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Griswold Cotton Mill

DESIGN Feasibility Study KOSUDAVILLE, LLC

turners falls, massachusetts PRISCILLA MINER

| KATE DANA |

ANNIE SCOTT

|

CONWAY SCHOOL OF LANDSCAPE DESIGN

|

SPRING 2007


CONTENTS

Introduction

2

Parking Requirements

13

History

3

Proposed Plan

14

Project Goals

4

Proposed Plan: Details

15

Location

6

Proposed Plan: Illustratives

16

North End of Island

8

Design Alternatives

18

Island Greenway

9

Planting Notes

21

Summary Analysis

10

Green Roofs

22

Analysis: Sun & Shadows

12

Parking Notes

23


introduction

t u ic

t c e

n n o

CONNECTICUT RIVER

PO W

ER

ST R

EE

T

C

This project explores the possibilities and limitations of the property with an emphasis on site restoration, aesthetics, access and circulation for pedestrians and vehicles, and stormwater management. The plan explores the site’s

2

DESIGN FEASIBILITY STUDY

an

PAVEMENT

160

PR

OP

ER

CANAL RESERVOIR

TY

rC Po

The site includes two brick buildings. The larger historic mill building (90,000 square feet) has partially collapsed. A smaller 2-story building (10,000 square feet) is intact. The majority of the site is gently sloped west towards the river with less than an acre of pervious surface on site — the southern third of the property is entirely paved.

we

159

Source: MassGIS

View of Griswold Cotton Mill from across the power canal.

167

158

broader context, including connections between the site and the local community.

161

BO

UN

DA

RY

162 3

(AP

16

PR

OX

4

IM

16

AT

E)

5

niquely located on a narrow man-made island in the village of Turners Falls, between the Connecticut River and a hydroelectric power canal, the 2.91-acre Griswold Mill property waits to be reinvented. Kosudaville, LLC, seeks a conceptual design for mixed-use development on the site.

POWER CANAL

157

16

U

al

Aerial view of site.

0

50

100

150

200 FT

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.


history

Detail showing Griswold Cotton Mill (foreground).

T

he Connecticut River bends sharply south through a steeply sided valley, over bedrock outcroppings and around the village of Turners Falls. This unique location on the river was an important Native American center for diplomacy and trade for over ten-thousand years prior to European settlement. Originally constructed in the late 1700s for transportation, the Turners Falls canal fell into disuse when railroads took over many transportation needs in the 1840s. The canal and dam were rebuilt in the 1860s as part of industrialist Alvah Crocker’s vision for a completely planned industrial community. The core of the plan was based on inexpensive hydro-power to attract mill industries to the village. The plan supported business development with a walkable street grid that included a 90-foot-wide commercial main avenue located between in-town employee housing and the mill sites on an island between the canal and the river. Like many communities throughout Massachusetts and other parts of the country, the industrial manufacturing that characterized towns like Turners Falls now leaves a legacy of significant physical structures that can be creatively reused in ways that respond to current economic and social trends. Birds-eye perspective (1877). Source: Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division.

Griswold Cotton Mill, originally built in 1874, was a production center for cotton bandages, bunting, and cheesecloth until the 1940s. After the mill closed, it became the Rockdale Department Store, and then for many years it housed Railroad Salvage. The property has been owned by Kosudaville, LLC since 2001.

GRISWOLD COTTON MILL

3


project goals Goal 1: Restore the site Manage stormwater on site

P

Incorporate alternative surfaces such as porous pavement, vegetated roofs, living walls, and grid pavers

roject goals focus on restoring the vitality of the Griswold Mill site, creating a vibrant, mixed-use space designed for ecological health, and supporting a community of people of all ages and income levels who will live and work on site.

Replace 75% of impervious surfaces Utilize nonstructural techniques such as rain gardens and vegetated swales Collect and reuse stormwater for non-potable uses

Gary Kosuda of Kosudaville, LLC, is exploring the possibilities and limitations of the landscape to support mixed-use development. Housing on site may include up to 88 apartments, including 20% affordable housing. Commercial space, including offices or artists work spaces, is also being considered for the site.

Site a cistern or similar holding area for stormwater collection Eliminate the use of potable water for landscape maintenance

Amend or supplement soil Determine soil conditions and use biological or physical remediation techniques as needed Biological techniques include microbial remediation, phytoremediation, fungal remediation, and compost remediation Physical techniques include excavation, geotextiles, soil washing, and soil vapor

Improve south side of site Reduce heat island effect by minimizing pavement Increase green space

Sustainable site design elements

GREEN ROOF REDUCES HEAT THROUGH EVAPOTRANSPIRATION

POROUS PAVEMENT HELPS ABSORB STORMWATER RUNOFF

ORIENTATION OF BUILDING PROVIDES PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING

NATURAL GREEN SCREENS ON BUILDING WALLS CREATE OXYGEN, REDUCE HEAT AND CREATE NATURAL HABITATS

Green roof Chicago City Hall, Chicago, IL

TREES FOR SHADE TO REDUCE BUILDING TEMPERATURE SOLAR CELLS INSTALLED ON ROOFTOP CONVERT SUNLIGHT TO POWER RAINWATER FROM ROOFTOP IS COLLECTED AND STORED FOR USE IN LANDSCAPE IRRIGATION

