enrich soils. Sheep graze under the orchard and the forest.

Water Capture + Gathering Spaces Cisterns capture water that can be used for irrigation, reducing the draw on the well. Water is collected from the barn roof and used, alleviating drainage issues. A green roof on the tractor shed decreases runoff and increases carbon sequestration. Algae propagation on the pond captures more carbon and can be added to compost to increase soil fertility. Agricultural fields and community gardens are consolidated to allow more room for trees. A berm to the north of the agricultural fields protects them from herbicide runoff from the utility right-of-way. A gathering space to the south of the house allows everyone to enjoy the view. Herb and medicinal gardens to the north of the house along with an outdoor dining area provide a welcoming space for visitors. Evergreens to the north screen the view of the utility poles.

Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | Conway, MA www.csld.edu Spring 2013

New Cabin + Energy Efficiency

482 NEWHALL ROAD CONWAY, MA 01341

CSA Gardens

Design Alternative: Beyond Coal

Beyond Coal is a design for Open View Farm that focuses on using the resources on the land to produce energy and sequester carbon, with educational opportunities.

Berm

Amy Wolfson | Kate Cairoli The Conway School

Screening Evergreens

MASTER PLAN + SUSTAINABILITY STUDY OPEN VIEW FARM

Beyond Coal

13/29


barn

pasture

wet meadow

Wetlands Focus Area

A phased restoration plan is implemented to the west of Newhall Road. Multiflora rose has been cleared in the wet meadow and to the northwest of the southern pond is cleared of invasive species. This spot will be a great place from which to enjoy the pond and the view. Native wetland plants are slowly integrated around the pond, starting with the area around the small clearing. Basketry willows have been planting around the eastern sides of the ponds (see sheet 16 for details).

Wayfinding

4

retreat center

Signs will help guide visitors to Open View Farm. They will also educate visitors about the agriculture, ecology, design, and renewable energy sources on the property. Mown paths are maintained throughout the meadow and east of Newhall Road.

edible forest garden

pasture

2

Forest Management

The woodlands on the property provide an excellent opportunity for sustainable forest management. Practices such as coppicing and agroforesty on the hillside to the southeast of the existing pasture and in the wetland to the west of the driveway will help keep invasive species at bay and provide resources for humans and animals. Sheep can graze under the trees.

rotational grazing silviculture coppicing grazing

willows

community garden photovoltaics

all

Ro a

d

wet-tolerant trees

1

cabin

0

Barn Focus Area

50'

100'

Âą

0

Abundant Outcrop and Shallow Bedrock

Feet 500

250

Thin Till Prime Farmland

4 3

2

A

House Barn

Utility Right-of-Way

Section A-A'

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

0

50'

100'

482 NEWHALL ROAD CONWAY, MA 01341

shed

tent platforms

Amy Wolfson | Kate Cairoli The Conway School

New Cabin Focus Area

The new cabin for Emmy and Aimee is in the southern pasture near Newhall Road. They have a view of the goings on at the retreat center, which was once their house. The cabinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s long side faces the south/southeast for the most solar gain. Some trees are cleared to provide a view to the southeast. Community gardens to the north of the cabin provide an opportunity for community members to grow their own food (see sheet 15 for details).

The road to the north of the barn is regraded to direct water away from the building. A tractor shed with a green roof is located to the northwest of the barn to take advantage of the more level topography and to tuck the tractor and other machinery out of sight on arrival to the property. Planting around the southeast corner of the barn creates a more attractive entrance to the property (see sheet 17 for details).

CSA gardens

tractor 3

Pastures along Newhall Road

Parking

New Cabin

A'

Farmland of Statewide Importance

Final Design

3

CSA gardens

A'

2

Near the retreat center are an outdoor classroom to the north, a gathering area to the southeast, four tent platforms to the east and northeast, a composting toilet, greywater filtration system, and an edible forest garden (see sheet 18 for details).

CSA gardens

Ne wh

1

Retreat Center Focus Area

4

MASTER PLAN + SUSTAINABILITY STUDY OPEN VIEW FARM

The final design combines components from each of the alternatives on the previous sheets. After reviewing the alternatives, Emmy and Aimee chose a cabin location similar to that presented in Beyond Coal, but with a shorter driveway for less impact, easier access in winter, and in view of the retreat center and sheep pastures without affecting the viewshed to the southeast.

Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | Conway, MA www.csld.edu Spring 2013

A

Final Design

1

The design focus area is at the southern end of the property.

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community garden

3 2

composting toilet

A

garden shed

3

4

7 4

4

4

6 abin new c

1

to pond

patio

6

6 pool

5

A'

7

Âą

0

250

0

Feet 500

5

7

Four parking places are covenient both to the cabin and the community gardens. The proximity of the driveway and parking to Newhall Road will reduce the cost and environmental impact of installation and plowing in winter. Visitors to the community garden can park in the parking lot or along Newhall Road. The community garden to the north of the new cabin provides space for gardening and composting. Shaded seating allows gardeners a place to sit, relax, and enjoy the view. A shed and composting toilet to the south of the garden are easy to access and can also be used by Aimee and Emmy. Evergreen trees and native shrubs to the north and northwest of the house protect it from cold winter winds and create privacy. A pool and patio constructed with locally sourced stone provide opportunities for family gatherings and enjoying the outdoors. Its location to the south of the house provides privacy and takes advantage of the warm microclimate and protection from the wind. Paths lead from the new cabin across Newhall Road through the meadow to the ponds and to the east, winding along the hillside north to the retreat center or meandering down to the gully to the east. To the south/southeast of the new cabin some trees (not shown on plan) will need to be removed to open the view for the cabin. A greywater filtration system can be installed to reduce the size of a leach field. Solar hot water collectors are on the roof and solar panels are to the northeast of the house to provide hot water and electricity for the new cabin.

Abundant Outcrop and Shallow Bedrock

25'

Thin Till

50'

New Cabin Focus Area

Ne wh

all

Ro a

d

2

The new cabin is located to the east of Newhall Road, approximately 140 feet north of the southern property line to avoid shade from the trees to the south. The northwest corner of the house is 50 feet from the property line. The house is oriented south/southeast to take advantage of solar exposure and the view. Proximity to the road reduces the cost and impact of a driveway, and makes it easy to access the retreat center, and it means the view from the retreat center is not obstructed. The new house is approximately 600 feet from the retreat center. Buildling an addiitonal dwelling unit means subdividing the property will be necessary.

Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | Conway, MA www.csld.edu Spring 2013

1

compost bins

482 NEWHALL ROAD CONWAY, MA 01341

shaded seating area

Amy Wolfson | Kate Cairoli The Conway School

New Cabin Focus Area

MASTER PLAN + SUSTAINABILITY STUDY OPEN VIEW FARM

Bordered to the north and south by sheep pasture, the new cabin is private yet connected to the activities on the farm and close to the retreat center.

