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n. 67 - February 2012 ISSN 1590-6515


Supplemento al n. 2, febbraio 2012 di Industrie Alimentari - Sped. in A.P. - D.L. 353/2003 (Conv. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46) art. 1 comma 1 DCB TO - n. 67 anno 2012 - IP


processing & packaging



Hall 15 - Booth D19




Tecnopool has been in business for over 30 years and continues to be a leader in the business of designing, manufacturing and installing machinery to deep-freezing, cooling, pasteurizing and proofing food industry products. The systems’ versatility means they can be fitted to existing production lines, even at a later date.


Tecnopool S.p.A. via M. Buonarroti, 81 - San Giorgio in Bosco (Padova) Italy tel. +39.049.9453111 - fax +39.049.9453100 -

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contents   5 - MEAT Oven cooking of Turkey meat at different relative humidities

B. Mora - D. Barbanti - G. Betta - F. Bozzoli

16 -HERBS LC-ESI-MS/MS identification of oleuropein as marker of Olea europaea L. leaves used as a bulking agent in ground oregano and sage

M. Bononi - F. Tateo

departments 22 - RESEARCH The ability to taste fat may prevent obesity Processing conditions affect probiotics differently - Onion waste as a functional ingredient - Seaweeds for enhancing the safety and quality of foods - Agrowaste-based nanofibers as a probiotic encapsulant - Ice cream with lupin proteins - Green plastics from the slaughterhouse - Flaxseed dietary fibres suppress appetite sensation in young men - Nanoencapsulation of resveratrol improves stability and bioavailability - Satiating effect of fish protein hydrolysate - New potential uses and better nutritional quality for the palm olein

50 - ANCILLARY EQUIPMENT What does the future look like for X-ray inspection systems in the food industry? - Optical sorters - Air swept mill - Centrifugal sifter - Mechanical conveyors - Optical sizing machines - Atmosphere packaging monitoring

30 - FOOD PROCESSING The first time for Firex at Ipack-Ima Homogenizers for high quality products Thermal treatment units - Vertical mixers and dryers - Roll grinder for coffee - External scraper and disk cutter for cheese - Food processing machine - Spiral mixers with removable bowl

64 - MARKETING REPORTS Supply discipline will be essential for the European meat industry - Sugar: global supply/ demand balance - High demand for food safety products in the US

38 - FRUIT AND VEGETABLE Fruit and vegetable processing - Raw mushroom slicer - Drying machine for vegetables Laboratory plant for jam production 42 - MEAT PROCESSING Process safety for meat industry 46 - CONFECTIONERY AND CHOCOLATE Cocoa bean de-stoning and cleaning plant 48 - PACKAGING EQUIPMENT Coffee pod production - Small bag aseptic packing - Automatic netting machine for punnets

58 - CONSUMER TRENDS Convenience continues to be the key factor 60 - PACKAGING TRENDS Researching for new materials for fresh-cut vegetables (R. Contato) - US aseptic packaging demand still grows - Calming alufoil production

70 - NUTRITION Are nutritional facts labels read in detail by consumers? - Scarcity and price fluctuations pose threat to food supply - Cooked food may provide more energy than raw 74 - NEWS Pesticide residues compliance continues to rise - Recommended framework for bioactive intake The first Italian certification for organic products - Many events about packaging during Ipack-Ima - A conference on dietary fibre in Rome 80 - ADVERTISER INDEX 80 - COMPANY INDEX

February 2012 Number 67

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February 2012 - number 67

MEAT B. Mora - D. Barbanti* - G. Betta - F. Bozzoli

Department of Industrial Engineering - University of Parma - Viale G.P. Usberti 181/A - 43124 Parma - Italy *email:

Oven cooking of Turkey meat at different relative humidities

INTRODUCTION Steam cooking is widely used both in industrial processing and domestic cooking for several foods (e.g. cooked ham, ready-to-eat meals, various vegetables and seafoods). Ovens operating by steam and air-convection (commonly known as “combi” ovens) are appliances which gained popularity since their introduction about 20 years ago (Barbanti et al., 2005). “Com-

bi” ovens combine the accurate heat control of an air-convection oven with the efficiency of steam that can be used individually, sequentially or in combination to give the operator multiple cooking choices in a single appliance (Vittadini et al., 2005; Chiavaro et al., 2009). Two types of ovens are available on the market: the first type, commonly used in catering services, has the steam generator external to the oven cavity while

Key words cooking, steam, oven, meat, turkey, texture, colour, weight loss

ABSTRACT Some selected physical characteristics of turkey meat (weight loss, texture, colour, volume shrinkage and cook value) were evaluated after oven cooking at 100° and 110°C. For each cooking temperature, dry air (only air convection, RH = 5%) and three predetermined relative humidity values (RH = 24, 43 and 62%) were obtained inside the oven cavity by means of a steam generator. Significant cooking time decrement of about 70-90% (compared to air convection condition) was achieved by using steam, both at 100° and 110°C with the exception of the treatment at 100°C and RH= 24%. Moreover, the steam presence during cooking increased the cooking yield when steam treatments were shorter than the dry air convection treatment. About 10% cooking yield increase (as compared to air convection condition) was found at 100°C (at RH = 43 and 62%) and at 110°C (at RH = 62%). An additional cooking yield increase up to +15% was measured at RH = 24% and 43% at 110°C. Steam cooking led to a noticeable decreases of shrinkage, shear force and hardness of meat samples both at 100° and 110°C. The best cooking conditions, in terms of short cooking time, high cooking yield, high tenderness and low chewiness were obtained at 100°C with RH = 62% and 110°C with RH = 43%.

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february -



in the second one, mainly for domestic use, the steam is produced inside the oven cavity. Whatever the type, ovens do not normally allow an accurate humidity control inside the cooking chamber: most of them only operates on the presence/absence of steam and only few of them have a steam modulation system but with a rough control of the steam quantity. Concerning turkey meats, few data about the combined use of steam and air-convection during meat cooking are available. Moreover, it is quite difficult to compare results of different research papers on air-and-steam cooking mainly because of (i) different experimental conditions (e.g. oven temperatures or different cooking end-point temperatures) and in particular (ii) unsatisfactory definitions of the thermodynamic conditions of steam (Skog et al., 2003; Barbanti et al., 2005; Danowska-Oziewicz et al., 2007; Białobrzewski et al., 2010). At given temperature and atmospheric pressure, the relative humidity of an air-water mixture is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapour in the mixture (Pwater) to the saturated water vapour pressure (Pwater-sat), expressed as percentage” (Fellows, 2000). If the system is isobarically heated (heating with no change in system pressure) at T > 100°C, the relative humidity of the system decreases because the Pwater-sat increases with increasing temperature. By considering the system at T < 100°C and at atmospheric pressure (Patm), it is possible to achieve 100% of relative humidity at any temperature while for T > 100°C, the possibil-

ity of reaching the maximum relative humidity drastically falls, being Pwater-sat > Patm. As an example, pure water steam may reach 100% RH at 100°C, while it will only reach 20% RH at 150°C. Consequently, taking into account cooking trials with air-and-steam mixtures carried out at T > 100°C in an unpressurized system (oven cavity), it is ambiguous and not correct to use the phrase “at steam saturation condition” instead of “pure steam condition” or directly the RH value as previously defined. Literature shows that the heat treatment conditions of food significantly influences cooking losses and content of basic chemical compounds (Fillion and Henry, 1998; Clausen and Ovesen, 2001; Badiani et al., 2002). On the other hand, steam-cooked foods are characterized by a valuable retention of substances with recognized nutritional value, i.e. vitamins and antioxidants (Ferracane et al., 2008) and attractive sensory properties (Choubert and Baccaunaud, 2010). In particular for meat-based foods, steam cooking is reported to retain more proteins and less fat than traditionally oven-cooked samples. Additionally, operators gain other advantages, such as improved yields and lower energy consumption (DanowskaOziewicz et al., 2007). DanowskaOziewicz et al. (2007) found that weight losses in chicken cooked in standard air-convection and combi ovens were comparable, while Barbanti et al. (2005) showed that the weight loss of chicken breasts due to air-steam cooking was higher than that for the air method alone.

6 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february

Vittadini et al. (2005) compared samples of pork meat cooked in a commercial oven using different cooking conditions: natural convection, forced convection or combined forced convection/ steam (FC/S) heating. FC/S treatment showed shorter cooking times compared to natural and forced convection methods. FC/S samples also had significantly higher weight loss than samples cooked by the other methods and resulted in a paler colour on the meat surface. Chiavaro et al. (2009) reported results for pork meat cooked in oven by forced convection and pure steam condition at four temperatures (100°, 110°, 120° and 140°C). Authors reported that the use of steam proved to be particularly attractive at lower temperatures (100° - 110°C) in comparison with air-convection cooking: the presence of steam gave similar or better cooked meat qualities (texture, colour, water holding capacity) in a shorter time. Murphy et al. (2001) analyzed the effects of different RH values (range, 40-95%) during oven cooking of chicken breast patties by means of the evaluation of heat transfer properties and product yield between 149° and 218°C. They reported increased heat flux and heat transfer coefficient (shorter cooking time) with increasing RH. An increased product yield was achieved by reducing oven temperature or final internal temperature of the product, and increasing RH. Finally, in some papers steam cooking was exclusively carried out at pure steam condition and the RH


value inside the oven cavity derived by the oven’s temperature, according to the integration of Clausius-Clapeyron equation (Vittadini et al., 2005; Chiavaro et al., 2009). At present, the behaviour of different relative humidities at T < 150°C is still quite unknown. Low cooking temperature could reduce energy consumption but the final internal temperature of about 74°C should be reached to ensure hygienic safety of cooked meat (NACMCF, 2006). Treatments at low temperatures have also nutritional relevance because it has been shown that high temperature and high air velocity in the convection ovens may enhance food mutagenic activity. The presence of steam reduced the mutagenic activity, except when high temperature was used in combination with high air velocity (Skog et al., 2003). The objective of this work was to study the effect of air-and-steam mixture on some selected physical characteristics of turkey meat samples. The cooking trials were carried out at three relative humidities (24, 43 and 62% RH) and two cooking temperatures (100° and 110°C) in an air-and-steam convection oven (“combi” oven). The reference standard cooking trials at 100° and 110°C were carried out without steam injection (RH = 5%). The effects of the different cooking trials on turkey meat samples were evaluated in terms of heating profiles and analysing some selected physical characteristics such as cooking yield, shear force, hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess, chewiness, shrinkage and colour.

MATERIALS AND METHODS Sample preparation Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) breast samples were purchased from a local supermarket and stored at 4°C. From halved samples 2 slices of 3 cm thickness from the same geometrical position were obtained. Each slice was divided into 4 samples of 3x3x6 cm with muscle fibres running parallel to the major dimension. Prior to cooking the meat samples were left at room temperature for 15 min. Cooking equipment An electric domestic convection oven (Whirlpool AKZ 190/IX, Whirlpool Europe, Varese, Italy) was used as cooking device. The oven was modified by connecting to its cavity an external steam

generator (Tosca 100, Parma, Italy) in order to have a pre-determined quantity of steam injected into the cavity itself. A capacitive humiditytemperature sensor (Rotronic HygroClip HC2-IC302, Zurich, Switzerland) was fixed to the vertical right panel inside the oven cavity. Type K, (Ni/Al–Ni/Cr) thermocouple wires were positioned inside the oven cavity in order to measure dry (Tdb) and wet bulb (Twb) temperatures as described by Chiavaro et al. (2009). Temperature and humidity data obtained from the capacitive sensor and from thermocouple wires were logged by a DAQ acquisition device (National Instruments, Austin, Texas) and recorded using LabVIEW 8.0 graphical interface software (National Instruments, Austin, Texas). The speed of forced air circulation inside the oven cavity (0.90±0.13 m s-1) was measured with a hot-wire anemometer (Testo, Milan, Italy).