WETLANDS HELP TREAT STORMWATER RUNOFF

Green roofs Chicago, IL BIOSWALES, LANDSCAPED DITCHES OR PONDS COLLECT AND TREAT RAINWATER AND PROVIDE HABITAT

Adapted from www.greenstructure.com

Grid pavers DIA Beacon, Beacon, NY

4

DESIGN FEASIBILITY STUDY

Living wall Quai Branly Museum, Paris, France


Goal 3: Connect with surrounding community Bicycle and pedestrian access

Vehicle access

Car-free path to town center and rest of island 8-ft.-wide minimum path, separated from vehicle traffic Less than 10% slope Smooth, durable, well-drained surface

Drop-off point at entrance for moving, hauling and maintenance Emergency vehicle access Provide turnaround space to accommodate 48-ft. fire truck

Car-free connection with existing bicycle path

Natural play area Ellensburg, Washington Bicycle rack Portland, Oregon

A curb extension, one method of traffic calming

Solar carport Oroville, California

Community garden California

Goal 2: Support the outdoor space needs of occupants Provide secure and adequate storage Bicycle and stroller storage Secure storage area, protected from elements, within 200 yards of entrance, for minimum 15% of occupants

Waste and recyling storage Covered, organized storage area

Provide secure and adequate parking Parking for residents, guests and workers Size parking capacity not to exceed minimum local zoning requirements; provide ADA parking Provide bulletin board for ride sharing

Provide flexible outdoor spaces Organic community garden for residents

Power Street Bridge Turners Falls, Massachusetts

Bike path Tainan, Taiwan

Bike rack Portland, Oregon

Pedestrian path Dia Beacon, Beacon, New York

50 ft. x 60 ft. minimum garden for 20 plots, within 20 ft. of storage area and compost, on healthy soil

Play space for children Flat area within 25 ft. of a building entrance, partially shaded, divided from parking area

Flexible gathering space Minimum 1,000 sq. ft., view of canal, partially shaded C&O Canal Georgetown, Washington, D.C.

GRISWOLD COTTON MILL

5


location

N O RT H F I E L D W A RW I C K GILL

91 GREENFIELD

MONTAGUE

2 hours

I-90

NEW YORK CITY

3.5 hours

ERVING

GRISWOLD MILL

BOSTON

I-91

G

Connecticut River

riswold Cotton Mill is located in the National Register Historic District of Turners Falls, the largest of five villages comprising the town of Montague in the upper Pioneer Valley. Home to just over 4,400 people, Turners Falls is the commercial and governmental center of Montague, and boasts a lively arts community.

2

Millers River

MO NT A G U E

O RA N G E

W ENDELL

DEERFIELD

The mill site is convenient to public transportation and to local and regional points of interest.

N EW

L EV E R ET T

S H U T E S B U RY

SU N D E R LA N D

0

Historic downtown Turners Falls boasts brick nineteenth century buildings, many along a tree-lined, 90-ft. wide main street.

DESIGN FEASIBILITY STUDY

1

2

Miles 4

Points of Interest

Transportation

Two hours driving distance from Boston and three and a half from New York City, the site is close to cultural, educational, and recreational opportunities.

Bus service is available from Turners Falls to Greenfield and Amherst, where connections can be made to Greyhound and Peter Pan/Trailways bus services. Amherst is also served by Amtrak train service.

The Hallmark Institute of Photography is located in Montague and its Museum of Contemporary Photography is in downtown Turners Falls. Greenfield Community College and the Five College consortium (Amherst, Hampshire, Mount Holyoke and Smith Colleges and the University of Massachusetts, Amherst) are also nearby. The Pioneer Valley is a popular recreational destination with a wide range of activities including hiking, biking, fishing, boating, swimming and skiing.

6

SA L E M

Turners Falls is easily accessible to Route 2 (2 minutes) and Interstate 91 (8 minutes), and is served by Turners Falls Municipal Airport.


ILE 10 M

S

10 ROYALSTON

M IL

LEYDEN

ES

BERNARDSTON

COLRAIN

WARWICK

NORTHFIELD N H D

5 M

At the spillway ladder in Turners Falls, fish climb 42 pools to join the fish from the power canal in passing through the gatehouse fishway.

ES

GREENFIELD

S

IL

ILE 5 M

91 GILL

ERVING Bridge of Flowers Glacial Potholes

Turners Falls

2

SHELBURNE FALLS

Discovery Center Anadramous Fish Ladder

Greenfield Community College

Turners Hallmark Falls Institute of Airport Photography

rs River

ORANGE

2

ATHOL

63

5

D

eer fie

Mille

Legend

R ld

10

r ive

WENDELL

Major Road

MONTAGUE

Historic Deerfield

Roads Bike Trails

DEERFIELD CONWAY

Suggested Bike Route

Conway School of Landscape Design

View of the fish ladder, and the only views in town of the Great Falls.