Prime Farmland Farmland of Statewide Importance

Proposed cabin

View from the retreat center to the southeast, to the proposed cabin.

A

Parking

Section A-A'

Pool

Cabin Patio

New cabin has outdoor gathering spaces and is protected from northwestern winds by evergreens. Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

A'

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A small seating area is cleared to the north of the southern pond. This is a place for relaxing, access to swimming, and visiting the pond habitat.

4

2

Pond

3

Wetland Plantings New wetland vegetation increases biodiversity, maintains and improves wildlife habitat, and stabilizes the banks of the ponds. This project should take place in phases. First, wetlands should be delineated. Next, some of the multiflora rose and autumn olive should be removed along the edges of the ponds. Goats and sheep can graze here to help clear these plants since this area has been historically used as pasture. The invasive species should be replaced with native plants that have been selected to replicate the habitat functions of multiflora rose and autumn olive (see sheet 6). More trees and shrubs should be planted to replace invasive species over time.

3 Wet Meadow

A meadow is planted along the western side of Newhall Road. Wet-tolerant trees are placed throughout, visible to visitors as they enter the property from the south. The different heights, textures, and viewsheds create variety and draw visitors along the paths and the road.

1

View of the barn on arrival, with wetland planting to the west.

482 NEWHALL ROAD CONWAY, MA 01341

2

Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | Conway, MA www.csld.edu Spring 2013

1 Seating

Amy Wolfson | Kate Cairoli The Conway School

Pasture

4 Biofiltration 5 Ro a

d all

Mowed paths wind through the wet meadow, making it easier to visit the pond and maintain the wetland restoration. Paths lead to each pond and intersect Newhall Road across from the new cabin.

50'

100'

Âą

A plant palette for the wetlands focus area is included on sheet 21. Abundant Outcrop and Shallow Bedrock 0

250

Wetlands Focus Area

Ne wh 0

A'

5 Paths

A

Pond

The fence around the pasture to the south of the barn is moved slightly to exclude a spring from the sheep pasture. Willows are planted in this area and serve multiple functions: they help filter excess nutrients out of the surface water, can be pollarded or coppiced for basketry material, and add to the beauty of the meadow landscape.

Feet 500

Thin Till Prime Farmland Farmland of Statewide Importance

A

Forested Area

MASTER PLAN + SUSTAINABILITY STUDY OPEN VIEW FARM

Wetlands Focus Area

Pond

Section A - A' Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

Seating

Restored Wetland

Re-vegetated wetlands around southern pond.

Path

Pasture

Barn 0

50'

A' 100'

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Barn Focus Area: Drainage Challenges

Dirt ramp to hay loft

2

Depressions Depressions

4 Water puddling

W towater ard flow ba ing rn

Water puddling

1 Dangerous entrance and area in winter because of snow falling from roof 3 Drainage pipe opening 6

3

4

und

gro der

Un Dra

Barn

ge ina

Workshop

5 Unappealling drainage area, prominent on arrival

5

Âą

0

0

250

Abundant Outcrop and Shallow Bedrock

Feet 500

25'

Thin Till

50'

Prime Farmland Farmland of Statewide Importance

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

Places where water is seeping through rock foundation of barn and rock walls

The approximate direction of waterflow around the barn is shown on the plan (blue arrows). Water is flowing towards the structure to the west and north of the barn and to the north of the workshop. There are no gutters, so water from the roof falls directly to the ground. While gutters can sometimes be unwieldy to manage in the winter, capped gutters that do not allow leaves to collect could be an option to help redirect some of the water causing damage. The area north of the barn needs to be regraded with swales and a French drain or culvert to divert water downhill to the east so that it stops seeping through the foundation of the building. Snow also poses a risk when it falls from the roof. Cleats and retention bars can be installed on the roofs, which may help somewhat. However, it would be safer to enter through the woodshop door when there is snow on the roof. More information on roof cleats, gutters, and rain gardens are included on the details sheet 28. With the existing grade, water pools to the north of the workshop. Snow collects there and this combination may cause the walls to rot.

Direction of surface water flow

6

Amy Wolfson | Kate Cairoli The Conway School

482 NEWHALL ROAD CONWAY, MA 01341

Depressions Depressions

Barn Focus Area: Drainage

Wall

MASTER PLAN + SUSTAINABILITY STUDY OPEN VIEW FARM

2

There are several areas around the barn that present drainage challenges. To the north of the barn, water pools on either side of the dirt ramp to the hay loft. Depressions have developed in these areas as water erodes the soil. The water seeps through the rock foundation and into the barn. Places where water is seeping through the foundation could be compromising the integrity of the barnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s foundation and need to be addressed while the structure is still sound.

Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | Conway, MA www.csld.edu Spring 2013

1

17/29


Culvert/French Drain

1

Overflow parking

Retreat Center

Swale

1

Two gravel tire paths lead up the ramp behind the barn to access the new tractor shed and provide overflow parking for visitors to Open View Farm.

Rain Garden

A culvert or French drain runs along the north side of the barn to divert water to the east into a vegetated swale.

2 Barn

A vegetated swale runs along the north side of the new gravel driveway, diverting water from uphill away from the north side of the barn.

Swale Workshop

Rain Garden

Pollinator Garden

Rain gardens at the base of the culvert and swale collect excess water runoff, allow it to infiltrate slowly, and prevent erosion. The rain gardens are also beautiful.

Utility Box 0

250

0

Feet 500

25'

Abundant Outcrop and Shallow Bedrock Thin Till

50'

A

Âą

Depressions on the north side of the barn are filled in and the ground is re-graded to divert water away from the barn and towards the swale and French drain. This area can now be used for overflow parking, accommodating four cars (1).

Ornamental Grasses

Direction of water flow

Trees and vegetation are added. A pollinator garden and tall ornamental grasses help to soften the appearance of the entrance on the west side of the driveway while obscuring the utility box.

Prime Farmland Farmland of Statewide Importance

The tractor storage shed has a green roof that will provide an educational opportunity to visitors on the property. (See detailed planting plan on sheet 26.)

Tractor Shed + Green Roof

For safer access to the barn in winter, the door to the workshop can be used to avoid snow falling from the roofs above the main entrance. Cleats and snow guards installed on the roof may help prevent the snow from coming off the roof all at once, but are not a full solution.

A

Pollinator Garden

Barn

Section A-A' Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

Rain Swale Gravel Garden Drive

Swale

A'

To solve the drainage problems north of the workshop, taking up the asphalt and regrading the the area in front of the main barn door would be a radical, but effective approach. Gravel would be a better drainage medium and a swale could be created along the north wall of the workshop (2).

Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | Conway, MA www.csld.edu Spring 2013

Rain Garden

Two-track path

Tractor Shed

482 NEWHALL ROAD CONWAY, MA 01341

Swale

Barn Focus Area

Ornamental Grasses

Amy Wolfson | Kate Cairoli The Conway School

The design aims to address the drainage problems to the north of the barn, increase parking spaces for guests, make the entrance to the property more aesthetically pleasing and welcoming, and site a tractor shed to the northwest of the barn.

MASTER PLAN + SUSTAINABILITY STUDY OPEN VIEW FARM

A'

Barn Focus Area

18/29


CSA gardens

Screening 2 Evergreens Keyhole Beds Herb Spiral Pollinator Garden

A

3 Tent Platforms

CSA gardens

3 Tent Platforms

Following the eastern path, visitors can find their way under an arbor to one of four tent platforms. Trees surrounding each platform to the west provide privacy. Each platform is open to the east to enjoy the beautiful forest view. Platforms are near the compost toilet, which is also easy to access from the CSA garden beds and the retreat center.

A'

Arbor

B

2

1 Arbor

4 Edible Forest Garden

Patio

An edible forest garden is a small planted forest full of a variety of useful edible plants, including fruits, nuts, herbs, and perennial vegetables. This garden is planted down the eastern hillside. It is within view of the retreat center, but does not compete with the open view to the southeast. This garden has room to expand to the south and east.

Retreat Center

Âą

5 Outdoor Classroom/ Amphitheater/ Fire Pit

4 Edible Forest

Garden

A

Tent Platforms

Edible Forest Garden

Section A - A' Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

0

50'

5 Outdoor Classroom/Amphitheater/Fire Pit 0

250

Feet 500

Stone benches are set into the hillside below the terraced gardens to the southeast of the retreat center. The shade from the existing apple tree on the Abundant Outcrop and Shallow Bedrock terrace and the new tree to the southeast of the gazebo creates a comfortable gathering space Thin with Till a view to the southeast. This space accommodates many sized groups, intimate ones around a fire pit or large and social ones for a class, Prime Farmland lecture, or demonstration.

100'

Farmland of Statewide Importance

Outdoor Seating Parking

CSA Garden 0

50'

A' 100'

B

Outdoor Seating

Keyhole Garden + Herb Spiral

Section B - B'

B'

Screening Evergreens + Path to Woods

0

5'

10'

Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | Conway, MA www.csld.edu Spring 2013

A patio is nestled into the hillside outside of the northern kitchen door. This space can serve as an outdoor kitchen and a cooler gathering space during hot summer days. A path winds to the north to guide visitors to the forest trails. An herb spiral and keyhole garden beds provide food near the outdoor space. Evergreen trees along the path help screen the view of the utility poles to the north. An arbor helps guide guests along a path leading to tent platforms on the east side of the property.

482 NEWHALL ROAD CONWAY, MA 01341

2 Outdoor Gathering Space

Path to Forest Trails

Retreat Center Focus Area

A vine-covered arbor welcomes guests as they enter the retreat center, which was once Aimee and Emmyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s home. A new path into the retreat center has been moved south to avoid snow falling on it from the roof in the winter.

Amy Wolfson | Kate Cairoli The Conway School

B'

1 Entrance

MASTER PLAN + SUSTAINABILITY STUDY OPEN VIEW FARM

Retreat Center

19/29


patio

Plant Palette Type of Vegetation/ Form

pool

Plan view of suggested plants around new cabin.

Legend Evergreen Tree

Herbaceous Layer Rain Garden for greywater filtration (see sheet 22 for planting detail) Cercis canadensis

Common Name

Sun/Shade

Height

Spread

Comments

Evergreen Tree

Chamaecyparis pisifera ‘Filifera’

Thread-leaved sawara-­cypress

Full sun

8 - 15 ft

8 - 12 ft

Upright to mounded. Fine-textured, drooping branches, heat tolerant.

Evergreen Tree

Chamaecyparis pisifera ‘Filifera Aurea’

Golden threadleaved sawaracypress

Full sun

15 - 20 ft

8 - 12 ft

Fine-textured yellow foliage; heat tolerant; great accent plant.

Evergreen Tree

Juniperus chinensis Mountbatten Chinese juniper ‘Mountbatten’

Full sun

15 - 20 ft

10 - 15 ft

Conical habit; excellent winter hardiness; large fruit.

Evergreen Tree

Thuja occidentalis ‘Techny’

Mission eastern arborvitae

Full sun

10 - 15 ft

12 - 18 ft

Sun; excellent dark green foliage year round; good hedge plant; cold hardy.

Deciduous Flowering Tree

Cercis canadensis

Eastern redbud

Full Sun

20 - 30 ft

25 - 35 ft

Flowers in spring.

Deciduous Flowering Tree

Magnolia x ‘Ann’

Magnolia, Ann

Full Sun

8 - 10 ft

10 ft

Blooms in spring.

Shrub

Vaccinium angustifolium

Lowbush blueberry

Partial to Full Sun

6 in - 2 ft

1 - 2 ft

Deciduous, twiggy shrub.

Shrub

Salix integra ‘Hakuro Nishiki’

Japanese dappled wIllow

Partial to Full Sun

15 - 20 ft

--

Can maintain at 6 - 10 ft with pruning. Blooms in spring. Needs regular watering.

Herbaceous Layer

Panicum vergatum

Switch grass

Full Sun

4 ft

--

Medium green foliage, turns red in autumn.

Herbaceous Layer

Arachniodes athyrium

Japanese painted fern

Partial Sun to Light Shade

36 in

--

Deer resistant, hardy, deciduous.

Herbaceous Layer

Dennstaedtia punctilobula

Hay-scented fern

Partial to Full Sun

18 in

--

Fast growing, colony forming, deciduous native. Can plant under and around evergreens in northwest.

Herbaceous Layer

Polystichum acrostichoides

Christmas fern

Partial to Full Shade

24 in

--

Evergreen native species.

Deciduous Flowering Tree

Shrub

Scientific Name

482 NEWHALL ROAD CONWAY, MA 01341

all Ne wh

bin new ca

Plant Palette: New Cabin

Magnolia x ‘Ann’

Salix integra ‘Hakuro Nishiki’

MASTER PLAN + SUSTAINABILITY STUDY OPEN VIEW FARM

Ro ad

Amy Wolfson | Kate Cairoli The Conway School

Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | Conway, MA www.csld.edu Spring 2013

Plant Palette: New Cabin

20/29 Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.


Pond

Form

Tree

Wetland Restoration Wetland

Scientific Name

Common Name

Sun/Shade

Height

Spread

Source

Comments

Fraxinus americana

White Ash

Sun

50-80 ft

40-50 ft

--

Betula alleghaniensis

Yellow Birch

Sun-Part Shade

40-60 ft

10-25 ft

Nasami Farm

Aronia melanocarpa

Aronia

Sun-Shade

3-6 ft

3-6 ft

Nasami Farm

Berries eaten by wildlife in winter; very soil adaptable.