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february -



Cooking trials The cooking treatments of the meat samples were performed at 100° and 110°C, each one at relative humidities of 5, 24, 43 and 62% under forced air circulation. Treatments at 5% of relative humidity were carried out without steam injection (convection cooking, coded as CC). The other conditions (RH = 24, 43 and 62%, ± 5%) were maintained by means of manual on-off control of the steam generator. They were coded as 24SCC, 43SCC and 62SCC respectively and all the steam convection cooking treatments were coded as SCC. Cooking trials (n = 2 for each treatment) were carried out placing 4 meat samples on the tray in the middle position of the oven, hence 8 samples were analyzed for each cooking treatment. During cooking, the temperatures of one meat sample (always in a pre-fixed oven position) were measured at its surface and geometric centre using thermocouple wires. The cooking treatment ended when meat samples reached 74°C at their thermal centre, the recommended safety temperature for turkey meat (NACMCF, 2006). Cooked samples were cooled at room temperature for 30 min and then analysed. Analyses Cooking weight loss percentage (WL) was calculated as reported by Vittadini et al. (2005). Shear force test and texture profile analysis (TPA) of meat samples were carried out by means of Texture Analyser (TA-XT2, Stable

Micro Systems, Goldalming, UK) equipped with a 25 kg load cell (equivalent to 245.2 N). For the shear force test, fresh and cooked meat samples (n = 8) obtained as previously described (3x3x6 cm) were cut perpendicularly to muscle fibers with a Warner-Bratzler blade (3 mm thickness) moving down at 2 mm s-1 and the shear force (N) was recorded. Since the original dimensions of samples (3x3x6 cm) resulted influenced by the different cooking treatments, in order to reduce the variability of TPA measurements, the samples obtained from the shear force test (2 pieces from each original sample of 3x3x6 cm) were then manually cut into cubes of standardized dimensions (2x2x2 cm). The TPA test was carried out perpendicularly to muscle fibres of fresh and cooked samples by means of a cylindrical probe (code P35, diameter = 35 mm) at 5 mm s-1. The contact area was 4 cm2, the final strain was set at 50% and the time interval between the first and the second compression was 1 s. 8 TPA measurements were carried out for each treatment. The TPA attributes (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness) were determined as reported by Friedman, Whitney, and Szczesniak (1963) and Bourne (1978). All experimental data were collected and analysed by Texture Expert software version 1.22. Shrinkage of each meat sample (n=8) was calculated measuring length, width and thickness by means of a manual calliper before and after each cooking trial. Vol-

8 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february

ume of raw (Vi) and cooked sample (Vf) was calculated and expressed as shrinkage ratio (V f/Vi, dimensionless). Colour of fresh and cooked samples was measured by means of a Minolta Colorimeter (CM 2600d, Minolta Co., Osaka, Japan) with the standard illuminant D65 at 10° position of the standard observer and illumination area of 8 mm diameter (CIE, 1978). For each sample and for each treatment, 4 readings at the surface and 4 at the central section were taken. The central section was obtained by halving the sample perpendicularly to fiber direction. Colour parameters L*(lightness), a*(redness) and b*(yellowness) were measured and colour difference ∆E, ∆L*, ∆a* and ∆b* between cooked and raw sample were calculated (Sosa-Morales et al., 2006) both at the surface and at the central section of each sample. The degree of cooking at the thermal center and at the surface of each sample was expressed in terms of cook value CzTref, taking into consideration only the heating phase, as reported by Poon et al. (2001) and Zhang et al. (2004). The cook value was calculated by the integration of the heat penetration curve obtaned from time-temperature data recorded at the thermal centre and at the surface of meat samples (Vittadini et al., 2005):

where t is the time, Tref the reference temperature set equal to 100°C; z the temperature increase that induces a 10-fold increase of the reaction rate


of the chemical reaction taken as reference (thiamine degradation); z was set at 33°C (Holdsworth, 1985). Moisture content of turkey meat samples (raw and cooked ones) was determined by weight loss at 105°C (ISCO NSV 9035, ISCO, Milan, Italy) until constant weight and 4 measurements for each sample were carried out. SPSS (Version 14.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA) statistical software was used to calculate (i) means and standard deviations (SD) of experimental data, (ii) oneway-analysis of variance (ANOVA) and (iii) least significant difference test (LSD at a 95% confidence level with p < 0.05) in order to identify differences among cooking conditions. Second degree regression equations between the surface temperature of the samples after 10 minutes and the RH of the air were obtained by means of Excel® spreadsheet.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Thermal profiles In order to have constant temperature and RH inside the oven cavity and also to reach 74°C at the thermal centre of each sample, a continuous check of these parameters for each cooking trial was carried out. As an example, in Fig. 1 (110°C, RH = 24%), the evolution of dry and wet bulb temperatures and RH inside the oven cavity and the temperatures of meat sample surface and centre are reported. Set oven temperature resulted very stable all along the cooking trial; the spikes of RH curve were caused by the on-off effect of the steam injector but this behaviour did not affect the attainment of constant RH values. Surface and centre temperatures of meat samples increased with time

Fig. 1 - Example of the evolution during a cooking trial of dry bulb oven temperature, oven RH, temperatures of meat sample surface and centre. Referred condition: T°C = 110°C, RH = 24%.

during cooking but with different rates, as expected. Surface temperature of meat samples undergone little variations because of the effect of the latent heat of steam condensation at the sample surface. In Figg. 2a and 2b, temperature profiles of sample surface and wet bulb at 100° and 110°C and different RH are reported. Each cooking treatment was interrupted when the respective meat sample reached 74°C at its thermal centre, hence different cooking lenghts were obtained. SCC and CC treatments resulted in different heating kinetics of the sample surfaces, both at 100° and 110°C. SCC treatments always showed an initial rapid increase of surface temperature; this behaviour was due to the latent heat of condensation transferred from the steam to the meat samples surface, about 2260 kJ kg-1, (PERROT, 1998) and to the higher heat transfer coefficient of condensing water vapour (h=104-105 W m-2 K-1) compared to that of forced convection air (h˜102 W m-2 K-1) (DATTA, 2002). Moreover, at the beginning of the cooking process (after about 10 min) the sample’s heating rate increased with increasing relative humidity of the air, as already reported by Murphy et al., (2001). The relationship between the heating rate of samples and the RH of the air in the oven was quantified taking into account the surface temperature of the samples after 10 minutes. Samples surface temperature resulted well correlated to the RH of the air by second degree regression equations: T = 100°C = -0.0055RH2+1.06RH+44.237; R2=0.99 T = 110°C= -0.0052RH2+1.1317RH+46.985; R2=0.99

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february -



After an initial phase characterized by an increase of the surface temperature, a constant temperature period was observed at 100°C, 24% and 43% RH and at 110°C, 24% RH. These conditions allowed sample surfaces to behave like a wet-bulb, in terms of mass transfer and temperature, according to the drying theory (Fellows, 2000). The temperature equilibrium is reached at the surface of the food if it is maintained perfectly wet by the migration of water from the interior of the food itself; when this condition occurs, the surface shows constant temperature, equal to wet bulb temperature and it is a function of cooking T and RH. At other SCC conditions (100°C, 62% RH, 110°C, 43 and 62% RH) meat sample reached 74°C at the thermal centre in about 10 min, hence the constant temperature period did not appear. During CC treatment, the increase of surface temperature both at 100° and 110°C was due to the dehydration caused by the vapour partial pressure gradient between the food and the surrounding air, in agreement with the second phase of drying theory (Fellows, 2000). As a consequence, the surface temperature did not behave like a wet bulb and a slow and constant surface temperature increase during the entire cooking trial occurred. Results of analyses on meat samples In Table 1, a summary of final surface temperature, cooking time, cook values, moisture content and

Fig. 2 - Temperature profiles of sample surface and wet bulb at 100° and 110°C (2a and 2b, respectively) at different RH. Different lenghts of cooking treatments were due to interruption when meat samples reached 74°C at their thermal centre.

volume shrinkage has been reported. The final surface temperature of meat samples always turned out lower than 100°C because of water evaporation and consequent cooling effect at the meat surface. Nevertheless, the increasing of RH values (both at 100° and 110°C) reduced the vapour pressure gra-

10 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february

dient between the food and the surrounding air, thus resulting in a lower water evaporation and in an increase of meat surface temperature. In SCC treatments the cooking time was in inverse proportion to the RH value, both at 100° and 110°C. At 100°C a significant cooking time


Table 1 - Meat cooking results at the different temperatures and hygrometric conditions: samples’ final surface temperature (°C), cooking time (min), surface and center cook values (min), moisture content (kg water/kg dry matter) and volume shrinkage (dimensionless). Numbers in parenthesis are the standard deviation of the mean (+/-). Samples’ final surface temperature, cooking time, surface and center cook values n=2, moisture content n=4, shrinkage n=8. Means with the same letter are not significantly different (p<0.05). Treatment Final surface temperature (°C)

Cooking time (min)

Cook values (min) Surface Center

MC Shrinkage (kg water/kg dry matter) (Vf/Vi) raw meat: 2.7 (0.06) a

100°C CC 24SCC 43SCC 62SCC

80.1 (1.7) de 74.5 (2.2) e 82.8 (0.4) cd 90.4 (0.3) ab

98.2 (5.5) b 115.7 (3.2) a 17.6 (0.6) de 10.6 (1.8) e

12.4 (1.7) a 15.8 (0.7) a 3.9 (0.2) b 3.4 (0.1) b

8.1 (0.1) b 14.2 (0.1) a 0.9 (0.1) e 0.6 (0.1) e

1.52 (0.02) d 1.38 (0.07) e 2.08 (0.04) c 2.18 (0.05) b

0.69 (0.08) c 0.73 (0.07) bc 0.83 (0.09) a 0.76 (0.08) abc

110°C CC 24SCC 43SCC 62SCC

82.2 (2.8) cd 76.6 (1.2) e 87.4 (1.6) bc 95.0 (0.2) a

79.9 (4.7) c 22.3 (0.5) d 11.3 (1.6) de 10.1 (1.3) e

12.1 (1.3) a 3.3 (0.3) b 3.0 (1.3) b 3.0 (0.9) b

7.1 (0.3) c 1.5 (0.1) d 0.6 (0.1) e 0.4 (0.1) e

1.56 (0.04) d 2.13 (0.08) bc 2.1 (0.06) c 2.06 (0.03) c

0.67 (0.05) c 0.81 (0.06) ab 0.80 (0.09) ab 0.85 (0.13) a

reduction in comparison with CC condition was observed: -82% for 43SCC and -89% for 62SCC, with no significant differences between them. These values depended on the faster initial heating kinetic of SCC, as previously described. An “apparent” abnormal value of cooking time was repeatedly observed at 24SCC and 100°C, significantly higher than CC at 100°C (+17.7%). Taking into account that during the 24SCC trials the wet bulb temperature (Twb) was about 74.5°C, the extension of cooking time depended on the low temperature gradient between sample surface and centre until the end of cooking (T=74°C at sample’s thermal centre). At 110°C, 24SCC, 43SCC and 62SCC showed a noticeable cooking time reduction in comparison to CC: -72, -86 and -87%, respectively. Surface and centre cooking values (CzTref) are the measure of the cumulative heat impact of the time/ temperature history on a food quality attribute (Poon et al., 2001). The

surface CzTref value of SCC, except 24SCC at 100°C, resulted three to four times lower than CC at both temperatures of 100° and 110°C, mainly due to their respective shorter cooking time. By considering the limit threshold of thermal damage of 13.56 minutes at 100°C, defined as the time necessary to reduce thiamine content by 3% (Pompei, 2009), the surface CzTref of CC treatments and 24SCC at 100°C exceeded this value, while at the other SCC treatments a limited nutritional quality degradation of meat 
(CzTref < 10min) can be hypothesized. The centre CzTref value, both at 100° and 110°C was always lower than surface CzTref value, due to the lower temperature reached in the centre of the sample (74°C). The moisture content of heat treated samples with steam (at 100°C) decreased with the decreasing of RH. The lowest MC value was obtained at 24SCC because of the longest cooking time, while the highest MC value was measured

at 62SCC (2.18 kgwater/kgdry matter). At 110°C the higher MC decreasing was observed for the CC condition (1.56 kgwater/kgdry matter), while for 24SCC, 43SCC and 62SCC the shorter cooking times reduced MC decrease (2.13, 2.1 and 2.06 kgwater/ kgdry matter, respectively). The shrinkage value of SCC meat samples was always higher (hence their volume reduction was lower) than the corresponding CC samples both at 100° and 110°C. In details, at 100°C the Vf/Vi value of 43SCC samples was the highest (+20%) in comparison with CC sample. At 110°C the shrinkage value of all SCC samples resulted significantly higher than CC samples (+20-27%), and no significant differences were found among SCC samples. Weight loss (WL) is the measure of the product cooking yield, the higher the weight loss the lower the cooking yield. The average WL values obtained at 100° and 110°C have been reported in Fig. 3. The presence of steam significantly re-

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duced meat sample WL (with the exception of 24SCC at 100°C), in comparison with CC both at 100° and 110°C. At 100°C, 43SCC and 62SCC meat samples’ WL resulted to be of about 20% (+10% of cooking yield compared to CC at the same temperature), whereas at 100°C, the WL of 24SCC was greater than CC mainly because of the long time needed for this cooking condition. The lowest WL were observed at 110°C, 24SCC and 43SCC, where they were about 15% lower than CC. The presence of steam reduced the vapour pressure gradient between sample surface and surrounding air, hence steam cooked samples with a cooking length shorter than CC showed lower weight loss than those cooked without steam. When the cooking length of SCC samples was longer than CC (e.g., 24SCC at 100°C) an opposite result was obtained: higher WL in steam cooked samples was observed because of the crust formation in CC samples that reduced their water evaporation as previously described (Vittadini et al., 2005). Moreover, it is interesting to point out that at 110°C the sample’s WL at RH = 62% (corresponding to the pure steam condition at this temperature) was higher than the WL at lower relative humidities probably because of the highest cooking rate of this particular thermohygrometric condition. The shear force test is the most widespread method normally used as an indicator of meat tenderness; the shear force experimental values (N) of raw and cooked meat

Fig. 3 - Average values of weight loss (%) of Turkey meat samples at 100° and 110°C, as a function of the different relative humidities.