Open Space, Park

47

Long Hiking Trails Colleges & Universities LEVERETT

SUNDERLAND

SHUTESBURY

Swiming

NEW SALEM

Fishing

Conne

WHATELY

Hiking

cticu

Boating

t Riv

Camping

er

Quabbin Reservoir

WILLIAMSBURG

AMHERST

HATFIELD HADLEY

University of Massachusetts Amherst

Turners Falls is just visible across the lake from Barton’s Cove. Recreation Area

PELHAM

Miles 0 0.5 1

NORTHAMPTON

2

3

4

5

Amherst College

Sources: MassGIS, NESEA, Franklin County Chamber of Commerce

GRISWOLD COTTON MILL

7


north end of island

G

riswold Cotton Mill’s unique location provides many opportunities for connections with the village of Turners Falls.

8

CO

AVENUE A / TURNERS FALLS HISTORIC DISTRICT Designed and built by industrialist Colonel Alvah Crocker in the 1860s, the historic downtown features distinctive 19th century brick architecture. Avenue A is a 90-foot-wide street with the town’s library, post office, grocery store and hardware store, all within easy walking distance of the Griswold Mill.

DESIGN FEASIBILITY STUDY

UE

A

9

EN AV

9

GRISWOLD MILL

YCL

THE PATCH NEIGHBORHOOD Historically, many workers at the Griswold Cotton Mill lived in the Patch, a residential neighborhood which once had numerous corner markets, a candy store, and a Polish food co-op and bakery. Power Street leads from the Griswold Mill site south towards this neighborhood.

C

7

BIC

8

L

A AN

PESKEOMSKUT PARK

IDE

POWER STREET BRIDGE / GRISWOLD COTTON MILL Two bridges that cross the canal at Sixth Street (currently closed) lead to Griswold Cotton Mill. The island widens at this point, and the Griswold Mill site is buffered by green space to the river side and a canal reservoir to the south.

TO E G ID TE 2 R B U RO

/

LL GI

6

FIFTH STREET BRIDGE The heavily trafficked bridge at Fifth Street leads over the canal towards Greenfield. It is possible in the wintertime to see Griswold Mill from the center of the bridge.

7

5

AIL

PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE / STRATHMORE MILL A pedestrian bridge (currently closed) crosses the canal from Canal Street to the fourth floor of the Strathmore Mill, a brick mill complex built in 1871 to house the Keith Paper Company.

1

3

NN

TURNERS FALLS

E TR

5

T CU

V RI

I

T EC

CANALSIDE BIKE PATH A recently completed 3-mile off-road bicycle path extends along the riverfront and power canal from Barton’s Cove to Montague City, and connects with other regional bicycle trails. The path is easily accessible from the Griswold Mill. INDECK FACILITY This coal-powered cogeneration plant is currently being dismantled, opening up and altering the landscape of the northeastern tip of the island.

2

ER

PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE / NORTHEAST TIP OF ISLAND A pedestrian bridge leads over the canal to a privately-owned green space that affords spectacular views of the fish ladder, and the only views in town of the Great Falls.

4

6

4

TO LD GE IE ID NF BR REE G

3

GREENFIELD

ALS

2

TURNERS FALLS GILL BRIDGE / GREAT FALLS DISCOVERY CENTER A major draw to Turners Falls is the Great Falls Discovery Center, an interpretive museum of the Connecticut River watershed. Housed in a complex of old mill buildings, the Discovery Center is surrounded by a four-acre park with butterfly gardens, native plantings, and views of the canal and river.

CAN

1

FOCUS AREA

8 0 Source: MassGIS, RiverCulture walking tour map, site visits

200

400

600

800 FT

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.


an island greenway FOCUS AREA

connect with the water places for kids to go sustainable energy resources river based events something fun and family related trails artist space concerts walkways more public events promote culture and the arts studio space reveal the past and...

PROPOSED HOTEL IN FORMER TANK

GREENFIELD

TURNERS FALLS

PLAY AREA

Charrette participants walk along the canal-side bike trail, and back at Town Hall, discuss their ideas.

PROPOSED TRAFFIC CALMING

PROPOSED RIVER ACCESS

T LEGEND VIEWING AREA RETAIL/ COMMERCIAL

TO PATCH NEIGHBORHOOD

CONNECTION PARKING

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

An island greenway could connect green spaces on the island from tip to tip. Pedestrian and bicycle links, public access to the waterfront, and year-round, diverse functions would help to knit the village together with the historically industrial island.

he Griswold Mill is at the heart of the island greenway with an incomparable location and unique potential for pedestrian and bike connections. The site could become a key hub of activity that serves both the residents of the former mill and the greater community. Twenty-four people who live or work in Turners Falls participated in a short, intensive design workshop held at Montague Town Hall on Thursday, May 24, 2007 to explore ideas about the future of the north end of the island. Following a walking tour of the north end of the island and downtown Turners Falls, participants discussed the future of the area and put their ideas on paper. This conceptual island greenway represents a possible future for the village that incorporates many of the ideas expressed at the meeting. This includes adding new bike paths that extend the length of the island, connecting greenspaces, residents, and new retail and business locations; re-opening and retrofitting bridges that link pedestrians and bicycles from the downtown area and existing bike path to the island; defining green spaces interspersed throughout the greenway that provide opportunities for recreation, reflection, and points of interaction with the river; and transforming the northernmost end of the island into a public park with an educational connection to the Discovery Center and Fishway. GRISWOLD COTTON MILL

9


summary analysis

A

nalyses indicate that reducing impervious surfaces to minimize the heat island effect and absorb water on site are important elements for any design.