Cephalanthus occidentalis

Buttonbush

Part Shade-Shade

3-8 ft

3-6 ft

Nasami Farm

Prefers soils flooded or saturated for long periods or fluctuating hydrology. Nutlets are food for ducks and other birds.

Nemopanthus mucronatus

Mountain Holly

Sun-Shade

5-10 ft

3-8 ft

--

Velvety red berries provide excellent wildlife food.

Rosa palustris

Swamp Rose

Sun

3-5 ft

3-6 ft

Nasami Farm

Provides cover and nesting habitat for many birds.

Salix discolor

Pussy Willow

Sun -Part Sun

5-12 ft

4-8 ft

Nasami Farm

Good erosion control plant.

Clethra alnifolia

Summersweet

Sun-Part Shade

4-9 ft

4-12 ft

Nasami Farm

Lindera benzoin

Spicebush

Sun-Shade

6-15 ft

6-15 ft

Nasami Farm

Ilex verticillata

Common Winterberry

Sun-Part Shade

6-10 ft

6-10 ft

Nasami Farm

Sambucus canadensis

Common Elderberry

Sun-Part Shade

5-10 ft

3-8 ft

Nasami Farm

Pond

Ro a

d

Shrub

A tea can be made from the aromatic leaves and twigs, and the dried and powdered fruit can be used as a spice.

Ne wh

all

Wet Meadow

0

50’

Willows for Coppicing and Pollarding

100’

Wet Meadow and Wetland Planting Plan

Because the wetlands have not yet been delineated, their extent is currently unknown. If a wetland takes up most of the area to the west of Newhall Road and south of the barn, this area should be a more “wild” place in terms of management in order to protect the ecologically sensitive wetlands. Driving should be avoided in the area. Agricultural use of the land may still be allowed. It is recommended to improve the wetland by removing some of the multiflora rose and other invasive species with goats and sheep grazing and replace them with native wetland species using the plant list provided. This area is important habitat and can be improved in this way. If the wetland does not take up most of the property west of Newhall Road, more intensive management of the area is an option. All of these plants, if installed in a phased manner, would improve the wetland and its functions.

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

Found growing in wet meadows and marshes. Valued as food for many bird species.

Form

Shrub

Scientific Name

Common Name

Sun/Shade

Height

Source

Comments

Salix bebianna

Diamond Willow

Full Sun

10-20 ft

Vermont Willow Nursery

Grows in wet soils, handsome ornamental, basketry, native to New England.

10-20 ft

Vermont Willow Nursery

Grows in wet/regular soils, cut stems, basketry, native to New England.

Salix eriocephala

Missouri Willow

--

Salix lucida

Shiny Willow

--

Salix wolfii

Wolf’s Willow

Sun-Part Shade

Salix viminalis

Common Osier

Sun-Part Shade

--

--

Native to New England.

10-16 ft

--

Good for pollarding and basketry.

10-20 ft

--

Good for pollarding and basketry.

New England Wetmix (Wetland Seed Mix) From New England Wetland Plants (NEWP.org): “This mix includes wide variety of native seeds that are suitable for most wetland restoration sites that are not permanently flooded. It is best suited to moist ground as found in most wet meadows, scrub shrub, or forested wetland restoration areas. The seeds will not germinate under inundated conditions. If planted during the fall months, the seed mix will germinate the following spring. During the first season of growth, several species will produce seeds while other species will produce seeds after the second growing season. This mix is comprised of the wetland species most likely to grow in created/restored wetlands and should produce more than 75% ground cover in two full

growing seasons. The wetland seeds in this mix can be sown by hand, with a hand-held spreader, or hydro-seeded on large or hard to reach sites. Lightly rake to insure good seed-to-soil contact. Seeding can take place on frozen soil, as the freezing and thawing weather of late fall and late winter will work the seed into the soil. If spring conditions are drier than usual watering may be required. If sowing during the summer months supplemental watering will likely be required until germination. A light mulch of clean, weed free straw is recommended. APPLICATION RATE: 1 LB/2500 sq. ft SPECIES: Fox Sedge (Carex vulpinoidea), Lurid Sedge (Carex lurida), Blunt Broom Sedge (Carex scoparia), Sensitive Fern (Onoclea sensibilis), Blue

Vervain (Verbena hastata), Hop Sedge (Carex lupulina), Green Bulrush (Scirpus atrovirens), Nodding Bur Marigold (Bidens cernua), Bristly Sedge (Carex comosa), Fringed Sedge (Carex crinita), American Mann grass (Glyceria grandis), Wool Grass (Scirpus cyperinus), Soft Rush (Juncus effusus), Spotted Joe Pye Weed (Eupatorium maculatum), Boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum), Mud Plantain (Alisma subcordatum), New England Aster (Aster novaeangliae), Rattlesnake Grass (Glyceria canadensis), Soft Stem Bulrush (Scirpus validus), Swamp Milkweed (Asclepias incarnata), Monkey Flower (Mimulus ringens).”

Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | Conway, MA www.csld.edu Spring 2013

Wet Meadow

482 NEWHALL ROAD CONWAY, MA 01341

Wetland Plant List

Plant Palette: Wetlands

Willows

are regulated by the federal and Massachusetts government because they are vital parts of ecosystems. They provide many ecological services, including reducing flooding and erosion, filtering and purifying surface water, and providing habitat around water bodies.

The area directly to the west of Newhall Road is very wet most of the year. It is recommended that the client verify whether or not any of these areas are wetlands. To do so, the property owners should hire a certified wetland delineator to determine if and where a wetland exists. Wetlands

Amy Wolfson | Kate Cairoli The Conway School

Wetland Delineation

MASTER PLAN + SUSTAINABILITY STUDY OPEN VIEW FARM

Plant Palette: Wetlands

21/29


Bioswale

N.T.S.

wet tolerant plants

Sun/Shade

Height

Shrub

Aronia arbutifolia

Red chokeberry

Partial to full sun

3-5 ft

36in - 4ft

Red chokeberry is grown for its excellent red fall foliage and profuse production of red fruits. This slowgrowing, suckering shrub transplants well.

Shrub

Sambucus canadensis

Black beauty elderberry

Partial to full sun

5-10 ft

5 - 10 ft

Best in moist soil, will tolerate dry soils.

Herbaceous Layer

Matteuccia pensylvanica

Ostrich fern

Sun/Part Shade

30 in - 3 ft

12 - 24 in

Needs wet soil. Cut back old fronds after new growth begins in spring.