Fig. 4 - Average values of shear force (N) of raw and cooked Turkey meat samples at 100° and 110°C, as a function of the different relative humidities.

samples are shown in Fig. 4. Under our experimental conditions the injection of steam during cooking generally determined a shear force decrease of meat samples if compared to those cooked without steam. Only the sample 62SCC at 110°C (cooked at the pure steam saturation condition)

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showed the same shear force value of CC at the same temperature. Some significant differences of shear force were found among steamed samples, in particular, at 100°C, 62SCC resulted significantly more tender than 24SCC and 43SCC. A different behaviour was observed at 110°C, where the


Table 2 - TPA results of raw and cooked meat samples at the different temperatures and hygrometric conditions: hardness (N), cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess (N) and chewiness (N * mm) values are reported. Numbers in parenthesis are the standard deviation of the mean (+/-). n=8. Means with the same letter are not significantly different (p<0.05). Treatment

Hardness (N)



Gumminess (N)

Chewiness (N*mm)

raw meat

47.0 (20.5) f

0.40 (0.08) c

0.56 (0.12) a

17.77 (7.08) f

9.61 (3.83) f

100° C CC 24SCC 43SCC 62SCC

103.3 (41.5) ab 113.0 (30.7) a 66.0 (21.6) cde 48.9 11.4) ef

0.45 (0.04) ab 0.46 (0.05) ab 0.49 (0.06) a 0.43 (0.04) bc

0.57 (0.04) a 0.59 (0.04) a 0.53 (0.03) a 0.57 (0.03) a

46.17 (15.70) ab 51.43 (14.87) a 32.03 (10.47) cd 20.54 (3.40) ef

26.39 (8.64) ab 30.34 (9.99) a 16.99 (5.99) de 11.72 (2.30) ef

110°C CC 24SCC 43SCC 62SCC

84.5 (29.1) bc 78.5 (21.5) cd 61.7 (13.5) def 65.3 (15.9) cde

0.45 (0.03) ab 0.45 (0.08) ab 0.43 (0.04) bc 0.43 (0.06) bc

0.60 (0.05) a 0.60 (0.05) a 0.58 (0.04) a 0.61 (0.02) a

38.22 (15.06) bc 36.14 (14.34) c 26.69 (7.25) de 28.77 (10.60) cde

22.96 (9.37) bc 22.01 (9.95) bcd 15.45 (4.18) e 17.46 (6.27) cde

tenderest samples resulted 24SCC and 43SCC (with no significant difference between them). Considering only the SCC treatments at 110°C, the lowest RH values (lowest cooking rate) led to the lowest shear force values, whereas the injection of higher steam quantities (highest cooking rate) determined a tenderness reduction in agreement with King et al. (2003). Results of analyses of hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness on raw and cooked samples are reported in Table 2. At 100°C the hardest sample was 24SCC, not significantly different from CC; 62SCC resulted the tenderest sample, not significantly different from 43SCC. Samples cooked at 24SCC, 100°C resulted the highest in hardness if compared both to SCC and CC conditions because they underwent to an extended cooking time that caused strong samples dehydration. At 110°C the difference of hardness value among samples

was lower than those at 100°C and only 43SCC resulted significantly tenderer than the CC one. The cohesiveness values were very similar among cooked samples both at 100 and 110°C. At 100°C the only significant difference was found between 43SCC and 62SCC, with the former higher than the latter. As a general trend, the higher the RH the lower the cohesiveness (100°C 62SCC and 110°C 43SCC and 62SCC). No particular differences in springiness value were found among samples. At 100°C the less gummy sample was the 62SCC, significantly different from the others, while at 110°C the lower gumminess was observed at 43SCC with no statistical difference from 62SCC. The chewiness of cooked samples was lower at 43SCC and 62SCC in respect to all the other treatments at both temperatures. At 110°C the chewiness of 62SCC samples were not statistically different from CC and 24SCC. The differences of colour parame-

ters between cooked and raw samples (∆) are shown in Table 3. The surface colour parameters of the uncooked meat were characterized by lightness L* = 49.2±2.9, redness a* = -0.7±0.6, yellowness b* = 3.1±1.1. Cooking caused an increase of the sample’s surface colour in terms of L*, a* and b*, consequently cooked meat sample’s surfaces were brighter (higher L*), more red (higher a*) and yellow (higher b*) than the correspondent raw uncooked samples. SCC samples compared to CC samples showed a paler colour: they resulted in lower a* and b* than CC sample and also by higher L*. Significant differences in terms of surface colour increase between SCC (with short cooking times) and CC were found. In SCC samples with short cooking times the presence of steam prevented surface dehydration thus reducing Maillard reactions while, as expected, under CC condition a uniform brown crust formation was clearly observed and instru-

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Table 3 - Meat cooking results at the different temperatures and hygrometric conditions: external surface and centrals section colour parameters. Differences (∆) are between cooked and uncooked samples. Numbers in parenthesis are the standard deviation of the mean (+/-). n=32. Means with the same letter are not significantly different (p<0.05). Treatment


Central section ∆L* ∆a*






100°C CC 24SCC 43SCC 62SCC

24.4 (3.3) c 22.0 (5.0) c 29.8 (2.6) b 33.3 (2.6) a

17.7 (4.3) c 17.7 (6.7) c 27.7 (2.7) b 31.5 (2.8) a

6.6 (1.8) a 4.7 (1.8) b 1.9 (0.6) c 1.3 (0.6) c

15.0 (2.3) a 11.2 (2.0) b 10.4 (1.8) b 10.6 (1.4) b

36.3 (2.1) a 32.8 (2.1) de 31.9 (1.8) e 33.5 (2.8) cd

35.0 (2.2) a 31.9 (2.0) bc 30.9 (1.8) c 32.0 (3.1) bc

1.6 (0.5) ab 1.9 (0.6) a 1.4 (0.5) b 1.4 (0.6) b

9.3 (1.0) ab 7.4 (1.1) d 7.7 (1.0) d 9.8 (1.6) a

110°C CC 24SCC 43SCC 62SCC

24.4 (2.9) c 32.1 (3.0) ab 31.4 (3.3) ab 32.8 (3.9) a

18.3 (3.5) c 30.2 (3.4) ab 29.6 (3.5) ab 30.8 (4.0) ab

6.6 (1.6) a 1.9 (0.9) c 1.9 (0.8) c 1.7 (0.9) c

14.3 (2.5) a 10.5 (1.3) b 10.1 (1.6) b 11.1 (1.7) b

34.1 (2.0) bc 35.2 (2.3) ab 35.7 (3.2) a 35.7 (3.1) a

32.8 (2.1) b 34.1 (2.4) a 34.5 (3.2) a 34.3 (3.1) a

1.6 (0.5) b 1.4 (0.6) b 0.9 (0.6) c 1.4 (0.5) b

9.1 (1.2) b 8.4 (1.3) c 9.1 (1.4) b 9.4 (1.4) ab

mentally detected. No color differences were found between steam cooked samples at different RH with short cooking times. Meat samples cooked at 24SCC, 100°C (steam cooking with long cooking time) showed an increased a* values (browning degree) in-between CC and SCC samples: a non uniform crust formation, localized on edges and corners, the more dehydrated areas, was observed. The results of the colour measures at the central sections of meat samples gave some contrasting results between the adopted temperatures. At 100°C the higher ∆E value was measured for CC sample, while at 110°C CC samples resulted in lowest ∆E, and the same behaviour was observed for ∆L* values. An high ∆a* value was measured at 24SCC at 100°C no significantly different from CC at the same temperatures. Consequently, the presence of steam during the various cooking trials had limited or no influence on the chromatic properties of the inner part of the meat samples.

CONCLUSIONS This study has been carried out by focusing the attention on the effects of different relative humidities on some quality characteristics of turkey meats submitted to oven cooking at 100° and 110°C. Important information have been obtained from the analysis of the heating profiles of samples during cooking: at the beginning of the cooking process the presence of steam increased the heating rate of meat samples with increasing relative humidity of the air. Different relative humidities led to different meat cooking performances. The presence of steam significantly reduced meat sample weight loss, increased their tenderness and reduced meat shrinkage when steam cooking times were shorter than dry air oven cooking. On the contrary, when long cooking times occurred (e.g. 100°C, RH = 24%) the steam presence led to a worsening of the overall quality of turkey meat. The best cooking performances

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(maximum cooking yield, high tendernss and low chewiness) were found at RH = 62% at 100°C and at RH = 43% at 110°C. Relative humidity values lower than the pure steam condition, at 110°C, led to better quality characteristics of cooked meats with a potential saving of energy and water. In conclusion, with this experimental approach to the study of oven cooking some improvements to the knowledge of quality changes of turkey meats as a function of different relative humidities have been obtained.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors gratefully acknowledge the technicians of the Department of Industrial Engineering for their help to the set-up of the cooking device and Julian Penfold for the revision of the English manuscript. From “Italian Journal of Food Science” nr 3/2011


REFERENCES 1. Badiani A., Stipa S., Bitossi F., Gatta P.P., Vignola G. and Chizzolini R. 2002. Lipid composition, retention and oxidation in fresh and completely trimmed beef muscles affected by common culinary practices. Meat Science, 60: 69. 2. Barbanti D. and Pasquini M. 2005. Influence of cooking conditions on cooking loss and tenderness of raw and marinated chicken breast meat. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 38: 895. 3. Białobrzewski I., Danowska-Oziewicz M., Karpinska-Tymoszczyk M., Nalepa B., Markowski M. and Myhan R. 2010. Turkey breast roasting – Process optimization. Journal of Food Engineering, 96: 394. 4. Bourne M.C. 1978. Texture profile analysis. Food Technology, 32(7): 62. 5. Cheng Q., Sun D.W. and Scannell A.G.M. 2005. Feasibility of water cooking for pork ham processing as compared with traditional dry and wet air cooking methods. Journal of Food Engineering, 67: 427. 6. Chiavaro E., Rinaldi M., Vittadini E. and Barbanti D. 2009. Cooking of pork Longissimus dorsi at different temperature and relative humidity values: effects on selected physico-chemical properties. Journal of Food Engineering, 93: 158. 7. Choubert G. and Baccaunaud M. 2010. Effect of moist or dry heat cooking procedures on carotenoid retention and colour of fillets of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed astaxanthin or canthaxanthin. Food Chemistry, 119(1): 265. 8. Clausen I. and Ovesen L. 2001. Proximate contents, losses or gains of fat, protein and water comparing raw, hospital- and household-cooked pork cuts. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 14: 491. 9. Danowska-Oziewicz M., Karpinska-Tymoszczyk M. and Borowski J. 2007. The effect of cooking in a steam-convection oven on the quality of selected dishes. Journal of Foodservice, 18(5): 187. 10. Datta A.K. (2002). Biological and bioenvironmental heat and mass transfer. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York Basel., p. 111. 11. Fellows P. (2000). Food processing technology - Principle and practice. (2nd Ed.), Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, England., p. 313 and p. XXV glossary. 12. Ferracane R., Pellegrini N., Visconti A., Graziani G., Chiavaro E., Miglio C. and Fogliano V. 2008. Effects of different cooking methods on antioxidant profile, antioxidant

capacity, and physical characteristics of artichoke. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56: 8601. 13. Fillion L. and Henry C.J.K. 1998. Nutrient losses and gains during frying: a review. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 49(1): 57. 14. Friedman H.H., Whitney J.E., and Szczesniak A.S. 1963. The texturometer: a new instrument for objective texture measurement. Journal of Food Science, 28: 390. 15. Holdsworth S.D. 1985. Optimization of thermal processing – a review. Journal of Food Engineering, 4: 89. 16. King D.A., Dikeman M.E., Wheeler T.L., Kastner C.L. and Koohmaraie M. 2003. Chilling and cooking rate effects on some myofibrillar determinants of tenderness of beef. Journal of Animal Science, 81: 1473. 17. Mansfield T. (1962). High temperature-short time sterilization. In: “Proceedings of the First International Congress on Food Science and Technology”, London, UK. 18. Murphy R.Y., Johnson E.R., Duncan L.K., Clausen E.C., Davis M.D. and March J.A. 2001. Heat transfer properties, moisture loss, product yield, and soluble proteins in chicken breast patties during air convection cooking. Poultry Science, 80: 514. 19. National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (NACMCF) United States Department of Agriculture Washington - FSIS Issues News Release on

Single Minimum Internal Temperature for Cooked Poultry. 2006. Food Safety and Inspection Service, 7(14): 1. 20. Perrot P. 1998. A to Z of thermodynamics. Oxford University Press Inc, New York. Pp. 160-165. 21. Pompei C. 2009. Operazioni unitarie della tecnologia alimentare. Ed. Ambrosiana, Milan, Italy, p. 191. 22. Poon P.W.B., Durance T. and Kitts D.D. 2001. Composition and retention of lipid nutrients in cooked ground beef relative to heat-transfer rates. Food Chemistry, 74: 485. 23. Skog K., Eneroth A. and Svanberg M. 2003. Effects of different cooking methods on the formation of food mutagens in meat. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 38(3): 313. 24. Sosa-Morales M.E., Orzuna-Espìritu R. and Vélez-Ruiz J.F. 2006. Mass, thermal and quality aspects of deep-fat frying of pork meat. Journal of Food Engineering, 77: 731. 25. Vittadini E., Rinaldi M., Chiavaro E., Barbanti D. and Massini R. 2005. The effect of different convection cooking methods on the instrumental quality and yield of pork Longissimus dorsi. Meat-Science, 69(4): 749. 26. Zhang L., Lyng J.G. and Brunton N.P. 2004. Effect of radio frequency cooking on the texture, colour and sensory properties of a large diameter comminuted meat product. Meat Science, 68: 257.

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february -


HERBS M. Bononi - F. Tateo*

Department of Plant Production - Faculty of Agriculture - University of Milan - Via Celoria 2 - 20133 Milano - Italy *email:

LC-ESI-MS/MS identification of oleuropein as marker of Olea Europaea L. leaves used as a bulking agent in ground oregano and sage

INTRODUCTION While ground spices and herbs are often adulterated by the addition of bulking agents, few methods are available for screening commercial batches of some ground herbs such as oregano and sage for the presence of O. europaea L. leaves. In a recent paper we addressed this issue by the use of a stereo zoom microscope system to visualize the presence of the ground olive leaves

(Bononi et al., 2010a). However, an instrumental analytical method to obtain a specific and documentable confirmation would be useful. More recently we proposed a rapid GC/MS test based on the detection of two specific markers derived from the biophenol fraction of ground olive leaves to confirm the adulteration of ground oregano with this bulking agent (Bononi et al., 2010b). In the present study, we have extended our earlier in-

Key words aromatic herbs, adulteration, olive leaves, quality control, oleuropein, LC-ESI-MS/MS (negative)

ABSTRACT The identification of the secoiridoid oleuropein by LC-ESI-MS/MS (negative) is demonstrated for the quality control directed toward confirmation of the presence of Olea europaea L. leaves used as bulking agent in ground oregano and sage. The described operating conditions are useful for the simple qualitative identification of this marker of O. europaea L. leaves. No tolerance limits are defined for the presence of the above mentioned extraneous vegetable material in ground oregano and sage, the herbs which have been identified in various cases as adulterated with O. europaea L. leaves. Despite the importance of quality control of aromatic herbs, only a limited number of papers have been published on the identification of phenolic compounds as markers of adulteration. The proposed method is simple and suitable for rapid routine analysis.

