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contents   5 - MEAT Effect of cooking treatments on nutrient profile of dishes based on veal meats

M. Lucarini - L. D’Evoli - S. Nicoli - A. Aguzzi P. Gabrielli - G. Lombardi-Boccia

14 -HAM Volatile organic compounds of Parma dry-cured ham as markers of ageing time and aged ham aroma

A. Pinna - N. Simoncini - T. Toscani - R. Virgili

April 2013 Number 71

departments 26 - RESEARCH Pulp as biodegradable plastic in disposable food containers - Whole grain may decreases the body fat - Cocoa flavonoids improve insulin signalling - Influence of yeast on frozen dough - Bioactive extracts from asparagus by-product - New functional bread in diabetes and obesity prevention programme - Brewer’s spent grain as an ingredient in wheat breads - Isoflavone supplements and breast cancer risk - Grass pea wholemeal in the white bread production Antioxidant properties of breads enriched with dry onion - New super nutritious puffed rice - Pectins as breadmaking additives - A single portion of blueberry: What effects? - Spent coffee as a source of hydrophilic bioactive compounds - Evaluating tenderness and colour stability in meat - Anti-fungal activity of sourdough 38 - FOOD PROCESSING Up-to-date technology for thermal treatments Washing and dripping line - Apple processing Cross-flow filtration 42 - PACKAGING EQUIPMENT Thermoforming machine - Sleeve applicator Automatic packaging solution - Shrink-wrapping machine - Horizontal casepacker machine Automated pallet stacking systems - P.E. Labellers wins the challenge with a cold glue labelling machine 46 - ANCILLARY EQUIPMENT Washing and cleaning engineering - Sorting equipment

48 - PACKAGING MATERIALS Eurekabox increases the product visibility Advanced packaging solutions for pouches & bags 50 - NUTRITION Superfoods: are they really “super”? - A new tool for food traceability: DNA barcoding - Food calorie count labels are often inaccurate 54 - CONSUMER TRENDS Prepared salads turn over new leaf - Dairy alternatives move beyond soy - Confectionery creates clean label choices 58 - PACKAGING TRENS Five pack types to watch in the food packaging industry in 2013 (R. Downey) 60 - MARKETING REPORTS Global demand for food processing machinery in 2016 - Retortable plastic packaging to capture 90% of retorted foods market growth - Optimistic outlook for aluminium foil deliveries in 2013 Food safety products reach $18 billion in 2016 66 - NEWS and interactivity all-in-one - Tecno 3 Open House Day Sustainability and energy-saving at the Golfetto Sangati production unit - PTC Award 2013 for Pavan Group - New trade association: Food Supplements Europe - Packology: a new idea of trade show - International events in Italy 72 - ADVERTISER INDEX 72 - COMPANY INDEX

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April 2013 - number 71

MEAT M. Lucarini - L. D’Evoli - S. Nicoli - A. Aguzzi - P. Gabrielli - G. Lombardi-Boccia*

National Institute on Food and Nutrition Research - Via Ardeatina 546 - Rome - Italy *email:

Effect of cooking treatments on nutrient profile of dishes based on veal meats

INTRODUCTION The increased awareness of the close relationship between food and health has led the interest of consumers towards the acquisition of more detailed information on quality characteristics of foods and also on their safety, with a clear demand to know the entire production chain of foods from farm to fork. The first step to meet these demands is to make available and

easily accessible to consumers, as well as to the various stakeholders, data on the composition of the foods that are included in the daily diet. Getting data on the nutrient composition of foods as daily consumed, namely on the quality of processed food will allow consumers to make more careful choices of foods that constitute the overall daily diet. Both the preparation steps of meat and the utilization of different cooking methods

Key words B-vitamins, vitamin E, fatty acids, cholesterol, heme iron, sodium

ABSTRACT This study provides a picture of the compositional figure and nutritive value of veal based dishes typical of Italian culinary tradition: fillet (raw, in pan, roasted with bacon), top-side (raw, saltimbocca, escalope, stewed, vitel tonnè), sirloin (raw, in pan, barbecued). The in-clusion of vegetable or animal derived ingredients and cooking methods markedly influenced the nutritional profile of the dishes. The knowledge of changes in the concentration in sev-eral nutrients (eg. fatty acids, heme iron, vitamins, cholesterol, sodium) occurring upon cook-ing has a relevant nutritional significance and represents the most appropriate basis to for-mulate accurate diets.

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXXI (2013) april -



can lead to changes in the chemical composition of meat, greatly varying the nutrient and micronutrient intake (Lombardi-Boccia et al., 2005, D’Evoli et al., 2009). Losses in some vitamins, especially those more unstable to heat or to light exposure, can occur (Yang et al., 1994; Lombardi-Boccia et al., 2005, Gerber et al., 2009). Furthermore, among trace elements, the knowledge of the level of heme iron in meat is of relevant interest because of its important nutritional value. The severity of the thermal processes in fact could induce the degradation of heme pigment with a consequent release of a less bioavailable iron form (Igene et al., 1979; Lombardi-Boccia et al., 2002a). Therefore a careful estimation of the heme iron content in cooked meats and in meat-based dishes contributes to get a reliable index of its potential availability (D’Evoli et al., 2009), a necessary tool to plan suitable diets for specific segments of population. The present study was addressed to evaluate the chemical composition and the nutritional value of culinary preparations based on veal meat. The recipes utilized in the study were selected among the most widespread ones in Italy and specific for the following veal meat cuts: fillet (raw, in pan, roasted with bacon), top-side (raw, saltimbocca, escalope, stewed, vitel tonnè), sirloin (raw, in pan, barbecued). Data on macro- and micro-nutrients, heme iron, cholesterol and energy value were reported. The influence of cooking methods and recipe formulation (ingredients) on the actual nutrient content was evaluated.


Dishes based on veal meat

Meat Three veal cuts were utilised in this study: fillet, top-side and sirloin. Veals (Charolais and Limousine) were raised on commercial pellets (UNIFEED), a mixture of maize, wheat flour, hay, ensilage, and slaughtered conventionally at 7 months old. Cuts were trimmed away of external fat, vacuum packed and delivered to laboratory. Fillet, top-side and sirloin were subdivided in a number of equal aliquots: some aliquots were immediately taken for the analysis of raw meat, others were prepared to be cooked following recipes selected from the traditional Italian cuisine.

The recipe formulation of the selected dishes (meat cuts, ingredients, cooking time) is reported in Table 1. Each selected dish was prepared three times in a test kitchen; stainless-steel tools were used. After cooking, each dish was homogenised and stored at -30°C for subsequent analyses. Analyses Moisture, ash, protein, lipid: analyses were performed following the AOAC method (1997). Cholesterol: cholesterol was extracted by boiling meat sample under reflux in a 50 mL volumetrix flask with methanolic potassium hydroxide in the presence of isopropanol. Cholesterol content was determined by enzymatic oxi-

Table1 - Dishes composition and cooking treatments. Veal Meat In pan Ingredients: 850 g meat. Cooking method: in pan, 3-5 min. Roasted with bacon 510 g meat, 25 g bacon, 30 mL extra-virgin olive oil, 3 g rosemary, 2 g salt, 0.4 g black pepper. Cooking method: in pan, 10 min. Saltimbocca Roman style 450 g meat, 100 g ham, 25 g butter, 25 g wheat flour, 2.3 g salt, 0.3 g black pepper, 65 mL white wine, 4.5 g sauge (8 leaves). Cooking method: in pan, 10 min. Escalope with Marsala wine Ingredients: 490 g meat, 27 g wheat flour, 40 mL extra-virgin olive oil, 150 mL white wine, 2 g salt., 55 mL Marsala wine. Cooking method: in casserole, 15 min. Stewed 480 g meat, 8 g wheat flour, 1/2 onion (50 g), 40 mL extra-virgin olive oil, 60 mL red wine, 2.6 g salt, 0.2 g black pepper. Cooking method: in casserole, 45 min. Vitel tonnè 600 g meat (top-side), 4 g salt. Cooking method: in casserole, 40 min. Maionnaise sauce: 1 egg (60 g), 180 mL extra-virgin olive oil, 160 g canned tuna, 33 g capperi, 6 anchovies (7.5 g), 1.2 g salt, 20 g lemon juice. Barbecued Ingredients: 500 g meat. Cooking method: on the barbecue, 7 min.

6 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXXI (2013) april


dation (Boehringer Mannheim/RBiopharm kit). Energy: energy values were expressed in kilocalories (kcal) (Greenfield and Southgate, 1992). Fatty acids: Intramuscular fat was extracted by the method of Folch et al. (1957) using chloroform/methanol (2/1, v/v). Fatty acids were esterified using boron trifluoride in methanol as esterification reagent (Metcalfe et al., 1966). The esterified fatty acids were quantified by gas-chromatography (HP 5890 II series,equipped with FID). Separations were accomplished for saturated fatty acid on a Supelcowax 10 TM (60 mx 0.25 mm i.d., 0.25 m film thickness column). Standard Reference Material: Beef/ Pig Fat Blend (BCR 163, Community Bureau of Reference, Brussels) and F.A.M.E. Mix C4-C24 (Supelco, Bellofonte PA, USA) were analysed as a control of the accuracy of the analysis. Minerals: Samples were analysed for macro elements (Ca, Mg, Na, K, P) and trace elements (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn) content. Aliquots of the samples were liquid ashed (4 mL HNO3+1 mL H2O2) in a microwave digestion system. Analyses were performed by ICP-Plasma on a Perkin-Elmer (Norwalk, CT 06859, USA) Optima 3200XL. Standard Reference Material: Bovine muscle (BCR 184, Community Bureau of Reference, Brussels) and Bovine liver (NBS 1577°; National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, MD, USA) were analysed as a control of the accuracy of the analysis. Heme iron: heme iron was determined following the method described by Lombardi-Boccia et al (2002b).

B Vitamins: thiamine and riboflavin were separated and quantified by HPLC after acidic and enzymatic (Takadiastase) hydrolysis of the samples, following the procedure described by Arella et al. (1996). Niacin was quantified following the method described by Lahély et al. (1999). Vitamin E, t-retinol: were separated and quantified by HPLC following the method by Albalà-Hurtado et al. (1997). Validation and Quality control procedure: Analytical quality control was performed by the analysis of both accuracy and precision of the methods. For minerals and fatty acids the accuracy of the analysis was performed utilizing Reference Standard Materials. For vitamins the accuracy of the analysis was performed by the calculation of the recoveries. Recovery experiments were performed by spiking the samples with known standards concentration. Recoveries were over 85%. Precision of the methods used in this study was good: the reproducibility was performed extracting in triplicate the same lot. System suitability tests were performed during the analysis to verify that the resolution and the reproducibility of chromatographic system were adequate for the analysis. Statistics: Data are presented as M±SD of three independent experiments. Compositional data were statistically processed utilizing the student t-test to compare raw vs. cooked meat cuts, differences were considered significant at p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Proximate composition Proximate composition, cholesterol content and energy value of the selected meat-based dishes are reported in Table 2. Raw cuts were characterised by a similar protein content, by contrast total fat content was similar in fillet and sirloin (2.3% both) but slightly lower in top-side (1.6%) (Table 2). The highest cholesterol content in raw meat was found in fillet (75.4 mg/100 g) followed by sirloin (70.2 mg/100 g) and top-side (63 mg/100 g). RHEE et al. (1982) reported that low concentrations of cholesterol in meat generally coincided with tissue lower in fat. Total fat content determined in the raw veal cuts in this study was lower compared to both data reported in Italian Food Composition Tables (CARNOVALE and MARLETTA, 2000) and in a previous study dealing with top-side from bovine steers (D’EVOLI et al., 2009). Proximate composition of the Italian traditional meat-based dishes analysed in this study (Table 2) was strongly influenced by the ingredients utilised in individual dish, and by the different cooking methods utilised. Among the dishes (see Table 1) only fillet cooked “in pan” and sirloin cooked both “in pan” and “barbecued” did not contain added ingredients (Table 1), so in these dishes the observed increases in protein, lipid and cholesterol content, with respect to raw cuts, were due to losses in moisture content (Table 2). The only exception was observed for sirloin cooked

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXXI (2013) april -



Table 2 - Moisture, ash, macronutrients, cholesterol content and calorific value of raw veal cuts and respective dishes (f.w.).

Moisture Ash g/100 g g/100 g

Protein g/100 g

Lipid g/100 g

Carb.(A) Cholesterol Energy g/100 g mg/100 g kcal

Fillet raw in pan roasted with bacon

76±0.2a 1.17±0.02a 19.0±0.6a 2.31±0.4a __ 73±0.2c 1.12±0.04a 22.0±0.7b 3.12±0.7a 65±0.1c 1.80±0.04c 19.1±0.9a 14.1±3.4b

75.4±2.1a 97 80.8±2.4a 116 99.5±3.8c 203

Top-side raw saltimbocca escalope stewed vitel tonnè

77±0.4a 1.16±0.02a 20.6±0.4a 1.6±0.2a 64±0.2c 2.22±0.07c 23.6±0.2c 5.6±0.6c 4.6 67±0.3c 1.27±0.02b 19.8±0.3a 6.6±0.4c 5.4 60±0.3c 2.07±0.05c 26.3±0.8c 9.5±0.9c 2.1 58±0.2c 1.3±0.01c 25.2±0.7c 15.2±2.7c

63.0±3.7a 80.4±5.5a 76.0±3.6a 85.0±7.1b 129±16b

Sirloin raw in pan barbecued

76±0.5a 1.15±0.06a 19.2±0.6a 2.3±0.2a 74±0.3b 1.29±0.05a 23.4±0.4c 1.8±0.1a 67±0.2c 1.42±0.06b 27.3±1.2c 3.5±0.8a

70.2±3.5a 98 74.0±3.1a 105 99.7±12b 146

96 162 160 200 238

Values are the M±SD of three determinations. (A) = calculated by difference. Values (grouped for meat cut) in the same column, followed by different letters, are significantly different from the respective raw cut (a vs b= p<0.01; a vs c=p<0.001).

“in pan” where a slight decrease in lipid content was found. Badiani et al. (2002) observed that heat processing parameters significantly affected the nutrient retention in meat. Conversely, the increases detected in both protein and lipid concentration in all the other meat-based dishes studied were mainly dependent on the added ingredients (extravirgin olive oil, eggs, bacon, butter, ham, canned tuna, anchovies) (Table 1). This was the case especially of the two dishes which were characterized by the highest lipid increase: fillet “roasted with bacon” (14.1 mg/100 g; p<0.01) and “vitel tonné” (15.2 mg/100 g; p<0.001) (Table 2). As a consequence, the last two meat-based dishes were also characterised by the highest energy value: 238 and 203 kcal, respectively (Table 2). Significant differences in cholesterol content compared to the respective raw cut

were found in fillet “roasted with bacon” (p<0.001), in both top-side cooked as “vitel tonné” (p<0.01) and “stewed” (p<0.01), in sirloin “barbecued” (p<0.01) (Table 2). Fatty acids The fatty acid profile of total extractable lipids and P/S ratio of the dishes based on veal meat is reported in Table 3. Among SFA palmitic (C16:0) and stearic acids (C18:0) were the most represented in the raw cuts. Palmitic acid content showed a significant increase only in “saltimbocca” dish (p<0.001) compared to the raw cut, this dish was the only utilizing butter instead of extra-virgin olive oil (Table 1). By contrast, significant reductions in palmitic acid content, from 56% detected in filled cooked “in pan” up to 69% detected in “barbecued” sirloin, was found in all the other

8 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXXI (2013) april

dishes (Table 3). Stearic acid significantly decreased in fillet “roasted with bacon” (p<0.001) and in three of the of top-side cut dishes (“escalope”, “stewed” and “vitel tonnè”, p<0.001 for all) compared to the respective raw cuts. Among MUFA, oleic acid (C18:1) was the most represented fatty acid. Among the meat-based dishes cooked without added ingredients only fillet cooked “in pan” showed a significant decrease (p<0.001) in oleic acid content compared to the raw cut (Table 3). Cooking induces structural changes in muscle, some fatty acids are more or less easily released from tissues with droplets of fat, Gerber et al. (2009) observed a significant decrease in fatty acids content during cooking depending on the melting of fat and the meat cuts. On the other hand significant increases in oleic acid content were detected in all the top-side based


dishes (p<0.001) except for “saltimbocca”, the only dish that did not utilize vegetable fat (Table 3). This generalized increase in oleic acid content in the meat-based dishes compared with raw meat was explained by the utilization of extra-virgin olive oil as ingredient of the traditional Italian meat-based dishes, consequently the oleic acid content in some dishes (escalope, vitel tonné, stewed) was more than double the raw meat content. The most abundant PUFA in raw cuts were linoleic acid (C18:2) followed by arachidonic acid (C20:4). After cooking, the former was found in significantly lower concentration in top-side based dishes, with a decrease ranging from 62% detected in “saltimbocca” (p<0.01) to 72% in both “escalope” and “vitel tonnè” (both p<0.001). Arachidonic acid (C20:4) was found in significantly higher amounts in cuts cooked

without added ingredients like fillet (p<0.01) and sirloin (p<0.001) cooked “in pan” and in “barbecued” sirloin (p<0.05). On the other hand in some top-side based dishes its content decreased significantly like in “saltimbocca”(p<0.01), “escalope” and “vitel tonnè” (both p<0.001) (Table 3). The main changes detected in fatty acids content in the meat-based dishes analysed were due to the presence of added ingredients, first of all the extra-virgin olive oil responsible for the increase in oleic acid content, as well as eggs, bacon and butter, which further contribute to animal fat increase. The addition of culinary fat, necessary to the food preparation, thus affected both the total fat content and the fatty acid composition of the meat-based dishes. A recent study (Haak et al., 2007) found that pan-frying changed the fatty acid composition of pork meat

Fig. 1 - Percentage of SFA, MUFA and PUFA of raw veal cuts and respective dishes.

depending on the type of culinary fat utilised. The recommended P/S ratio for a healthy diet is 0.45-0.65 (DEPT. of HEALTH, 1994). From a nutritional point of view total P/S ratio is thought to be of importance in relation to human health. The values of the P/S ratio found in this study ranged from 0.28 found in “saltimbocca” to a maximum value of 0.80 found in fillet cooked “in pan” (Table 3). Among the dishes analysed the most favourable P/S ratio was found in fillet and sirloin raw cuts and in top-side cooked as “escalope” (Table 3) which showed the highest reduction in SFA content upon cooking. The lowest P/S ratio was found in “saltimbocca”, the meat-based dish with the highest SFA level. Our findings agree with previous studies showing that in cooked meat this ratio generally increased (Ono et al., 1985; Gerber et al., 2009). Fig. 1 shows the percentage of SFA, MUFA and PUFA of the samples analysed. The main differences in the balance among the three fatty acid classes in the recipes compared to raw meat reflected the observed modifications in individual fatty acid content. In this study no major changes were observed among the three FA classes in the meat cuts cooked without added ingredients compared to the raw cut. In the dishes added with extra-virgin olive oil the ratio among SFA, MUFA and PUFA compared to raw meat was shifted in favour of MUFA. By contrast, the “saltimbocca” dish, which includes animal foods as main ingredients, showed the highest SFA content compared to the raw cut (Fig. 1).