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Connecticut River Watershed

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LEGEND 0% - 1.5% 1.5% - 3% 3% - 5%

0!6%-%.4

5% - 10% 10% - 20%

SOURCES: MassGIS, National Heritage & Endangered Species Program, Franklin Regional Council of Governments, Montague assessors maps, site visits

10

DESIGN FEASIBILITY STUDY

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey.

The Connecticut River, an American Heritage River, is the largest river in New England and runs directly past the site. The volume and fall of the Connecticut led to the rise of industry along its banks in the Pioneer Valley. At a total length of 407 miles, the river’s drainage basin extends over 11,250 square miles through New Hampshire,Vermont, Massachusetts and Connecticut, and slightly into Canada. The Connecticut River Watershed is the largest river ecosystem in New England. The river provides a welcome visual and audio backdrop for the site. The site is not within any potentially productive aquifers, nor is it within an Interim Wellhead Protection Area of a public water supply.


C I R C U L AT I O N Currently, there is no vehicle circulation on site. Power Street and the two bridges just north of the property that cross the canal from the mainland are closed for safety reasons. There is minimal foot traffic; residents of the Patch neighborhood often walk their dogs or ride bikes past the site.

V E G E TAT I O N A mature red oak tree, surrounded by oak saplings, grows in the northeast corner of the site. A mature elm is adjacent to the main building, at the southwest corner.

H A B I TAT

SLOPE & DRAINAGE

The entire site is within an area designated as Living Waters Critical Supporting Watershed by the National Heritage and Endangered Species Program (NHESP), the state agency responsible for protecting the range of native biological diversity. Careful management of runoff from the site can help contribute to the health of the river and this habitat.

The relatively level site is approximately 175 ft. Above mean sea level. Over 86,000 sq. ft. on site are currently impervious surface; water on site drains into the Connecticut River.

Core Habitats represent the lakes, ponds, rivers, and streams that provide habitat for rare freshwater species, or that are known to be exemplary aquatic habitats in Massachusetts. The Critical Supporting Watershed identifies the more immediate portion of a Core Habitat’s watershed where conservation efforts should be targeted. The stretch of the Connecticut River in Montague downstream from Turners Falls Dam is presumed habitat for burbot, a fish Species of Special Concern. The river also provides habitat to ten species of state-listed dragonflies, and a wide diversity of fish.

Soils on site consist almost entirely of artificial fill, and may require amendment., particularly for a community garden or play space. A soils map indicates that soils in the area of the site are Merrimac sandy loam, 0-3% slopes — a slightly droughty sandy loam that is underlain by deep deposits of stratified sand and gravel. Moderately rapid to rapid permeability, along with moderate to low water-holding capacity, mean that water moves rapidly through the soil. Bedrock beneath the site is Turners Falls sandstone, a thin-bedded, red shaly sandstone. Outcrops of the stone can be seen in the Connecticut River, just west of the site. A Phase I Environmental Site Assessment conducted by Tighe and Bond indicates that a Phase II Site Assessment will be necessary to determine whether or not there are buried tanks on site. The full report is on file with the Franklin Regional Council of Governments in Greenfield.

VIEWS & NOISE Griswold’s location on a narrow strip of land between the Connecticut River and the canal affords a sense of privacy and wonderful views on all sides. Views to the south, however, are dominated by pavement and are less desirable. Currently, the only consistently noticeable noise on site is the sound of water; however, when Power Street is reopened to vehicle traffic, there will be some additional noise on site.

Other vegetation on site, along the eastern, canal side, is mixed and overgrown.

SOILS

One band of steep slope wraps around the northern and eastern ends of the property. The remainder of the property slopes gently down from the canal side to the river side.

Burbot drawing by Laszlo Meszoly, from Hartel et al., 2002. Inland Fishes of Massachusetts

LEGAL The Massachusetts Rivers Protection Act restricts the extent of development within a 200 foot Riverfront Area. This corridor is measured from the mean annual high-water line on both sides of a perennial river or stream. There is an exception for mill buildings constructed before 1946 that reduces the Riverfront Area to 100 feet. Applying only to the length of the mill building’s footprint parallel to the river. Northeast Utility Company owns much of the surrounding property, including a ten-foot-wide strip between the eastern boundary and the canal. Access to this area is required for annual canal maintenance. The amount of parking required on site, according to town by-laws, is 1.5 spaces per residential unit, 1 space per employee, 1 space for every 175 feet of commercial or office space, and 1 space for every 4 seats in a restaurant. For example, the bylaws dicate that for 88 residential units, 10,000 square feet of retail or office space, and 25 employees, 214 spaces would be required.

Looking south down Power Street.

M I C R O C L I M AT E The high percentage of pavement on site (nearly one and a quarter acres) creates a heat island on the southern side of the site, which is also the area that receives the most direct sun. The asphalt surface generates higher temperatures (both surface and in the air) than its surroundings. Areas of morning and early afternoon sun, and shelter from winter winds, are scattered along the eastern boundary of the property. The northwest side of the site is exposed to cold winter winds.