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vestigations adopting the phenolic compound oleuropein, a secoiridoid, as the more characteristic marker of O. europaea L. leaves and we have developed a method to confirm the presence of milled olive leaves in mixtures of ground oregano or sage. The secoiridoids, which have an oleosidic structure, are a specific group of coumarinlike compounds present in moderate amounts in Oleaceae and oleuropein in particular is an ester of 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanol (known as hydroxytyrosol) and the elenolic acid glucoside (Fig. 1). In the present study, our aim is not to describe analytical parameters useful for quantitation of oleuropein, but rather to suggest and demonstrate the applicability of the simple operating conditions for the identification of this marker in the routine quality control of two very common aromatic herbs. Oleuropein is present in the leaves of the olive tree and has been found in all constituent parts of the fruit (peel, pulp and seed) and various methods have been developed for the analysis of this compound (Angerosa et al., 1995; JapónLuián et al., 2006; Japón-Luián and Luque De Castro, 2008; Jemai et al., 2009; Kiritsakis et al., 2010; Laguerre et al., 2009; Marsilio et al., 2001; Papoti and Tsimidou, 2009; Saitta et al., 2002). The phenolic composition differs amongst different olive varieties, but oleuropein and ligstroside are the most common compounds present in the O. europaea L. cultivars and their concentrations are dependent on the season (Bouaziz and Sayadi, 2005; Jemai et al., 2009; Kiritsakis

Fig. 1 - Structure of oleuropein (M.W. = 540 Da; CAS 32619-42-4), the main oleoside in Oleaceae.

et al., 2010; Ranalli et al., 2006; Ranalli et al., 2009; Soler-Rivas, 2000; TUCK and Hayball, 2002). Because of season variations in the content of these compounds and because of differences in drying conditions, their quantitative detection results would be difficult and essentially useless. Herein we show the simple identification of oleuropein by LC-ESIMS/MS in negative ion in samples of ground oregano leaves (or in ground sage leaves) containing ground olive leaves as a contaminant. We also demonstrate the fragmentation of the parent ion of oleuropein and describe the derived ions.

MATERIALS AND METHODS Reagents Ethyl alcohol (99%) was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (Milan, Italy). Filters GH Polypro (Hydrophilic Polypropylene Membrane Filter) 0.45 µm Pall were purchased from VWR (Milan, Italy). Acetonitrile, formic acid and water, all of

chromatographic grade, were purchased from Merck (Darmstadt, Germany). Samples Authentic samples of oregano and sage were prepared from fresh plant material by drying at 40°C for ten days and crushing, following established industrial technologies. The samples were ground to a particle size diameter of 1.0 - 5.0 mm as usually found in the retail market. Other genuine samples, derived from other industrial drying procedures, have been also analyzed. Dried leaves of Olea europaea L. of different origins, treated as previously described or collected in various regions of Italy and dried under both controlled and non-controlled conditions, were also studied. These leaves were ground to similar dimensions as for oregano. Preparation of extracts The vegetative samples (oregano or sage) subjected to the quality control analyses were treated as follows: ~ 1 g of each herb was mixed with 5 mL of ethyl alcohol at 20°-

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february -



25°C. After magnetic stirring for 6 hours, the extract was centrifuged at 500 rpm for 3 min and the supernatant was filtered through a Pall 0.45 µm filter. For the LC-ESI-MS/ MS (negative) analysis, an aliquot (20 µL) of the supernatant was injected in the HPLC system. The efficiency of the extraction using ethanol/water (80/20) solutions was also evaluated, but the extraction results for oleuropein were less selective than those with pure ethanol. HPLC/MS Equipment The analytes were separated using a Shimadzu integrated HPLC system (Shimadzu, Milan, Italy) which consisted of a Shimadzu CBM 20 A system controller, two Shimadzu LC 20 AD XR pumps including a Shimadzu degasser DGU A3, a Shimadzu SIL 20 ACXR autosampler and a Shimadzu CTO 20 AC column oven. The analytes were detected using a triple quadrupole Applied Biosystems 2000 Mass Spectrometer with Analyst Software (Version 1.4.1) equipped with a Turbo Ion Spray Source operated in the ESI (negative ion) mode. Chromatographic conditions A stainless steel column SupelcosilTM 150 mm x 3 mm with 3 µm particle size and 120 Å pore diameter was used. Compounds were separated using as solvent A a mixture of water ⁄ formic acid (99.9:0.1 v/v) and as solvent B a mixture of acetonitrile ⁄ formic acid (99.9:0.1 v/v) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The elution was performed with a linear gradient from 6 to 20% B in

20 min, than isocratic 20% B for 20 min and finally returning to the initial conditions in 10 min. MS analysis To establish the appropriate conditions for the identification of oleuropein, an olive leaves ethanolic extract was produced. The extract was previously injected in the source of the mass spectrometer by continuous infusion at 10 µL/min. The data acquisition was performed in the negative ion mode electrospray ionization (ESI-MS) and was achieved in Q1 mode. The same methodology was applied after fragmentation of the precursor ion (MS2 mode). Analysis conditions to obtain the m/z 539.1 to 377.1 transition were fixed as follows: ionization voltage 4.5 kV, probe temperature 350°C, declustering potential (DP; -30 V), focusing potential (FP; -400 V), entrance potential (EP; -10V), cell entrance potential (CEP; 5 V), collision energy (CE; 16 V) and cell exit potential (CXP; 5 V). The m/z 377 ion, derived from the fragmentation of the pseudomolecular [M-H]- ion, corresponds to the oleuropein aglycone resulting from the loss of the glucose moiety.

leaves from Apulia and Tuscany regions of Italy were examined and in all cases oleuropein was identified as the most abundant compound. The Q1 chromatogram produced from the olive leaves ethanolic extract (Fig. 2) shows the profiles of the precursor ion (m/z = 539), which corresponds to the pseudomolecular [M-H]- ion of both oleuropein (major) and its isomer oleuroside (minor), whose molecular masses are 540 Da. A comparison of the chromatograms of a sample of pure oregano (A) and a sample of oregano

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Using the analytical conditions described in Materials and Methods, various samples of oregano and sage from different origins were examined and the presence of oleuropein was not evident. On the other hand, various samples of olive

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Fig. 2 - LC-ESI-MS/MS in negative ion mode chromatogram obtained from a sample of dried olive leaves ethanolic extract. The Q1 profile appearing at r.t. 25.3 min represents the precursor ion of oleuropein with m/z 539, corresponding to the pseudomolecular [M-H]- ion. The peak at r.t. 29.9 min is the isomer oleuroside, having the same molecular mass, 540 Da.


contaminated with O. europaea L. dried leaves (B) (Fig. 3) clearly shows that the Q1 chromatogram produced from the oregano ethanolic extract (Fig. 3A) did not contain the ion m/z = 539. The two peaks produced from oregano at r.t. < 25.0 min have m/z = 537 and their evidence is due only to the acquisition range (m/z = 539 Âą 3). On the other hand, an extract of oregano containing ~ 20% of olive leaves shows a strong peak at r.t. 25.2 min having m/z = 539, i.e. the [M-H]- ion of oleuropein. Fig. 4 compares a sample of pure sage (A) and a sample of sage contaminated with ~ 10% of olive leaves (B). The extract of contaminated sage shows, as in the case of contaminated oregano, the [M-H]ion of oleuropein at r.t. 25.3 min. For a better evidence Figg. 5 and 6 are reported which show, for the same samples of oregano and sage before considered, the extracted m/z = 539 ion chromatogram. The clear trace of m/z = 539 ion identified in the contaminated oregano and sage did not detectable at corresponding r.t. in the chromatograms of pure oregano and sage. Operating in MS2 mode the precursor ion at m/z 539 displayed the characteristic product ions at m/z 377, 307 and 275, as has been confirmed by others Authors (Bazoti et al., 2010; Del Boccio et al., 2003).

Fig. 3 - LC-ESI-MS/MS in negative ion mode chromatogram obtained from a sample of pure oregano (A) and a sample of oregano contaminated with ~ 20% of Olea europaea L. dried leaves (B). The peak at 25.2 min in (B) corresponds to the pseudomolecular [M-H]-ion of oleuropein (m/z = 539).

CONCLUSIONS Even though the amounts of oleuropein in the collected olive leaves may vary to the age of the samples and due to genetic factors, this mol-

Fig. 4 - LC-ESI-MS/MS in negative ion mode chromatogram obtained from a sample of pure sage (A) and a sample of sage contaminated with ~ 10% of Olea europaea L. dried leaves (B). The peak at 25.3 min in (B) corresponds to the pseudomolecular [M-H]-ion of oleuropein (m/z = 539).

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Fig. 5 - Extracted ion m/z = 539 detectable on LC-ESI-MS/MS in negative ion mode chromatogram obtained from a sample of pure oregano (A) and a sample of oregano contaminated with ~ 20% of Olea europaea L. dried leaves (B). The intensity values readable for pure oregano has not an analytical sense in the neighborhood of r.t. 25 min.

Fig. 6 - Extracted ion m/z = 539 detectable on LC-ESI-MS/MS in negative ion mode chromatogram obtained from a sample of pure sage (A) and a sample of sage contaminated with ~ 10% of Olea europaea L. dried leaves (B). The intensity values readable for pure sage has not an analytical sense in the neighborhood of r.t. 25 min.

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ecule will always be present in sufficient quantity to be identified in all dried samples derived from various origins and during various collecting periods. Therefore this secoiridoid phenolic compound may serve as a “marker” of the presence of ground and dried olive leaves in some herbs used in retail and industrial markets. In this paper, two examples (for ground oregano and sage) of the application of this LCMS/MS method are shown for quality control. Considering that the olive leaves cannot be considered as a common extraneous vegetable material tolerable in aromatic herbs, no limits of their presence have been defined at the present time. Consequently, there is no finite quantity of olive leaves that can be tolerable in ground oregano or sage, which are the most common aromatic herbs used for food preparation. The quantitative evaluation of the presence of olive leaves, on the other hand, is not useful and is practically impossible, due to the highly variable content of oleuropein in dried olive ground leaves. The criterion for olive leaves identification presented in this paper is evidently useful for qualitative measurements, as specific confirmation of the adulteration evaluated by stereo zoom microscopy. Therefore the suggested method has for the first time permitted a real identification of olive leaves for routine quality control and it has been adopted in the Analytical Research Laboratories (Di.Pro.Ve. - University of Milan, Italy). From “Italian Journal of Food Science” nr 3/2011


REFERENCES 1. Angerosa F., d’Alessandro N., Konstantinou P. and Di Giacinto L. 1995. GC-MS evaluation of phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil. J. Agric. Food Chem., 43: 1802. 2. Bazoti F.N., Gikas E. and Tsarbopoulos A. 2010. Simultaneous quantification of oleuropein and its metabolites in rat plasma by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Biomed. Chromatogr. 24: 506. 3. Bononi M., Fiordaliso I. and Tateo F. 2010b. Rapid GC/MS Test for Identification of Olea europaea L. Leaves in Ground Oregano. Ital. J. Food Sci. 22 (4): 479. 4. Bononi M., Fiordaliso I. and Tateo F. 2010a. Introduzione alla tecnica di stereo-microscopia per l’identificazione di foglie di Olea europaea L. in origano contuso. Ingredienti Alimentari 50: 6. 5. Bouaziz M. and Sayadi S. 2005. Isolation and evaluation of antioxidants from leaves of a Tunisian cultivar olive tree. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 107: 497. 6. Del Boccio P., Di Deo A., De Curtis A., Celli N., Iacoviello L. and Rotilio D. 2003. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of oleuropein and its metabolite

hydroxytyrosol in rat plasma and urine after oral administration. J. Chromatogr. B 785: 47. 7. Japòn-Lujàn R. and Luque De Castro M.D. 2008. Liquid-Liquid Extraction for the Enrichment of Edible Oils with Phenols from Olive Leaf Extracts. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56: 2505. 8. Japón-Luján R., Luque-Rodriguez J.M. and Luque de Castro M.D. 2006. Multivariate optimization of the microwave-assisted extraction of oleuropein and related biophenols from olive leaves. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 385: 753. 9. Jemai H., Bouaziz M. and Sayadi S. 2009. Phenolic Composition, Sugar Contents and Antioxidant Activity of Tunisian Sweet Olive Cultivar with Regard to Fruit Ripening. J. Agric. Food Chem. 57: 2961. 10. Kiritsakis K., Kontominas M.G., Kontogiorgis C., Hadjipavlou-Litina D., Moustakas A. and Kiritsakis A. 2010. Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Olive Leaf Extracts from Greek Olive Cultivars. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 87: 369. 11. Laguerre M., López Giraldo L.J., Piombo G., Figueroa-Espinoza M.C., Pina M., Benaissa M., Combe A., Rossignol Castera A., Lecomte J. and Villeneuve P. (2009). Characterization of olive-leaf phenolics by ESI-MS and evaluation of their antioxidant capacities by the CAT assay. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 86: 1215.