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXXI (2013) april -



Table 3 - Content of the major fatty acids (% total fatty acids) of raw veal cuts and respective dishes (f.w.). FILLET



Raw In pan Roasted+bacon Raw Saltimbocca Escalope Stewed Vitel tonnè Raw In pan Barbecued mean sd mean sd media sd mean sd mean sd mean sd media sd media sd media sd media sd media sd

14:0 0.67 0.1 2.02 0.7 2.00 0.7 2.08 0.2 7.20 0.03 0.50 0.2 0.80 0.2 0.87 0.2 2.26 0.1 2.01 0.1 15:0 1.36 0.05 5.14 1.2 0.42 0.01 2.46 0.1 1.20 0.2 0.12 0.01 1.40 0.5 2.61 0.2 3.57 0.1 16:0 19.66a 0.6 15.6b 2.1 15.2c 0.9 17.9a 0.8 26.8d 0.3 13.6d 0.3 15.4c 0.07 14.5c 0.2 16.0a 0.6 17.3a 2.2 17:0 2.39 0.2 3.49 0.8 1.20 0.7 1.61 0.2 0.95 0.2 0.33 0.1 1.12 0.6 1.11 0.2 3.48 0.3 1.84 0.9 18:0 13.1a 0.5 11.69a 1.2 9.80d 0.3 12.3a 0.6 11.6a 0.3 3.96d 0.2 5.40d 0.2 4.86d 0.13 11.8a 0.6 12.63a 1.1 20:0 2.10 0.2 0.39 0.03 0.35 0.01 0.32 0.06 0.30 0.03 21:0 1.61 0.01 1.72 0.2 0.70 0.01 1.79 0.04 0.38 0.26 0.02 0.6 0.3 0.22 0.05 1.84 0.02 2.33 0.2

3.02 0.1 2.40 0.1 11.1b 0.8 4.30 0.3 12.5a 0.5 3.50 0.2

14:1 1.20 0.1 1.27 0.1 0.96 0.05 0.91 0.1 0.62 0.02 0.46 0.3 0.20 0.02 0.12 0.02 1.18 0.1 0.94 0.1 1.20 0.1 16:1 n7 1.26 0.2 1.22 0.03 1.70 0.2 0.99 0.1 2.50 0.07 0.84 0.03 1.11 0.36 1.35 0.08 2.31 0.2 1.81 0.2 5.60 0.1 16:1 n9 2.95 0.2 1.70 0.7 0.30 0.02 2.23 0.2 0.72 0.04 0.55 0.02 0.17 0.02 0.31 0.16 1.12 0.1 0.74 0.2 1 . 0 0 0.01 17:1n8 0.92 0.03 2.17 0.9 1.65 0.1 0.31 0.2 1.47 0.2 1.55 1.1 2.00 0.2 18:1 n9 30.12a 2.04 16.34d 2.1 39.8a 12 24.9a 2.6 28.7a 1.0 66d 0.6 56.7d 6 61.5d 2.6 24.0a 2.1 24.26a 2.4 23.2a 3.1 18:1 n7 2.96 1.0 3 0.5 2.75 0.2 3.37 0.5 2.50 0.03 3.04 0.7 3.18 0.6 4.13 0.5 18:2 n6 18.58a 1.1 24b 1.2 17.6a 4 19.72a 1.2 10.3d 0.3 10.2d 0.2 12.0b 3 11.4c 1.7 20.6a 1.3 20.66a 1.2 19.2a 1.6 18:3 n3 1.11 0.02 1.53 0.2 0.85 0.01 1.10 0.01 0.88 0.05 0.68 0.01 0.65 0.12 0.77 0.02 0.97 0.01 0.68 0.02 4.90 0.3 20:4 n6 4.0a 0.2 8.05d 0.4 4.24a 0.02 6.88a 0.2 2.6c 2.0 1.6d 0.5 6.14a 0.6 1.6d 0.5 7.12a 0.2 6.4a 0.3 2.50b 0.2 P/S

0.60 0.80 0.70 0.70 0.28 0.65 0.75 0.60 0.79 0.70 0.72

Values are the M±SD of three determinations. Major fatty acids content in raw vs. cooked meat cuts are compared: values in the same line, followed by different letters are significantly different (a vs b= p<0.05; a vs. c= p<0.01; a vs d= p<0.001).


Table 4 - Hydrosoluble and liposoluble vitamins in raw veal cuts and in the respective dishes (f.w.).

Thiamin content in raw veal cuts was slightly higher than that reported previously (Lombardi-Boccia et al., 2005), only trace amount of it was detected in raw sirloin but, after barbecuing, the marked water losses occurred made it detectable (Table 4). The amount of riboflavin was markedly higher than that reported by Lombardi-Boccia et al. (2005) and by Gerber et al. (2009). Vitamins content in meat-based dishes showed to be influenced by both dish composition and the severity of the adopted cooking methods (Table 4). Among the three cuts analysed a significant increase in thiamin concentration was detected in “saltim-

Thiamin mg/100 g

Riboflavin mg/100 g

Niacin mg/100 g

Vit. E mg/100 g

t-retinol mg/100 g

Fillet raw in pan roasted with bacon

0.08±0.05a 0.33±0.01a 7.96±0.5a 0.21±0.03a tr. 0.14±0.06a 0.95±0.1c 8.92±0.3b 0.14±0.03b tr. 0.11±0.03a 0.45±0.03b 10.76±0.9b 0.47±0.01c tr.

Top-side raw saltimbocca escalope stewed vitel tonnè

0.08±0.03a 0.48±0.09a 0.29±0.01c 0.33±0.01b 0.02±0.01b 0.43±0.03a 0.14±0.06a 0.56±0.04a 0.04±0.01a 0.29±0.04b

Sirloin raw in pan barbecued

tr 0.62±0.04a 10.86±1.2a 0.16±0.01a tr. tr 1.06±0.11b 8.29±2.8a 0.14±0.03a tr. 0.07±0.01 0.24±0.01c 15.54±1.7b 0.21±0.02a tr.

8.29±0.3a 0.15±0.04a 10.3±0.4c 0.12±0.09a 6.71±0.3b 0.28±0.02b 5.54±0.5c 0.40±0.04b 7.14±1.9a 1.95±0.35c

tr. tr tr. tr. tr.

Values are the M±SD of three determinations. Values, in the same column (grouped for meat cut), followed by different letters are significanly different from the respective raw cut (a vs b= p<0.05; a vs c=p<0.001).

10 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXXI (2013) april


bocca” (p<0.001), probably due to the presence of ham in the dishes, on the other hand a significant decrease in this vitamin was detected in “escalope” (p<0.05). As far as riboflavin was concerned, significant increases in its concentration compared to raw meat were observed in both fillet based dishes (”in pan” p<0.001; roasted with bacon p<0.05) and in sirloin cooked “in pan” (p<0.05). On the other hand significant decreases were found in “saltimbocca” and “vitel tonnè” (p<0.05 both) and in “barbecued” sirloin (p<0.001) (Table 4). Niacin content resulted significantly higher in the dishes without added ingredients like fillet “in pan” and “barbecued” sirloin (p<0.05 both), compared to the raw cuts. Among the meat-based dishes significant increases were detected in fillet “roasted with bacon” (p<0.05) and, among the top-side based dishes, in “saltimbocca” (p<0.001) probably

because of the contribution of ham, otherwise a significant reduction was found in “escalope” (p<0.05) and in “stewed” (p<0.001) dishes. Among liposoluble vitamins only vitamin E was detectable; generally, a significant increase in vitamin E concentration was observed in the dishes including extra-virgin olive oil as main ingredient compared to the raw cut. This behaviour was detected in fillet “roasted with bacon” and “vitel tonnè” (both p<0.001), as well as in “stewed” and “escalope” (p<0.05 both) (Table 4), because most of the meat-based dishes studied included new sources of vitamin E from the ingredients utilised (especially extravirgin olive oil) which masked losses due to heat. A similar behaviour in vitamins content in dishes made up with beef was reported (D’Evoli et al., 2009). The meat cuts cooked without added ingredients showed a significant loss in vitamin E like in

fillet cooked “in pan” (p<0.05) or not relevant differences compared to the raw cut. T-retinol was detected only in trace amounts (Table 4). Minerals Mineral content in the dishes based on veal meat is reported in Table 5. Data on mineral content in the raw veal cuts found in this study were in the range previously reported, although among trace elements Fe and Zn were found in lower amount (Lombardi-Boccia et al., 2005). The main differences between the raw cuts and the respective dishes were observed mainly in Na content. With the exception of the “in pan” and “barbecued” dishes which were the only ones without added ingredients, all the other dishes showed significant increases (p<0.001 for all) in Na content compared to the respective raw cuts. These differences

Table 5 - Minerals and trace elements in raw veal cuts and in the respective dishes (f.w.). Top-side

Ca Mg P K Na Fe Zn mg/100 g



Fillet raw 6.4±2.1a 20±1.7a 185±14a 408±20a 51±4a 0.54±0.01a 1.7±0.8a 0.05±0.05a 0.01±0.002a in pan 6.3±0.6a 24.7±3a 226±20b 493±45b 66±7b 0.68±0.07b 1.9±0.15a 0.07±0.04a 0.17±0.021d roasted with bacon 12.5±1.2b 22.2±2a 208±5a 496±10c 219±10d 0.69±0.02d 2.1±0.06a 0.06±0.06a 0.23±0.001d Top-side raw saltimbocca escalope stewed vitel tonnП

4.4±0.2a 20.7±0.3a 197±2a 395±6a 47±2.2a 0.50±0.02a 2.1±0.01a 0.04±0.007a 0.01±0.001a 7.9±1.0c 22.4±0.5c 200±4a 525±5d 467±21d 0.69±0.10b 2.0±0.04a 0.04±0.002a 0.05±0.003d 5.9±0.8b 21.4±0.3b 197±3a 424±13b 108±2.2d 0.44±0.05a 1.2±0.02d 0.05±0.005a 0.04±0.004d 7.6±0.2d 24.8±0.2d 229±2d 554±6d 274±4d 0.68±0.03d 3.1±0.01d 0.06±0.001c 0.04±0.001d 6.9±0.7c 18±0.6c 169±6c 318±4d 274±18d 0.72±0.02d 2.9±0.13d 0.06±0.003c 0.01±0.001a

Sirloin raw in pan barbecued

4.7±0.2a 19.4±1.1a 184±11a 397±7a 4.6±0.2a 20.5±1.2a 195±11a 396±5a 7.9±0.4d 24.4±1.8b 234±14c 481±15d

41±1a 0.56±0.03a 1.9±0.09a 0.03±0.002a 0.01±0.002a 46±3a 0.54±0.03a 1.8±0.01a 0.04±0.001d 0.01±0.001a 50±5b 0.67±0.02c 2.5±0.02d 0.08±0.004d 0.02±0.002c

Values are the M±SD of three determinations. Values (grouped for meat cut), followed by different letters, are significantly different from the respective raw cut (a vs b= p<0.05; a vs c= p<0.01; a vs d= p<0.001).

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXXI (2013) april -



in Na concentration were strictly related to a discretionary salt amount added in each dish (Table 1). As far as trace elements are concerned, Fe content was significantly higher in both the fillet based dishes (“in pan” p<0.05, “roasted with bacon” p<0.001) compared to the raw cuts; among the top-side based dishes Fe content was significantly higher in “saltimbocca”, “stewed” and “vitel tonnè” dishes (p<0.001), and among the sirloin dishes in the “barbecued” one (p<0.01) (Table 5) In meat-based dishes with no added ingredients, this raise is explained by moisture loss; in the case of composite dishes such as vitel tonnè (Table 1) the presence of canned tuna and anchovies yields to an additional amount of iron (canned tuna 1.6 mg/100 g; anchovies 4.1mg/100 g; Food Standards Agency, 2002) and heme iron as well. Zinc content resulted significantly higher only in some topside based dishes like “escalope”,

“stewed” and “vitel tonnè” and in sirloin “barbecued” (p<0.001 for all) compared to raw cuts (Table 5). Cu and Mn content also showed increased concentration in most of the veal based dishes analysed compared to the respective raw cuts. The differences observed in trace element content were always inherent to the ingredients (ham, bacon, tuna fish, anchovies), as sources of additional trace elements. In raw cuts heme-iron was from 73 to 82% of the total iron content (Fig. 2). Generally, an increase in heme iron content up to 8% was found in those dishes made up with ingredients which added new sources of heme iron. The highest increase was found in fillet “roasted with bacon” and in top-side cut cooked as “saltimbocca” or “vitel tonnè” (Fig. 2). By contrast, a previous study dealing with beef meat cooked without the addition of heme iron rich ingredient, showed that heat treatments modi-

Fig. 2 - Percentage of heme-iron to toal iron of raw veal cuts and respective dishes.

12 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXXI (2013) april

fied the heme/non-heme iron ratio, inducing marked reductions in heme iron concentration depending on the severity and the duration of the heat treatment (D’Evoli et al., 2009).

CONCLUSIONS Meat consumption greatly contributes to nutrient supply but also provides less healthier molecules like saturated fatty acids and cholesterol. However, cooking methods can lead to important modifications in nutrient dietary intakes when foods are consumed as composite dishes. Our findings pointed out that when meat is cooked without any additional ingredient (in pan or barbecue), the nutritional profile was minimally altered. The variety of both the ingredients which make up the dishes and the cooking methods contribute to modify the nutritional profile of the meat. Factors like type of cooking (moist and dry heating), temperature, cooking time and ingredients, deeply contribute to modify the forecast data about the nutrient intake level. For example the consumption of meat in composite dishes containing vegetable fat instead of animal fat as added ingredient can change favourably the profile of fatty acids. In this study the proportion of fatty acids in the meat-based dishes changed with respect to both raw meat and meat cooked without ingredients, being influenced by the culinary fat added: the presence of extra-virgin olive oil gave rise to a marked increase in monounsaturated fatty acids. Similarly, the inclusion of extra-virgin olive oil in the dishes


increased also the levels of vitamin E beneficial to human health. At the same time, other ingredients of the meat-based dishes can lead to a raise in some unhealthy molecules, such as an increased level of sodium (due to discretionary salt) or cholesterol. Anyway, the knowledge of the changes in nutritionally interesting molecules (eg. fatty acids, heme-iron, vitamins, cholesterol) occurring upon cooking is of importance because it allows to get a correct calculation of their actual intake. From a nutritional point of view, to collect data on the nutrient profile of meat-based dishes representative of the diverse worldwide eating habits has a relevant nutritional significance. This represents the most appropriate basis for reliable information on the actual nutrient intake and can be a proper and useful tool to formulate more accurate diets.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The study was supported by the Ministry of Agricultural, Alimentary and Forestry Policy (MiPAAF), Research Project “Food Quality”. From “Italian Journal of Food Science” No. 4, 2011

REFERENCES 1. Albalà-Hurtado S., Novella-Rodriguez S., Veciana-Nogués M.T. and Mariné-Font A. 1997. Determinations of vitamins A and E in infant milk formulae by high-performance liquid chromatography. J. Chromatography 778: 243. 2. AOAC 1997. Official Methods of Analysis,

16th Edn. 3rd Rev., Arlington, Virginia. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 3. Arella F., Lahély S., Bourguignon J.B. and Hasselmann C. 1996. Liquid chromatographic determination of vitamins B1 and B2 in foods. A collaborative study. Food Chemistry 56 (1): 81. 4. Badiani A., Stipa S., Bitossi F., Gatta P.P., Vignola G. and Chizzolini R. 2002. Lipid composition, retention and oxidation in fresh and completely trimmed beef muscles as affected by common culinary practices. Meat Science 60 (2): 169. 5. Carnovale E. and Marletta L. 2000. Tabelle di Composizione degli Alimenti. EDRA Ed. 6. D’Evoli L., Salvatore P., Lucarini M., Nicoli S., Aguzzi A., Gabrielli P. and LombardiBoccia G. 2009. Nutritional value of traditional Italian meat based dishes: Influence of cooking methods and recipe formulation. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition 60 (S5): 38. 7. De Smet S., Webb E.C., Claey E., Uytterhaegen D.I. and Demeyer D.I. 2000. Effect of dietary energy and protein levels on fatty acids composition of intramuscolar fat in double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls. Meat Science 56 (1): 73. 8. Department of Health 1994. Report on health and Social Subjects No 46. Nutritional aspects of cardiovascular disease. HMSO, London. 9. Folch J., Lees M. and Stanley G.H.A. 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. Journal of Biological Chemistry 226: 497. 10. Food Standards Agency. 2002. McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods, Sixth summary edition. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry. 11. Gerber N., Scheeder M.R.L. and Wenk K. 2009. The influence of cooking and fat trimming on the actual nutrient intake from meat. Meat Science 81: 148. 12. Greenfield H. and Southgate D.A.T. 1992. Food Composition Data-production, management and use. Elsevier Applied Science, London and New York. 13. Haak L., Sioen I., Raes K., Van Camp J. and De Smet S. 2007. Effect of pan-frying in different culinary fats on the fatty acid profile of pork. Food Chemistry 102: 857. 14. Igene J.O., King J.A., Pearson A.M. and Gray J.I. 1979. Influence of heme pigments, nitrite and nonheme iron development of warnedover flavor (WOF) in cooked meat. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 27: 838. 15. Lahély S., Bergaentzlé M. and Hasselmann C. 1999. Fluorimetric determination of ni-

acin in foods by high-performance liquid chromatography with post-column derivatization. Food Chemistry 65(1): 129. 16. Lombardi-Boccia G., Aguzzi A., Cappelloni M., Di Lullo G. and Lucarini M. 2003. Total Diet Study: Daily Intakes of Minerals and Trace Elements in Italy. British Journal of Nutrition 90:1117. 17. Lombardi-Boccia G., Lanzi S. and Aguzzi A. 2005. Aspects of Meat Quality: Trace Elements and B Vitamins in Raw and Cooked Meats. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 18: 39. 18. Lombardi-Boccia G., Lanzi S., Lucarini M. and Di Lullo G. 2004. Meat and meat Product Consumption in Italy: Contribution to Trace Elements and selected B Vitamins Supply. International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research 74 (4): 247. 19. Lombardi-Boccia G., Martínez-Domínguez B. and Aguzzi A. 2002a. Total, Heme and Non-heme iron in raw and cooked meats. Journal of Food Science 67(5): 1738. 20. Lombardi-Boccia G., Martínez-Domínguez B., Aguzzi A and Rincón-León F. 2002b. Optimization of heme iron analysis in raw and cooked red meat. Food Chemistry 78 (4): 505. 21. Love J.D. and Persson A.M. 1974. Metamyoglobin and non-heme iron as prooxidants in cookedmeat. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 22: 1032. 22. Metcalfe L.D., Schmitz A.A. and Pelka J.R. 1966. Rapid preparation of fatty acid esters from lipids for gas chromatographic analysis. Analytical Chemistry 38 (3): 514. 23. Norat T. and Riboli R. 2001. Meat consumption and colorectal cancer: a review of epidemiologic evidence. Nutrition Reviews 59 (2): 37. 24. Ono K., Berry B.W. and Paoczay E. 1985. Contents and retention of nutrients in extra lean, lean and regular ground beef. Journal of Food Science 50 (3): 701. 25. Reddy B.S. and Shamsudden A.K.M. 1995. Nutritional factors and colon cancer. In: Critical Review of Food Science and Nutrition 35(3): 175. 26. Rhee K.S., Dutson T.R. and Smith G.C. 1982. Effect of changes in intermuscolar and subcutaneous fat levels and cholesterol content of raw and cooked beef steaks. Journal of Food Science 47(5): 1638. 27. Yang J., Sulaeman A., Setiawan B., Atughonu A., Giraud D.W. and Driskell J.A. 1994. Sensory qualities and nutrient retention of beef strips prepared by different household cooking techniques. Journal of American Dietetic Association 94 (2): 199.

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXXI (2013) april -


HAM A. Pinnaa - N. Simoncinia - T. Toscanib - R. Virgilia*

Stazione Sperimentale per l’Industria delle Conserve Alimentari - Viale Tanara 31/A - 43121 Parma - Italy Consorzio del Prosciutto di Parma - Via Pietro Calamandrei 1 - 43121 Parma - Italy *email:



Volatile organic compounds of Parma dry-cured ham as markers of ageing time and aged ham aroma

INTRODUCTION The dry-cured ham known as ‘Prosciutto di Parma’ is among the most popular PDO products and its manufacture is regulated by the Consortium for its protection (Regulation EEC 2081/92). In the early stages of traditional processing, the raw hams remain at low temperatures (0°-3°C), including the double salting with a mixture of dry and wet salt, and a resting phase for inner salt equaliza-

tion and muscle dehydration. Subsequently, the hams are moved to cellars kept at room temperature for the drying and maturing phases, in a process that can take anywhere from 12 months (minimum time for brand apposition) to 30 months and beyond. Salt intake and dehydration play an important role in microbial control by reducing water activity (aw) in the outer and inner zones of dry-cured hams; in addition, temperature, relative humidity and airflow in the processing rooms are

Key words aged drycured ham odour, ageing time, volatile compounds, ethyl esters, oxidation compounds, salt

ABSTRACT Extension of Parma ham ageing time resulted in several changes in volatile organic compounds in the ham headspace, enhancing signals for branched aldehydes/alcohols and ethanol/ethyl esters. The NaCl content of dry-cured hams was found to be positively related to volatile analytes with low solubility in dry muscle and molecules coming from lipid oxidation, but negatively to certain branched aldehydes originating from amino acids. In PLS regression relating volatile compounds to matured dry-cured ham aroma, branched aldehydes and several oxidation compounds were found to be influential in the sensory perception of matured ham odour. In this respect, oxidative mechanisms (lipid oxidation and oxidative degradation of amino acids) would seem to prevail over other biochemical pathways in increasing the odour of aged dry-cured ham.

14 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXXI (2013) april


kept under control to achieve a safe and high quality product (Asefa et al., 2011). No addition of preservatives and ingredients other than sodium chloride is permitted. The flavour of dry-cured ham is the result of biochemical and microbial processes which take place during the processing time, when volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are generated (Toldrá et al., 1997). Most of these VOCs belong to the chemical categories of alcohols, esters, aldehydes, ketones, sulphur compounds, aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Differing VOC profiles in dry-cured hams have been ascribed to geographic origin (Sanchez-Pena et al., 2005; Sabio et al., 1998), feeding (Jurado et al., 2007), surface microbiota (Martin et al., 2006), processing type and length (Flores et al., 1997; Ruiz et al., 1999) and chemical composition (Perez-Juan et al., 2006). The subject of VOC dynamics during the extended ageing time of Parma ham has been tackled in the past (Hinrichsen and Pedersen, 1995), but the possible effect of the ham’s composition was not taken into account. Notwithstanding, due to the characteristics of this product, which features large amounts of moisture and inner aw values that continue to exceed 0.90 even after two years of processing (VIRGILI et al., 2007), the identification of headspace VOCs associated with the effective sensory perception of ageing could prove useful in detecting analytical markers of sensory quality. Consistent with these preliminary remarks, the aim of this work is to detect markers of ageing time of

Parma ham among identified VOCs, and their relationships with the sensory descriptor “matured dry-cured ham odour”.