Herbaceous Layer

Carex elata ‘Bowles Golden’

Bowles golden sedge

Partial to Full Sun

12 -18 in

24 - 36 in

Tolerates 2 -3 inches of standing water. Semi-evergreen.

Herbaceous Layer

Juncus effusus

Corkscrew rush

Shade to Part Sun

12 -18 in

> 12 in

Prefers very moist environment with partial shade. Deer resistant and lowmaintenance.

Herbaceous upright

Acorus calamus

Sweet flag

Partial Sun to Full Sun

30 in - 3 ft

24 - 36 in

The crushed leaves and rhizomes give off an aroma that resembles cinnamon.

edge plants tolerate fluctuating water levels groundcover 6” pooling zone

sandy loam undisturbed soil

perforated pipe leading to rain garden* gravel

* pipe is not necessary in all situations.

38 Plants

1’ detention/ filtration zone 1’ retention/ recharge zone

70 Plants

66 Plants 38 Plants 38 Plants 38 Plants

30’ This rain garden is approximately 450 ft2, which is about the size of the proposed rain gardens for Open View Farm. If using plugs and quart-sized plants, the rain gardens will require approximately 300 plants of each size.

15’

Spread

Comments

Some benefits of rain gardens: • Recharge local groundwater • Reduce potential of home flooding • Improve water quality • Protect streams and rivers • Create habitat for butterflies • Create habitat for beneficial insects • Survive drought seasons • Reduce garden maintenance

Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | Conway, MA www.csld.edu Spring 2013

Common Name

482 NEWHALL ROAD CONWAY, MA 01341

Bioswales can help to divert and channel runoff and serve many of the same functions as rain gardens. Regrading and adding rain gardens and bioswales on Open View Farm will help mitigate some of the drainage problems around the barn. In addition to helping slow and decrease the volume of runoff, the rain gardens will also help to improve the health of the wetlands downhill from the barn.

Scientific Name

Plant Palette: Rain Garden

Rain Garden + Stormwater Filtration Plant List Type of Vegetation/ Form

Amy Wolfson | Kate Cairoli The Conway School

Rain gardens can help capture stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces such as a driveway or roof. They help to improve water quality by capturing and filtering stormwater before it runs into streams, rivers, and lakes. Vegetated swales capture runoff; slow it down, cool it off, and clean it by allowing sediments and pollutants to settle out of the water. Water that is not taken up by plants in the rain garden percolates through the soil and recharges the groundwater.

MASTER PLAN + SUSTAINABILITY STUDY OPEN VIEW FARM

Plant Palette: Rain Garden

22/29 Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.


Height

Spread

Comments

Amelanchier lamarkii

Juneberry

Full sun

35-50 ft

20 - 35 ft

Berry with blueberry almond flavor. Can also be used as a windbreak or hedgerow. Provides habitat and forage for animals and attracts beneficial insects.

Asimina triloloba

Pawpaw

Partial to full sun

20 - 35 ft

20 - 35 ft

Largest native fruit, custard-pineapple-mango flavor. Can also be used for dye and fiber. Provides habitat and forage for animals.

Morus alba

White mulberry

Full sun

40 ft

40 ft

Fruit is sweet, a bit tart, and delicious. Provides forage and habitat for animals. Other uses include dye, fiber, windbreak and hedgerow.

Prunus americana

American plum

Partial to full sun

15 - 25 ft

15 - 25 ft

Native plum, good flavor. Attracts birds. Remove suckers to prevent unwanted spread.

Prunus armeniaca

Apricot

Full sun

20 - 30 ft

20 - 30 ft

Edible fruit. Provides habitat and forage for animals and attracts insects. Dwarf varieties available.

Prunus avium

Mazzard cherry

Full sun

25 - 35 ft

35 - 40 ft

Delicious fruit. Provides habitat and forage for animals and attracts insects. Can be used as a hedgerow. Dwarf varieties available.

Edible Fruits + Berries SHRUBS Scientific Name

Common Name

Sun/Shade

Height

Spread

Amelanchier alnifolia

Saskatoon

Full sun

5 - 15 ft

5 - 15 ft

Berries with blueberry almond flavor.

Aronia melanocarpa

Aronia

Sun to shade

3 - 6 ft

3 - 6 ft

Berries eaten by wildlife in winter; very soil adaptable.

Ribes odoratus

Purple-flowering raspberry

Full sun

6 ft

6 ft

Sweet-tart fruits; delicious; beautiful rose-like flowers.

Rubus parviflorus

Thimbleberry

Partial to full sun

4 - 6 ft

4 - 6 ft

Berries fresh or cooked; bears well in shade.

Vaccinium corymbosum

Highbush blueberry

Full sun

6 - 12 ft

6 - 12 ft

Delicious berries.

Edible Leaves, Stalks, + Shoots:

Plans and sections on this sheet are color-coded to plant palette lists.

Forest garden in section showing the different levels of plants. Colors correspond to the plants in the tables. SOIL BUILDERS + DYNAMIC ACCUMULATORS

Scientific Name

Plan view of a polyculture in a forest garden.

Common Name

Sun/Shade

Height

Scientific Name

Common Name

Sun/Shade

Height

Yarrow

Full sun

2 - 3 ft

indef.

Allium schoenoprasum

Chives

Partial to full sun

6 - 20 in

Amphicarpaea bracteata

Hog peanut

Partial to full sun

Apios americana

Groundnut

Lotus corniculatus

FORBS + HERBACEOUS VINES

Spread

Comments

Allium fistulosum

Welsh onion

Full sun

2 - 3 ft

1 - 2 ft

Onion flavor; a cultivated scallion.

Armoracia rusticana

Horseradish

Partial to full sun

3 ft

indef.

Young leaves edible, strong flavor, aggressive spreader.

Chenopodium bonus-henricus

Good King Henry

Partial to full sun

1 - 3 ft

12 - 18 in

Spring shoots like asparagus, excellent, greens somewhat bitter, good when cooked.

Oxyria digyna

Mountain sorrel

Partial to ful sun

2 - 12 in

12 in

Tasty tart leaves, good through fall.

Rumex acetosa

French sorrel

Patial to full sun

1 - 3 ft

10 - 12 in

Excellent fresh or cooked.

Spread

Achillea millefolium

Comments

EDIBLE ROOTS Scientific Name

Common Name

Sun/Shade

6 - 20â&#x20AC;?

Apios americana

Groundnut

Partial to full sun

4 - 8 ft

indef.

High protein staple.

1 - 3 ft

1 - 3â&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Bunium bulbocastanum

Earth chestnut

Full sun

2 ft

1 - 2 ft

Sweet chestnut flavor.

Partial to full sun

4 - 8 ft

indef.

Dioscorea batatas

Chinese yam

Full sun

10 ft

10 ft

Cultivated, eaten cooked.