12. Marsilio V., Campestre C. and Lanza B. 2001. Phenolic compounds change during California-style ripe olive processing. Food Chem. 74: 55. 13. Papoti V.T. and Tsimidou M.Z. (2009). Impact of sampling parameters on the radical scavenging potential of olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves. J. Agric. Food Chem. 57: 3470. 14. Ranalli A., Contento S., Lucera L., Di Febo M., Marchegiani D. and Di Fonzo V. 2006. Factors Affecting the Contents of Iridoid Oleuropein in Olive Leaves (Olea europaea L.). J. Agric. Food Chem. 54: 434. 15. Ranalli A., Marchegiani D., Contento S., Girardi F., Nicolosi M.P. and Brullo M.D. 2009. Variations of iridoid oleuropein in Italian olive varieties during growth and maturation. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 111: 678. 16. Saitta M., Lo Curto S., Salvo F., Di Bella G. and Dugo G. 2002. Gas chromatographictandem mass spectrometric identification of phenolic compounds in Sicilian olive oils. Anal. Chem. Acta 466: 335. 17. Soler-Rivas C., Espìn J.C. and Wichers H.J. 2000. Review Oleuropein and related compounds. J. Sci. Food Agric. 80: 1013. 18. Tuck K.L. and Hayball P.J. 2002. Major phenolic compounds in olive oil: metabolism and health effects. J. Nutr. Biochem. 13: 636.


CHIRIOTTI EDITORI Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february -



The ability to taste fat may prevent obesity New research supports the theory that individuals can actually taste the fat in food and those who can’t may face an increased risk of higher fat intake and obesity. During a symposium at the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) Annual Meeting & Food Expo, panelists said that individuals primarily detect fat in foods through smell and texture, although studies are increasingly supporting the notion that fat and fatty acids can also be tasted. These studies also show that some individuals cannot taste fat, and that these “non-tasters” are associated with genetic variances in the way that some individuals process food. When combined with environmental factors such as living in an urban setting close to convenience stores and fast food, these individuals were more likely to ingest a greater amount of fat, and subsequently faced a higher risk of obesity.

 “The general perception is that people eat what they like, but this is not always the case,” said Keller, Ph.D.

of the New York Obesity Research Center at St. Luke’s Roosevelt Hospital, and associate professor at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. In these people, genetics plays a key role in coordinating fat preference and selection with the metabolism and storage of this nutrient. As a result, non-tasters have “impaired fat perception,” and may subconsciously crave fat to compensate for a perceived deficiency, according to Keller. Conversely, individuals who were more sensitive to the taste of fat ingested less. 
 A genetic variation in taste affects food and beverage sensations, which affects food and beverage preference and intake. This can affects an individual risk for cardiovascular disease, obesity and cancer. Recent research also links the perception of the food having a creamy consistently with higher fat intake and an increased preference for added fats and oils, and a lower preference for low-fat dairy products.

 In conclusion, biological

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differences in food perception are real and potentially important to food acceptance; some populations

may require alternative approaches or food formulations to achieve optimal acceptance.

Processing conditions affect probiotics differently Research published in Journal of Biotechnology attempts to understand and define the optimum conditions for including probiotic bacteria into foods. The Munich based team investigated the influence of drying process parameters of low temperature vacuum dehydration on survival and metabolic activity of three different probiotic strains. In addition, the

interactions between different fermentation pH values and drying conditions were studied. It was shown that for the low-temperature vacuum drying a decrease in product temperature and an increase in residual water content led to a higher survival rate of L. paracasei ssp. paracasei F19 but not of B. lactis Bb12 and L. delbrueckii ssp. bul-

garicus. B. lactis shows an increase of survival rate with higher residual water content; for L. delbrueckii lowtemperature vacuum drying results in a ten times higher survival rate. It was also shown that the fermentation pH influences the survival of cells within low-temperature vacuum drying, but the effect is strongly strain specific. L. paracasei showed an increased drying resistance at adverse drying conditions with increasing acid stress, but this was not the case for B. lactis. The researchers offer no explanation for these differ-

ences but conclude that an optimization of fermentation conditions should not be carried out independently from drying conditions as these two factors interact with each other. They also note that there are strong strain specific dependencies between the fermentation and processing conditions and survival of different strains. Whilst the reasons for these differences are not yet understood, the works holds out the hope that techniques can be found for incorporating probiotics that currently respond badly to freezedrying and vacuum-drying.

Onion waste as a functional ingredient A study published in the journal Plant Foods Human Nutrition has reported that over 500,000 tonnes of onion waste are thrown away in the European Union each year, which could have a potential use as food ingredients. The study by researchers from Cranfield University and Autonomous University of Madrid (Spain) has stated that onions are the second most important horticultural crop and over the past 10 years onion production has increased by more than 25%. Spain, UK and Holland are the main producers of onion waste, which include onion skins,

The samples analysed were not marketable produce, due to sprouting, damage to the outer scales, lost peel or smaller than commercially acceptable. The onions were prepared in different sections, similar to those generated in industrial peeling: top-bottom section, brown skin section, outer section, inner scales and the dry matter content for concentrations of potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, manganese, and selenium was analysed. Also the dietary fibre content, non structured carbohydrates, total fructans, sulphur content, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, total antioxidant capacity amongst others were determined. The researchers found that the brown skin and topbottom could be potentially used as a functional ingredi-

ent as it was high in dietary fibre, total phenolics, and flavonoids, with high antioxidant activity; they also found high concentrations of quercetin aglycone and calcium in the brown skin and high concentration of magnesium, iron, zinc and manganese in the top-bottom. The outer scales were found to be a good source of flavonoids, and dietary fibre content, whilst the inner scales being a source of fructans (prebiotics) and alk(en)yl cystein sulphoxides. In conclusion, the scientists reports that their results show that it would be useful to separate the different parts of onions produced during the industrial process; they note this would enable them to be used as a source of functional compounds which could be added to other foodstuffs. RSSL

two outer fleshy scales, roots and diseased and damaged bulbs. BenĂ­tez et al. report that onions are rich in several plant compounds which are perceived to be beneficial to health, including dietary fibre, fructooligosaccharides, flavonoids (anthocyanins and flavanols such as quercetin), and alk(en) ylcystein sulphoxides. The scientists note the objective of their study was to gain knowledge of any differences among different onion wastes using the two cultivars Reccas and Figueres that are commonly produced in Spain.

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february -


Seaweeds for enhancing the safety and quality of foods The production of rancid flavours and odours due to oxidative stress in foods can lead to a reduction in the sensory attributes, nutritional quality, and food safety. Due to consumer demands, interest has been generated in searching plant products for natural “green” additives. Researchers, led by Dr. Nissreen Abu-Ghannam from Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland, outlines the potential uses of seaweed and seaweed extracts in the food production. They explore the potential for using the natural marine products as anti-microbial and antioxidation ingredients. Extracts from macroalgae or seaweeds are rich in polyphenolic com-

pounds which have well documented antioxidant properties. They also have antimicrobial activities against major food spoilage and food pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, the possibility of seaweeds being added to foods as a source of antioxidant and antimicrobial is the main focus. In addition, seaweeds are also rich in dietary minerals specially sodium, potassium, iodine, and fibres. Another potential area where the use of seaweed is gaining importance is regarding their addition for improving the textural properties of food products. This study has an important relevance for the industry. The trend towards the use

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of “natural green” plant extracts in various food and beverages in the food industry is gaining momentum. Seaweed, being a rich source of structurally diverse bioactive compounds with valuable nutraceutical properties, can be used as an ingredient to supplement food with functional compounds. Interest in the application of such compounds as natural antioxidants, antimicrobials or texturing agents in different food products is greater than ever. The addition of

seaweeds or their extracts to food products will reduce the utilization of chemical preservatives, which will fulfil the industry as well as consumer demands for “green” products. In addition, the current status and the future projections in the functional effects of seaweeds as a means to improve the fibre content and reduce the salt content of food products, which will be of significant importance to the meat industry, is also discussed.

Agrowaste-based nanofibers as a probiotic encapsulant A research team, led by Min-Tze Liong, from the School of Industrial Technology at the University Sains Malaysia, explored the potential of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) from agrowastes, okara (soybean solid waste), oil palm trunk (OPT), and oil palm frond (OPF) obtained via alkali treatment, in the nanoencapsulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus. SDF solutions were amended with 8% poly(vinyl alcohol) to produce nanofibers using electrospinning technology. The spinning solution made from okara had a higher pH value at 5.39 ± 0.01 and a higher viscosity at 578.00 ± 11.02 mPa·s

(P < 0.05), which resulted in finer fibers. FTIR spectra of nanofibers showed the presence of hemicellulose material in the SDF. Thermal behavior of nanofibers suggested possible thermal protection of probiotics in heat-processed foods. L. acidophilus was incorporated into the spinning solution to produce nanofiber-encapsulated probiotic, measuring 229-703 nm, visible under fluorescence microscopy. Viability studies showed good bacterial survivability of 78.6-90% under electrospinning conditions and retained viability at refrigeration temperature during the 21-days storage study.

Ice cream with lupin proteins Summer without ice cream it’s unthinkable. But those who are milk or lactose-intolerant must often go without. Fraunhofer Researchers of the Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging IVV in Freising (Germany) now offer an alternative: “Lupinesse” – the purely plant-based delicacy that is free of lactose and cholesterol, with valuable lupin protein. Now, enjoy a delicious ice

cream in a warm evening is a pleasure available even to those who do not tolerate dairy products. Because on offer at Edeka Suedbayern and Edeka Suedwest in Germany, there are the four Lupinesse flavors, Vanilla-Cherry, StrawberryMousse, Walnut Dream, and Choco-Flakes. Based on formulas devised by Fraunhofer researchers, the new ice cream is purely a plant-based prod-

uct, containing valuable proteins from the seeds of the indigenous blue sweet lupin and completely free of lactose, gluten, cholesterol and animal proteins and fats. There have been repeated attempts in the past to create food products from lupins. “We had already written off the lupins in the late 1990s,” recalls Klaus Mueller. But then came a suggestion from Gerhard Kloth, a lupin expert, to use the blue sweet lupin. “The first products were promising, but their taste, creamy consistency and

quality were far from the ice cream we are now bringing to market,” Mueller remembers. The secret behind the special flavour lies in the selection of the lupin variety, combined with a special production method. The blue sweet lupin is particularly rich in protein, it has a balanced flavour, flourishes when grown in Germany and it naturally improves soil quality with its nitrogen-binding roots. The researchers use the high-quality protein from the seeds to make the ice cream. “The high portion

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of protein is important for the creamy consistency,” Mueller explains. And the cholesterol-regulating effects of the lupin protein make the new ice cream nutritiously valuable at the same time. A spinoff of the IVV, Prolupin GmbH, is in charge of producing and marketing the ice cream. The company, headquartered in Neubrandenburg, Germany, cooperates with “PlantsProFood – Food from the Blue Sweet Lupin,” a grower initiative sponsored by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research and involving a total of 14

partners. Here, the lupin – also referred to as “the soybean of the North” – is

Green plastics from the slaughterhouse Tomorrow’s plastics could come from an unusual source, slaughterhouse waste. In fact, European researchers are developing new approaches to produce biodegradable plastics from the waste products without using fossil fuels. In January 2010 started the ANIMPOL project, a Europe-wide collaboration between academic institutions and industrial partners in seven Countries. One of its major goals is the establishment of a bioplastic manufacturing facility that is using

the processes developed. The project, which is also investigating how animal waste could be used more efficiently as biofuel, has been part-funded by nearly €3 million from the EU. Although this project sounds distinctly bizarre, its success would not only reduce our dependence on oil and reduce environmental harm but would also position the European Union at the forefront of the burgeoning bioplastics industry. C u r r e n t l y m o s t wa s t e from slaughterhouses and animal rendering plants is

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cultivated and has been used to produce lupin protein since January 2011.

Hans Georg Maier, Managing Director of Edeka Suedbayern GmbH, explains the expansion in the ice cream assortment: “We are very pleased to be able to offer our customers a brand new food product in the form of Lupinesse ice cream, providing nutrition-conscious people, people allergic to dairy protein and lactoseintolerant people a safe way to enjoy ice cream. This non-dairy ice cream is a first; there has never been a product like this on the market until now. It will certainly meet with wide acceptance”.

incinerated but this means that some potentially very useful chemicals are sent up in smoke. The scientists working on the ANIMPOL project are particularly keen to put the lipids – long, carbon-rich, polymer molecules – in animal waste to better use. In Europe, half a million tons of these lipids are produced annually by the animal slaughtering industry. ANIMPOL project leader, Dr Martin Koller of the University of Graz (Austria) says: “What we were thinking when we started this project is that nature creates polymers like these lipids, as well as proteins, free of charge. Why should we incinerate them?”.

Industrial biotechnologies will be at the core of new and innovative processes, avoiding or reducing high amounts of toxic solvents that are essential in current conventional approaches for the recovery of bioplastics. As Dr Koller points out, we are living in something akin to a “plastic age” with an estimated 250 million tons of plastic produced globally using fossil fuels last year. This situation ties thousands of businesses to wildly fluctuating oil prices, depletes natural resources and creates a further environmental headache once the plastics have been used and need to be destroyed. “It is clear that biopolymers

will have an increased significance in the future”, says Dr. Koller. The question is, do we want to import these biopolymers from outside Europe?”

Asian and South American researchers have been making headway in recent years using raw materials found in plentiful supply on those continents.

Flaxseed dietary fibres suppress appetite sensation in young men Dietary fibres (DF) are linked to a reduced risk of life-style diseases, which relate to their physiological effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Scientists from the University of Copenhagen examined whether flaxseed DF-enriched meals sup-

press postprandial lipemia and reduce appetite. Four different iso-caloric meals were tested in 18 young men in a doubleblind randomized crossover design. Test meals were served after an overnight fast. DF content and source

were control (C): 1.4 g/MJ; whole flaxseed (WF): 2.4 g/ MJ from whole flaxseeds; low-mucilage dose (LM): 2.4 g/MJ from flaxseed DF; high-mucilage dose (HM): 3.4 g/MJ from flaxseed DF. During the 7-hours test day, subjective appetite sensation was assessed using visual analogue scales and appetite-regulating hormones, and lipemia and glycemia were measured, after which ad libitum energy intake was recorded. There was a significant time × meal effect on triacylglycerols (TG) (p = 0.02) and a 18% smaller area under the curve (AUC) for TG after meal HM compared to meal C was observed (p < 0.01).