GRISWOLD COTTON MILL

11


analysis: sun/shadows

Vernal Equinox March 20, 8:00 AM

Vernal Equinox March 20, 12:00 PM

Vernal Equinox March 20, 4:00 PM

Summer Solstice June 20, 8:00 AM

Summer Solstice June 20, 12:00 PM

Summer Solstice June 20, 4:00 PM

Autumnal Equinox September 22, 8:00 AM

Autumnal Equinox September 22, 12:00 PM

Autumnal Equinox September 22, 4:00 PM

Winter Solstice December 21, 8:00 AM

Winter Solstice December 21, 12:00 PM

Winter Solstice December 21, 4:00 PM

Composite sun and shadows analysis, September 22. The darker the area, the fewer the hours of daily sun.

T

he north and east sides of both buildings receive ample morning sunlight, and deep afternoon shade. The southern portion of the site receives full sun for much of the day, including the area that is currently paved. Reduced impermeable surface and increased vegetation will help minimize the effects of the heat island on the south side of the site. The exposed roof area of approximately 27,000 square feet is ideal for installing electric and/or hot water solar photovoltaic systems. Green roof installation should also be strongly considered on flat, expansive, sun-exposed roofs. Some of the benefits include reducing temperature fluctuations both inside and outside the building, savings on heating and cooling costs in the long term, slowing stormwater runoff and increasing the lifespan of the roofing materials.

12

DESIGN FEASIBILITY STUDY


parking REQUIREMENTS

ut

nn

Co

tic c e

OPTION A

NUMBER

PARKING SPOTS REQUIRED

RESIDENTIAL UNITS

40

60

EMPLOYEES

2

2

350

2

TOTAL

64

157

167

90

1 space per 175 square feet of retail or office floor space 1 space per four seats in a restaurant

9 4 0

89

1 space per employee

Different combinations of uses and numbers of dwelling units, square feet of office space, and the presence or absence of restaurant space all affect the parking requirements, and the possibilities for the layout of spaces at the Griswold site. Nearly endless combinations are possible; illustrated are three that look at very different cominations of uses and users.

37 3

83

88

1.5 parking spaces per dwelling unit

Po we r

145 144 143 142 141 140 139 138 137 136 135 134 133 91 108 132 92 109 131 93 110 94 130 111 95 112 129 96 113 97 114 98 115 991 116 41 117 001 42 118 011 43 119 021 44 1 0 201 310 45 64 211 410 46 65 221 510 47 66 231 610 48 67 241 49 7 68 251 50 69 261 51 70 271 52 71 28 53 72 54 73 1 55 74 2 56 75 3 57 76 4 58 77 5 59 78 6 60 79 7 61 80 8 62 81 9 10 63 82 83 11 84 12 85 13 14 86 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

87

arking requirements in the Town of Montague bylaws are as follows:

Ca na l

RETAIL SPACE - SQ. FT.

P

32

36

35

34

33

0

50

100

150

200 FT

ut

e nn

t

ic ct

OPTION B

Co

NUMBER

PARKING SPOTS REQUIRED

icu ct

Co

OPTION C

e nn

RESIDENTIAL UNITS

88

132

EMPLOYEES

25

25

EMPLOYEES

10,000

58

RETAIL SPACE - SQ. FT.

TOTAL

215

9 10

11

12

13

35

14

34

15

33

32

31

30

29

50

45

49

48

47

16

17

18

19

20

na 1 12 1 13 14

33 23

13 02 92 82

72 62

52 42 3

28

Ca

6 54 44 34 24 04 14 94 83 63 73

34 3

46

10

Po w

51

44

9

15

52

43

8

16

53

42

56

167

7

17

54

41

6

18

55

40

57

5

19

56

39

4

35 3

57

38

3

20

36

58

37

58

2

21

37

59

36

1

22

38

35

58

5

8

39

34

TOTAL

45

7

40

33

58

47 48 49 50 51 52 53 5

6

41

32

38

er

an

al 5

31

62 7

4

42

52

3

30

60

42

2

43

61

32

1

44

62

21 22 2

29 45

63

Po we

167

64

157

rC

157

PARKING SPOTS REQUIRED

l

RETAIL SPACE - SQ. FT.

RESIDENTIAL UNITS

NUMBER

0

50

100

150

200 FT

0

50

100

150

200 FT

Not for construction. These drawings are part of a student project and are not based on a legal survey. GRISWOLD COTTON MILL

13


proposed plan VEGETATED SWALE LOADING AREA FOR TRUCKS

PARKING

CO M

M

ER CI A

L

30-FT. WIDE TUNNEL FOR CARS & PEDESTRIANS PULL-OUT AREA FOR VEHICLES

G

9 SPACES

5

IN

O RO EN

ROOF RUNOFF FEEDS RETENTION POND SURROUNDED BY RAIN GARDEN

F

HO

US

LIVING WALL

1

7 SPACES

HO

RE

US

CONNECTION TO PUBLIC PATH

IN

G

2

PUBLIC PATH (700 FT.)