MATERIALS AND METHODS Ham sampling A total of 34 dry-cured hams, average deboned weight = 7.40 ± 0.5 kg, were taken in numerically homogeneous batches for each ageing time from two manufacturing plant facilities. Each facility provided 22 (8 standard maturation, 7 extended maturation, and 7 extended ageing) and 12 (3 standard maturation, 5 extended maturation, and 4 extended ageing) dry-cured hams respectively. The two plants were operating in accordance

with mandatory basic regulations for Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) products, even though potential differences occurring in applied processing conditions can be a variability source for final outcomes. Both plants processed green hams obtained from the domestic heavy pigs allowed for Parma ham production (at least 9 months old at slaughtering), but no further information about the raw material (e.g. crossbreeding, feeding, slaughtering weight) was available. After ham de-boning and partial removal of the rind, two adjacent ham portions, 10 mm thick, including the whole slice with intramuscular, intermuscular and subcutaneous fat (Fig. 1a), were cut with an electric slicer from the centre of each ham, perpendicularly to the femur bone and below the boundary trimming, for proximate com-

Fig. 1 - a) 10 mm thick slice of Parma ham used for proximate composition analyses; b) the centre of the slice (labelled as “portion sampled”) is the portion removed from the frozen slice for volatile HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis.

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXXI (2013) april -



position and volatile organic compound (VOC) analyses. Both slices included the sections of muscles shown in Fig. 1a, intramuscular, intermuscular and exterior fat; the external fat layer was standardized to 1 cm thickness. The remaining part of the ham, from the centre to the butt, was kept for sensory analysis, while the shank was not used. Each part was separately stored in a vacuum-sealed bag; the slice for proximate composition and the portion for sensory analysis were stored at 2°C and analysed within one week from sampling, while the slice for VOC analysis was kept frozen at -20°C and analysed within three months. Proximate composition The whole slice was thoroughly minced and its major chemical components were determined. Moisture was determined as the weight loss of ca. 2 g per minced slice after drying at 100°-102°C for 16-18 h according to the AOAC method (2002a). Salt content was estimated at 10 g per minced slice as chlorides, which were extracted with warm water (40°C) and quantified using the Carpenter-Volhard method, according to the AOAC (2002b). Proteins were determined as total nitrogen in ca. 2 g of minced muscle using the Kjeldal method and calculated as N × 6.25 following the AOAC (2002c). The estimated fat content was calculated as the difference from 100 of the summed proximate data. Moisture, salt and protein content were expressed as grams per 100 grams wet slice and as grams per 100 grams dry matter.

Sampling and headspace analysis The central portion of the slice (Fig. 1b), including fat and sections of biceps femoris and semimembranosus muscles, was removed from the frozen slice: this sampling position was established to minimize the variability in fat and lean distribution occurring in the whole slice. The ham portion was fragmented with a knife into particles of approximately 1-2 mg weight. 3 g of the sample was weighed into a 20 mL glass vial tightly capped with a PTFE septum and left for 10 min at 40°C to allow temperature equilibration. Volatile components were extracted by Headspace Solid-Phase Micro-Extraction technique (HS-SPME), piercing the septum covering each vial with a needle equipped with a Carboxen/ PDMS/DVB (Supelco, Bellefonte, PA) coated fibre. Prior to the collection of volatiles, this fibre was preconditioned at 250°C for 40 minutes in the GC injection port and exposed to the headspace for 180 min (SanchezPeňa et al., 2005) at 40°C. Then the fibre was inserted into the injector port of the GC for 1 min at 250°C using the split mode (split ratio 1:10). Temperature, time of incubation and injection were controlled by means of a TriPlus Autosampler (Thermo Electron Corporation) using Excalibur 1.4 software (Thermo Electron Corporation). Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis

GC Ultra (Thermo Electron Corporation). The carrier gas was helium. The oven temperature was kept at 36°C for 15 min, programmed to rise by 10°C/min to 250°C and then held for 5 min. The GC-MS transfer line temperature was 280°C. The mass spectrometer was operating in the electron impact mode, with an electron energy of 70eV, and a scan rate of 1.4 s-1 over a range of m/z from 35 to 350 in full scan mode for data collection. The identification of volatile compounds by GC-MS was carried out using a DSQII mass-selective detector (Thermo Electron Corporation). Volatile compounds were tentatively identified by comparison with reference spectra from the NIST 2005 version 2.0 spectral library database and with Kovats retention indices in accordance with the literature (NIST, Gaithersburg, MD, USA). Peak integration and relative quantification were based on the signal area, computed on an arbitrary scale, according to the Single Ion Monitoring (SIM) mode and based on a single ion selected for each compound according to its fragmentation pattern, in order to improve selectivity and remove noise due to background and co-eluting peaks. Two replicates were run and averaged for each sample. An aqueous solution of ethyl propionate (0.25 mg/L) was used as external standard twice a day to correct the chromatograms according to instrumental performance. Sensory analysis

The volatile compounds were separated using a SLB-5ms column (Supelco; 60 m × 0.25 mm id × 0.25 μm film thickness) installed on a Trace

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Samples were evaluated by quantitative descriptive analysis (Meilgaard et al., 1999). The panel, consisting of


8 members, were trained (ISO 85861: 1993; ISO 8586-2: 1994) in three preliminary sessions in the use of the attribute “odour of aged dry-cured ham” defined as the complex and characteristic dry-cured ham odour related to the presence of aged fat and aged muscle (Guàrdia et al., 2010). This attribute was scored on a non-structured 0-9 intensity scale (0 = not detected, 9 = maximum perception of the attribute) and anchored to the given scale values by providing the panel with dry-cured hams corresponding to perceptions of the attributes covering most of the intensity scale. Dry-cured ham slices 1.0 mm thick with 1 cm of covering fat, obtained using an electric slicer a few minutes before testing, were presented at 15°C, according to a randomized order. Analysis of the 34 hams took no. 7 sessions (no. 5 samples per session). At the beginning of the session, each dry-cured ham was sliced and presented to the panellists in an open tray. At the end of the testing sessions, the sensory rating for each ham sample was averaged over the panel (to be kept, scores had to fall within the panel mean ± 3 standard deviations). Statistical analysis SPSS 14 for Windows was used for statistical analysis, running the procedures ANOVA (one-way analysis of variance) and General Linear Model (GLM); in GLM, the processing length was the sole main effect, while salt content was included as covariate. The Least Square Means (LSM) of volatile compounds of each group of processing length were estimated and the Bonferroni test was

performed to statistically separate them (P < 0.05). Partial-Least-Square (PLS) analysis (Unscrambler ver. 9.7, CAMO Software AS, Norway) was applied to relate sensory scores of “aged ham odour” (dependent variable) with the set of HS volatiles (independent variables) and Martens’ uncertainty test was run to detect significant independent variables; two PLS components were run to achieve variance reduction of the dependent variables (calibration model) by means of the Full Cross Validation Method.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Identified VOCs and proximate composition Identified VOCs belonged to chemical categories of aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, esters, acids, sulphur compounds, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons are reported in Table 1. Most of the more than 60 identified volatile compounds have been previously reported in studies dealing with dry-cured ham odour (with the exception of 3-heptanone and 2,3-dimethylphenol), and their origin and olfactory notes have been thoroughly discussed (Theron et al., 2010; García-González et al., 2008; Marco et al., 2006). Amino acid catabolism, auto- and β-oxidation of lipids, esterase activity and carbohydrate catabolism are the biochemical pathways leading to the generation of most of the VOCs reported in Table 1. The amount of volatile molecules in the headspace is related to their

concentration in the substrate as well as interaction with food components (De Roos, 2000). Applying the same experimental conditions to all tested samples, the portion of the analyte absorbed by the fibre is related to its original concentration in the sample and to the analyte distribution coefficient sample/ headspace as reported by Wang et al. (2005). In general, lipids and proteins reduce the volatility of aroma compounds, while salt, through the salting-out phenomenon (Flores et al., 2007), can influence the release of analytes into the headspace depending on the nature of the VOCs (Perez-Juan et al., 2007). As a consequence, the composition of drycured hams is a potential source of variability in the release of volatile compounds into the headspace, because of the sample/headspace distribution coefficient and the analytes absorbed by the fibre; all to be taken into account when differences due to ageing times are investigated. The proximate composition data of ham slices, expressed on a wet and dry matter basis and grouped according to assayed ageing times are reported in Table 2. Dry-cured hams with scheduled processing times showed no difference in estimated fat and protein content; the expected decrease in moisture due to progressive dehydration occurring during protracted ageing, was not significant (P > 0.05). These findings can be ascribed to variability in ham slices in terms of lean and fat distribution masking moisture changes occurring in single muscles during age-

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Table 1 - Volatile organic compounds identified in Parma ham grouped into chemical categories. Kovats retention indices (KI) and ions used for peak integration according to the Single Ion Monitoring (SIM) mode are reported for each listed compound. Volatile compound

compound origina KIb

ion (m/z)

Alcohols Ethanol 2-Methyl-1-butanol 3-Methyl-1-butanol 1-Pentanol 2-Pentanol 1-Penten-3-ol 1-Hexanol 1-Octen-3-ol

CC <500 45 AAC 748 57 AAC 744 55 LO 778 70 b-O 707 55 b-O 683 57 LO 876 69 b-O 983 57

Aldehydes 2-Methyl-propanal 3-Methyl-thiopropanal 2-Methyl-butanal 3-Methyl-butanal Pentanal Hexanal Heptanal Octanal Nonanal 2-Decenal 2-Undecenal Benzaldehyde Benzenacetaldehyde


Ketones 2-Propanone (acetone) 2-Butanone 2,3-Butanedione (diacetyl) 3-Hydroxy-2-butanone (acetoin) 2-Pentanone 2-Hexanone 2-Heptanone 3-Heptanone 2,3-Octanedione

CC <500 58 CC 600 72 CC 592 86 CC 714 88 b-O 686 86 b-O 793 58 b-O 889 114 b-O 892 99 b-O 986 99

Acids Acetic acid Butanoic acid


553 72 910 104 648 58 659 57 701 58 803 72 904 96 1005 84 1108 82 1270 85 1372 70 968 106 1055 91

578 787

60 60

Volatile compound

compound origina KIb

3-Methyl-butanoic acid Pentanoic acid Octanoic acid Esters Ethyl acetate Ethyl 2-Methyl-propanoate Ethyl 2-Methyl-butanoate Ethyl 3-Methyl-butanoate Ethyl pentanoate Ethyl hexanoate Ethyl heptanoate Ethyl octanoate Ethyl decanoate Sulphur compounds Dimethyl-sulfide Dimethyl-disulfide

ion (m/z)


850 848 1164

60 60 60


611 763 854 859 902 998 1096 1193 1392

61 71 102 88 88 88 88 88 88


517 62 746 94

Alifatic and aromatic hydrocarbons Pentane LO 500 72 Hexane LO 600 86 Heptane LO 700 100 Octane LO 800 85 Nonane LO 900 85 Undecane LO 1100 85 Tetradecane LO 1300 57 2-Octene LO 815 112 Toluene AAC 769 91 Ethylbenzene AAC 864 91 2,3-Dimethyl phenol AAC 922 122 p-xylene U 861 91 o-xylene U 895 91 Furans and lactones 2,5-Dimethyl furan 2-Pentyl furan g-Hexalactone g-Octalactone

b-O 706 96 b-O 992 81 b-O 1064 85 b-O 1288 75

a Compound origin. CC: carbohydrate catabolism; AAC: amino acid catabolism; LO: lipid oxidation; b-O: b-oxidation; EA: esterase activity; U: uncertain origin. b Kovats retention index of the compounds injected in the GC-MS using a SLB-5ms column (Supelco, 60 m × 0.25 mm id × 0.25 μm film thickness).

ing (Virgili et al., 2007). The most aged hams were the least salty (on a dry matter basis), as a result of the common practice of using less salt for hams manufactured for extended ageing, in order to prevent excessive salt concentration in the dried muscles. Even if dry-cured

ham groups differed only in salt content, the sensory score given to the descriptor “aged ham aroma” was higher in longer-aged hams than in lesser aged ones (6.38 vs 5.76, P < 0.05). Consequently, the volatile release into the headspace may be affected by salt differences

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between dry-cured ham groups, masking the actual concentration in the substrate. Furthermore, during ham processing, salt, wellknown as a proteolysis inhibitor, may be decreasing the production of VOCs generated by amino acid catabolism (Perez-Juan et al.,


Table 2 - Proximate components of Parma dry-cured hams grouped according to processing times, expressed on wet slice and on dry matter as % component (± standard deviation)a. 14-15 months (n = 11)

17-18 months (n = 12)

21-22 months (n = 11)

P value

g/100 g wet slice NaCl estimated fat protein moisture

4.78±0.39 19.6±4.15 24.9±2.12 49.7±2.11

g/100 g dry matter NaCl estimated fat protein

9.53±0.89a 9.32±1.23a,b 8.33±0.89b 0.020 38.7±6.69 38.8±7.34 39.9±6.93 0.999 49.8±5.92 49.9±6.18 49.9±6.37 0.907

4.74±0.47 4.39±0.54 0.114 20.0±4.75 21.1±4.20 0.715 25.9±1.83 26.2±3.12 0.460 48.9±2.71 47.3±2.37 0.079

Estimated means within a row with different lower case letters are different (Bonferroni multiple comparison method, P < 0.05).


2006), and accelerating lipid peroxidation by acting as a pro-oxidant agent (Kanner et al., 1991). Comparison of VOCs detected in Parma hams with different ageing times Differences in volatile compounds due to extended ageing times were evaluated by means of GLM analysis. The processing length was the sole main effect of the model, while salt was included as covariate to estimate salt coefficients for HS-VOCs (Table 3): a significant covariate estimate coefficient (P < 0.05), denotes a relationship between ham salt content and the corresponding volatile compound. Further sources of uncontrolled bias in dry-cured hams with different ageing times may be due to the processing conditions applied in the plants of origin and to raw material properties. Most branched aldehydes originating from amino acid catabolism proved to be positively influenced by maturing time: 3-methyl-butanal and

benzeneacetaldehyde rose sharply in the most aged samples, according to previous findings (Jurado et al., 2007). Branched volatile compounds represent the final step of the proteolytic events that occur during dry-cured ham maturation and produce large amounts of free amino acids (FAA). Both chemical oxidative Strecker degradation and microbial amino acid catabolism (Erlich pathway) have been postulated as accounting for the formation pathway of branched volatile compounds in dry-cured ham (Martin et al., 2006; Andrade et al., 2009). During the maturation of Parma ham up to 24 months, a progressive increase in free amino acids (FAA) has been detected (Virgili et al., 2007), matching the increase in amino acid-related volatile compounds found in the present study. Among branched VOCs, salt estimate coefficient was significant for 2-methyl-propanal and 3-methyl-butanal: the negative sign may be accounted for by the inhibition exerted by sodium chloride on proteolytic activities (Toldrà

et al., 1997; Jurado et al., 2007), proteolysis, and free amino acid release in dry-cured ham (Virgili et al., 1999). In this respect, the abovementioned branched aldehydes, having low odour thresholds and odour notes relevant for dry-cured meat (Theron et al., 2010; Carrapiso et al., 2010), would be expected to increase in the headspace of drycured hams with low salt and high free amino acid content. 2-methyl1-butanol, characterized by malty olfactory notes coming from the microbial reduction of 2-methylbutanal, remarkably increased in the headspace of the longest aged dry-cured hams. Toluene, ascribed to the catabolism of phenylalanine (Berdagué et al., 1991), or deriving from the cyclization of unsaturated carboxylic chains produced by lipid degradation (Min et al., 1977), increased in the headspace as a result of both ageing and salt (Table 3). The positive sign of the salt covariate can be explained by the salting-out phenomenon enhancing the release of analytes which are poorly soluble in

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Table 3 - Effect of maturation time on volatile organic compounds of Parma ham, expressed in arbitrary area units Ă&#x2014; 10-4 according to the Single Ion Monitoring (SIM) mode, and correlation with NaCl content of the ham slice. Least Square Means (LSM) of VOCs with significant differences (P < 0.05) along the processing time were reporteda. Volatile Organic Compounds Processing timeb P-value Pooled SEMc 1 2 3 (n =11) (n = 12) (n = 11) Amino acid catabolism 2-Methyl-propanal 7.74b 9.40a,b 11.2a 0.037 0.51 3-Methyl-thiopropanal 7.71b 11.0a 13.2a 0.001 0.51 2-Methyl-butanal 60.8b 74.7a,b 98. 5a 0.018 5.10 3-Methyl-butanal 77.3b 84.7b 122a < 0.001 4.21 Benzenacetaldehyde 128b 187b 357a < 0.001 15.9 2-Methyl-1- butanol 6.41b 8.73a,b 19.3a 0.019 1.88 2, 3-Dimethyl phenol Toluene 39.6a,b 35.0b 44.5a 0.023 1.35 Ethylbenzene Lipid autoxidation 1-Pentanol 168a 118b 76.4c < 0.001 6.21 1-Hexanol a a,b b Hexanal 467 378 322 0.048 23.7 g-Hexalactone Octanoic acid 11.7b 16.7a 15.4a,b 0.012 0.68 Nonane 15.1b,c 26.1a,b 38.8a 0.004 2.64 Tetradecane Lipid b-oxidation 1-Penten-3-ol 54.1a 55.4a 36.4b 0.008 2.49 2-Pentanone 2-Heptanone

Covariate (NaCl) estimate coefficient d

-2.34* -26.4** 1.31** 9.72** 37.2*

48.5** 24.5** 14.5* 70.6* 7.70**

Carbohydrate catabolism Ethanol 1850b 2550a,b 3540a 0.014 214 Butanoic acid 33.8b 53.6a 33.1b 0.009 3.09 Esterase activity Ethyl acetate Ethyl 2-methyl-propanoate Ethyl 2-methyl-butanoate Ethyl 3-methyl-butanoate Ethyl pentanoate Ethyl hexanoate Ethyl heptanoate Ethyl octanoate Ethyl decanoate

9.12b 14.3a,b 19.8a 0.012 1.34 3.21b 8.60a 6.85a,b 0.029 12. 8b 28.1a 28.9a 0.020 2.58 29.4b 69.9a 66.1a 0.021 6.47 13.7b 24.1a,b 36.7a 0.005 2.67 188b 322a,b 444a 0.009 31.3 4.77b 7.65a,b 9.26a 0.035 0.68 25.8b 48.3b 98.9a 0.001 7.17 11.2b 20.5b 46.3a 0.001 3.57

Unknown origin p-xylene m-xylene

44.7** 19.4**

a Estimated means within a row with different lower case letters are different (Bonferroni multiple test, P < 0.05); b1 = 14-15 months; 2 = 17-18 months; 3 = 21-22 months; cValues for SEM represent the pooled standard error of the mean; dNaCl content of dry-cured ham slice was included in the model as covariate. Significant effect: *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; non-significant covariate estimate coefficients were not reported.

dried muscle such as toluene; in the same way, ethyl benzene and 2,3-dimethyl-phenol, generated by amino acid catabolism, could be increased in the headspace of more salty dry-

cured hams, masking the expected variations due to ageing time. Most volatile compounds generated by fatty acid oxidation either decreased during the ageing

20 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXXI (2013) april

of dry-cured ham (1-pentanol and hexanal) (Bolzoni et al., 1996), or remained fairly constant, e.g. octanoic acid. Among the VOCs originating from


β-oxidation, 1-penten-3-ol decreased during ageing; the positive sign of the salt covariate for 2-pentanone may be increasing this molecule in the headspace of the saltiest samples, mainly belonging to the least aged group (Table 1). Oxidation compounds characterized the first ageing deadline (14-15 months), with the exception of nonane, which displayed a significant increase during the extended ageing of assayed hams. Several VOCs generated by oxidation pathways had positive significant relationships with salt content (1-hexanol, γ-hexalactone, tetradecane, 2-pentanone, 2-heptanone). Butanoic acid, generated by carbohydrate fermentation, showed a rather slight decrease during the extended ageing of dry-cured hams, as a possible consequence of the decrease in carbohydrate availability, while ethanol was characterised by a sharp increase during ageing. Ethanol has been recognized as most likely originating from pyruvate (Spaziani et al., 2009) produced by the microbial metabolism of free organic acids and amino acids (Liu, 2003). The accumulation of amino acid sources during ageing is consistent with the progressive increase in ethanol during ham ageing. Ethyl ester formation was related to the presence of ethanol and was reported as being the result of microbial enzymatic mechanisms such as esterification and alcoholysis (Talon et al., 1998; Liu, 2003). The enzymes needed for ethyl esters biosynthesis are present in Micrococcaceae (Montel et al., 1996) and in many species of yeast and moulds