Birdsfoot trefoil

Partial to full sun

1 in

1 - 2 ft

Productive and very sweet.

Partial to full fun

14 - 24 in

2 ft+

Partial to full sun

indef.

Lemon balm

Jerusalem artichoke

6 - 12 ft

Melissa officinalis

Helianthus tuberosus

Mentha x piperita

Peppermint

Partial to full sun

1 - 2 ft

indef

Lathyrus tuberosus

Earthnut pea

Partial to full sun

3 - 4 ft

indef.

Sweet and starchy.

Rumex acetosa

French sorrel

Partial to full sun

1 - 3 ft

10 - 12 in

Sium sisarum

Skirret

Partial to full sun

3 ft

1 - 2 ft

Delicious and productive.

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

Height

Spread

Comments

Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | Conway, MA www.csld.edu Spring 2013

Sun/Shade

482 NEWHALL ROAD CONWAY, MA 01341

Common Name

Plant Palette: Forest Garden

layer. The plants in a forest garden serve different ecological functions: air purifier, erosion control, insectary, mulch maker, nitrogen fixer, pest repellent, nurse or scaffold, and wildlife habitat and food, among others. Edible forest plants provide products that include dye, essential oils, fiber, food, insect repellent, medicine, soap, wood, and resin.

Scientific Name

Amy Wolfson | Kate Cairoli The Conway School

Edible forest gardening is a practice used for millenia in tropical cultures to produce food, fiber, medicine, and fuel. An edible forest garden mimics an early successional forest, a high-yield stage of forest development. This dynamic and highly productive stage in the forest can produce a yield both for humans and animals. The forest garden can be planted incrementally by planting polycultures of mutually beneficial plants around trees (see detail below). The multiple layers of a forest garden provide different opportunities for species diversification, including root layer, ground cover layer, herb layer, shrub layer, low-tree layer, vine layer, and tall-tree

Edible Fruits + Berries TREES

MASTER PLAN + SUSTAINABILITY STUDY OPEN VIEW FARM

Plant Palette: Edible Forest Garden

23/29


3’

A keyhole bed is a compact and efficient garden bed. Compared to a traditional raised bed that is four feet by fifteen feet, the path in the keyhole bed is significantly smaller. An 18-inch-wide path giving access to two conventional beds would be 22 square feet. Keyhole beds dramatically cut down on the area used for a path, with easier and quicker access and more space for growing. Creating a keyhole bed:

• Outline a circle with an eight-foot radius with full sun exposure. • Outline a second two-foot-diameter circle within the first circle • Point the central path toward the south. • Locate tall plants at the back or northern edge. This traps warmth within the garden bed, which creates a good place for heat loving plants that might not normally be hardy in Conway. Shortest plants should be planted in the center of most part of the bed (but not the path).

Perennial Vegetables Scientific Name

Common Name

Asparagus officinalis

Asparagus

Camassia quamash

Camass

Cichorium intybus

Chicory

Dioscorea opposita

Chinese yam

Rumex acetosa

French sorrel

Allium tuberosum

Garlic chives

Apios americana

Groundnut

Levisticum officinale

Lovage

Oxyria digyna

Mountain sorrel

Rumex acetosa

Profusion sorrel

Allium tricoccum

Ramps

Rheum cultorum

Rhubard

Crambe maritima

Sea kale

Sium sisarum

Skirret

Helianthus tuberosus

Sunchoke

Bunias orientalis

Turkish rocket

Notes

Like keyhole gardens, herb spirals allow many plants to be efficiently packed together, leader to greater productivity and less maintenance. Creating an herb spiral:

• Make a mound of good soil, three feet high, five feet across. • Place football to fist sized rocks in a spiral pattern that winds from bottom to inward to the top, with the bigger rocks at the bottom. • Leave about a foot of soil between the tiers. • Place rocks or concrete rubble at the base of mound and build topsoil on top. • Run plastic irrigation tubing (1/4 to 1/2 in.) inside the mound, emerging from the top, and attach a mini sprinkler for watering. There will be about 30 linear feet to plant. Sunny south-facing slope will be hotter than the north. East-facing side will dry out earlier in the day than the western side. The spiral has different microclimates:

• Top south side (hot dry climate herbs): oregano, rosemary, thyme • North side (cooler moister climate herbs): chives, parsley • East side (not too hot a spot): coriander Other plants can also be incorporated such as lettuce and strawberries.

Dynamic accumulator

Need moist shade

Need space

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

N.T.S.

Healthy abundant pollinators such as bees, butterflies,and birds provide us with a wide range of food and increase biodiversity in the wild. Unfortunately, the numbers of pollinators has been declining. Planting a pollinator garden can help pollinators to thrive. A pollinator garden provides food and shelter for pollinators. Pollinator gardens have plants with a variety of colors and shapes, flower at different times of the year, and are often planted in clumps.

Pollinator Garden

i.e., Ernst Seeds (ERNMX - 179) Scientific Name

Common Name

Aster macrophyllus

Big leaf aster

Rudbeckia hirta

Black-eyed Susan

Asclepias tuberosa

Butterfly milkweed

Silene armeria

Catchfly

Asclepias syriaca

Common milkweed

Papaver rhoeas

Corn poppy

Cosmos bipinnatus

Cosmos

Sorghastrum nutans

Indian grass

Coreopsis lanceolata

Lance leaved coreopsis

Schizachyrium scoparium

Little bluestem

Liatris spicata

Marsh blazing star

Aster novae-angliae

New England aster

Gaillardia aristata

Perennial gaillardia

Coreopsis tinctoria

Plains coreopsis

Echinacea purpurea

Purple coneflower

Delphinium ajacis

Rocket larkspur

Linum grandiflorum rubrum

Scarlet flax

Solidago speciosa

Showy goldenrod

Dianthus barbatus

Sweet William

Elymus virginicus

Virginia wild rye

Monarda fistulosa

Wild bergamot

Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | Conway, MA www.csld.edu Spring 2013

Pollinator Garden

482 NEWHALL ROAD CONWAY, MA 01341

Herb Spiral

Planting Details 1

5’

Amy Wolfson | Kate Cairoli The Conway School

Keyhole Garden

MASTER PLAN + SUSTAINABILITY STUDY OPEN VIEW FARM

Planting Details

24/29


Make a hole in the soil for the willow about six inches deep. Use a tool about the same thickness as the willow cutting such as a screw driver or tent stake.

Mulch

Make sure the willow is pointed up when it is to be planted. Buds should be pointed upward. Buds point upward

Place about seventy percent of the cutting in hole created.

9”

Soil

Coppicing a Willow

Year 1 • Plant dormant willows • Space about 2’-3’ apart, in rows about 4-5’ apart • Provide ample water throughout the growing season. Year 2 • In late winter prune all the rods back to ground level. • Provide ample water throughout the growing season. Year 3 • In late winter, harvest all rods by cutting to the ground or leave a few to grow for using in heavier baskets or willow furniture. • Water as needed.