G

POROUS PARKING AREA WITH BIORETENTION ISLANDS 74 SPACES

HO

USI

NG

4

CHILDREN’S NATURAL PLAY AREA

DECK

3 COMMUNITY GARDENS

14

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey. DESIGN FEASIBILITY STUDY


proposed plan: details 1

Green Roofs

4

Both intensive and extensive green roof systems are proposed for the building (see page 21). In the proposed plan, approximately half of the roof is covered with decks for residents to relax and enjoy the view. The intensive roof garden design could include some seasonal food production and outdoor sculpture.

2

Rain Garden and Roof Fountain During a heavy rain, excess rainwater flows from the roof surfaces to an extended pipe which has an outlet suspended over the rain garden. Water will fall approximately 20 feet from this extension into the garden, which is designed to collect, retain and recharge water from many impervious surfaces on site while looking beautiful year-round.

3

Parking Lot The parking area is shaded as much as possible while maximizing the density of cars.Vegetated swales collect and process stormwater runoff (see page 23).

5

Tunnel and Small Parking Area An arched tunnel from Power Street through the building provides access to the east side for pedestrians and for parking. Included in this parking area are four ADA parking spots within 25 feet of building entrances.

Community Gardens Space is provided in the plan for a community garden with generous plot sizes for residents’ personal gardening and children’s educational gardening. Poor soil quality will most likely require the construction of raised beds and good quality fill from nearby sources. Some produce could be supplied by the garden to a restaurant or cafe located in the adjacent building.

Not for construction. These drawings are part of a student project and are not based on a legal survey. GRISWOLD COTTON MILL

15


proposed plan: illustratives

View of proposed plan, looking north at green roofs, roof decks, and stormwater retention pond.

16

DESIGN FEASIBILITY STUDY


A

public path along the eastern edge of the property, next to the canal, provides access to the mill for residents, and an inviting space that connects to the rest of the island and the downtown. A railing replaces the existing chain link fence, and benches placed beneath shade trees provide a welcoming spot to sit and watch the canal speed by.

GRISWOLD COTTON MILL

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design alternatives CAR-FREE BIKE & PEDESTRIAN ACCESS TO BIKE PARKING & BUILDING

Three design alternatives explore different approaches to restoring the site, providing flexible outdoor spaces for people living and working at the mill, and incorporating a range of sustainable site design practices.

DROP OFF

C GR IAL EE N HO RO U O SIN F G

These alternatives informed the proposed plan.

ER M M

COURTYARD

NATURAL PLAYGROUND AREA

HO

CO

RESIDENTIAL

US

IN

G

COURT YARD

Benches beneath the trees provide a welcome resting spot

BIRCH GROVE WITH BENCHES

ALTERNATIVE 1: PARKING & PARK

W

hen parking is sized to meet minimum

zoning requirements for apartment units plus offices or artist work spaces, what space is left? How can that space be maximized to achieve the goals of restoring the site, supporting the outdoor space needs of occupants, and connecting with the surrounding community?

SIN

G

PARKING

HO U

GARDEN

A parking area in the southwestern portion of the site in this

GATED PARKLIKE SPACE FOR RESIDENTS ONLY

Not for construction. These drawings are part of a student project and are not based on a legal survey.

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PROS

CONS

Pedestrians and bicycles can access site via car-free path; bicycle parking area easily accessible from path

Residential courtyard is large, but not well shaded; views of canal are obstructed by slope

Residents have living spaces close to canal, separate from street and commercial area

Approximately 1,000 sq. ft. additional green space compared to existing conditions

Bicycle/pedestrian entrance on north side is steep; bicycle/pedestrian entrance on west side does not have a clear separation from vehicle traffic

DESIGN FEASIBILITY STUDY

alternative has approximately 120 parking spaces to support mixed residential and commercial use. The size of individual parking spaces is minimized, and multiple entrances and exits reduce the need for turnaround space in the parking area. For 88 residential units, local zoning calls for 132 spaces. In addition, for every 175 square feet of commercial or office space, one more spot is required. An exception to the zoning by-laws, or a reduction in the number of rental units, would be necessary. Park-like private space for residents is concentrated to the east of the main building, separate from the parking, and a natural playground area is nestled within a grove of birch trees. This area includes creative landforms, native plantings, and natural materials

like boulders and logs, to stimulate children’s creative play and curiosity about the natural world. A path for pedestrians and bicycles leads from the end of the Power Street Bridge through a grove of trees to the rear entrance and courtyard. Another private green space for residents in the southeastern corner of the site is a sunny spot that is screened from the parking area. On the Power Street — or river — side of the property, a sidewalk and drop-off area provide easy access to residential space on the north. Of the three design alternatives, this one has the highest number of parking spaces (approximately 120); a green roof helps to increase the pervious surface on site.


TERRACED GARDEN BIKE SHEDS

RAIN GARDEN

HO GR U EE SIN N G/ RO O F

BASKETBALL OR VOLLEYBALL COURT

LIVING WALL

FERN WOODLAND WITH ROCKS & LOGS

COMMUNITY GARDEN

USI

NG

VEGETATED SWALE

KIDS PLAY AREA

BENCHES BETWEEN LARGE TREES

ENTRANCE

HO

PARKING

SOLAR-COVERED PARKING SPOTS

DOG RUN

Not for construction. These drawings are part of a student project and are not based on a legal survey.