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february -


AUC for insulin was smaller after both LM and HM meals compared to C and WF meals. Higher mean ratings of satiety (p < 0.01) and fullness (p = 0.03) was seen following the HM meal compared to meal C. AUC for ghrelin, CCK and GLP-1 and ad libitum energy intake did not differ

between meals, but ghrelin response exhibited a different response pattern after the mucilage-containing meals. In conclusion, these findings suggest that flaxseed DF may suppress postprandial lipemia and appetite although subsequent energy intake was not affected.

Nanoencapsulation of resveratrol improves stability and bioavailability Resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound found in peanuts, red grapes as well as other plant sources has been found in previous studies to have health beneficial properties. It is known for its high antioxidant activity but the physicochemical properties of resveratrol cause its bioavailability to be limited. It has low solubility in aqueous and lipid phases and is a very reactive molecule. It reacts to dissolved oxygen and also to sunlight, producing degradation products. A study published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry has investigated the development of nanoemulsion-based delivery systems for resveratrol. The study by Donsi et al. also investigates the physical stability of the emulsions, chemical

stability of the most active form, trans-resveratrol, and the antioxidant activity of resveratrol even after digestion. The scientists used 0.01 wt% resveratrol encapsulated in peanut oil based n a n o e m u l s i o n s . Th e y produced four nano emulsions namely a resveratrol, lipophilic soy lecithin and defatted soy lecithin formula (R/LSL-DSL), a resveratrol, soy lecithin formula (R/LEC), a resveratrol, lipophilic soy lecithin and sugar ester formula (R/LSL-SE) and finally a resveratrol, polysorbate Tween 20 and a glycerol monooleate formula (R/ T20-GMO). They used a small amount of ethanol to increase the solubility of the resveratrol, by dissolving the resveratrol crystals before mixing them with peanut oil and eventual

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lipophilic emulsifier. The stability of nanoencapsulated resveratrol was evaluated at different temperature (4°, 30°, and 55°C) in dark conditions for 4 weeks. The chemical stability was evaluated using UV light exposure and storage temperatures of 4°, 30° and 55°C. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion was investigated by simulated gastric digestion by mixing the encapsulated resveratrol with salivia and incubating with pepsin after pH adjustments. Donsi analysed the antioxidant activity at different stages of digestion by chemical assay and used

Caco-2 cells to measure the residual activity of resveratrol. The study found the R/ LSL-SE and the R/T20GMO to be the most physically and chemically stable. These formulations also had the highest chemical and cellular antioxidant activity when compared to unencapsulated resveratrol dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. Donsi et al. report that this indicated that “nanoencapsulated resveratrol, not being metabolised in the gastro-intestinal tract, can be potentially absorbed through the intestinal wall in its active form”.

Satiating effect of fish protein hydrolysate Th e J o u r n a l o f F u n c tional Foods has recently published the results of a French study on the satiating properties of blue whiting muscle hydrolysate (BWMH). To find appetite suppressive molecules derived from fish protein hydrolysates, both in vitro and in vivo experiments were performed. Researchers d e m o n s t ra t e d f o r t h e first time that a protein hydrolysate obtained from marine source was able to enhance cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secre-

tion in STC-1 cell line. To demonstrate that these in vitro activities also exist in vivo, the effect of BWMH preload administration in rats and its repercussion on food intake and metabolic plasma marker levels have been investigated. Results showed that BWMH reduced the shortterm food intake that was correlated to an increase in the CCK and GLP-1 plasma levels. Moreover it was demonstrated that the chronic administration of BWMH led to a decrease in the body weight gain.

New potential uses and better nutritional quality for the palm olein Modified palm olein could boost food applications and nutritional quality; this is the result of a study by Indian researchers of the Central Food Technological Research Institute. The study, published in Food Chemistry, reports that addition of the medium chain fatty acids to palm olein may help to widen its potential uses in food formulation whilst producing oil with

better nutritional quality. “[The] nutritional quality of palm olein was improved by reducing palmitic acid and enriching with medium chain fatty acids”, said the authors. “The medium chain fatty acid rich palm olein [also] reduced solids fat content at and below 10°C, lowered onset of crystallization, cloud point and iodine value compared to palm olein, thus widening

its applications in food and therapeutic foods,” they said. The researchers explained that the medium chain fatty acids, caprylic (C8:0) and capric (C10:0) were incorporated into palm olein by 1,3-specific lipase acidolysis, at levels of up to 36 and 43%, respectively. “It was found that these acids were incorporated into palm olein at the expense of palmitic and oleic acids,” noted Reddy and colleagues. The new modified palm olein products were shown to have reduced high molecular weight triacylglycerols

(TGs) and an increased concentration of lower molecular weight TGs compared to standard palm olein. Analysis of the chemical and physical properties of the modified oils found that onset of melting and solids fat content were considerably reduced, with no solids found even at and below 10°C. The onset of crystallization was also considerably lowered. “Thus, nutritionally superior palm olein was prepared by introducing medium chain fatty acids with reduced palmitic acid through lipase acidolysis”, concluded the research team.

Stone grinding millS Everybody knows that Real Wholemeal Flours keep all the vitamins, mineral salts and fibres that the grain contains. Therefore we are decided to dedicate ourselves to the Wholemeal Grinding activity with Stone Mills. Our 60-years-old experience in milling sector has allowed us to bind tradition to technological evolution. So, our Milling Plants are suitable either for the Milling Industry or for the small Miller, either for the Bakery or for Rural activity. All our Mills are built according to International Food and Mechanical Standards.

Combi-Junior FORLÌ Via Ugo Buli, 2 (z.i.) - 47122 - Italia Tel. +39.0543.796165 - Fax +39.0543.723237


MILANO Piazza Duca D’Aosta, 8 - 20124 - Italia Tel. +39.02.6692734 - Fax +39.02.6692634

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february -


FOOD PROCESSING The first time for Firex at Ipack-Ima Firex is going to exhibit at Ipack-Ima for the first time. “For us, trade fairs are a great chance to get in touch with new markets and to show our cooking systems – says Mauro Favretti, sales manager at Firex – and Ipack-Ima is becoming increasingly important in the European market.” Firex is an Italian company and has been supplying world markets with installations in the food industry

for many years. This year it will take part in Milan’s trade fair and present the best cooking systems: - Baskett is the tilting kettle with high capacities, available in several versions from 70 up to 500 litres. It is used to cook thick and thin soups, pasta, rice, sauces, custards, jellies and dairy-based products; - Cucimax is a single and versatile appliance which can cook in different ways, and therefore meet count-

Detail of Firex stand at Cibus Tec 2011.

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Cucimax displayed at Ipack-Ima 2012.

less catering requirements, ensuring fast cooking time and top quality produce; - the Multicooker range includes 21 models, featuring single- or twin-tank, with independently controlled baskets, 120 to 240 litre capacity; its flexibility is ideal for traditional waterbased cooking, ensuring safe, swift cooking cycles. All appliances by Firex are designed and made in Italy, and epitomize the best of Italian-made products in the food processing industry, as Mr Favretti states “our appliances are the result of planning, analysis,

experience in the field and production capacity, that is why they ensure product quality according to Italian standards, which are greatly appreciated abroad.” In 2012 Firex will take part in the most important trade fairs in the industry – GulFood in Dubai, Ipack-Ima in Milan, Anuga FoodTec in Cologne and FHA in Singapore - to sustain its capability for innovation in the international food industry. (Firex - Zona industriale Gresal 28 - 32036 Sedico BL - Italy - Tel. +39 0437 852700 - Fax +39 0437 852858 - email:

Homogenizers for high quality products Thanks to its accumulated expertise in the sector of homogenizers, since 1987 FBF Italia has been a key point-of-reference for system manufacturers and end-users in the food, chemical and pharmaceutical fields. The company has a consolidated and ever-expanding presence, via its large sales and service network in Italy and throughout the world, which has generated consistent growth in production and sales figures. One of the reasons behind this highly positive trend is unquestionably the special direct relationship between the company management and customers, a relationship built on mutual evolution and innovation. The mission of FBF Italia is to offer customers not only an excellent sales service, but also to continue this relationship with constant, direct post-sales technical assistance. Present in over forty Countries around the world, FBF agents and representatives are organised to give a quick response to all requests for sales and technical support. On-going innovation, exacting development of special materials, strict quality controls and endurance tests allow the company to guarantee maximum performance durability, reliability, and safety. FBF Italia presents the Buffalo Series homogenizers

which conform to EC standards and are available with output capacities ranging from 50 to 50,000 litres per hour, with homogenization pressures of up to 2,000 bar. Buffalo models are sanitary and aseptic, for UHT installations. They provide twostage homogenization, and include a standard version, for processing products such as milk, yoghurt, and cream, and the Abrasive version, for products such as fruit juices, ice cream, or ketchup. Several options are available for fully customized machines for specific needs, including: electrical systems for operation at a fixed capacity, for duties requiring variable flow rates, and for use at two fixed capacities; partial automation of the machine for control either manually or by a control system; pulsation compensators on the product inlet and outlet; pressure transducer with digital display of homogenization pressure; partial homogenization systems; and automatic homogenization pressure cut-out in order to protect the machine from in-feed errors. FBF Italia also develops laboratory homogenizers. FBF Homolab can handle about 10 litres of product per hour, with homogenization pressures of up to 1,500 bars. It is equipped with two pumping pistons and this important feature results in far greater

Buffalo Series homogenizer (FBF Italia).

product stability and more reliable results than can be expected from single piston machines. Options include single and two-stage homogenisation valves. This makes it possible to closely replicate the same homogenization

conditions in the laboratory, as can be expected in the real production process. (FBF Italia - Via Are 2 - 43038 Sala Baganza - PR - Italy - Tel. +39 0521 548211 - Fax +39 0521 835179 - email: info@

Thermal treatment units With more than 50 installed plants, Labs has developed the PR tunnel, a pasteurization, heating and cooling thermal treatment unit for food and beverage packed products in tin cans, jars, bottles (glass and plastic), bags, bricks, and other packaging with circular and special shape. According to the thermal

cycle and process required, the installations can be divided into three categories, pasteurizer-cooler, warmer, and cooler. The pasteurizer-cooler is developed for the complete pasteurisation, holding and cooling process of products according to the thermal cycle required. It is used for hot and cold filling products.

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PR tunnel for pasteurization, heating and cooling treatment (Labs).

The warmer is conceived for a soft heating cycle on cold filling products. The process is generally used to take the product to an ambient temperature in order to limit the condensation on the external parts of the containers. Finally, the cooler makes a cycle of only cooling treatment for hot filling products. This process is generally used for packaging material (es. PET) with a limited resistance to heat. The water treatment distribution is made by means of a shower system with adjustable and detachable nozzles and the water circulation is granted by means of electropumps. All the machines are developed according to the function, the cycle and the thermal treatment process and they can be divided into treatment zones with different temperatures (pasteurisation, cooling, pre-heating and precooling, etc.). Dimensions of installations are calculated according to production

and available spaces with a workable surface from 6 m2 up to 160 m2. The modulating construction may provide one or two work tops and this feature makes transportation and assembling easier. The pasteurisation and heating processes are obtained thanks to the overheated water circulation and overheated water production can be done with indirect steam system by means of heat exchangers or direct steam injection system with pierced coil according to specific customer needs and applications. The water circulation is made by means of electro-pumps equipped with water collecting tanks with double filters in aspiration. The water distribution on containers is done by means of a shower system with special nozzles which can be easily fixed and detached for control and cleaning operations. The type of installed nozzle changes according to its function

32 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february

and the nebulization degree required. In the tunnel, packaging moves on a plastic material belt that can resist wear and temperature. The machine feeding and extraction can be different. Standard, the packaging enters into the tunnel thanks to a normal multiline conveyor belt and there is a “free pushing” system. The Active Passage reduces the “dead spaces”, and finally there is an electro mechanical system to feed and extract special shaped packaging (not round) in separated lines. At the end of the tunnel there is a dripping system which can eliminate the first residual water mainly in the upper zone of packaging. For the total drying of the packaging, there are modular

installations, Series Fanny, which are suitable for in-line drying of jars, bottles, cans, etc. with air forced system and blades. Labs proposes a control panel that makes it possible to check, regulate and manage all the parameters. The automation and control system of the installation can be personalised with operating controlled by PLC, process temperatures recording, polyvalent section/temperatures running system, remote connection via modem, control system of relative humidity, and UP control and running system. (Labs - Via Follerau 12 43122 Parma - Italy - Tel. +39 0521 775191 - Fax +39 0521 778205 - email: info@

Vertical mixers and dryers Nuova Guseo presents the Series VP vertical mixers and dryers. The vertical mixers are widely used for several applications in chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries, especially for mixing both dry powders and powders with liquid additives. Furthermore, they can be used for vacuum drying, homogenizing, deaeration, cooling, and heating processes. The working principle consists of a simultaneous motion of suitable transmissions that allows the screw to perform

two movements, to rotate on its own axis and to orbit along the inner conical vessel wall. In this way the agitator, which generally consists of a worm screw, conveys the product from the bottom to the top and creates a horizontal motion flow. Moreover, the conical shape of the mixing vessel allows to obtain a different motion speed of particles which depends on their distance from the bottom where particles move faster. The particular vertical mixer grants several advantages

Impianti per: Plants for:

Paste precotte Cooked pasta

20045 Besana - Milano - Italy

Paste fresche Fresh pasta

Piatti pronti Ready-meals

tel +39.0362.995110 ra fax +39.0362.996300

VP series vertical mixer (Nuova Guseo).

such as a low power consumption, because the mixing screw does not act on the whole product simultaneously, a minimum heating of substances and a soft mixing action. The machine works with a lower product volume than the maximum design capacity, it is easy to be cleaned, and assures complete emptying without product retention. Regarding the manufacturing materials, Nuova Guseo proposes several versions to meet specific production requirements. The vertical mixers are made of high quality steel or stainless steel Aisi 304 and Aisi 316, according to the specific type of material processed. If necessary, special linings can be fitted in order to minimize abrasion, corrosion or prevent product adhering to the internal surfaces.