(Jelén and Wasowicz, 1998), i.e., microbial populations detected at high levels in Parma hams (Lori et al., 2005; Simoncini et al., 2007). The present investigation found a rise in ethyl esters during the extended ageing of Parma dry-cured hams, unaffected by salt variations. Sabio et al. (1998), in comparing the volatile compounds of six types of European dry-cured hams, reported that Parma hams were more characterised by ethyl esters than other types of ham. According to the data shown in Table 3, ethyl esters can be regarded as a class of volatile compounds highly representative of fully-aged Parma drycured hams: the processing method (Parolari, 1996), the aw values still around 0.90 after two years of processing (Virgili et al., 2007) and the absence of preservatives other than salt, may account for the increased microbial esterase activities in comparison with other dry-cured ham types (Hinrichsen and Pedersen, 1995). Relationship between aged dry cured ham odour and volatile compounds Several volatile markers of the investigated time range were evidenced, but it may be that molecules highly representative of increasing ageing time had a different influence on the sensory perception of aged ham aroma. Since the sensory quality of dry-cured ham is influenced by descriptors related to the intensity of dry-cured ham flavour and aroma (Resano et al., 2010), the relationship between volatile molecules corresponding to scheduled ageing

times and the sensory perception of the aged dry - cured ham odour was investigated. The algorithm used was the PLS regression (Martens and Martens, 1986); this technique constrains the components obtained by linear combination of the x-variables (volatile compounds listed in Table 1) to be orthogonal, thereby overcoming the problem of related variables; the use of the full cross validation method prevents non-significant relations even if the model is run on more variables than objects. The regression model achieved by means of two PCs, gave a reduction in % Y-variance corresponding to 42.7 (PC1) and 67.6 (PC1 + PC2). Table 4 presents the results of PLS analysis, expressed by the loadings of the dependent and independent variables: the coefficients of the first and second factor were reported (only coefficients of PC1 or PC2 > 0.1 are listed). In general, the size of the regression coefficients provides an approximate assessment of the importance: if the regression coefficient is greater than 0.2 in absolute value, the effect of the variable is most probably important, while if it is smaller than 0.1 then the effect is negligible. Significant independent variables (Martens’ uncertainty test) are reported in italics in Table 4. The loadings of aged ham odour are positive on PC1 and PC2: the first factor highlighted the opposition between volatiles with negative loadings such as linear alcohols (1-pentanol, 1-hexanol), methyl ketones (2-propanone, 2-butanone and 2-pentanone), hydrocarbons like heptane, octane, ethylbenzene, 2-pentyl furane, and volatiles with

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Table 4 - Aged ham odour vs. volatile compounds in Parma dry-cured ham. Coefficients of volatile compounds in the PLS regression are reported in standardized forma. The two PLSfactors account for 42.7 and 24.9% of the variance, respectively. Variables Aged Odour Alcohols Ethanol 1-Pentanol 2-Pentanol 1-Penten-3-ol 1-Hexanol 1,2-Hexantriol 1-Octen-3-ol

1st factor 2nd factor Coefficients Coefficients 0.144 0.133 0.283 -0.088 -0.209 0.159 0.105 -0.039 -0.118 0.050 -0.098 0.208 0.039 0.199 -0.090 0.125

Aldehydes 2-Methyl-propanal 0.205 -0.073 3-Methyl-thiopropanal 0.238 0.090 2-Methyl-butanal 0.161 -0.053 3-Methyl-butanal 0.228 -0.060 Benzaldehyde 0.158 0.187 Benzenacetaldehyde 0.209 0.079 Pentanal -0.013 0.230 Hexanal -0.035 0.274 Heptanal -0.075 0.281 Octanal -0.019 0.279 Nonanal 0.037 0.286 2-Decenal 0.051 0.259 2-Undecenal -0.008 0.279 Ketones 2-Propanone (acetone) 2-Butanone 2,3-Butanedione (diacetyl) 3-Hydroxy-2-butanone (acetoin) 2-Pentanone 2-Heptanone 2,3-octanedione

-0.117 0.102 -0.155 0.162 0.189 -0.121 0.111 -0.143 -0.104 0.118 0.022 0.119 0.012 0.277

Acids Butanoic acid 3-Methyl-butanoic acid Octanoic acid

0.013 0.050 0.164

-0.114 -0.121 -0.109

Esters Ethyl acetate Ethyl 2-Methyl-propanoate Ethyl 2-Methyl-butanoate Ethyl 3-Methyl-butanoate Ethyl pentanoate Ethyl hexanoate Ethyl heptanoate Ethyl octanoate Ethyl decanoate

0.236 0.201 0.247 0.235 0.304 0.258 0.245 0.302 0.291

-0.220 -0.237 -0.194 -0.213 -0.129 -0.218 -0.098 -0.160 -0.104

Alifatic and aromatic hydrocarbons Heptane -0.159 0.070 Octane -0.161 0.084 Nonane 0.287 -0.141 Tetradecane 0.164 0.237 Toluene -0.017 0.124 Ethylbenzene -0.084 0.144 2,3-Dimethyl-phenol -0.017 0.224 Furans and lactones Hexalactone Octalactone 2-Pentyl furan

0.000 0.202 0.040 0.268 -0.152 0.111

Only volatiles with coefficients of PC1 or PC2 > 0.1 were listed. Variables reported in italics were significant (P < 0.05) according to the Martens’ uncertainty test.

22 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXXI (2013) april

positive scores like branched aldehydes, ethanol/ethyl esters, diacetyl and acetoin and long-chain alkanes nonane and tetradecane. Ethyl esters, though having positive loadings along PC1 are in opposition along PC2 (accounting for nearly 25% of the total explained variance), indicating a less important role than branched aldehydes in enhancing aged dry - cured ham odour. Furthermore, four branched aldehydes but no ester passed the test for a significant effect on the Y variable (Table 4). On PC2, oxidation compounds such as linear aldehydes, lactones and tetradecane, and some branched aldehydes, positively counteracted ethyl esters and organic acids. Variable loadings and sample scores were normalized to the interval ± 1 and projected onto the PC1-PC2 plane (bi-plot), to display variables and sample interrelationships; each quarter of the bi-plot corresponding to different combinations of PC1 and PC2 signs was named from Q1 to Q4. Ham samples were labelled by processing the time group number (1 or 2 or 3) and the symbol surrounding the number identifies the sensory score as low (< 5.5), medium-low (5.5 - 6.0), medium-high (6.0 - 6.5) and high (> 6.5) (Fig. 2). As a consequence of the overall decrease in VOCs, the samples projected onto Q3 (Fig. 2) and belonging to ageing groups 1 or 2, warranted low scores for “aged ham odour”. On the contrary, most samples placed in Q4, though having low ageing times on average, achieved increased scores thanks to volatiles yielded by oxidation mechanisms. Samples located in Q1 are characterised by high scores for “aged ham odour”: these mostly


Fig. 2 - Projection of sample scores and variable loadings onto the PC1-PC2 plane (bi-plot). The two principal components account for 42.7 and 24.9% of variance respectively (67.6% in total). Parma ham samples are identified with a number corresponding to processing time and surrounded by a symbol changing according to the aged-odour score.

correspond to ageing groups 2 and 3, even if two samples from group 1 also earned a high rating. Carbonyl compounds, including branched and linear aldehydes, lactones, ketones, resulted the dominant chemical class involved with the sensory perception of aged ham odour in Parma hams. García-Gonzáles et al. (2008), reported for the “acorn odour” descriptor, a relevant contribution of benzaldehyde, 2-heptanone and 3-methylbutanal, in accordance with our results for aged ham odour, as shown in Fig. 2. Even if the above-mentioned attributes describe different sensory perceptions

(acorn odour rates the acorn flavour perception mainly due to pig feeding), both of these are positively related to dry-cured ham quality and acceptability (Resano et al., 2010). The volatiles loadings projected onto the Q2 area of the bi-plot include ethyl esters, organic acids, and molecules related to carbohydrate fermentation such as ethanol, acetoin, diacetyl and butanoic acid. Though all coming from ageing groups 2 and 3, samples that fell into Q2 decreased their ratings if compared to Q1 cases. Even if the model reported in Table 4 does not explain the 32.4% in aged

ham odour variability, it does seem that, although both branched aldehydes and ethyl esters are positive markers of ageing time extension, the former contributes to aged ham odour perception more than the latter. A recent GC-O study on odouractive compounds of Bayonne ham found that fruity notes due to ethyl esters were masked by the overall flavour of dry-cured ham (Theron et al., 2010). Moreover, volatiles generated by lipid oxidation, although not related to extended ageing time, can improve aged ham odour perception. Salt, being positively associated with some oxidation compounds and molecules like toluene, ethylbenzene, tetradecane, and 2,3-dimethyl-phenol (salting-out effect), may enhance aged ham aroma when aged odour-impact molecules such as branched aldehydes, that need extended ageing time to increase, are still at low levels.

CONCLUSIONS The results of the present investigation suggest that, among the volatile molecules identified, the markers of Parma dry-cured ham extended ageing time do not overlap the markers of aged ham odour sensory perception. The main information provided by the present study is that the volatile compounds increased by the ageing time of Parma ham are not equally aged-odour active, or involved in processes that positively contribute to aged ham odour perception. In the case of some drycured hams with shorter processing times, the achievement of a high “aged odour” score can more be

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ascribed to VOCs generated through oxidative processes than to volatiles molecules increasing with ageing time. As a consequence, even if the extension of ageing time does have a positive influence on aged ham odour perception, further ways should be investigated for their effectiveness in yielding aged odouractive volatile profile. Environmental factors in maturing rooms, their effects on ham composition and on microbial populations growing in the outer and inner layers of Parma hams, could be key parameters in throwing light on mechanisms suitable for selective VOC generation.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The support of the “Consorzio del Prosciutto di Parma” through the participation of the co-author T. Toscani and the cooperation of the operators at the dry-cured ham production plants is acknowledged.

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Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXXI (2013) april -



Pulp as biodegradable plastic in disposable food containers U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) scientists and University cooperators have developed a biodegradable plastic that could be used in disposable food containers; the plastic, called a thermoplastic, becomes soft when heated. To make the plastic, Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists incorporated biodegradable sugar beet pulp, which is the leftover residue from sugar extraction, with a biodegradable polymer. The result is thermoplastic composites that retain mechanical properties similar

to polystyrene and polypropylene, the compounds used to make white, spongy food packages. Processors generate tons of sugar beet pulp annually. Finding profitable uses for it is critical for the long-term economic viability of U.S. agribusiness. Now, ARS chemist LinShu Liu and plant physiologist Arland Hotchkiss, both at the ARS Eastern Regional Research Center in Wyndmoor (Pa) and their colleagues have found a variety of new uses for sugar beet pulp. In collaboration with professor Jinwen Zhang of Washing ton State Universit y (WSU) in Pullman, Liu and his colleagues developed the thermoplastic, which is manufactured from both sugar beet pulp and a biodegradable polymer called polylactic acid, or PLA, using a twin screw extruder. PLA is a commercially available polymer derived from the sugars in corn, sugar beet, sugarcane, switchgrass and other plants, all of which are renewable feedstocks. Extrusion is a cost-effective

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manufacturing process that is popularly used in large-scale production of food, plastics and composite materials. The researchers showed that up to 50% sugar beet pulp could be incorporated with PLA to produce biodegradable thermoplastic compos-

ites that are similar to the petrochemical compounds used in making spongy disposable food packages. The new thermoplastic is costcompetitive with such commonly used petrochemical plastics, according to the scientists.

Whole grain may decreases the body fat Here featured the findings of a recently published study on whole grains in relation to health variables and chronic disease risk indicators. Observational studies show inverse associations between intake of whole grain and adiposity and cardiovascular risk; however, only a few dietary intervention trials

have investigated the effect of whole grain consumption on health outcomes. A small study of 79 postmenopausal women by Kristensen et al. suggests positively that consuming whole grain foods support fat loss during diet. The researchers have studied the effect of replacing refined

wheat (RW) with wholegrain wheat (WW) for 12 wk on body weight and composition after a 2-wk run-in period of consumption of RWcontaining food intake. In this open-label randomized trial, the overweight or obese postmenopausal women were randomized to an energy-restricted diet (deficit of ~1,250 kJ/d) with RW or WW foods providing 2 MJ/d. Body weight and composi-

tion, blood pressure, and concentration of circulating risk markers were measured at wk 0, 6, and 12. Fecal output and energy excretion were assessed during run-in and wk 12. Plasma alk ylresorcinol analysis indicated good compliance with the intervention diets. Body weight decreased significantly from baseline in both the RW (-2.7±1.9 kg) and WW

Cocoa flavonoids improve insulin signalling Cordero-Herrera et al. from Madrid (Spain) investigated the impact of cocoa flavonoids on insulin levels. Cocoa and (-)-epicatechin (EC), a main cocoa flavanol, have been suggested to exert beneficial effects in diabetes, but the mechanism for their insulin-like effects remains unknown. In this study, published in Nutrition & Food Research, the

modulation of insulin signalling by EC and a cocoa phenolic extract (CPE) on hepatic HepG2 cells was investigated by analysing key proteins of the insulin pathways, namely insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate (IRS) 1 and 2, PI3K /AKT and 5’-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), as well as the levels of the glucose transporter GLUT-2 and the

(-3.6±3.2 kg) groups, but the decreases did not differ between the groups (P=0.11). The reduction in body fat percentage was greater in the WW group (-3.0%) than in the RW group (-2.1%) (P=0.04). Serum total and LDL cholesterol increased by ~5% (P<0.01) in the RW group but did not change in the WW group; hence, the changes differed between the groups (P=0.02).

In conclusion, consumption of wholegrain products resulted in a greater reduction in the percentage fat mass, whereas body weight changes did not differ between the RW and WW groups. Serum total and LDL cholesterol, two important risk factors of cardiovascular disease, increased with RW but not WW consumption, which may suggest a cardioprotective role for whole grain.

hepatic glucose production. EC and CPE enhanced the tyrosine phosphorylation and total insulin receptor, IRS-1 and IRS-2 levels and activated the PI3K / AKT pathway and AMPK in HepG2 cells. CPE also enhanced the levels of GLUT2. Interestingly, EC and CPE modulated the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, a key protein involved in the gluconeo-

genesis, leading to a diminished glucose production. In addition, EC- and CPE-regulated hepatic gluconeogenesis was prevented by the blockage of AKT and AMPK. The data obtained suggest that EC and CPE strengthen the insulin signalling by activating key proteins of that pathway and regulating glucose production through AKT and AMPK modulation in HepG2 cells.

Influence of yeast on frozen dough Researchers from France and Argentina have studied the effects of yeast content on frozen doughs and concluded that increasing yeast content of the dough can improve storage quality on freezing. The study is reported in Journal of Food Engineering.

In order to estimate dough shelf life, two types of dough were studied : simple yea ste d dough (SY) and double yeasted dough (DY). Fermentative activity (yeast viability, gassing power, and dough volume), rheological and textural parameters were

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXXI (2013) april -


assessed for the frozen sweet doughs. The research recognises that frozen products are not indefinitely stable, and gradually deteriorate until they reach an unacce pt able qualit y. This quality loss is reflected by reduction in dough volume and an increase in proofing time in comparison with dough prepared by using traditional methods. The shelf life of frozen dough is estimated as 8-9 weeks provided the dough has not been abused during transportation and frozen storage. The ef fects of freezing were explored by different and complementary

methods: Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), dynamic rheology, texture profile analysis (TPA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The research found that frozen storage time had a significant effect on the dough’s hardness, springiness, and viscoelasticity. DY frozen sweet dough (higher yeast content) gave dough with a higher specific volume due to higher yeast activity, whereas the specific volume decreased during frozen storage. The yeast content of DY frozen dough stored for 27 days is equivalent to that of SY dough on day 0. RSSL

Bioactive extracts from asparagus by-product Previous studies on bioactive components of asparagus have revealed that the by-products are rich in many of the phytochemi-

cals located in the edible part of the spears. The main components responsible of asparagus bioactivity are phenols (flavonoids and hy-

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droxycinnamic acids) and saponins. At the Instituto de la Grasa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (Spain), a process for obtaining added-value compounds from asparagus by-products by the hydrothermal treatment of the samples has been developed. Two fractions are separated after the hydrothermal treatment, consisting on an aqueous functional extract containing most soluble bioactive compounds from asparagus by-product, and a fibrous residue that, after being dried, constitutes the asparagus bioactive fibre. The process includes a column purification step, using an adsorbent polymeric resin, which allows aqueous extracts, partially purified to be obtained and enriched in specific compounds (phenolics and/or saponins). All these presentations have been investigated for their biological activity.

The preliminary results showed that the distinct products obtained from asparagus by-products are of interest for their biological activity and are suitable for being used as functional ingredients. Based on their antioxidant capacity, it could be proposed that their regular use could help the prevention of several diseases related to the oxidative damage.

New functional bread in diabetes and obesity prevention programme A study published in Chemical Papers by Mikusova et al. has assessed the impact of lactobacilli starter culture, extruded wheat bran and cereal β-D-glucan hydrogel addition on nutritional and antioxidant proper-

ties of a functional bread. Previous studies have indicated that whole grain cereals may prevent many chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease, type-two diabetes and obesity. Soluble fibres such as β-glucans

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have been found to positively affect glucose, insulin and lipid response. The scientists also evaluated the glycaemic and insulinemic responses of healthy males after consumption of the bread. As many of the beneficial compounds are reduced during food processing, the scientists used sourdough fermentation, which they state increases the phytochemical content as well as increases bioavailability. Mikusova et al. compared the functional bread containing extruded wheat bran (10.0%), cereal β-glucan hydrogel (12.5%) and lactobacilli starter culture with traditional wheat-rye bread, used as a control. Both breads were analysed for dietary fibre, flavonoids and polyphenols, simple saccharides and phenolic acids. The researchers evaluated the breads for antioxidant activity and acidity amongst others. For the research, 10 healthy male non-smokers have been recruited; twelve hours prior to intervention, the participants were asked to refrain from food and physical exercise, then the researchers measured the volunteers fasting blood samples. The men

were given bread portions containing 50 g of available carbohydrates with 200 mL of water; blood samples were taken at 30, 60 and 120 min after bread consumption and, at the same times, the participants completed a questionnaire evaluating hunger, fullness and satiety. Mikusova et al. report that the functional bread had a higher fibre content (6.17 g/100 g vs 4.5 g/100 g) compared to the commercial bread. The glucose and fructose levels of the functional bread were significant lower than the control, while total titratable acidity was significantly higher. An increase in flavonoids content in the functional bread was due to the wheat bran addition as well as the fermentation of the starter culture however the phenolic acids were decreased in the process of sourdough fermentation. This was due to the lactobacilli strains present in the sourdough. Mikusova et al. report consumption of the functional bread by participants led to reduced glucose levels 120 minutes after the ingestion of the bread compared to the control. In conclusion, the designed bread could be use in obesity and diabetes prevention programmes, however a larger study using women and people without normal glucose intolerance and a bread containing higher amounts of functional additives should be carried out.

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Brewer’s spent grain as an ingredient in wheat breads Brewer’s spent grain (BSG) represents 85% of brewing industry by-products and currently it is underutilised as low-value animal fodder. The fibre, protein and mineral fortification of wheat bread through milled and fermented brewer’s spent grain enrichment is the topic of a research published in European Food Research and Technology. The study exposes additional nutritional and economic benefits of BSG as a food ingredient in wheat breads. The raw material properties were studied revealing that BSG by-product contains (on a w/w) 22.13% protein (including exceptionally high levels of essential amino acids), 1.13% minerals, 131.0 mg/L polyphenols, 28.22% total fibre and 3.6% essential fatty acids. Additionally, BSG was fermented (BSG SD), using the lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus

plantarum FST 1.7, in order to elucidate the benefits of traditional sourdough for processing crude BSG. Fermentation resulted in softer breads with increased springiness. Farinograph results revealed that wheat flour incorporating BSG had increased water absorption. Rheological measurements showed a positively correlated increase in dough resistance in line with BSG or BSG SD incorporation. Supplemented breads had sensory acceptability up to levels of 10% BSG or BSG SD, resulting in breads comparing favourably with wholemeal breads from a nutritional, technological and textural perspective. In conclusion, using BSG as a main stream food ingredient would increase the market value of this byproduct, thus enhancing its economic potential, a factor that is also discussed.