PROS

CONS

Reduced parking creates opportunities for additional green space for residents

Convenience of having many pedestrian and bicycle access points

No parking within 150 ft. of building

Solar-roofed parking spaces protect cars from the elements while collecting energy on site.

ALTERNATIVE 2: WRAPPED IN GREEN

W

hat if the amount of parking required were limited to the bare minimum to support residents? This alternative puts other outdoor space needs ahead of parking, and packs in as much functional outdoor space as possible. Residents approach the main entrance through a community garden, or pass by a bicycle storage area and terraced gardens on the way to the rear entrances. Recreational spaces for children and adults are tucked into a private area to the east of the main building, while a green roof provides a retreat with views of the river and canal.

additional stormwater on site. Tucked into the private space between the main building and the canal is a children’s play area. A fern woodland with rocks and logs provides a shady spot to play, while benches nearby give parents a spot to keep an eye on the play area and enjoy a view of the canal speeding by. Overall, this alternative has the smallest number of parking spaces (approximately 75), and the maximum amount of functional green space, including a dog run and community garden.

Parking, beneath solar-panel carports, is minimized and confined to the southwest corner of the site. Solar power generated by the panels is used to power outdoor lighting for much of the year. A living wall, a vertical garden of plants rooted between sheets of fibrous material, is anchored to a wall on the south side of the main building. Stormwater that is caught and stored on site trickles between the sheets of material to feed vines, moss and other plants, which help to filter the water and metabolize air impurities. A rain garden and vegetated swale help to absorb

Solar-roofed parking space.

GRISWOLD COTTON MILL

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SHADY TERRACE FOR RESIDENTS

M M ER

CI

AL

SEMI-INDOOR PARKING

BIKE & PEDESTRIAN PATH

CO

TUNNEL

The current state of the main building means there is an opportunity to consider new building configuration to maximize passive solar gain and to build based on current needs.

ALTERNATIVE 3: DIVISION & CONNECTION

PARKING

HO

US

IN

G

SWALE & BELOWGROUND WATER STORAGE CISTERN

KIDS PLAY AREA

HO U & R SING ETA IL

PARKING

CANALSIDE BENCHES

COMMUNITY GARDEN

Not for construction. These drawings are part of a student project and are not based on a legal survey.

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PROS

CONS

Path along canal allows pedestrians and bicycles car-free access

• •

Garden takes advantage of maximum southern exposure

Parking tucked away, separating residential and commercial spaces

Usual impact of parking reduced by increased vegetation

DESIGN FEASIBILITY STUDY

Path along canal reduces level of privacy for residents Divided parking means vehicles distributed throughout site

T

his alternative divides the property into zones, each with its own distinct function. Living space and commercial space are separated — apartments are located in the small building and in the southern portion of the main building, while offices and artist lofts are in the northern portion of the main building. Parking for residential and commercial use (just under 100 spots) is also separated; a tunnel leads to commercial and short-term parking to the east of the main building, in the shadiest portion of the site. A small retail space in the small building, possibly a cafe, is accessible from a canal-side path. A pedestrian and bicycle path skirts along the canal side of the property, providing access to shady spots to sit and read. A community garden sited for maximum southern exposure is also accessible from the path and buildings. A children’s play area is tucked into a protected spot between the two living spaces, separated from the parking area and shaded by tall trees and shrubs.

A vegetated swale near the entrance is designed to slow and capture stormwater run-off by spreading it horizontally across the landscape. An underground cistern collects and filters roof run-off, and stores it to be reused for landscape irrigation or other non-potable uses. Overall, this alternative presents the most public face to the community, inviting people on foot and bike to enjoy the canalside trail.


planting notes BIORETENTION ISLAND

VEGETATION & MICROCLIMATE

Bioretention islands use soil, plants and microbes to treat, filter and infiltrate stormwater on site.

A microclimate is any small, local area where the effects of weather are fairly uniform and easily modified. Both buildings and landscape elements can affect the levels of sun, shade, and the movement of air.

Depressions filled with sandy soil are designed to allow water to pond to six inches deep — an amount that should infiltrate into the ground within 72 hours. Dense vegetation includes a mix of herbaceous perennials, shrubs, and understory trees that can tolerate intermittent ponding and extended dry periods. Some stormwater is absorbed by the vegetation; the rest slowly percolates through the soil — which acts as a filter — and into the groundwater.

MOISTURE TOLERANT PLANTS AT LOW POINTS

EDGE PLANT MATERIAL TOLERANT OF FLUCTUATING WATER CONDITIONS

Trees that shade the parking area can help to reduce the urban heat island effect — in fact, scientists estimate that strategically planting trees and vegetation can reduce cooling energy consumption by up to 25%.

CURB

BIOSWALE PLANTING MIX

PERFORATED UNDERDRAIN IN GRAVEL BED CONNECT TO STORM DRAIN OR FRENCH DRAIN

In addition, roof and pavement material choices can help to reduce the urban heat island effect. Green roofs and roof materials with high solar reflectance and pavement that is light colored or porous, contribute to an overall reduction in surface and air temperature.