Pollarded Willows

Winter Cut

Spring Growth

Proposed Zones for Silviculture

Managed forests can be very productive, allowing healthy trees to grown and allowing space for new growth. This can often increase biodiversity in the area because harvesting trees creates areas of sunlight, allowing other species to thrive. These stands are also thinned to allow some trees more room and sunlight to grow.

Rotational Grazing

Animals such as sheep and goats can graze under the trees. They will nourish themselves while helping control invasive plants. However, it is best to protect younger trees by fencing out animals from entire areas with young trees or putting fences around specific trees.

Place mulch around the cutting or weed around the cutting to reduce competition from weeds.

Before Cutting

Currently, the area to the east of the fencedin pastures is overgrown with invasive species, such as autumn olive and multiflora rose. These areas are also difficult to access. Using a silviculture framework to plant trees in stands would be a productive way to use this land, while benefitting the ecosystem.

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

Stand Tending • Thinning trees • Pruning • Weeding • Plant new trees or allow sprouts to grow to maturity

Pollarded Willows - pruning a tree to the main trunk height by annually cutting all the branches. This is good if animals are grazing near the trees because the tender new shoots will be above grazing height.

Silviculture Cycle

Harvesting

Harvesting • Selectively cut down trees for products

Regeneration

Coppice Ready

Coppicing Willows - cutting all the top growth to ground level in late winter.

These areas can be beneficial in other ways by providing timber for building, fuel, Christmas trees, and paper.

Stand Tending

Regeneration

Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | Conway, MA www.csld.edu Spring 2013

Cutting

482 NEWHALL ROAD CONWAY, MA 01341

Plant willow cuttings when they are dormant, between late November and end of March. Cuttings should be between nine and twelve inches long.

Silviculture is the art and science of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health and quality of forests and woodlands to meet the diverse needs and values of landowners and society on a sustainable basis (US Forest Service).

Planting Details 2

Willow Planting Detail

Amy Wolfson | Kate Cairoli The Conway School

Silviculture

MASTER PLAN + SUSTAINABILITY STUDY OPEN VIEW FARM

Willows

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Green Roof

hardy plants

N.T.S.

green roof substrate filter layer drainage/reservoir protection layer waterproof membrane plywood

insulation

Planting Plan

The dominant plant on the green roof is typically sedums (~ 90%). Other plants listed are insterspersed as accents. There are many more species of sedums than can be listed here, and experimenting with other hardy varieties is encouraged.

Scientific Name

Common Name

Sun/Shade

Height

Spread

Comments

Herbaceous Layer (accent)

Campanula porscharskyana

Serbian Bellflower

Full sun to partial shade

12 in

12 in

Grows in sun and shade and is considered drought resistant. Blue flowers June - August.

Herbaceous Layer (accent)

Dianthus ‘Pixie Star’ P.P.A.F.

Pixie Star Maiden Pink

Sun

12 in

12 in

Evergreen perennial. Pink flowers throughout growing season.

Herbaceous Layer (accent)

Sedum ‘Autumn Fire’

Stonecrop

Partial shade to full sun

2 - 3 ft

2 ft

Flowers in late summer. Very drought tolerant.

Herbaceous Layer (dominant)

Sedum ‘Xenox’

Xenox Stonecrop

Sun

12 -18 in

12 - 24 in

Pink flowers in summer. Dark foliage.

Herbaceous Layer (dominant)

Sedum ternatum

Woodland stonecrop

Sun to part shade

4 - 6 in

6 - 8 in

White flowers April to May. Attracts wildlife.

Herbaceous Layer (dominant)

Sedum floriferum

Stonecrop

Full sun

4 - 6 in

12 - 18 in

Yellow flowers. Attractive to hoverflies, whose larvae are important aphid predators in the garden.

Sedum ‘Autumn Fire’

482 NEWHALL ROAD CONWAY, MA 01341

Cost A green roof is approximately 2-3 times as expensive to install as a traditional roof, but it provides many benefits and can last up to three times as long as a traditional roof keeping roofing materials out of landfills.

Green Roof Plant List Type of Vegetation/ Form

Amy Wolfson | Kate Cairoli The Conway School

Decrease rainwater runoff A green roof can decrease the amount of rainwater runoff from the roof up to 90%.

MASTER PLAN + SUSTAINABILITY STUDY OPEN VIEW FARM

A green roof on the tractor storage shed would reduce the amount of rainwater runoff from the roof, which would otherwise exacerbate the drainage problems on the north side of the barn. Some of the benefits of a green roof include:

Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | Conway, MA www.csld.edu Spring 2013

Green Roof

Campanula parscharskyana

Dianthus ‘Pixie Star’

Plan of tractor storage shed area. A green roof on the tractor shed would serve as an educational opportunity for visitors and help reduce runoff north of the barn.

Sedum floriferum Sedum ternatum Plan of proposed green roof.

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

Planting Details 3

Sedum ‘xenox’

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QUANTITY

SUBTOTAL

DESCRIPTION

Patios

Square Foot

$15 - $25

1,100

$16,500 - $27,500

Includes stone, excavation and grading

Gravel Driveways

Square Foot

$6.50 - $6.75

1,400

$9,000 - $9,500

18" Depth, Includes excavation and grading

Drainage Swales

Lump Sum

$1,200 - $1,800

1

$1,200 - $1,800

Includes excavation and grading

Grading

Square Foot

25¢ - 30¢

1,000

$250 - $300

General site grading

Trails (mulch)

Linear Foot

$2.25 - $2.50

1,000

$2,250 - $2,500

4" Depth, 3' Width

Trees

Each

$100 - $125

100

$10,000 - $12,500

Small caliper or large gallon containers

Shrubs

Each

$25 - $30

95

$2,400 - $2,800

2 gallon container at 4’ O.C. (On Center)

Meadow Seed Mix

Acre

$4,000 - $4,500

1

$4,000 - $4,500

Price may vary, depending on application method

Green Roof

Square Foot

$60 - $80

600

$36,000 - $48,000

Includes establishment and irrigation

Rain Gardens

Square Foot

$8 - $10

850

$6,800 - $8,500

Includes excavation, drain pipe, and vegetation

Pond Areas

Acre

$4,000 - $6,000*

0.35 AC

$1,500 - $2,000

Some select removal, hand labor

East of Pastures

Acre

$3,500 - $4,000*

4.65 AC

$16,000 - $18,000

Some select removal, hand labor

Compost Toilet

Each

$7,000

2

$14,000

Tractor Shed

Lump Sum

$15,000 - $18,000

1

$15,000 - $18,000

Tool Shed

Lump Sum

$1,400 - $1,800

1

$1,400 - $1,800

Stone Benches

Each

$200 - $500

8

$1,600 - $4,000

Retaining Walls

Square Face Foot

$40 - $50

800

$32,000 - $40,000

Non-Vegetated Surfaces

Vegetation

Clearing

Structures

Subtotal

$169,900- $215,700

Contingency (15%)

$25,485 - $32,355

Total

$195,000 - $250,000

Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | Conway, MA www.csld.edu Spring 2013

UNIT COST

482 NEWHALL ROAD CONWAY, MA 01341

UNIT

Cost Estimate

ITEM

Amy Wolfson | Kate Cairoli The Conway School

Prices for landscaping materials may vary. This cost estimate is based on rough estimates of areas and quantities. This is a very preliminary cost estimate for selected elements of the master plan. It is based on rough estimates of area and quantities. It does not include taxes or mobilization costs, but does include installation costs. Cost savings can be achieved by using volunteer labor and low-cost substitutes (e.g., goats for clearing).