Isoflavone supplements and breast cancer risk The International Journal of Cancer publishes the novel findings about the association between the use of isoflavone supplements and the reduced breast cancer risk. Botanical supplements are widely used and contain diverse ingredients, including isoflavones. Food-based isoflavones have been associated with reduced breast cancer risk. However, no study has comprehensively evaluated supplements identified by isoflavone content and breast cancer risk. Associations between ever use of 28 isoflavone supplements and breast cancer risk in Ontario (Canada) were evaluated using cases (n = 3,101) identified in 2002-2003 from the Ontario Cancer Registry and controls (n = 3,471) identified through random digit dialing

methods. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate age-adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Several individual supplements were associated with reduced breast cancer risk (e.g., Natural HRT; AOR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.22, 0.69; nusers = 58). Use of any isoflavone supplements was associated with reduced risk when â&#x2030;Ľ3 were ever used (AOR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.54, 0.86; nusers = 332; ptrend = 0.008) or any was taken >5 years (AOR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.94; n users = 325; ptrend = 0.01); high content supplements were consistently associated with reduced risk. Risk reduction was confined to postmenopausal breast cancer for both individual and combined supplements, and was strongest in the latter among high content

users who ever took â&#x2030;Ľ3 s u p p l e m e n t s ( AO R = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.81; nusers = 118; ptrend = 0.04) or any >5 years (AOR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.81; n users = 60; p trend = 0.03). Associations did not differ by estrogen-progesterone tumor receptor status.

In conclusion, isoflavone supplements were associated with decreased postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Further research to examine these novel findings is warranted, given the low supplement use and potential limitations of our results.

Grass pea wholemeal in the white bread production Kasprzak and Rzedzicki, two researchers of the University of Life Science in Lublin (Poland), have investigated the use of grass pea wholemeal for modification of the chemical composition, physical properties and sensory properties of traditional white bread, substituting the 1.5-12% of the wheat flour content of the traditional bread formulation with grass pea meal. Results of this study demonstrate that increasing the grass pea meal content from 1.5 to 12% increased the bread yield from 130.7 to 136.3%. An improvement was also noted in baking loss with increasing grass pea content from 15.01 to 9.11%, and in the total baking loss from 16.56 to 12.23%. Increasing the pulse content caused a decrease in the bread volume from 100 g of flour value from 505 to 359 cm3, and a decrease in bread crumb porosity from 81 to 61%. The inclusion of

the pulse component caused only a slight decrease in the sensory score of the bread as compared with that given to the traditional wheat bread. The findings demonstrate that the replacement of wheat flour with grass pea wholemeal has a highly favourable effect on the chemical composition of the bread; the experimental bread produced with 12% of grass pea meal had a protein content of 14.51% dry wt. and a total dietary fibre content of 8.75% dry wt.

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXXI (2013) april -


Antioxidant properties of breads enriched with dry onion A group of researchers from the University of Life Sciences in Poland investigated the effect on the antioxidant properties and sensory value of bread of adding ground onion skin (OS). The Food Chemistry published this study in March. For a determination of bioaccessibility and bioavailability in vitro the human gastrointestinal tract model was used. OS contained masticationextractable quercetin (4.6 mg/g). Quercetin from OS was highly bioaccessible during in vitro conditions, but only approximately 4% of quercetin released during simulated digestion was bioavailable in vitro.

The antioxidant potential of bread with onion skin was significantly higher than the activity noted in the control. In particular, onion skin addition significantly fortified bread with bioaccessible lipid oxidation preventers and compounds with reducing and chelating abilities. The 2-3% onion skin addition caused significant improvement of antioxidant abilities (further increases in the onion skin supplement did not increase the activity of bread). Finally, sensory evaluation showed that replacement of wheat flour in bread with up to 3% onion skin powder gave satisfactory consumer acceptability.

New super nutritious puffed rice The ACS’ Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry published a new study by scientists from Institute of Food Science of Cornell University in the USA, which reports a new process for blowing up grains of rice. This method produces a super-nutritious form of puffed rice, with three times more protein and a rich endowment of other nutrients that make it ideal for breakfast cereals, snack foods and nutrient bars for school lunch programs. Commercial puffed rice is made by steam extrusion, where an extruder squeezes rice flour mixed with water through a narrow opening at high temperature and pressure. On exiting the nozzle, the rice puffs up as steam expands and escapes; however, this process can destroy heat-sensitive nutrients. The scientists looked for a way to avoid that loss and

Process for puffed rice production.

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also to enrich rice with protein and other nutrients during the puffing process. Supercritical fluid extrusion (SCFX) was used to produce shelf-stable puffed rice fortified with protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrients. Product ingredients and process parameters were evaluated for end-product nutritional and textural qualities. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) served as a viscosity-lowering plasticizer and blowing agent during the process, which has been shown to produce expanded products with good textural qualities at lower temperatures (~100°C) than conventional steam-based extrusion (130°-180°C). The fortified puffed rice contained 8% dietary fiber, 21.5% protein, and iron, zinc, and vitamins A and C at their recommended daily values in 100 g of product. The SCFX process allowed for the complete retention of

all added minerals, 55-58% retention of vitamin A, and 64-76% retention of vitamin C. All essential amino acids including lysine were retained at exceptionally high levels (98.6%), and no losses were observed due to Maillard reaction or oxidation. All of the essential amino acid contents were equal to the reference protein recommended by FAO/WHO. Soy protein fortification improved the total amount of protein in the final rice products and provided a complementary amino acid profile to that of rice; the lysine content improved from 35 to 60 mg/protein, making the end product an excellent source

of complete protein. Thus, SC-CO2-assisted extrusion is an effective processbased approach to produce cereal grain-based, lowmoisture (5-8%) expanded products fortified with protein and any cocktail of micronutrients, without compromising the end-product sensory or nutritional qualities. These products are ideally suited for consumption as breakfast cereals, snack foods, and as part of nutrition bars for school lunch programs. The balanced nutritional profile and use of staple crop by-products such as broken rice makes these expanded crisps unique to the marketplace. Rssl

Pectins as breadmaking additives A study published in Food and Bioprocess Technology reports the effect on dough rheology and bread quality of pectins. A group of Argentinean researchers has analysed the effect of two types of pectins with different degrees of esterification on dough and bread characteristics. A high methoxyl pectin (HMP) and a low methoxyl pectin (LMP) were assayed in dough without or with salt (2%) at levels ranging from 0.25 to 2.0%. Farinographic water absorption increased when pectins

were incorporated in dough with salt, whereas this effect was not observed in dough without salt. Pectin addition diminished the stability of dough in all cases. Texture profile analysis showed that pectins softened the dough, particularly when salt was added. Cohesiveness was also higher in doughs with salt at the maximum level of hydrocolloid addition. In dough with salt, HMP decreased the elastic and viscous moduli, while the values for tan (δ) were increased with respect to

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control. SEM micrographs showed that dough with pectin has a filamentous structure. In the breadmaking process, dough with

HMP showed a better performance, leading to higher specific volumes and softer crumbs both in fresh and stored bread.

A single portion of blueberry: What effects? It has been suggested that anthocyanin-rich foods may exert antioxidant effects and improve vascular function as demonstrated mainly in vitro and in the animal model. A group of researchers from Italy, Denmark and USA have hypothesized that blueberries, a rich source of anthocyanins, could improve cell protection against oxidative stress and affect endothelial function in humans. The aim of their study, accepted for the Nutrition Research journal, was to investigate the effect of one portion (300 g) of blueberries on selected markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant protection (endogenous and oxidatively induced DNA damage) and of vascular function (changes in peripheral arterial tone and plasma nitric oxide levels) in male subjects. In a randomized cross-over design, separated by a wash out period 10 young volunteers received one portion of blueberries ground by blender

or one portion of a control jelly. Before and after consumption (at 1, 2, and 24 hours), blood samples were collected and used to evaluate anthocyanin absorption (through mass spectrometry), endogenous and H2O2-induced DNA damage in blood mononuclear cells (through the comet assay), and plasma nitric ox-

ide concentrations (through a fluorometric assay). Peripheral arterial function was assessed by means of Endo-PAT 2000. Blueberries significantly re-

duced (P < 0.01) H2O2-induced DNA damage (-18%) 1 hour after blueberry consumption compared to control. No significant differences were observed for

Spent coffee as a source of hydrophilic bioactive compounds A group of researchers from the University of Navarra (Spain) examined the antioxidant content of

the coffee waste and they found that a large amount of the antioxidants from coffee remain in the waste

endogenous DNA damage, peripheral arterial function and nitric oxide levels after blueberry intake. In conclusion, one portion of blueberries seems suffi-

cient to improve cell antioxidant defence against DNA damage, but further studies are necessary to understand their role on vascular function.

product. Thus waste from brewing coffee could be a valuable resource for the production of antioxidants for dietary supplements. The Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry reports the novel findings of this study. The main hydrophilic anti-

oxidant compounds (3-, 4-, and 5-monocaffeoylquinic and 3,4-, 3,5-, and 4,5-dic a f f e oy l q u i n i c a c i d s , caffeine, and browned compounds, including melanoidins) and the antioxidant capacity (FolinCiocalteu, ABTS, DPPH, Fremyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s salt, and TEMPO)

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXXI (2013) april -


were evaluated in Arabica and Robusta spent coffee

obtained from the preparation of coffee brews with

Evaluating tenderness and colour stability in meat Scientists from U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) designed a system to predict superior beef tenderness just as effective at predicting tenderness in pork and colour stability in meat. The non-invasive te n d e r n e ss p r e dic t io n system was developed in the 1990s to identify U.S. Select beef carcasses with outstanding tenderness in the ribeye/strip loin muscle. The technology is based on visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, and can be used without destroying any product from the carcass. Food technologists invented the system and have tested it on more than 4,000 beef carcasses and 1,800 boneless pork loins. In collaboration with the National Cat-

tlemenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Beef Association, they demonstrated how the technology could be applied

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filter, espresso, plunger, and mocha. The researchers reported that all spent coffee grounds, with the exception of those from the mocha coffeemaker, had relevant amounts of total caffeoylquinic acids (6.22-13.24 mg/g of spent coffee), mainly dicaffeoylquinic acids (3.315.79 mg/g of spent coffee), which were 4-7-fold higher than in their respective cof-

fee brews. Caffeine ranged from 3.59 to 8.09 mg/g of spent coffee. The antioxidant capacities of the aqueous spent coffee extracts were 46.0-102.3% (filter), 59.2-85.6% (espresso), and <42% (plunger) in comparison to their respective coffee brews. In conclusion, the scientists suggest that coffee waste may be a rich source antioxidant for supplements bioactive compounds.

on the ribeye during carcass grading at commercial processing facilities, and to individual cuts of meat after aging. They also partnered with the National Pork Board to successfully predict tenderness of boneless pork

loins during the boning and trimming process. Some steaks and chops turn brown quicker than others and often have to be sold at a discount or thrown away. Scientists were able to modify the system to predict colour stability. They looked at environmental factors such as lighting and oxygen consumption by simulating a retail display case to mimic conditions steaks go through in a traditional supermarket. They also studied variations in genetics from a pedigree of 500 animals, and found considerable differences in colour stability among those animals. That finding suggests colour stability might be improved through genetic selection. Scientists continue to assess the many applications of the system, which has shown to be efficient and cost-effective in predicting tenderness and colour stability in beef and pork.

Anti-fungal activity of sourdough A Canadian researcher team has explained why sourdough bread has an extended mould-free storage-life compared to conventionally leavened products. It has long been known that the presence of metabolites from specific strains of lactobacilli contributes to the prolonged storage-life of sourdough bread. Several compounds have been identified as antifungal metabolites of sourdough lactobacilli but

these are either not produced in effective quantities in sourdough fermentations, or adversely affect the quality of the product when produced in active concentrations. The aim of this study published in Applied and Environmental Microbiology was to determine whether lactobacilli can convert linoleic acid into metabolites with antifungal activity, and whether this conversion delays fungal spoilage of bread.

Various preparations of sour dough were prepared containing different amounts of lactobacilli, including L. hammesii, and challenged with three fungal organisms, and a range of chemical analyses. The researchers concluded that L. hammesii converts linoleic acid to a mono-hydroxy octadecenoic acid with antifungal activity; this conversion was observed in sourdough fermentations supplemented with linoleic acid but generation of hydroxy fatty acids in sourdough also occurred through enzymatic or

chemical oxidation. Monohydroxy octadecenoic acid in combination with substrate derived coriolic acid (mono-hydroxy octadecadienoic acid) inhibited mould growth on sourdough bread. The authors of this study also note that the use of coriolic acid and antifungal metabolites from linoleic acid as natural antifungals is not limited to food preservation. Antifungal metabolites from lactobacilli may complement or substitute these fungicides for use in seed treatment and crop protection. Rssl

Stone grinding millS Everybody knows that Real Wholemeal Flours keep all the vitamins, mineral salts and fibres that the grain contains. Therefore we are decided to dedicate ourselves to the Wholemeal Grinding activity with Stone Mills. Our 60-years-old experience in milling sector has allowed us to bind tradition to technological evolution. So, our Milling Plants are suitable either for the Milling Industry or for the small Miller, either for the Bakery or for Rural activity. All our Mills are built according to International Food and Mechanical Standards.

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MILANO Piazza Duca Dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Aosta, 8 - 20124 - Italia Tel. +39.02.6692734 - Fax +39.02.6692634

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXXI (2013) april -


FOOD PROCESSING Up-to-date technology for thermal treatments Pigo is one of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s leading freezing equipment manufacturers and fruit and vegetable processing equipment suppliers, with an extensive experience in both freezing and fruit and vegetables processing. Together with its partners, the company has installed several machines all around the world, both spiral and fluidised bed freezers. Pigo has developed the EASY Freeze fluidised bed freezer, the most suitable equipment for IQF freezing

a wide range of products, such as fruit, vegetable meat, and seafood. This model is modular and all components are made entirely of stainless steel, thus it is capable of providing perfect thermal treatment even with delicate products such as cooked rice, raspberries, etc. All units are completely assembled and tested prior to shipping to the clients. EASY Freeze SPYRO represents the latest generation spiral freezer, it gives the utmost advantages to the

Pigo at Fruitlogistica in Berlin.

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users, both in energy efficiency and in hygienic and technological advantages, such as: belt gear motors are positioned outside the insulated cabin (no lubrication inside the freezer) avoiding any risks of contamination due to oil leakages; the unit does not have mezzanine floor and/or intermediary platform to avoid any accumulation of dirt and to facilitate the cleaning operations; freezer design is made according to max thermal load and max surface occupied on the belt by the different products foreseen. The drum is without lateral openings to improve

the air guidance and to minimize the possibility to accumulate dirtiness; the lateral aprons to guide the airflow on the opposite side of the evaporators are on easy-access design such as openable or sliding door, but in any case easy access is granted all around; finally the temperature increase of cold air passing through the product is very low; air cannot therefore increase its humidity content substantially. Other advantages are low maintenance cost and low spare parts cost due to utilisation of high quality commercial components, and very low weight loss, which is two

Cherry pitting line with 4 pitting stations for 8 t/h total capacity mounted in Poland (Pigo).

times less then with vertical air flow. In order to obtain a quick freezing process, EASY Freeze SPYRO is designed for high speed circulation (4-10 m/s) of cold air in contact with the product, on the whole length of the spiral conveyor. EASY Freeze and EASY Freeze SPYRO are the result of many years of experience, research and development. Now, these machines are characterized by excellent operating characteristics, energy efficiency and are user friendly. Pigo also develops the automatic pitting machine

PG 103. Thanks to a special distribution system, providing almost 100% filled up plates (with fruit), and extremely large size of plates, the PG 103 pitting machine has at least 50100% higher capacity than any other pitting machine on the market, achieving this capacity with the optimal tact of 60 cycles per min. The experience of all the clients confirms that they work with 0.00% of remained stones when adequate quality and preparation of the fruit (clean, calibrated product with adequate ripeness) is provided. (Pigo - Via Pontaron 30 -

Washing and dripping line For over 50 years, Soncini has specialized in manufacturing machines and equipment for processing raw pork hams. The company presents the new automatic washing and dripping line LLS143 for cured raw ham, speck ham, bacon and similar products in transit on the processing chain. Unlike the conventional models where the washing water was re-circulated increasing the risks of bacterial contamination on the finished product, the ham is washed exclusively with clean water. The new line LLS143 is

made of Aisi 304 stainless steel; it works 180260 pieces/hour with a water consumption of ~814 L/piece. As an optional, Soncini offers an automatic unloading system. The line is capable of working automatically with a stepped or continuous forward movement with excellent results on the product and contained running costs. Unlike the conventional systems, the reduced contact time with hot water allows to maintain the product unaltered from a physical and organoleptic point of view. Thanks to the new dripping system,

Pigo takes part to several exhibitions around the world; here with some customers in India.

36030 Caldogno - VI - Italy Tel. +39 0444 905709 - Fax

+39 0444 909778 - email:

the ham can be washed and then boned immediately afterwards, without having to resort to dedicated cold stores for drying. LLS143 by Soncini is available in several tailor-made

versions for every customers need. (Macchine Soncini Alberto Via Roma 68 - 43013 Langhirano - PR - Italy Tel. +39 0521 861197 - Fax +39 0521 858069 - email:

Ham washing and dripping line mod. LLS143 (Soncini).

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXXI (2013) april -


Apple processing In the food industry, among all other fruits the apple is the one most suitable to different uses and for this reason, the ABL company, besides the peeler series PDS/R and cutter series TS, has also developed other technologies able to carry out special processing. ABL presents Stick 50, a machine used to obtain apple sticks from peeled and cored fruits; sticks, which are then dried or fried, are used for the production of snacks. Another very special machine by ABL is called Reamer, a system for apple stalk and flower removal.

Apples processed with PN 400 (ABL).

Reamer is the solution for the applesauce production industry, and it is widely used in North American markets. This system can process up to 450 fruits per minute, in a fully automatic way. PN 400 is also a machine devised for apple processing. It is used to complete some working phases in those factories still using caustic peelers. With PN 400 fruit, which can already be caustically peeled or whole and unpeeled, are automatically positioned, cored and cut into segments by means of an exclusive and patented ABL system. Based on customer needs, the machine can be integrated with a seed removal system. (ABL - Via Repubblica di Montefiorino 5-9 - 41030 Villavara di Bomporto - MO Italy - Tel. +39 0535 58927 Fax +39 0535 58903 - email:

Cross-flow filtration Velo Acciai presents the new cross-flow microfiltration plant for the clarification of juices, musts, and wines. Such plant can replace traditional filtration systems such as Diatomaceous earth filtration, centrifuges, plate and frame sheet filters, and can multiply the duration of mi-

crofiltration cartridge-filters used before bottling. Velo Acciai plants are able to treat musts, still or sparkling wines, with a turbidity up to 2,000-3,000 NTU as inflow, with a 8-bar (116 psi) max total pressure (isobaric line pressure + plant pumps pressure).

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The output permeate is totally free of solid contaminants, microorganisms and unwanted particles; it allows a remarkable reduction of the filterability index in only one working phase; both protein and colloidal structures remain unchanged and thanks to the very small increase of temperature during the treatment, all organoleptic characteristics of the wine are preserved. The main advantages of the cross-flow microfiltration plant developed by Velo Acciai are the low energy consumption, excellent brilliance and quality of filtered wines/juices, clarification without adding coadjuvants, low residual volume with product yield exceeding 99% (depending on the quality of wine), improvement of the product in terms of sensory analysis, constant capacity and flow of the membranes, through an efficient regeneration system, and total retention of suspended solids, yeasts, colloids and particles; there is no need of pre-treatment (but with must); polyphenols, anthocyanins, alcohol, sugar, ash, total and dry extract, remain unchanged. The new cross-flow microfiltration plant is simple and easy-learning functioning, thanks to the color LCD touch-screen display interface and the completely automatic management via PLC of all cycles, production, emptying, rinsing, washing, storage, and

integrity verification of the installed membranes. All the Velo Acciai plants are equipped with a self-cleaning and automatic pre-filter in Aisi 316 stainless steel, in order to preserve the membranes, having a 20 μm filtration degree; great attention was devoted to the selection of the pumps, for a “gentle” treatment of the wine and to the high-precision electronic instruments, for the safe management, control and protection of the whole system. All the components in direct contact with must and wine are made in Aisi 304/316 stainless steel. The modularity of Velo Acciai plants, during design and manufacture, has resulted in a compact design, making possible the use of the system even wineries having small spaces. Velo Acciai plants have a range of nominal output capacity (permeate) of 10 to 250 hL/h. (Velo Acciai - Via San Lorenzo 42, Loc. Cà Rainati - 31020 San Zenone degli Ezzelini - TV - Italy - Tel. +39 0423 968966 - Fax +39 0423 968982 - email: info@

Power Transmission Equipment made in Italy Design and production Since 1955, Varvel has been developing fixed and variable gear boxes for light industry applications. Reliable and respectful of the values of a socially responsible enterprise, Varvel guarantees a high technical level also in customized solutions.

Modularity and flexibility Varvel excels out in planning and manufacturing sub-assemblies in kit form that are common to the gearbox families, all made in Italy. This makes the distributorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s job easier as product configuration is arranged and made ready in a few minute work.