Similar to the VP, the series VPS enables the best ratio of overall dimensions/loading volume thanks to their truncated-conical shaped body. A shaft on which a conical spiral is applied causes the mixing movement and the spiral brushes the inner walls of the vessel and conveys the product from the bottom to the top. Integral with the same shaft, a second central spiral conveys the product from the top to the bottom, intensifying mixing and favouring necessary time reduction. The slow movement of the mixing paddle, which is completely driven from outside the vessel, makes this mixer suitable for the treatment of fragile and heat sensitive products. The VPS model can be also used for the treatment of dry product (both in powders and in granules), wet or sticky materials, as well as low or medium viscosity liquids. Finally, Nuova Guseo is also in a position to supply a wide range of different equipment for fine and ultra-fine grinding, horizontal mixers, screw/ vibrating feeders, classifiers, filters, conveyors, and solid handling systems. Specific catalogues are available on request. A grinding test can be carried out at Nuova Guseo or customer plant. (Nuova Guseo - Via Dante 4 - 2 9 0 1 0 Vi l l a n o v a Sull’Arda - PC - Italy - Tel. +39 0523 837149 - Fax +39 0523 837498 - email:

34 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february

Roll grinder for coffee The great experience that Brambati has in the coffee grinding sector allowed the realization of the grinder Series KM and Series KMT which are dedicated to different kinds of finishing. Series K allows a great flexibility in the production of ground coffee types such as Moka and Espresso, and Series KT guarantees excellent and convincing results for a very “fine” coffee, al-

most impalpable (Turkish type). Both series are equipped with a computerized system for the positioning of the rolls and with electronic control to maintain a constant granulometry. (Brambati - Via Strada Nuova 37 - 27050 - Codevilla PV - Italy - Tel. +39 0383 373100 - Fax +39 0383 373078 - email: info@

KM-KMT roll grinder (Brambati).

External scraper and disk cutter for cheese Gelmini presents the external scraper mod. FSPG-1 and the disk cutter GEA-4 + triangle cutter Atena Big system. The external scraper auto-

matically turns the outer rind of the whole Italian Parmesan-type cheese, in complete safety and with the possibility to adjust the thickness of the scrapings.

External scraper mod. FSPG-1 for Italian Parmesan-type cheese (Gelmini).

Instead, the calibrated fixed weight line is the result of the union of simplicity and

experience with the latest technology. First the disk cutter GEA-4 cuts a disk of cheese according to the height set, then the triangle cutter Mod. Atena Big weights it before starting to cut it into disks of fixed height or into a selected number, with the possibility of correcting each individual disk according to its diameter. A belt, which is positioned before the Atena Big, allows manual feeding when large pieces of cheese such as Asiago or Emmenthal are being processed. (Gelmini - Via G. Di Vittorio 19 - 43013 Langhirano PR - Italy - Tel. +39 0521 861413 - Fax +39 0521 861405 - email: info@

Food processing machine For anyone who is constantly looking for the highest quality without compromising on creativity, full efficiency and technological innovation, Roboqbo is the right choice. It is the result of the creativity, passion, search for excellence and experience gained in over 30 years in the food sector and is available in a wide range of models with multiple configurations to meet all production needs. Roboqbo is more than a piece of equipment; it is a compact, easy to use and extremely fast laboratory, capable of producing excellent results. The first and only product that contains a whole food

processing philosophy in just one machine. Thanks to its design and high technological content, every food processing operation is safe, fast and characterized by the highest quality. The speed of execution of the processes generates a whole new concept of quality brought by Roboqbo. This means cooking is fast but gentle and there is an immediate transfer to the cooling operations, concentrations are carried out in minutes instead of hours as with traditional systems, vacuum sealing returns and strongly enhances original colours and aromas. All processing steps are carried

Mayonnaise Homogenizer

The technological innovation to the service of your craftsmanship

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Vacuum Blender

Ketchup processing lines

GS ITALIA srl Via Stelvio, 193 - 21050 Marnate (VA) Italy - Tel. +39 0331 389142 - Fax +39 0331 389143 Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february -


and the evaporating cooking system preserves flavours, colors and aromas. Roboqbo associates with the cooking a blast cooling temperature by means of a combined chilling system; it is also a perfect mixer or can be used as a simple cutter and homogenizer;

it can achieve refinement levels of up to 20 µm; finally, an exclusive complex process prepares candied products. (Roboqbo - Via del Lavoro 7-15 - 40050 Argelato - BO Italy - Tel. +39 051 892483 Fax +39 051 893162 - email:

Spiral mixers with removable bowl Roboqbo multipurpose processing machine.

out in a single cycle with constant monitoring of all parameters; the user can save recipes and always achieve top results and consistent quality. The base unit is able to cook up to 125°C, cool, concentrate, mix, cut and homogenise or pulverise any kind of food or similar product, making it ideal for pastries, chocolate and ice creams, as well as for gastronomy and small, medium and large food processing companies, research laboratories, firms operating in the confectionery, food-preserving and ready meals sectors, together with the dairy and food and catering businesses. “All in one” are the key words because Roboqbo comes with a micro serrated blade knife, bowl scraper, speed control, PLC and software, pressure cooking and cooling system, automatic steam-jet cleaning program to clean concealed

parts and the lid, pneumatic extrusion to deliver the product and automated ejection system for fluid and semifluid products, ingredient loading hopper from the lid, inspection window with glass wipers, lighting inside the bowl for direct control of the process, complete vacuum system, automatic bowl tilting movements, opening and closure of the lid, steam generator, compressor, USB port for updates and technical support. The revolutionary technology and the wide assortment of models ranging from a capacity of 8 to 550 L make Roboqbo the perfect system for all production needs. It provides several processes. The machine work emulsions which are perfectly glossy and with no air inside, its patented steam cooking system for pasteurization ensures the top quality of the final product,

36 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february

Escher Mixers has developed the MR Professional line of state-of-the-art technology spiral mixers with removable bowl. The range includes models with a dough capacity from 80 up to 500 kg. The new taper bowl locking and motion system is technically superior to the traditional systems as it utilizes a taper coupling to join the machine and the trolley. The trolley is locked by means of a taper shaft that, as it ascends, centres the bowl and moves it into the working position. The cone is hydraulically controlled and it engages under the bowl, maintaining a constant pressure during use and eliminating any possibility of slippage or wear. The taper shaft gives

rotating motion to the bowl and guarantees a constant number of bowl revolutions. The motion system is noiseless and backlash-free. Escher Mixers has also developed a tool mounting and release system that is completely manual. The operator can remove, easily and safely, the tool in use and replace it with another in just a few seconds. The company can design tools with specific shapes and characteristics to suit customer needs. The possibility of using different types of tools makes the Escher mixers even more versatile. (Escher Mixers - Via Lago Di Vico 37 - 36015 Schio - VI Italy - Tel. +39 0445 576692 Fax +39 0445 577280 - email:

MR Professional mixer with removable bowl (Escher Mixers).

FRUIT AND VEGETABLE Fruit and vegetable processing Pigo has specialized in manufacturing of fruit and vegetables processing equipment and, together with its partners, has installed spiral and fluidised bed freezers throughout the world, in the US, Europe, Africa, Australia, and Asia. The company presents the Easy Freeze fluidised bed freezer, the most suitable for the Individual-QuickFreezing (IQF) technology where each portion, such as fruit, vegetables or sea, meat and cheese products, is individually frozen, increasing convenience and reducing waste. The freez-

ers are built in modular sizes and all components are entirely made of stainless steel. The basic configuration for all the models ensures a perfect thermal treatment even with some of the most difficult products, such as cooked rice, raspberries, etc. All the units are completely assembled and tested prior to shipping to customers and then they are reassembled upon arrival at the customer premises by a professional team from Pigo. Easy Freeze and Easy Freeze Spyro are the result of many years of ex-

Easy Freeze IQF fluidised bed freezer (Pigo).

38 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february

The PG 103 pitting machine (Pigo).

perience, research and development. The systems achieve excellent operating, energy efficiency, and user-friendly characteristics. Besides Easy Freeze and

Easy Freeze Spyro, Pigo presents the automatic pitting machine PG 103. Thanks to the special distribution system, providing almost 100% filled up plates (with fruit) and

Dearation and fruit processing solutions (Pigo).

an extremely large size of plates, this machine has a capacity of at least 50-100% higher than any other pitting machine on the market, with 60 cycles per min. The post-installation analysis of machine performances conducted by Pigo and customers shows an extremely low percentage of stones re-

maining in pitted cherries (guaranteed max 0,05%) and an adequate quality and preparation of the fruit (clean, calibrated product with adequate ripeness). (Pigo - Via Pontaron 30 - 36030 Caldogno - VI - Italy - Tel. +39 0444 905709 - Fax +39 0444 909778 - email: office@

Raw mushroom slicer Turatti has developed a specific raw mushroom slicer for dry slicing, without making use of water, for the “Champignon de Paris” type. The Thor model slices the mushrooms longitudinally, which have been previously aligned by means of a shaped vibrating table. Very high quality blades assure a high quality of the finished product, ensuring high production capacity at the same time. Thank to the versatility of this

(Turatti - Viale Regina Margherita 52 - 30014 Cavarzere VE - Italy - Tel. +39 0426

310731 - Fax +39 0426 310500 - email: info@turatti. com)

Drying machine for vegetables The DEW Series represents the best solution developed by F.lli Naddeo to dry all young fresh cut vegetables. These machines are studied to have the maximum profit in the minimum space, not

product, without any traumatic consequences such as folds or damages due to the centrifuge system. Thanks to the ease of maintenance and cleaning operations, the product change can be

model, the machine can be easily integrated inside a complete processing line for fresh, fresh-cut or frozen mushrooms, but it can be also utilised as a stand-alone equipment by the mushroom growers or catering operators (for pizza makers, ready meals, etc.). Other advantages of the system are the easy maintenance and sanitation operations and it is available on casters for mobility and plant layout flexibility.

DEW Series drying machine for fresh cut vegetables (F.lli Naddeo).

Thor raw mushrooms slicer (Turatti).

exceeding, in fact, 4 m in length. The capacities are variable from 200 to 600 kg per hour, depending on the kind of the product, with a residual humidity of ≤ 3%. The special technique of patented drying ensures a very soft and crunchy final

done in a considerably short time. (F.lli Naddeo - Via Delle Industrie snc, Area Pip Primo Stralcio - 84018 - Scafati SA - Italy - Tel. +39 081 8636363 - Fax +39 081 8500511 - email: info@

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february -


Laboratory plant for jam production Tecmon presents LAB50, a compact multi-functional bench for jam and tomato sauce production. The machine is made of Aisi 304 stainless steel and it has a production capacity of about 50 kg of product per hour. LAB50 consists of one unit for cooking under vacuum condition with a useful capacity of 50 L, heated by electric resistance; one group of filling that

consists of a piston and a valve for semi-dense products; one unit for the pasteurization of the full previously capped vessels. The pasteurization unit consists of a tank with a basket inside and the heating is performed by water recirculation. A control board completes the laboratory. (Tecmon - Via Leonardo Da Vinci 11/B - 20060 C a s s i n a D è Pe c c h i -

LAB50 compact laboratory plant for jam and tomato sauce production (Tecmon).

MI - Italy - Tel. +39 02 95299106 - Fax +39 02

95299315 - email: info@

Up grading of existing plants to ATEX

40 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february

the best way to BROWSE our site CHIRIOTTI EDITORI

MEAT PROCESSING Process safety for meat industry

The processing of meat into fresh and frozen meat, and also into meat and sausage products, poses a number of complex challenges for industrial producers and those who process by hand: product variety, punctual operation of the trade supply chain, ensuring the highest standards of quality and freshness as well as stringent guarantees of food safety and hygiene. In order to meet all of these requirements,

the companies in the supplier industry are constantly working to improve their product ranges and services. In addition, today it is imperative to always have the entire range of goods available in the quantity that is needed, even when it comes to fresh products that spoil easily. It’s a job that couldn’t be done without the help of high-performance computer technologies and seamlessly secure cold chains. And then there

42 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february

is the trend towards smaller, convenience-oriented products and packaging units. To stay competitive under these conditions, the trade visitors from the skilled trades and the industry are coming to the next Anuga FoodTec 2012 in Cologne (27 th to 30 th March), where they will not only find the entire spectrum of production technology possibilities under one roof, but also be inspired, as always, by

appropriate, detailed solutions from other sectors for their business operations. The future tastes homemade
 Using automation for production while also producing authentic, handmade products, it sounds contradictory, but it isn’t, thanks to gentle processes with modern machines. Exhibitors like Vemag Maschinenbau, for example, offer a modular system consisting of a vacuum filler machine, grinding and separation equipment and a productspecific forming module, which is an individual system producing convenience products in the form of meatballs, croquettes or rissoles. A small number of parts that can be quickly changed makes it possible to realise a wide spectrum of form and size variants. And the system can also be used to produce filled meat products. Processing solutions for multi-lane automatic forming of filled (i.e. co-extruded) products are also of-

fered by the Albert Handtmann company. By means of precise portioning and an advanced forming device, they ensure perfect distribution of the inner and outer product mass and high-volume production. Given that packaging processes are also automated today, a high degree of consistency in the forming and weighing of each individual product is becoming increasingly important. Modern grinding systems make it possible to achieve optimal sensory properties and product quality despite fast processing, because they are much gentler on raw materials. This ranges from reduced mechanical stress to gentler cutting processes and shorter process steps to the use of high vacuum technology or nitrogen instead of ice. All these measures result in a far superior composition of the product. 