MASTER PLAN + SUSTAINABILITY STUDY OPEN VIEW FARM

Preliminary Landscape Cost Estimate

*Using goats and sheep for clearing will reduce costs.

27/29 Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.


To protect the sliding door entrance on the eastern side of the barn in winter, it may be helpful to install cleats or bars that help hold back the snow from falling all at once from the roof. However, using paths and doors away from hazardous areas under snow laden roofs is the safest option in the winter.

Recycled water can be used to irrigate gardens.

toilet + kitchen to sewer

greywater from bathroom sink + laundry

Black water is water from toilets, kitchen sinks, and dishwashers, that contains organic matter and fats which need to be filtered through a septic tank and leach field. A sink on top of the toilet bowl conserves water (water from handwashing is reused to flush the toilet), encourages handwashing after using the toilet, and uses space efficiently. Lowvolume flush toilets also help conserve water, as do toilets with dual flush options.

A masonry heater is an efficient way to heat a home especially when biomass is readily available on site.

Compost toilet with collecting tank that only needs to be emptied annually.

Composting toilets are a good option for visitors camping on the property or working in the fields, and for Aimee and Emmy in their new home. Such toilets reduce the load on septic tanks and leach fields, mitigate the use of water, and provide an educational opportunity. Massachusetts law requires that homeowners with compost toilets still install a septic tank and leach field, but they are allowed to reduce the size of the septic system and leach field by up to 50%, which saves money.

French Drain

A masonry heater is a very efficient form of a wood-burning stove for heating a building. The masonry heater has a large amount of thermal mass (stone or brick) and burns wood at very high temperature, then stores the heat in the thermal mass and allows it to dissipate slowly over time to heat the building for up to 24 hours. Hot air flows from the fire through the thermal mass, distributing the heat across a large area. The high-heat burning means that the wood burns in a way that releases less pollution than a regular wood stove fire. A masonry heater could be built in the existing house, which will become the retreat center, and also as a central hearth in the new home for Aimee and Emmy.

Snow guards can help keep snow from falling off the roof dangerously.

A French drain is a drainage trench with a pipe that collects and diverts water. A French drain or culvert to the north of the barn may be effective for diverting the water that is currently running towards the north side of the barn. Grading will also be necesary to direct the water appropriately, but a French drain or culvert will help divert water that falls uphill down into a rain garden below. trench with compact gravel fill

Leaf gutters can make it easier to maintain gutters.

ground level

fabric sock with gravel fill fabric sock perforated drain pipe with holes facing down Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

Exterioir of composting toilet building. Heat flows through the masonry heater, distributing warmth throughout the thermal mass.

Chains or ornate metal structures can be more aesthetically pleasing than a typical downspout.

Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | Conway, MA www.csld.edu Spring 2013

Gutters with a leaf guard can alleviate the need for cleaning gutters, but do not prevent winter damage from snow. Capturing water and diverting it to rain barrels or cisterns can help conserve water for dry times in the late summer. Especially in light of climate change and the predictions of more extremes, both of wet and dry periods, it is wise to consider options for conserving water.

482 NEWHALL ROAD CONWAY, MA 01341

Greywater systems collect the water from sinks, washing machines, and showers and filter it through rain gardens outside the house or collect it in a cistern and water plants with it. Using a greywater system reduces the pressure on the septic tank and leach field so that they may not need to be serviced as often and reduces the use of potable water for irrigation.

Water + Snow Capture

Sustainable Design Details

Heating Stove

Amy Wolfson | Kate Cairoli The Conway School

Compost toilet

MASTER PLAN + SUSTAINABILITY STUDY OPEN VIEW FARM

Greywater System

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Hemenway, Toby. Gaiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Garden: A Guide to Home-Scale Permaculture. Chelsea Green Publishing Company, 2009. Jacke, Dave and Toensmeier, Eric. Edible Forest Gardens. Chelsea Green Publishing Company, 2005. Carra, Roberto and Imhoff, Daniel. Farming with The Wild: Enhancing Biodiversity on Farms and Ranches. 2003.

Amy Wolfson | Kate Cairoli The Conway School

Books

Graduate Program in Sustainable Landscape Planning & Design 332 S. Deerfield Road | Conway, MA www.csld.edu Spring 2013

References

Websites Sink about Toilet: http://sinkpositive.com/web/ PBS Documentary on ecological farming: http://ciroline.org/projects/food-9-billion PBS Documentary on ecological farming http://www.pbs.org/newhour/ rundown/2013/06/food-for-9-billion-costa-rica.html New England Wetland Plants: http://www.newp.com Natural Resources Conservation Service http://efotg.sc.egov.usda.gov/references/public/VT/JS314-AutumnOlive.pdf Massachusetts Wetland Act http://www.mass.gov/dep/water/laws/ch131s40.pdf Retrofitting Houses - Thousand Homes Challenge http://thousandhomechallenge.com/casestudies

482 NEWHALL ROAD CONWAY, MA 01341

All photographs were taken by Kate Cairoli, Amy Wolfson, or the people at Open View Farm.

MASTER PLAN + SUSTAINABILITY STUDY OPEN VIEW FARM

Photo Credits

Other Publications Town of Conway, Massachusetts, Zoning Bylaws. (2005). Accessed 20 June, 2013. http:www.townofconway.com/docs/zoningbylaws011107.pdf Invasive Plant Species Fact Sheet: Oriental Bittersweet, Invasive Plant Species Assessment Working Group.

References

Pollinator Gardens - http://pollinator.org/PDFs/Guides/Adirondackrx3FINAL.pdf

Conservation Goat Grazing for Invasive Species in the Hudson Valley, Glynwood Center. BioMap2, Conway, Massachusetts, Natural Heritage Endangered Species Program, The Nature Conservancy, Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 2012.

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

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Open View Farm Master Plan + Sustainability Study