Innovation and globalization Varvel reckons that new synergies are possible to be handled outside the Italian marketplace as well; a trend to the future that allowed Varvel to become a dynamic company used to facing international challenges.

techno l o g y m ade i n Ital y

VARVEL S.p.A. Via 2 Agosto 1980, 9 - 40056 Crespellano (BO) Italy Tel. +39 051 6721811 - Fax +39 051 6721825 - E-mail:

PACKAGING EQUIPMENT Thermoforming machine Ulma Packaging is expanding its range of thermoforming machines with a new model, the TFS 80, which is designed to pack food, nonfood or medical products. The package is created directly by the machine using two rolls of film. TFS 80 offers the ideal way to advance from manual packaging to automatic packaging. This machine provides an economical solution with the same cost saving advantages of larger thermoforming machines such as reduced

package cost, increased productivity, improved product appearance, and faster product loading. The characteristics of the machine make it highly desirable for mixed production requirements, since formats can be easily changed to meet customer requirements. Its versatility, easy operation, and quick size-change also makes it suitable as a support machine for short run products. Like all the other ULMA machines, the priority in design

TFS 80 thermoforming machine (Ulma Packaging).

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is given to the highest quality components, use of standard commercial high quality components, easy change of dies and tooling and easy access for maintenance. Ulma offers many optional devices such as a gas injection system, pneumatic change of the sealing plate, zig-zag knife for transversal cutting, pneumatic longitudinal cutting system, printed film centering device, aspiration system scrap collector,

exit belt, and synchronization with peripherals. In addition, TFS is adaptable to different formats and sealing plates for easy-open corner. The machine is built in accordance with international safety standards. ( Ulma Packaging - Via Dellâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Artigianato 2 - 29010 Gragnano Trebbiense PC - Italy - Tel. +39 0523 788447 - Fax +39 0523 788782 - email : info @

Sleeve applicator Twin Pack designs, produces and installs handle application, pick and place, palletizer and multipack machines with shrink-wrap or adhesive tape clustering solutions. Founded 20 years ago, Twin Pack was an immediate success thanks to a simple yet revolutionary idea: by joining a cardboard strip to the adhesive tape it is possible to make more comfortable pack handles. Moreover, the entire process can be integrated into a fully automated production line. Building on its initial success, Twin Pack steadily expanded and now provides

a wide range of machines specifically designed to meet the production needs of customers. The linear Sleeve Applicator mod. TP is a fully automatic electronic machine suitable for labelling irregularly shaped containers made of glass, plastic or other materials with heat-shrink film sleeves. The sleeve reel, preprinted according to the dimensions of the container, is unwound evenly by the conveyor rollers and fed to the cutting station; here, thanks to a print alignment device, it is cut to the desired length. Immediately after the cut the sleeve label is â&#x20AC;&#x153;fittedâ&#x20AC;?

TP linear Sleeve Applicator (Twin Pack).

on the container and then heat-shrunk by passing it through a steam or hot air tunnel that causes the sleeve to adhere to the product outline perfectly. Thanks to an extensive adjustment range, the machine can process various container sizes. The outstanding flexibility of Twin Pack sleeve applicators also makes post-installation size changeovers very simple. Moreover, these small compact, linear machines are ideal for use where space is restricted. (Twin Pack - Via Pertini 1/3 Località Maiano - 29027 Podenzano - PC - Italy - Tel. +39 0523 554020 - Fax +39 0523 554728 - email: info@

select and insert the product, and close and seal the tray with hot-melt. Upon request, they can be equipped with a shrink film station. The company is synonymous for 3 key-points in the development of automatic packaging and palletizing machines, system design and proposal, system production, sale and after-sale. Its “Future Sys-

tem Vision” aims at constant development to offer the very best packaging to businesses and it is the result of the combination of three qualities: speed, energy and teamwork, all available to the customer. (ProSystem - Via Staffali 19 - 37062 Dossobuono - VR - Italy - Tel. +39 045 8600074 - Fax +39 045 8600968 - email: info@

Automatic packaging solution Embloc casing machines Wrap series (ProSystem).

Founded in 1991 with a passion for the packaging process, ProSystem has been providing Italian companies with innovative automatic machine solutions for all types of packaging and palletizing. Thanks to experience gained over the years, ProSystem is now a well-known European and International packaging automation provider, recognized as a dynamic and versatile company with a full array of high-tech solutions and ideas. It collaborates with custom-

ers to achieve the best logistic and ergonomic layouts and improve the efficiency of businesses who work day after day with its systems. “Compact Quality” is the slogan that has always distinguished ProSystem for the special attention that the company gives in order to optimize space. For example, the Embloc casing machines Wrap series are suitable for low, medium and high production of close carton, open tray and shrink; they make carton from open carton,

Shrink-wrapping machine Mimi has developed Uniblock 700 /NF, an automatic shrink-wrapping machine with a motorized inline feed belt conveyor. This machine is mainly suited for the sleeve wrapping or the totally closed wrapping by self-sealing film of individual products such as trays, boxes, wooden cases, electrical cables skeins and so on.

Characterized by a sealing bar 750 mm wide, a shrink tunnel with powered belt conveyor controlled by an Inverter, a PLC switchboard and control panel, and CE protection devices, as an option the Uniblock 700/ NF can be mounted on a sealing bar 950-1,350-1,650 mm wide and a top film unwinding unit with ground-

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXXI (2013) april -


based reel and 90° film return to facilitate reel-change. The machine is also available with electronic check of the film length by Encoder (High Speed version), shrink tunnel with mixed workingsteam /electrical heaters (special version for indus-

trial laundries), and in-feed belt – kissing type – to facilitate the transfer of very light packs over the sealing bar. (Mimi - Viale Italia 186/188 - 14053 Canelli - AT - Italy Tel. +39 0141 820311 - Fax +39 0141 831610 - email:

Shrink-wrapping machine mod. Uniblock 700/NF (Mimi).

excellent inside view and accessibility. This casepacker machine is totally adjustable and it can handle a big standard range of formats and can provide very easy size change-over carried out without the need of any

tools. On request a wide range of options is available. (Tinarelli - Via Balzani 13 - 40069 Zola Predosa BO - Italy - Tel. +39 051 751400 - Fax +39 051 759200 - email: info@

Horizontal casepacker machine CHM10 (Tinarelli).

Horizontal casepacker machine

Automated pallet stacking systems

Tinarelli presents the automatic horizontal casepacker machine CHM10, for stacking and introducing different products into American-style cases. Automatic feeding changes depending on type and on arrival speed of the products to be packed, and on the final layout of the products in the case. The case magazine with a great capacity and thanks to its top position, can be easily fed while the machine is

TMG presents Autopal PalPaq, a low-level automatic or semiautomatic palletiser with the pallet in a stationery position for low production needs. It is ideal for cartons, crates, jerry cans and shrink-packed products. The products on infeed are distanced one from the other, then they are orientated, grouped into layers and placed on the pallet in a pre-determined programme. Autopal PalPaq is “flex-

in operation. The blank case is picked up and transferred with a very fast procedure by a 2-axis movement controlled by servomotors. Positive opening of the case is made by suction cups and this allows the opening of even the most “difficult” cartons, while the case closure is made by adhesive tape or by hot-melt glue. The safe guard is completely transparent and gives the operators an

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ible”. Sweep palletisers with minimal footprint, which can be supplied with high or low-level infeed and can be adapted for a wide range of products. In alternative to palletising with the pallet on the ground or directly on the pallet outfeed conveyor, the palletiser can be fitted with a shuttle car system in the layer unloading area with two or more stations in order to allow different

products to be palletised simultaneously on separate pallets. Due to the rationalisation of the design in both size and operation, the machines have an excellent quality/price balance allowing the customer a quick payback on the initial investment. Autopal PalPaq is characterized by a speed of up to 3 cycles/minute and an air consumption of 6/7 bars. Upon request, it can be

equipped with high-level infeed, multi-pallet stations to palletise different products on different pallets, pallet conveyors, empty pallet magazine, layercard placement device, shuttle car system for transport of completed pallets, and supervision and teleassistance via modem. (TMG - Via Regia 5 - 35018 San Martino di Lupari - PD Italy - Tel. +39 049 9467911 Fax +39 049 9467900 email:

P.E. Labellers wins the challenge with a cold glue labelling machine Established in 1863 in Switzerland, Maggi was bought in 1947 by the Nestlè Group, world leader in nutrition, health, and well-being. Specialised in the production of products that are easy and quick to prepare, today Maggi is the Nestlè brand dedicated to high-quality instant sauces, rich with nutrients and that are, at the same time, competitive on the international market. For years, P.E. Labellers has worked together with this famous multinational company in many Countries, providing the best of its labelling technology for the various applications requested. In 2012 the Vietnamese

Nestlè plant turned to P.E. Labellers to solve a big problem involving labelling: the application of a thick and glossy wraparound label, with cold glue on truncated conical formats at a rather high speed; an almost impossible feat while respecting the client specifications and the very low application tolerances imposed by them (lower than a millimetre). Thanks to its forty years of experience in the field of labelling, P.E. Labellers has won this challenge. The Italian company has researched and developed a special cold glue labelling machine that is able to solve almost all the prob-

Autopal PalPaq low-level automatic palletiser (TMG).

lems involving bottles that are practically unlabellable, and that can guarantee high quality performances, without altering the client specifications and respecting the strict application tolerances. The client satisfaction for the cold glue labelling machine provided by P.E. was really great. In fact

just a few months after the installation of the first machine, the second one has been ordered. But the challenge for P.E. Labellers continues! (P.E. Labellers - Via Europa 25
46047 Porto Mantovano - MN - Italy
 - Tel. +39 0376 389311 - Fax 
+39 0376 389411 
- email: pelabellers@

Cold-glue Executive labeller (P.E. Labellers).

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXXI (2013) april -


ANCILLARY EQUIPMENT Washing and cleaning engineering PRC Impianti is specialized in the design, development and installation of machines and systems for cleaning, sanitizing and drying. The company offers solutions according to specific needs but it places respect for nature and the environment at the base of

Cabin machine for washing and chemical sanitation (PRC Impianti).

each project and develops machines with limited energy consumption and low environmental impact. All parts of the machine structure are made of Aisi 304 stainless sheet steel, with adequate thickness and exterior satin finishes. The base is of sturdy tubular steel and is level with non-slip feet; the double external panels of the machine ensure a good thermal and sound insulation. The entire construction of the machine is in compliance with the current European regulations on safety and hygiene. Washing and rinsing is done through auctions and oscillating nozzles, which are ro-

Sorting equipment The Roll-Grading system developed by Protec is designed to dewater, clean and calibrate the product while it is conveyed along the processing line. The first rank of rollers allows the conveying of the product and the elimination of small sized defects that are conveyed in the first hop-

per; in this way it is possible to reject leaves, grass, stems and other small sized objects. The second rank, which consists of rollers, is used for the calibration of the product. Protec also presents the conveying Roll-Feeder system for a proper conveying of diced tomatoes. A row of rolls man-

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tary or fixed, depending on the improved performance identified in the design. The rods are easily removable to allow cleaning of the nozzles. The water heating system can be chosen between the different types available: steam, electric, water broilers, thermal oil, and solar thermal. The dosage of the chemical process takes place through automatic dosing pumps. The loading and unloading of equipment can be manual or automatic, depending on the weight and size of the equipment. Each machine can be provided with the process of drying equipment; a vacuum vapour is applied to the top of the machine in order to

prevent the transfer of moisture to the environment. The control panel and operator panel is operated by â&#x20AC;&#x153;touch panelâ&#x20AC;? and PLC. The controls are low voltage and components are chosen from companies that offer greater reliability and durability. The phases of work can be programmed according to customer requirements. Through software applications installed on the machine controls the PRC Systems provides great flexibility. (PRC Impianti - Via I Maggio 43 - 28040 Borgo Ticino - NO - Italy - Tel. +39 0321 962874 - Fax +39 0321 908066 - email:

ufactured with a particular design, whose distance can be adjusted manually, first calibrates the diced product and then dewaters and cleans it eliminating seed, water, and small objects. Finally, it spreads the product out evenly. The Roll-Feeder is available in two models, one with 14 rolls and the other with 28 rolls. (Protec - Via Pradazzo 1/b -

40012 - Lippo Calderara di Reno - BO - Italy - Tel. +39 051 6467075 - Fax +39 051 6467079 - email: info@

Roll-Grading system (Protec).

PACKAGING MATERIALS Eurekabox increases the product visibility Product preservation and shelf-life have always been the prime objectives for Eurekabox and now Tecnowerk can offer customers even more. Safety is paramount for Eurekabox and its anti-tamper sealing system immediately reveals any damage to the packaging. Eurekabox is more than a wide range of food and non-food containers: it is a high-tech system that

makes products stand out on the shelf. Each container design is the result of thorough research and a passion for innovation and these are the values that the packaging communicates through shapes and colours that perfectly reflect the brand. E u r e k a b o x p a ck a g i n g comes in a variety of shapes and sizes, capacity from 250 to 5,000 mL, all of which can be per-

Detail of the Eurekabox anti-tamper system (Tecnowerk).

48 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXXI (2013) april

sonalised with IML or adhesive sleeve labelling for optimum communicative impact. Any picture, text or logo can be transferred in high resolution to Eurekabox packaging without any risk of deterioration to ensure that it continues to communicate the productâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s values and trumpet its success. The introduction in 2012 of new patented technology has made it possible to produce a two-colour lid in a wide range of colours and shades to meet the latest marketing requirements. The new two-colour lid is now available for oval 1and 2-litre containers. Eurekabox packaging is made of certified materials; containers can be stacked, resealed, reheated and recycled, all features associated with the best quality food products, the fruit of research, tradition, and innovation. Tecnowerk puts the same care into the design and manufacture of the Eurekabox range so as to communicate everything good about the product and all the qualities associated with Made in Italy. As well as offering a wide range of Eurekabox products, which can be ordered

Eurekabox packaging makes your product stand out (Tecnowerk).

Detail of the new two-colour lid (Tecnowerk).

in small quantities, at Tecnowerk the know-how and high-tech research are at the service of customers to design made-to-measure packaging for the specific needs of every brand. (Tecnowerk - Via Angelo Arboit 1 - 32030 Arsiè - BL - Italy - Tel. +39 0439 750038 - Fax +39 0439 759161 - email:

Advanced packaging solutions for pouches & bags TS, a division of packaging and Galandrino Robino, is specialized in the secondary seal, such as capping, wire hooding machines and packaging machines. TS presents the new Corner Zip, the innovative and functional solution for opening and closing. It can be inserted into envelopes to facilitate dosing of the product and, thanks

to its position and shape, also facilitates the opening and can be closed with one hand. The Corner Zip is ideal for semi-liquid foods, chocolates, sweets and sweeteners, dried fruits and snacks, tea leaves, chewing gum, powders and granules (coffee, tea, milk, salt and sugar), grated cheese, seasonings

and freeze-dried food company. The package currently on the market that supports the Corner Zip can be flat or stand-up, with handles, invitations, forms, etc. To weld the Corner Zip, the envelope must be made of polyethylene laminated inside and generally coupled to two, three or even four layers, such as aluminium, polyester, nylon and polyethylene. The envelopes may have dimensions 80-260 mm in width and from 100 to 300 mm in height, with a

volume from 0.75 to 2.5 L. (TS Packaging Division - Via Piero Coppo 7/9 - 14053 Canelli - AT - Italy - Tel. +39 0141 823910 - Fax +39 0141 829844 - email:

Corner Zip, easy opening solution for pouches (TS).

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXXI (2013) april -



Superfoods: are they really “super”? The media is full of reports of ultra-healthy foods, from blueberries and beetroot to cocoa and salmon. These reports claim to reflect the latest scientific evidence, and assure us that eating these foods will give our bodies the health kick they need to stave off illness and aging. But is there any truth? The growing public interest in food and health has encouraged the current attention on superfoods; in fact a simple Internet search for the word “superfood” reveals close to 10 million results, predominantly from health and nutrition blogs, online newspapers and magazines, and providers of nutritional supplements. 
 Despite its ubiquity in the media, there is no techni-

cal definition of a superfood. “A nutrient-rich food considered to be especially beneficial for health and well-being”, for the Oxford English dictionary, while no any reference to health in the Merriam-Webster dictionary which defines it as “a super nutrient-dense food, loaded with vitamins, minerals, fibre, antioxidants, and/or phytonutrients”. Superfoods refer to foods, and especially fruits and vegetables, whose nutrient content confers a health benefit above that of other foods. 

But it is important to look carefully at the scientific evidence behind the media’s superfood claims. Blueberries are one of the more popular and well-known superfoods, and have been

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studied frequently by scientists. The berries’ high concentrations of antioxidants, molecules that protect the cells in the body from harmful free radicals, have been reported to inhibit the growth of cancerous human colon cells, as well as kill them off. Blueberries are also rich in other antioxidants, which have been shown to prevent and reverse age-related memory decline in rats. 
 Açaí berries and pomegranates have also received the superfood status. The fruit pulp of açaí berries has been shown to have potent antioxidant properties, although any potential health benefits of this have yet to be confirmed in humans. While studies on pomegranate juice have suggested that it can lower blood pressure in the short-term, as well as reduce oxidative stress, in healthy people. These are both significant risk factors for heart disease. 

Like pomegranate juice, beetroot has been proposed as a heart-healthy superfood. Its high levels of nitrate are claimed to be converted by the body into

nitric oxide that, among other functions, has been shown to lower blood pressure and the tendency for blood clotting in humans. Cocoa has similarly been claimed to cut the risk of heart disease by lowering blood pressure and increasing the elasticity of blood vessels. This is thought to be due to cocoa’s high content of compounds called flavonoids. Finally, salmon has frequently made it onto superfood lists amid growing evidence that the omega-3 fatty acids in salmon and other oily fish may prevent heart problems in people with a high cardiovascular risk, as well as alleviate joint pain experienced by patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Looking closer When looking at studies on the ‘healthfulness’ of foods, there are three points to consider. First, a closer look reveals the difficulty in applying the results of these studies to real diets because the conditions under which foods are studied in the lab are often very

the same effects in people when consumed in the diet, because our diets, genes, and lifestyles vary from person to person, making it difficult to study the impact of nutrients on health. In contrast to cell culture and animal studies, a different different to the way these approach is needed when foods are normally con- exploring effects in humans sumed by people in their that ideally includes both everyday lives. intervention studies (where The research in this field researchers manipulate the tends to use high levels diet to determine the effect of nutrients and these are of a food or nutrient) and usually not realistically at- observational studies (where tainable in the context of a researchers observe the efnormal diet. The physiologi- fects of natural differences in cal effects of many of these people’s diets). foods are often short-term The final point to consider is and people would need to that many researchers study consume them often in order foods in isolation. Given that to reap their health benefits. people normally consume But especially for certain combinations of foods, pickfoods this could be counter- ing out a single one to study productive. For example, does not reflect real human frequently consuming co- consumption. What’s more, coa in the form of chocolate there is evidence to suggest would boost intakes not only that in some cases co-conof cocoa’s health-promoting sumption of foods can actuflavonoids but also of other ally increase the body’s abilnutrients of which it is rec- ity to absorb nutrients. The ommended to consume less.
 beta-carotene in carrots and An even greater considera- spinach, for instance, is more tion when looking at these readily absorbed when eaten studies is that many of them together with a source of fat tend to use either animal such as salad dressing. This models such as rats, or in hints at the merits of a diet vitro experiments using iso- based on a variety of nutrilated batches of human cells. tious foods as opposed to a These types of studies are diet based solely on one or a useful for giving scientists handful of superfoods. 
 an idea of what the health properties and physiological The bottom line mechanisms of certain food components could be, but The idea of foods having there is no guarantee that exceptional health benefits these components will have is an attractive one and the

science in this field has demonstrated that certain components of foods and drinks may be particularly good for us. This is also reflected in the existence of approved health claims, for which the European Food Safety Authority has found the scientific evidence base to be sufficiently convincing. At the same time, it is unrealistic to expect a narrow range of “superfoods” to significantly improve the consumer wellbeing. We consumers need to be realistic about how the evidence behind superfoods translates into real diets. Labelling some foods as ‘super’ in the media may also give the impression that other foods in diets are not as healthy when, in reality, these foods often provide nutrients just as valuable as those found in superfoods. Carrots, apples and onions, for example, are packed with health-promoting nutrients such as beta-carotene, fibre, and the flavonoid quercetin. Wholegrain varieties of cereal-based starchy foods such as bread, rice and pasta

are also high in dietary fibre. In adults, dietary fibre intake should be at least 25 g per day. These foods often have the added benefit of being cheap and readily available. This means we can easily consume them in large enough quantities and on a regular basis to get the most from their nutrient content. Given that most people in Europe are not eating enough fruit and vegetables to meet dietary recommendations, upping our daily intakes of a variety of fruits and vegetables will go a long way towards generally improving our well-being. When it comes to ensuring a balanced nutrient intake for good health, we need to increase the range of nutritious foods in our diets rather than focusing solely on a handful of foods claimed to be ‘super’. Importantly, this should include a greater quantity and variety of fruits and vegetables. Many European countries provide foodbased dietary guidelines to help people reach this goal. EUFIC