GEOTEXTILE FABRIC UNCOMPACTED NATIVE SOIL

SOURCE: US Environmental Protection Agency

Adapted from Prince George’s County, Maryland

WINDS DIVERTED

SUGGESTED PLANTS Plants that can tolerate wet and dry conditions, as well as pollutants associated with stormwater runoff, are best suited for use in bioretention islands. Trees:

Herbaceous Plants:

Red maple (Acer rubrum)

Broomsedge (Andropogon virginicus)

River birch (Betula nigra)

Common three square (Scirpus pungens)

Sycamore (Platanus occidentalis)

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)

Black alder (Alnus glutinosa)

Blue flag (Iris versicolor)

Black gum (Nyssa sylvatica)

Sweet flag (Acorus calamus)

Swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor)

New York ironweed (Veronia noveboracensis)

Willow oak (Quercus phellos)

soft rush (Juncus effusus)

SHADE FROM DIRECT AND REFLECTED SUNLIGHT

Shrubs: Winterberry (Ilex verticillata) Arrowwood (Viburnum dentatum) Red chokeberry (aronia arbutifolia) Redosier dogwood (Cornus sericea) Silky dogwood (Cornus amomun) Buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis) Sources: Massachusetts Low Impact Development Toolkit, Metropolitan Area Planning Council ,http://www.greenworks.tv/stormwater/ Adapted from Landscape Architect’s Portable Handbook

GRISWOLD COTTON MILL

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green roofs

G

reen roofs, as proposed in this plan, are vegetation and soil or a growing medium planted over a waterproofing membrane, root barrier, and drainage and irrigation systems. Green roofs can be extensive or intensive:

VEGETATION

An extensive green roof includes low plants designed to provide maximum groundcover, water retention, erosion resistance, and respirative transpiration of moisture. Extensive green roofs usually use plants with foliage up to 6 inches, and between 2 and 4 inches of soil. or growing medium.

EXTENSIVE GROWTH MEDIUM

An intensive green roof is intended to be more of a natural landscape, including plants up to 15-feet high, and may require several feet of soil depth.

What are the benefits of a green roof? •

ROOT PERMEABLE FILTER LAYER DRAINAGE & CAPILLARY LAYER PROTECTION & STORAGE LAYER ROOF DECK, INSULATION, WATERPROOFING

EXTENSIVE GREEN ROOF SYSTEM Adapted from Green Roof Service, LLC; www.greenroofservice.com/learning

Reduce urban heat islands by providing shade and through evapotranspiration, the release of water from plants to the surrounding air

Reduce sewage system loads by assimilating large amounts of rainwater

Absorb air pollutions, collect airborne particulates, and store carbon

Protect underlying roof material by eliminating exposure to the sun’s ultraviolet radiation and extreme daily temperature fluctuations

Serve as living environments that provide habitats for birds and other small animals

Offer an attractive alternative to traditional roofs, addressing growing concerns about urban quality of life

Reduce noise transfer from the outdoors

Insulate a building from extreme temperatures, mainly by keeping the building interior cool in the summer

Source: Environmental Protection Agency, www.epa.gov/hiri/strategies/greenroofs.html

INTENSIVE GROWING MEDIUM

Intensive green roof, Fukuoka City Hall, Japan

DESIGN FEASIBILITY STUDY

ROOT PERMEABLE FILTER LAYER

Extensive green roof, Chicago City Hall

DRAINAGE & CAPILLARY LAYER PROTECTION & STORAGE LAYER ROOF DECK, INSULATION, WATERPROOFING

Extensive green roof, Faroe Islands, Denmark

Intensive green roof, Senegal

INTENSIVE GREEN ROOF SYSTEM Adapted from Green Roof Service, LLC; www.greenroofservice.com/learning

CHARACTERISTIC

INTENSIVE GREEN ROOF

EXTENSIVE GREEN ROOF

SOIL

Requires minimum 1 foot of soil depth

Requires only 1-5 inches of soil depth

VEGETATION

ACCESS

Accommodates large trees, shrubs and wellmaintained gardens Adds 80-150 pounds per square foot of load to building structure Regular access accommodated and encouraged

Capable of including many kinds of vegetative groundcover and grasses Adds only 12-50 pounds per square foot depending on soil characteristics and the type of substrate Usually not designed for public accessibility

MAINTENANCE

Significant maintenance required

DRAINAGE

Includes complex irrigation and drainage systems

Annual maintenance walks should be performed until plants fill in Irrigation and drainage systems are simple

LOAD

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VEGETATION

Source: Schioz-Barth, Katrin. 2001. “Green Roofs: Stormwater Management From the Top Down.” Environmental Design & Construction. January 15.


The Conway School of Landscape Design is the only institution of its kind in North America. Its focus is sustainable landscape planning and design and each year through its accredited, ten-month graduate program, up to twenty students are immersed in a range of applied landscape studies, ranging in scale from residences to regions. Graduates have gone on to diverse professional roles in many aspects of landscape planning and design with an eye to sustainability. www.csld.edu



Griswold Mill Reuse, Turners Falls, MA