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXXI (2013) april -


A new tool for food traceability: DNA barcoding Researchers at University of Milan and University of Trieste analysed the findings from several studies to exploit the effectiveness of DNA barcoding as a tool for food traceability. The review also considered other applications such as quality control and detection of commercial fraud and it is published in Food Research International. What is DNA barcoding? DNA barcoding is a molecular based system, which allows scientists to identify particular species, by comparing short genetic markers in the specimen DNA with reference sequences. Its success depends on the molecular variability between species and the availability of high quality repositories of reference sequences (i.e. DNA sequences of known species). An example of the latter is the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD). This is coordinated by the International Barcode of Life Project

and is a repository, which supports the collection of reference sequences, with the aim of creating a reference library for all living species. It includes a species identification tool which returns a taxonomic assignment to the species level whenever possible. It is a useful resource for research and practical applications. DNA barcoding of seafood, meat, edible plants, dairy products and processed foods The authors of this review considered the applicability of DNA barcoding for the identification and traceability of seafood, meat, edible plants, dairy products and processed foods. They highlighted that DNA barcoding is particularly successful when applied to seafood because: i) in comparison to other animal sources (e.g. cattle, sheep, goat, horse) the number of species is higher, so the effectiveness of the technique is enhanced; ii) classical identification approaches are not useful in many cases (following industrial processing, morphological characteristics are often lost and classical identification processes are no longer effective) and iii) identification can often proceed beyond species level, allowing the identification of local varieties

52 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXXI (2013) april

and hence the origin of the product. The technique has been used to identify commercial fraud, e.g. the illegal and dangerous substitution of the toxic puffer-fish mislabelled as monkfish. Despite its proven effectiveness, few studies on the application of DNA barcoding to certain categories of seafood (e.g. crabs and lobsters) have been conducted. Therefore, more extensive studies are required to confirm the potential use of this technique on all kinds of seafood, as a reliable traceability tool. The applicability of DNA barcoding for the identification and traceability of mammalian (e.g. beef, pork, lamb, venison, horse) and avian (e.g. chicken, turkey) meat was also highlighted. However, the researchers noted that there are several cases of species or breeds with the same DNA profile. In this case DNA barcoding would not be able to return a correct identification, thereby making it impossible to track some meat products. This phenomenon is common in livestock. An example is cattle where many breeds are derived from hybridisation events. There are no technical limitations to the application of DNA barcoding to the traceability of plant raw materials. However, at cultivar level, the reduced genetic diversity often requires analysis of large portions of the genome. This has cost implications and is contrary to

the basic DNA barcoding methodology, which requires the analysis of short and universal DNA regions only. Regarding dairy products, the authors pointed out that although no studies based on a strict DNA barcoding approach have been conducted, the use of molecular tools to characterise and trace dairy products is gaining large acceptance. Regarding processed foods, DNA barcoding has been used to identify commercial tea, fruit species in yogurt, and fruit residues in juices, purees, chocolates, cookies etc. However, certain challenges were highlighted. During processing, the DNA structure of many ingredients (e.g. seeds, fruits, plants and animal parts) can be transformed as a result of physical (i.e. heating, boiling, UV radiation) or chemical (i.e. addition of food preservative, artificial sweeteners) treatments. For this reason, the application of DNA barcoding on transformed commodities can be ineffective. The researchers concluded that DNA barcoding could be used as a universal tool for food traceability. It can be used in different contexts by different operators (e.g. by regulatory authorities, researchers). While some groups of organisms, such as fish, have a well-populated reference database, more work is required to provide high quality repositories of reference sequences for other groups of organisms.

Food calorie count labels are often inaccurate “Why a calorie is not a calorie and why it matters for human diets” is the title of the meeting for American Association for the Advancement of Science in Boston. The researchers report that energy consumed from the human diet is consistently under estimated because features of the digestive process are ignored, including the activity of gut microbes, bioavailability, and the metabolic cost of food digestion. They note that this could lead to errors of up to 30%. Prof. Richard Wrangham, from Harvard University, states that it is time for a high-

level panel to consider how best to improve the quality of information provided to the public about the real energy value of their foods, noting that the current Atwater System is out of date. High fibre foods such as muesli contain more calories than stated, as the current system does not take into account calories from fibre. An average bowl of bran cereal contains on average 20 extra calories, while muesli contains 12 more. Geoffrey Livesey, a British nutritionist who was also on the panel, states that generally the system uses calories conversion factoring which means

a gram of protein or carbohydrate provides four calories, while a gram of fat provides nine calories. This works for highly digestible foods but assumes that fibre has no energy value to the body. He notes that fibre used to be mostly cellulose which was difficult to digest and would pass straight though the body however now fibre also includes pectins and soluble fibre which are broken down in the large intestine into compounds that provide energy for the body. He states this is equivalent to around two calories per gram of fibre. Klaus Englyst from Southampton talks about “Bioavailability of carbohydrates”. He notes that “the ability to characterise dietary carbohydrates

in detail and taking into consideration their bioavailability attributes, such as the rate and extent of starch digestibility, provides tools with which to better understand the impact of diet on metabolism and health”. Finally, Rachel N. Carmody from Harvard University, one of the panellists, says that energy values often reported in scientific literature and on nutrition labels suggest that food processing has little caloric effect. However recent controlled experiments in her laboratory using animal models have found that processing by thermal and/or non-thermal means contributes importantly to energy harvest from plant and animal foods. RSSL

CONSUMER TRENDS Prepared salads turn over new leaf

The prepared salads market is increasingly extending away from its established place in the side dishes and accompaniments market to also perform a more main meal function. The greater use of more substantial protein ingredients, such as poultry or fish, accompaniments such as croutons and breadsticks, and a wider range of convenient packaging formats have assisted this trend, particularly for lighter lunch and on-the-go options.
 The sector remains relatively limited in terms of launch activity within the ready meals sector, however, accounting for just under 6% of the global total recorded by Innova Mar-

ket Insights in 2012. This makes it the third smallest sector, ahead of only meal kits and sandwiches. Europe accounted for over 70% of activity, reflecting the greater development of the packaged chilled foods sector in the region generally, with North America in second place, with just over 11%. 

Lu Ann Williams, Research Manager at Innova Market Insights, reports that adding more convenience elements to the intrinsically healthy image of salads has helped to drive the market forward in recent years. “Products have also become increasingly complex in many instances,” she contends, “containing a greater vari-

54 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXXI (2013) april

ety of often more unusual ingredients, sometimes including dressings and/or additional garnishes such as croutons.” 

The sector is also moving away from its more traditional commodity image and reliance on retailer own-labels toward the greater use of brands and co-branding to add value. The Geant Vert (Green Giant) vegetable brand was moved into the packaged salads market in France in 2012, for example, while Popp launched a chilled potato salad in Germany, co-branded with the Miracel Whip dressing brand. Over in the US, Ready Pac Foods has teamed up with Disney to launch CoolCuts, a range of salads and lunch kits featuring popular characters from Disney shows and movies. 

There has also been a growing focus on limited edition seasonal lines in many markets, featuring both standard and more unusual ingredients. In Germany, for example, Gartenfrisch Jung launched its Festtags Mischung (Fes-

tive Mix) in special packaging for Christmas 2012. Earlier in the year in the UK, summer salads such as Salads to Go’s Jamie Oliver Summer Salad gave way to autumn mixes such as G’s Fresh Autumn Leaves lines. 

The UK has also seen particular activity in the premium and specialty market with launches such as Hedgerow Salad and Sweet Meadow Salad under the Foragers Choice name. These were introduced by the retailer Marks & Spencer and featured ingredients that could be found while foraging. This followed the launch of the unusual Quinoa & Edamame Soya Bean and Pasta Asparagus & Slow Roasted Tomato salads by the retailer a few months earlier. Other more unusual added-value options included Steve’s Leaves BLT Salad and Wasabi Rocket Salad extensions to its range of branded salad bowls. 

Meanwhile, in France, the boxed ready meal trend that has been driving the market in recent years has spread into

salads. Sodebo introduced a selection of chilled salads in boxes carrying the Salad et Compagnie branding,

with the initial six lines based on different international cuisines.

Dairy alternatives move beyond soy The news is that, while dairy alternative drinks accounted for a relatively limited share of 5% of the total dairy launches recorded by Innova Market Insights in the 12 months to the end of October 2012, the market has seen considerable recent development. This is being fuelled by its increasing popularity in the West, where it is moving out of the specialist heath food arena and into the mainstream. 
 Soy milks traditionally dominate the sector and still featured in 78% of dairy alternative drinks launches, either as a main or secondary ingredient. But there has been rising interest in the use of other plant-based alternatives, including cereals, such as rice, oats and barley, and nuts, such as almonds, hazelnuts and walnuts. Rice was the second most popular ingredients after soy, but at a considerable distance, featuring in 17% of introductions. This is ahead of oats in 11% and almonds in 10%. Almond milks, already highlighted as a sector to watch by Innova Market Insights back in early 2011, has con-

tinued to grow in popularity. Their share of global launches has reached its present level of 10% from just 3% in 2005. Following the flurry of activity in almond milks in the US in 2010 and 2011, a rise in interest was recorded in Europe, particularly the UK, in 2012. Former soy specialist Alpro is extending into the nut milks market with almond and hazelnut milks early in the year, closely followed by Kallo developing its Dream range of milk alternatives with Almond Dream, and then the mid-year arrival of US almond company Blue Diamond’s Almond Breeze range. 
 As well as single-source milk alternatives, there has been a rising use of blends, such as soy and rice, or multigrain options. The move towards the combination of different non-dairy ingredient sources has been developing in recent years, and again the US has been leading the way. 2012 saw the extension of Hain Celestial’s Dream dairy-free brand with Dream Blends, marketed as the “next generation of non-dairy beverages” and

featuring a combination of almonds, cashews and hazelnuts. 

Dairy alternative drinks have traditionally been marketed on a health platform and this has continued, with three-quarters of launches recorded by Innova Market Insights featuring a health claim of some kind. The most popular positionings relating to lactose-free formulations, the use of organic ingredients, a low cholesterol content and an additive- and preservative-free “clean-label” image. Over 35% of global introductions featured lactose-free labelling, rising to over 50% in North America and Europe. Within the “active” health or fortified arena, the use of added vitamins and minerals, particularly calcium, was the most commonly used claim. Heart health claims, once frequently used to market soy milk, particularly in the US, are no longer so much in evidence. This reflects regulatory concerns over claims, as well as disputes over their validity. About 6.5% of launches featured heart health claims in the 12 months to the end of October 2012, which was lower than the level of claims for digestive and gut health, at 7.5%. Lu Ann Williams, Head of Research at Innova Market Insights, reports that, while non-dairy milk alternatives are still a relatively small market overall outside Asia, purchase levels are rising

rapidly in some countries. This reflects the growing awareness of allergy and intolerance issues and the low fat, low calorie and cholesterol-free positioning of many of the products. “Within the overall dairy alternative drinks sector, soy is facing some problems with regard to health scares and the result, in many instances, has been a move to other, non-soy plant-based alternatives. This trend seems set to continue with an increasing variety of products being made available,” she concludes.

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Confectionery creates clean label choices Although health is normally not a key driver in confectionery purchasing and consumption, the rising level of interest in naturalness as a whole has been making a growing impression in the confectionery sector and driving the move to “clean labelling” by the industry. 

 Nearly 9.5% of all confectionery launches recorded by Innova Market Insights in the 12 months to the end of September 2012 used either natural or additive-/ preservative-free claims or both. This made it the most popular health claim overall, ahead of sugar-free/ low-sugar/no-added-sugar, featured on just under 9% of introductions, organic on 3.3% and low fat on just under 2%. 
Levels of interest in natural and additive-/preserva-

tive-free claims have been much higher in the US and Western Europe, where they accounted for 16 and 15% of total confectionery introductions, respectively. Sugar confectionery and chocolate both featured a similar number of launches using natural and additiveor preservative-free claims, but their influence was far more significant for sugar confectionery, as they accounted for over 15% of total launches, compared with 9% for chocolate. 

A recent development that could also help in the drive for clean-label confectionery has been the growing use of the natural sweetener stevia, which finally gained EU approval in 2011, following on from 2008 approvals in the US and Australasia. Confectionery launches featuring stevia

have risen sharply, more than quadrupling over a 1-year period. Germany has seen particular levels of activity, with 2012 introductions including a reformulation of Kalfany’s Pulmoll sugar-free throat sweets with vitamin C, using stevia as a sweetener rather than artificial sweeteners such as aspartame and acesulfame-K and the mid-year launch of its Acti Fresh Drops with stevia and natural fruit juice concentrates. Perhaps most significant, however, was a launch from Germany’s leading gums and jellies company Haribo, which introduced Stevi-Lakritz licorice sweets, formulated to give a natural product with 40% fewer calories than standard lines.

 The Research Manager at Innova Market Insights Lu Ann Williams confirms that interest in naturalness, all-natural ingredients and the elimination of artificial additives has continued to

be an area of considerable interest in the food and drinks market. “Looking at levels of new product activity,” she reports, “this trend seems set to continue, not only in the introduction of new clean-label lines, but perhaps more significantly in the reformulation of existing market-leading brands to meet clean-label criteria.”

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56 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXXI (2013) april

PACKAGING TRENDS Five pack types to watch in the food packaging industry in 2013 The food packaging industry showed a strong performance in 2012, and 2013 looks just as good; sales are forecast to grow a further 3%, with global retail packaging consumption set to reach 1.87 trillion units this year. As far as dynamic gains go, there’s an interesting mix of high performers to take note of for 2013 and beyond. Liquid cartons are well represented, both through the shaped liquid carton, forecast to be the fastest growing pack type this year, and through the brick carton.

Top 5 fastest growing pack types in the global food packaging industry 2012-2013. % Growth 2012-2013 Shaped liquid cartons Metal beverage cans Stand-up pouches Brick liquid cartons HDPE bottles

9.8 9.7 6.6 5.6 5.2

2012-2013 Absolute growth (million units) 1,842.2 351.6 1,490.5 4,689.3 3,080.8

Government-promoted dairy consumption, a stimulus to liquid carton growth

…and the beverage can is making headway for Chinese dairy drinks…

Drinking milk products is the driving category behind the growth of both liquid carton formats with the Asia Pacific region. Initiatives to encourage increased dairy consumption remain high on the Chinese Government’s agenda and consumers are responding, increasingly choosing liquid carton-packed sour milk, chocolate milk or long-life UHT milk. Inner Mongolia Mengniu Dairy Industry Group is leading the way, supplying an ever-increasing product range to cater for this rising demand. HDPE bottles are another beneficiary of the health-driven consumption of liquid dairy products, particularly drinking yoghurt. China, Brazil and Mexico offer especially good growth prospects, with a wider product variety, extensive regional distribution and a consumer base increasingly able to afford such products.

The beverage can is perhaps considered an unlikely contender but it is another dynamic growth format for the food industry. While it is a niche performer in terms of actual unit volume prospects, it represents an interesting one nonetheless, as

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an illustration of how to differentiate through packaging. The global beverage can growth comes courtesy of the Chinese flavoured milk drinks category and a high-end positioning strategy from the Want Zai brand. The beverage can represents a real alternative to the liquid carton in dairy drinks and will continue to gain from a fast-growing dairy drink category in China. Unlike the liquid carton and beverage can, defined by dairy consumption trends in emerging markets, the stand-up pouch can be considered more of a global winning packaging formula. The pouch enjoys an increasing uptake across all world regions. Admittedly, the pouch is a much smaller player in actual volume sales, accounting for just 1% of global food packaging, as opposed to a 7% share for the liquid carton family, but it is rising in popularity. But what’s so special about the pouch? Parent and baby-friendly, the pouch is now getting a bite of the apple. The US case The baby food category is an interesting one to observe, with the US, an especially high-value market, recording a transformation in recent times, with many brands migrating over to the pouch in prepared baby

well as a snack or lunch box option for children, as there’s no need for a spoon, making it a very easy on-thego format. They’re mainly targeted at children but with strong potential to appeal to adults. The product is seen as a healthy snack in an easyto-consume-from pack. Stand-up pouch unit volumes in the US are forecast a 40% increase in 2013. Packaging’s future

food or adding the pouch to their packaging portfolio at the expense of the glass jar. In baby food, the pouch serves to better answer modern consumer needs as a safe, easycarry pack and aid to self-feeding as one’s baby gets older. The pouch further acts to help segment the baby food market, exemplified by the success of premium and organic varieties, also driving the demand for plastic screw closures typically fitted on these pouches. The UK is another key Country for the baby food pouch, epitomised by brands such as Ella’s Kitchen Organic and Plum Organics. The pouch is an alternative to the more usual thin wall plastic container, offering added consumer convenience attributes. It works

Packaging’s future is positive. The biggest unit volume gains will undoubtedly be derived from fastdeveloping countries, but mature regions remain sizeable too, and all are open for pack innovation and development. This is evident in the success of the squeezy food pouch, encouraging baby and toddlerindependence, the easy-open jar/ bottle solution for the less dexterous but growing number of older consumers, or the microwaveable porridge pot, to name just three. The importance of packaging, primarily to protect the quality of the food it holds and help reduce food waste and also through its position as a tool to convey brand value, is here to stay. R. Downey Global Head of Packaging Research Euromonitor International

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MARKETING REPORTS Global demand for food processing machinery in 2016 The Freedonia Group presents the new study “World Food Processing Machinery” with future trends of the food processing machinery demand. Global sales of food processing machinery are expected to climb 7.3% per year to $53.3 billion in 2016. The main impetus for gains will come from increased demand for processed foods in developing nations as personal incomes rise. On top of this, a dietary shift in Countries like China and Brazil toward higher value-added foods such as meat and chocolate will prompt food manufacturers to broaden their operations and invest in additional manufacturing capacity in these areas. Industrial bakery equipment (including pasta machinery) represents the largest product type, accounting for approximately one-fifth of all food processing machinery sales in 2011.

Bakery equipment will also post the largest value gains through 2016, reflecting the basic and essential nature of the food made by these units. The Asia/Pacific region will record the fastest demand gains from 2011 through 2016, averaging 9.5% per year. The strong Chinese market will be the primary driver of regional sales, as demand in the Country will continue to advance at a rapid pace despite moderating from the 2006-2011 rates. Healthy growth in India, Indonesia, and Thailand will complement sales gains in China. Rising personal incomes will spur increased demand for processed foods and a dietary shift toward more costly, non-staple items, while advancing industrialization in these nations will make it more efficient to process basic foods such as grains, fruits, vegetables, and nuts by ma-

chine rather than manually. Sales of food processing machinery in other developing areas of the world will, generally speaking, climb at a healthy pace. Growth in food processing machinery demand in the world’s developed economies – which include Australia, Canada, Japan, the US, and Western Europe – was much slower than in industrializing nations between 2006 and 2011, and sales gains in most developed nations will continue to trail the world average through 2016. As these nations have relatively stable dietary preferences and consistently high personal incomes, the food manufacturing industries in these countries are very mature, and as a result there will be fewer growth opportunities for food processing machinery manufacturers.

World food processing machinery demand in billion dollars (The Freedonia Group). Item Food processing machinery demand

% Annual growth 2006


2016 2006-2011 2011-2016






North America






Western Europe







8,760 14,050 22,150



Central & South America






Eastern Europe







1,535 2,300 3,350



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Retortable plastic packaging to capture 90% of retorted foods market growth

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Retortable Packaging in Europeâ&#x20AC;? is a detailed multi-client research study published in March 2013 by AMI Consulting. It reviews the demand for the retortable packaging solutions and the existing supply, and it focuses on EU27+3 markets, across different applications. Retortable packaging is used to supply shelf stable long-life food products and currently the EU27 market uses 62 billion metal and glass containers and 26 billion units of plastic retortable containers. The ambient long-life food sector development is challenged with its market positioning and consumer concerns about quality in comparison with the chilled and/or frozen variants. Canned meals are perceived as inferior quality, less fresh and less authentic products, though their lower price-point and efficient production are key advantages. The segment is in need of modernisation, which can be done with the use of new plastic packaging solutions, and their improved process technology to deliver higher quality, long-life food products. Plastic packaging has the potential to re-vitalise mature markets such as soup, canned fruit, vegetables and fish, by introducing convenient, added value containers suited to modern day living. Over 90% of incremental demand for retortable applications until 2017 is expected to be satisfied with retortable plastic packaging solutions. Long-life barrier properties are

created using a variety of technologies. Co-extrusion is a well established production technology in Europe and it is expected to be the main contributor to the increase in retortable plastics penetration in the shelf-stable applications, leveraging the growth on the industry familiarity, reduced operational risk and low barriers to entry. Parallel to co-extrusion, another barrier technology emerging is co-injection. A lot of European converters are either considering or already testing the technology with

a number of commercial applications imminent in the foreseeable future. Other technologies include lamination (pouches), barrier blow moulding, barrier in-mould label (B-IML), and special coatings. Managing the so-called EVOH retort shock is of critical importance for the success of barrier plastics in the replacement of metal can and glass jars. The technical requirements mean material and additive suppliers have a major part to play as well.

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXXI (2013) april -


Optimistic outlook for aluminium foil deliveries in 2013 The first three quarters of 2012 have been characterized by a moderate increase in demand and deliveries for aluminium foil products from European manufacturers and this trend was maintained in the fourth quarter 2012. According to the European Aluminium Foil Association (EAFA) The year ended with total production up 2.1% at 818,400 t and deliveries in the Q4 2012 were 5% up compared with Q4 2011. “Last year’s recovery is encouraging, but the outlook remains cautious into 2013 so we cannot predict the situation going forward with any certainty. Growth in export sales is expected to continue, but European markets remain volatile. Requests for short term deliveries continue to affect production planning and European aluminium foil manufacturers must continue to be flexible and react to market changes quickly”, says the EAFA Vice-President and Roller Group Chairman, Manfred Mertens. Thinner gauges used for flexible packaging and household foil continued to lead the way with an increase of 3% compared with the previous year. The increase in Q4 compared with same period in 2011 was even 8%. Deliveries of thicker gauges which are typically used for semi-rigid containers and technical applications continued to decline, falling in total by 4% in the last twelve months, although the rate of decline is continuing to slow down with only a 1% decrease in the fourth quarter. Ex-

ports continued to show increases throughout the year. Deliveries outside the EAFA region (Armenia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Russia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and UK) were up 10%, confirming that emerging markets continue to outperform their European counterparts, although the fourth quarter exports outside the region were only up by 5%. “Last year was an exciting year for the association with its new ‘Closures Group’ which also started the major communication campaign ‘Aluminium Closures – Turn 360°’. In addition, we continued

demonstrating aluminium foil’s role for a more resource efficient society. This is also a leading theme from the EU Commission but we believe the concept is the right answer to global challenges like increasing urbanisation while aiming for a more sustainable production and consumption,” continued Manfred Mertens, reviewing EAFA’s activities in 2012. Aluminium foil characteristics are strength, formability and barrier properties, which have made it an essential part of many flexible packaging and container applications. Other uses of aluminium foil include automotive and heat exchange components, insulation material and many industrial applications.

European aluminium foil deliveries increased in 2012 (Alufoil).

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Food safety products reach $18 billion in 2016

World demand for food safety products is forecast to rise 8.4% per year to $18 billion in 2016. High profile international foodborne illness outbreaks, in addition to large product recalls due to food safety concerns, will continue to fuel demand as the prevention, identification, and traceability of food contaminants will remain key issues for consumers, food industry participants, and legislators. Demand for food safety products will also be boosted by the adoption of more stringent food safety regulations in both developed and developing Countries. Advances will further be supported by growth in food and beverage production, and expansion in the foodservice industry, as food processing plants and foodservice establishments constitute the largest markets for food safety products. These and other trends are presented in World Food Safety Products, a new study from The Freedonia Group. Disinfection products will continue to account for the largest share of the global market for food safety products, representing over one-half of total demand through the forecast period. Disinfectants and sanitizers are used at every level of food production, delivery, and preparation, reflecting the variety of potential food contamination points. Use of disinfection equipment, on the other hand, is concentrated at the food processing level. Demand for diagnostic testing products will benefit from an upsurge in the frequency of

food plant inspections, in no small part due to increasingly strict food safety regulations worldwide. Demand for disposable gloves is also expected to advance rapidly, boosted by gains in foodservice applications, especially in the fast growing quick service restaurant segment. Good opportunities will exist for smart labels and tags, driven by the rapid adoption of new smart label technology in food packaging and heightened emphasis on traceability in the food supply chain. The US will remain the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s largest national user of food safety products by far, accounting for one-quarter of the world market

through the forecast period. However, the most rapid advances will occur in developing regions. China will continue to see some of the fastest growth in demand, due to mounting pressure to ensure the safety of the food supply following a number of food safety incidents. In the coming years, China will surpass Japan to become the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s second largest food safety product market. Other Countries such as India, Brazil, Russia, and Mexico will also see rapid increases in food safety product demand through 2016, but gains will stem from a much smaller base.

World food safety product demand in million dollars (The Freedonia Group).

% Annual growth





2006-2011 2011-2016

Food safety product demand






North America






Western Europe







2,265 3,530 5,800



Central & South America






Eastern Europe







205 355 580 11.6 10.3

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THE TOTAL SOLUTION FOR YOUR BULK MATERIAL HANDLING AND INTELLIGENT BATCHING SYSTEMS Nol-Tec Group is present in three continents and through the years has built a well-know reputation for Bulk Handling and Air Pollution Control. Nol-Tec Europe is an international firm dealing with pneumatic conveying system for granular and friable products. In addition to Pneumatic Conveying and blending, Nol-Tec has gained proficiency in Mechanical Conveying, Weighing, Dosing and Automation systems, as well as in Air Cleaning and Emission Mitigation systems. Nol-Tec offers several solutions for raw materials storage and recovery, from silo to battery of storage silos, big and bulk bag unloaders, with innovative and customized options as electronic weighing and dosing, bulk bags automatic closure and integrated pneumatic conveying. WONDERBATCH

The Wonderbatch™ is the revolutionary concept of inline formulation that offers a total solution for receipts, batching and for the powdered bulk material handling in the Light Duty industrial fields. The Wonderbatch technology allows to obtain a wide range of recipes avoiding product contamination, optimizing space and production. The tests carried out at the Nol-Tec Europe and SIAD Research Centre showed a time saving of 40% compared to traditional systems.

Further advantages are: • dosing directly from the Bulk Bag; • automatic monitoring during the whole process; • no contamination; • traceability; • short cleaning time.

Applications: Bakery - Ice Cream / Cakes - Colorants - Additives Formulation - Food - Thè, caffe ', cocoa - Dairy products - Aromas and flavors - Feed - Spices - Health Food Typical Wonderbatch™ System

The Wonderbatch™ system uses the technology of M510 and M513 Stations for the storage and distribution of products. The M513 and IBC are positioned on the unloading and dosing station with cone valve M510, to flexibly compose any batch type.

Advantages: • No contamination • Short cleaning times • Accuracy of dosage directly from Bulk Bags • Control and traceability DOSING AND MIXING

Through years of experience, Nol-Tec Europe developed a particular and unique dosing control system: each ingredient is dosed with a double control, slow/fast, with an automatic dosing system of the value of the dosing set-up. The mixing is realized with a last generation mixer, BLENDER M244 (in ATEX, DAIRY, GMP version), that, without

mechanical parts, uses the air force to obtain product mixings with different bulk density and particle size. During the blending cycle, compressed air pulses gently lift the materials upward and outward in a continuous circular motion until the blending target is achieved. DENSE PHASE SYSTEM AND BULK BAGS FILLING/BAGGING Nol-Tec Dense Phase Pneumatic Conveying uses a reduced quantity of compressed air to transport big quantity of product, trough the use of the AIR ASSIST™, strategically positioned along the convey pipeline, in which the air is injected creating short and regular sludges of product. Furthermore, Nol-Tec Europe has patented an evolution of the EconoMizer or Air Mizer technology, that makes the system extremely flexible and secure against clogging, allowing low speed convey for fragile, abrasive and/or blended

products, and energy savings of up to 30%.

Peculiarities: • Low speed convey • Decrease of pipes and components abrasion • Reduced degradation of conveyed product • Conveying of premix with reduced segregation of components • Restart of convey with pipe full of product (non-purging concept) • Reduced air consumption

The Dense phase system is particularly effective for the conveying of product in Bulk Bags filling or Bagging machine, preserving the bulk density stable and/or the blending degree and/or the integrity of the product. The Bulk Bag loader M502 is suitable in this regards as it is equipped with a weighing system that allows a semi-automatic work cycle and precision of the Bulk Bag loading.

Ugo Vivone, Corporate Technical Specialist - Wonderbatch

NEWS information and interactivity all-in-one Taking its first steps, is the improved and expanded version of FoodExecutive, the portal for the food industry suppliers of our publishing company, which today is enriched with informative and interactive contents. Becoming “social” in order to be, more and more, an instrument providing updates in real time and of comparison for the operators of the food and beverage world. With a database containing more than 7,000 com-

panies, it is no longer only a search engine visited by professional operators from the sector looking for national suppliers, subdivided according to the category, product or geographic distribution, but also a source of up-to-the-minute information on products, ingredients, fairs, conventions, companies, machinery, markets, legislation and much, much more, to consult with a simple click. It is a window which opens onto the world of food, a

66 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXXI (2013) april

virtual container which is visited frequently and has a high visibility. All this is offered in Italian and English in order to reach users all over the world. News is inserted daily, which can then be gone into and read in a more complete form in our magazines, or flash on the latest news, to offer food for thought and tools for receiving updates for those who wish to be “in the know”. The great added value to the new FoodExecutive is the interactivity that it of-

fers: the internauts have the opportunity to comment the news, assess them and interact with the other readers, in a virtual space of participation and comparison. Down the side there is a list of the fairs where our publishing company is present, with multimedia links to access the reference websites. Then, top right, is a practical access to the Chiriotti Editori website to explore the world and services we offer: from the magazines that can be browsed

through to the database of the articles published, from the media kit to the contacts and the guide for the authors. Also of importance, is the opportunity of visibility and promotion for the companies, which as well as the possibility to appear in the

banners at the top of the page, can insert products, photos, clips and various information in the “Corner” box which is dedicated to them. A world worth discovering; the new FoodExecutive Chiriotti, absolutely not to be missed.

with the health and hygiene regulations normally required by importing Countries. (Tecno 3 - Via Mastri Ce-

stai 2 - 12040 Corneliano D’Alba - CN - Italy - Tel. +39 0173 610564 - Fax +39 0173 619494 - email:

Tecno 3 Open House Day Tecno 3 develops plant for the confectionery industry, in particular for the production of chocolate. On Friday 30th November last year it organized an “Open House Day” event at its headquarters in Corneliano d’Alba for its customers and companies in the sector to present a series of production lines designed using innovative technological solutions. One such example was the continuous line for processing cacao beans, from removal of the bacteria, roasting and separation of the husks from the nibs, through milling to the final cacao mass. Another was the automatic chocolate production plant, from batching and mixing of the ingredients through to the end product. Of particular interest were the hazelnut roasters, designed with the feature of guaranteeing a longer storage life without them turning rancid. Finally a series of handling

robots intended for the automation of certain production and packaging operations was also on display. Most of this machinery was in operation on the day in order to demonstrate the results that can be achieved using the lines designed by Tecno 3. Many technicians from leading Italian and European companies in the industry attended the event with great interest. Some producers of cacao from Cameroon were also present to find out more about Tecno 3, and about its machines and reliability. This African State is, in fact, promoting the production of cacao, and in particular its transformation into semi-processed products for export to chocolateproducing Countries. Tecno 3 is able to supply all the plant intended for this purpose, with cutting edge technological solutions capable of guaranteeing quality in compliance

The Open Day at Tecno 3.

Sustainability and energysaving at the Golfetto Sangati production unit In line with Pavan Group’s philosophy, Golfetto Sangati invests in clean energy, confirming the attention to en-

vironmental issues as a necessary step to support balanced growth. The photovoltaic system

The photovoltaic system installed on the roof of Golfetto Sangati production unit.

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXXI (2013) april -


NEWS installed on the roof of the production unit in Quinto di Treviso (Italy) was recently inaugurated. With an average energy production of 868,000 kWh/year obtained by means of 3,442 modules spread over an area of approximately 6,000 sqm, the investment ensures the Pavan Group plant a significant reduction in environmental impact. During the sunniest months production activities can be sustained entirely by solar energy, avoiding any resorting to polluting energy sources, with the yielding part of the production to the grid. This will enable zero pollutant emissions for the production of electricity, avoiding the emission of nearly 400 tons of CO2 and 160 TOE (tons of oil equivalent) per year.

The focus on environmental balance is applied to all the activities carried out by the Group’s companies, both in the development of technology and machinery able to optimise energy resources and in the adoption of an environmentally sustainable organisational and production model. As well as the use of clean energy sources and limiting the consumption of water and natural gas, the Group implements a complete control of the production processes in order to encourage the use of environmentally-friendly and recyclable construction and packing materials. (Golfetto Sangati - Via F.lli Bandiera 3 - 31055 Quinto di Treviso - TV - Tel. +39 0422 476700 - Fax +39 0422 476800 - email: info@

PTC Award 2013 for Pavan Group On the 6 th March, the Hotel Parma & Congressi in Parma hosted the PTC Live Tech Forum, Italy’s yearly date with innovation, technologies and corporate strategies organised by PTC, the American software solutions multinational. There were many leading names among the numerous speakers and guests wh o t o o k p a r t i n t h e presentation of the latest developments and the

updating and road mapping sessions regarding the various technologies proposed by PTC. The day also saw the presentation ceremony of the PTC Awards 2013, which went to Ansaldo Breda, Dallara Automobili and Pavan Group, represented by F. Bisarello. “Pavan Group has distinguished itself for innovation and for the ability to develop and produce

68 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXXI (2013) april

highly customised, madeto-order industrial equipment, with extremely fast turn-around times, able to meet the specifications and exclusive requests of the customer. This example of Italian excellence bases its success on technology, flexibility and reliability. Thanks to PTC Creo solutions, Pavan Group has been able to simplify the planning and design of highly complex items, thus improving the quality of its products and processes”. (Pavan Group - Via Monte Grappa 8 - 35015 Galliera Veneta - PD - Tel. +39 049

9423111 - Fax +39 049 9423303- e-mail: info@

New trade association: Food Supplements Europe National associations and food supplement companies have joined forces to strengthen the dialogue with regulators and scientists on the establishment of a safety based and innovation driven legal environment for food supplements. On 4 March at a founding meeting in Brussels was born “Food Supplements Europe”. Members of the European Responsible Nutrition Alliance and national associations, formed from a common vision, have created a platform to assist regulators and scientists with technical and scientific support from the sector and to in-

crease awareness of the important role food supplements have for public health in Europe. This new trade association aims to be a solid and trusted partner looking for solutions on regulatory, scientific and technical matters based on knowledge, dialogue, and transparency. “Food Supplements Europe is a unique partnership bringing together the vast technical and scientific expertise of company experts with the market and practical knowledge of national associations,” said Ric Hobby, Vice President, Worldwide Regulatory, Government and In-

dustry Affairs at Herbalife International, and member of Food Supplements Europe. Through specific tools and programs Food Supplements Europe aims to promote adherence to standards to ensure the safety and quality of food supplements on the EU market and to help shape a positive regulatory environment for the future. Ingrid Atteryd, Chair of the Swedish food supplements association Föreningen Svensk Egenvård and member of Food Supplements Europe explained that by joining together

national associations and companies, Food Supplements Europe ensures that the sector has a sound and solid basis and a broad representability for Europe encompassing small and medium-sized and large companies, working together on the development of a sustainable market in the interest of public health. “We are committed to working with regulators to create an appropriate and effective legal framework for food supplements in Europe”, she said. Membership of the group is open to companies or na-

1 Hp, greater performance, even more compact.

tional associations in the sector that subscribe to its

vision, aims and principles.

Packology: a new idea of trade show The organisation of Packology 2013, the exhibition of technology for packaging and processing, to be held from the 11th to the 14th of June, 2013, continues. In past months, Rimini Fiera and Ucima, the event organisers, have set up work groups with sector businesses to define a new

trade show concept that will specifically and effectively meet the needs of the exhibiting companies and professionals, providing a streamlined organisation with set costs making optimum use of the accommodation advantages offered by the location. On the basis of the needs

IT’S ALL HERE. We are at:

Parma, 21-23 May 2013 Stand no. A060

New integrated mini geared motor Minimotor Serie XC. • Total length: 288 mm. • Power up to 1 Hp. • Standard IP65 protection, IP67 available soon. This is 30% smaller compared to others with the same power and its performance is 20% higher

MINI MOTOR - Via Enrico Fermi, 5 - 42011 Bagnolo in Piano (RE) - ITALY MINI MOTOR USA - 24-25 46th Street - Long Island City, NY 11103 - USA MINI MOTOR Aandrijftechniek - Wagenmakersweg 8A - 3449 HV WOERDEN (NL) MINI MOTOR GERMANY - Alter Kirchpfad 6 - 32657 Lemgo (DL) -

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXXI (2013) april -


international events in italy 7 - 10 April 2013 - Verona: VinItaly+Enolitech, int. wine show. Veronafiere - email: - 7 - 10 April 2013 - Verona: SOL, int. olive oil show. Veronafiere - email: info@ - 19 - 22 May 2013 - Rho (MI): TuttoFood, int. food show. Fiera di Milano - email: info@ - 11 - 14 June 2013 - Rimini: Packology, int. packaging industry show. Rimini Fiera email: - 25 - 27 September 2013 - Cesena (Fc): Macfrut, int. fruit processing show. Cesena Fiera - email: - 29 - 30 October 2013 - Verona: Save, int. show on automation and instrumentation. E.I.O.M. Ente Italiano Organizzazione Mostre - email: - www. 12 - 16 November 2013 - Rho (MI): Simei, int. beverage and wine industry show. EME email: - 28 - 30 November 2013 - Milano: Fruitech, int. fruit processing show. Ipack-Ima email: - 18 - 22 January 2014 - Rimini: Sigep, int. confectionery, pastry and ice cream show. Rimini Fiera - email: - 22 - 25 February 2014 - Rimini: RHEX, int. food and catering show. Rimini Fiera email: - 8 - 11 June 2014 - Sirmione (BS): 11th world tomato congress. Fiere di Parma - email: - 21 - 24 October 2014 - Parma: CibusTec, int. food equipment show. Fiere di Parma email: - 19 - 23 May 2015 - Rho (MI): Ipack-Ima, int. packaging, food processing and pasta exhibition. Ipack-Ima - email: -

that have emerged, the preparations for the show will be divided into the following four macro-areas of activity: presentation of already industrialised complete technological solutions; space for startup and research projects focused on innovative packaging solutions; a rich schedule of conferences and training on todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s most current themes, for exhibitors and visitors; displays and prizes for technological innovations and packaging solutions. The main target of visitors will be end-users coming from Italy, the Mediterranean area, as well as E a s t e r n a n d We s t e r n Europe, and in order to complete the offering for visitors, Packology will also dedicate a section of the exhibition to the world of packing materials. Offers will also include t u r n k e y p a ck a g e s f o r exhibitors and visitors. For exhibiting companies, these special conditions will include exhibit spaces, setup, accessory services and communication, accommodation and hospitality packages at set rates. In this way, the companies will be able to count on a virtual facility manager, who will make the companyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s participation in the show easier. In addition, all will be given networking opportunities during and after the show.

70 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXXI (2013) april


Now available in PDF format only filling in this form and sending it by fax or mail to: Fax +39 0121 794480 - e-mail:

e-mail ............................................................................................................................ Name ............................................................................................................................ Company ........................................................................................................................ Address ......................................................................................................................... City .................................................................................. State ................................... Country .................................................................... Postal Code ...................................

o food industry supplier

o food producer

o beverage industry supplier

o beverage producer

o services - research

o wine producer

Alba & Teknoservice - Villafranca Padovana................................................... 49

ABL................................................................................................................ 40

FBF Italia - Sala Baganza................................................................................. 1

Golfetto Sangati............................................................................................. 67 63

Macchine Soncini Alberto............................................................................. 39

Fratelli Pagani - Milano.......................................................................... cover 1

Mimi.............................................................................................................. 43

Italo Danioni - Milano........................................................................... cover 2

P.E. Labellers.................................................................................................. 45

Metra - Vago di Lavagno................................................................................ 47 Pavan Group.................................................................................................. 68 Mini Motor - Bagnolo In Piano...................................................................... 69 Pigo................................................................................................................ 38 Moriondo - Besana in Brianza....................................................................... 29 PRC Impianti................................................................................................. 46 Nol-Tec Europe - Gorgonzola........................................................................ 65

Omac Pompe - Rubiera.................................................................................. 35 Protec............................................................................................................ 46 Partisani - Forlì............................................................................................... 37

Pavan Group - Galliera Veneta......................................................................... 2

Pigo - Caldogno..................................................................................... cover 4

SCA - Fiorenzuola D’Arda.............................................................................. 25

Tecnafood - Bomporto........................................................................... cover 3

Tecno 3 - Corneliano d’Alba.......................................................................... 33

Tecnowerk - Arsiè.......................................................................................... 57

Varvel - Crespellano....................................................................................... 41

Wolhfarth - Sordio......................................................................................... 53

Company index

Advertiser Index

ProSystem...................................................................................................... 43

Tecno 3.......................................................................................................... 67

Tecnowerk..................................................................................................... 48

Tinarelli.......................................................................................................... 44

TMG.............................................................................................................. 44

TS................................................................................................................... 49

Twin Pack....................................................................................................... 42

Ulma Packaging............................................................................................. 42

Velo Acciai..................................................................................................... 40


TECNAFOOD - Via Togliatti, 5/d - 41030 Bomporto / Modena / Italy - Tel. +39.059.909881 / Fax +39.059.907336 - WWW.TECNAFOOD.IT


Rivista esclusivamente in inglese, sviluppata a supporto di tutte quelle aziende italiane che vogliono puntare sull’export di macchine, prod...

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