One result of the general trend towards smaller batch sizes and more frequent changes of the products being processed are also more demanding requirements in terms of cleaning the equipment. The fundamental standards of hygienic design, which more and more suppliers are not only meeting but also actively further developing, is the foundation for easier, more efficient cleaning and for more economical use of water, energy, and cleaning and disinfecting materials,

while also delivering better results. Weber Maschinenbau, for example, applies a comprehensive concept for the hygienic design of the products in its lineup. The company newly developed slicers make it easy to tighten, loosen and remove product feed components, and the specially sealed product-feed housing satisfies the most stringent hygiene requirements. An improved product feed system also makes it possible to gently process larger quantities in less time and to then deposit them precisely on the portioning belt. The Kilia company, another Anuga FoodTec exhibitor, relies on not only technology, but also on advanced materials to produce its cutters. A new material used in the devices is able to compete with stainless steel and has ideal damping properties that ensure quiet, steady operation and long service life despite maximum speeds of up to 6,000 rpm. The material also has outstanding hygiene characteristics that make cleaning much easier. Both good shelf life and freshness are possible with good packaging
 Even the careful handling and packaging of nonidentical, or individually formed meat products under hygienic conditions can be done today without

having to perform manual tasks. Robot-supported pickers, for example, use grippers that are individually configured for a product’s specific structure to securely, quickly and precisely grasp many different kinds of objects and then place them in the desired position in the package or container. Another solution from Weber precisely and automatically controls the transfer of individual portions, using an integrated camera system to determine the position of the portions. This makes it possible to correct the positioning or to turn portions to a desired angle. Flawed products or those that require follow-up processing are automatically sorted out. The possibility to combine the slicers and packaging machines of

many companies ensures flexibility when integrating equipment into existing and new systems. Many meat and sausage products are placed in trays for delivery. The suppliers of the packaging technology used for this no longer concentrate only on the high-performance segment. When it comes to tray packaging, renowned machine manufacturers like the company Multivac are relying more on models that are smaller but sacrifice nothing in terms of essential features such as safety, hygiene, convenient operation, and multifaceted capabilities. This allows the production of high-quality freshness packs and packaging like those used in supermarkets or butcher shops, on site and as needed.

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february -


New series IP67. Brilliant Performances, Unassailable Quality. • Maximum Hygiene • Power from 31 to 130 W • Total sealing of the motor • No ventilation and cooling fins • Exterior paint no corrosion • Non-toxic lubrificating oil food grade • Stainless steel output shaft MINI MOTOR Sede 42011 Bagnolo in Piano (RE) - ITALY - Via Enrico Fermi, 5 - Tel. +39 0522 951889 MINI MOTOR USA - 24-25 46th Street - Long Island City, NY 11103 - USA MINI MOTOR Aandrijftechniek - PO box 42 - 2770 AA BOSKOOP - NEDERLAND MINIMOTOR GERMANY - Alter Kirchpfad 6 - 32657 Lemgo (DL) -

44 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february

Demand for vacuum and MAP thermoformed packaging in small volumes for the refrigerated counter is growing constantly. This gives snack bar operators and catering companies access to packaging qualities equal to what a large automatic tray sealer provides. Ensuring quality and safe products for the customer
 All processes and raw materials in the meat industry must be monitored and thoroughly documented throughout the entire production process. This is done by means of sophisticated solutions that are tailored to the needs of the sector. Known as ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) systems, these solutions make it possible to plan and understand the process from start to finish while maintaining an overview of all data concerning the origin and characteristics of the raw materials. But everything in the pack-

age itself must be correct before it can be sent on its way to the customer. That’s why producers today want inspection systems that reliably detect not only metal, but also plastics or glass particles and can thus also find metallic foreign objects in metal containers or glass splinters in jars. In order to meet these requirements, the company Bizerba, for example, uses an X-ray inspection system that companies can flexibly integrate into their production lines. The system detects all foreign objects that absorb X-rays better or worse than the surrounding product does. These objects or substances include metals, glass, ceramics, stones, PVC and rubber. And X-ray systems can also be used to check for certain product flaws and missing package contents. The EU Directive 1999/2/EG authorises the use of X-ray systems even for inspecting organic food products.

CONFECTIONERY AND CHOCOLATE Cocoa bean de-stoning and cleaning plant Tecno 3 presents the Mod. PFC plant for cocoa bean cleaning. It includes the separation of double or triple cocoa beans together with big foreign bodies of whatever material, the removal of metal foreign bodies, a vibrating screen to eliminate stones and foreign bodies with a specific weight higher than the cocoa beans, and a cleaning aspirator performing a strong vacuum suction action to eliminate light bodies (jute and rope threads, etc.), dust and foreign bodies with a specific weight lower than cocoa beans.

The cocoa beans are usually stored in 60-65 kg jute sacks coming directly from the producing Countries. As shown in the picture, the sacks are cut and emptied into a hopper (1) that is placed onto a vibrating feeder where, on a metal grid (2), the double or triple beans together with big foreign bodies of whatever material are collected and conveyed to a waste container. Then the single beans proceed to a magnetic roller trap (3) to catch the metal foreign bodies and, by means of a bucket elevator (4), they are taken to a de-

Flow diagram of PFC plant (Tecno 3).

46 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february

stoning station. A vibrating screen and a ventilation fan system provide the specific behavior for different specific weights of the conveyed stuff. The vibration, combined with the precise value of vacuum resulting from the ventilation, causes a longitudinal motion of the beans. The good cocoa beans go downwards to the following cleaning machine while the stones, and in general the high specific weight pieces, go upwards and are caught into a waste container (5 and 6). At this stage cocoa beans are conveyed into a vertical cleaning aspirator (7) with adjustable suction action in order to separate scraps having a lower specific weight such as pieces of rope, jute, wood (8) by means of a fast airflow. Also in this case the extracted air is treated into a centrifugal cyclone to separate the foreign bodies. Cleaned cocoa beans (9) can be either conveyed to the roasting plant or stored in big-bags or other suitable containers for further processing steps. The fully automatic plant is controlled by an auto-diag-

Mod. PFC plant for cocoa bean cleaning (Tecno 3).

nostic PLC. Depending on the model, the production capacity range is from 200 to 1,000 kg/hour. Tecno 3 provides customers a test area equipped with pilot plants for carrying out production tests and it assures an assistance service by specialized technologists and engineers in order to make the best choice supported by proven experimental data. (Tecno 3 - Via Mastri Cestai 2 - 12040 Corneliano Dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Alba - CN - Italy - Tel. +39 0173 610564 - Fax +39 0173 619494 - email:




WORLD Baguette, ciabatta

Tin Bread




Puff pastry

Plum Cake, muffin


for different production technologies, ranging from fresh to frozen products, sweet and salty.


make up line

FROM THE IDEA TO FACTS 28066 Galliate (NO) - Italia - Via A. Grandi, 25 - Zona Industriale Peco - tel (+39) 0321 806564 - fax (+39) 0321 861187 - e-mail: -

PACKAGING EQUIPMENT Coffee pod production Dolzan has worked in the coffee sector obtaining a great success for many years. Today, the company presents the new automatic line for coffee pods in filter paper with integrated packaging machine, which represents the ideal solution to obtain high-quality pods because it complies with the basic principles of reliability, simple operation, and excellent quality/ price ratio. The pod machine produces hard, soft and double pods with a produc-

tion speed of up to 60-70 pods per minute. It can be equipped with a grinder and controlled by a PLC system, in order to adjust different types of grinding. A reel packaging machine, complete with gas flushing and suitable for packing a pod into a single use bag, completes the line. (Dolzan Impianti - Via Roma 260 - 35015 Galliera Veneta - PD - Italy Tel. +39 049 5969375 Fax +39 049 9470138 email: dolzan@dolzan. com)

Pod production line with integrated packaging machine (Dolzan Impianti).

Small bag aseptic packing

Rotopack single head rotary type aseptic filler for small bags (Ing. A. Rossi).

48 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february

Ing. A. Rossi has developed Rotopack, a single head rotary type aseptic filler for small bags (5, 10, and 20 Litres). It represents the patented model that reaches high production capacities with low consumption and high efficiency. Rotopack is completely automatic and controlled by a PLC system, it is equipped with a CIP washing system, a continuous supplier of empty bags, a

steam distribution group, a flow meter (volumetric filling with an accuracy of Âą0,3%), and an automatic label printer. Rotopack is made of stainless steel Aisi 304/316 and it can work as a stand-alone mode or combined with an existing aseptic group. (Ing. A. Rossi - Viale Europa 68/a - 43122 Parma I t a l y - Te l . + 3 9 0 5 2 1 271320 - Fax +39 0521 774331 - email:

Automatic netting machine for punnets Rev Packaging Solutions presents Rev-Lion, the only automatic netting machine suitable for packing NGP punnets where NGP stands for the innovative monomaterial, extremely affordable, ecological, 100% recyclable and suitable for the packaging of fruit and vegetables. Rev-Lion is characterized by a high concentration of technology but at the same time it is extremely easy to use, both in the operator interface that presents a wide touch-screen panel, and during the few steps required for the process. In

fact, the company wants to offer customers a very practical and intuitive machine so that unskilled personnel can also use it. The strengths of Rev-Lion are the following: maintenance is significantly reduced and spare parts are not subject to wear, very high continuity of production, very low downtime, maximum sensitivity in the treatment of the product, absolutely noiseless, and a very low electric and pneumatic consumption. The machine is small in size, it can be mirrored and interchangeable with any punnet

machine in existing plants, parts subject to dirt are in stainless steel Aisi 304 and anodized aluminium for easy cleaning.

(Rev Packaging - Via F. Parri 745 - 47522 - Cesena - FC Italy - Tel. +39 0547 384435 Fax +39 0547 635395 email:

Rev-Lion automatic netting machine NGP punnet (Rev Packaging Solutions).

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february -


ANCILLARY EQUIPMENT What does the future look like for X-ray inspection systems in the food industry?

Here to you the voice of Terry Woolford, General Manager at Eagle Product Inspection (Formerly Smiths Detection PID) acquired in 2011 by Mettler Toledo. He looks at the need for X-ray inspection systems, the importance of product development, how systems are changing and the future of the marketplace. Why do manufacturers need X-ray inspection systems? Quite simply, manufacturers need X-ray inspection systems in order to protect their brands as a poor quality product will damage their

reputation with consumers and their future business. The quality of products needs to be controlled and verified on the production line and incorporating Xray inspection into a business, whether in the food, beverage or pharmaceutical industry, is one of the most effective ways to safeguard against potential issues. Reducing the risk of poor quality products will also help manufacturers to increase their profitability as they avoid unnecessary and costly product recalls. Manufacturers are aware that they need to remain successful in a highly competitive and increasingly global marketplace and to achieve this they must ensure that their products meet the quality standards that their customers demand. With an X-ray inspection system, manufacturers can identify contaminants such as metal, stone, glass, dense plastics, and calcified bone. They can also reduce overall maintenance and ownership costs as many systems now combine the jobs that would normally need more

50 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february

than one machine. For example, in addition to contaminant identification, current X-ray systems can carry out recipe management. Xray inspection systems can also simultaneously perform in-line quality checks such as measuring mass, counting components, identifying missing or broken products, monitoring fill levels, inspecting seal integrity, and checking for damaged products and packaging. With one machine carrying out several tasks, line maintenance and operations costs can be reduced. What are the main concerns of manufacturers when selecting an X-ray inspection system? A key factor for consideration is speed. Manufacturers simply cannot afford to have their lines slowed down by their quality control technologies. Advanced X-ray systems are designed to meet today manufacturers high throughput targets. Manufacturers sometimes also express concern that the quality of their end products may be affected

by radiation from X-ray inspection systems. However, scientific evidence from the World Health Organisation (WHO) confirms that food radiation levels up to 10,000 Sievert (which is the standard unit for the amount of absorbed radiation dose) do not affect food safety or nutritional value. In fact, the dose levels used in X-ray inspection are less than one-ten-millionth of those used in the WHO study. Food that passes through an X-ray inspection system spends about 250 milliseconds in the X-ray beam. During that short time it receives a radiation dose of around 0.2 Millisievert (which is 0.002 Sievert). The radiation levels are so low that organic food can be subjected to X-ray inspection with no diminution of its organic status. The food remains safe to eat and loses none of its nutritional value. Additionally, some manufacturers express concern that their operators may be exposed to harmful radiation from X-ray inspection systems. The average hu-

man is exposed to about 2.4 Millisievert in a year from natural background radiation (see Table 1). This far exceeds the radiation exposure received from an X-ray inspection system in the food industry. The typical maximum dose rate immediately adjacent to an operational X-ray inspection system is 0.001 Millisievert per hour, which means an operator in direct contact with an X-ray system for 40 hours a week would receive 2 Millisievert per year. What are the latest, most advanced features of X-ray inspection systems? The latest X-ray inspection systems provide enhanced graphical interfaces for ease-of-use and, combined with the versatility of new software solutions, also provide on-screen self diagnostics, full multi-lane and multi-view capability, enabling operators to monitor the systems on one screen. Combining the information saves valuable time for the operator as it allows more products to be inspected more quickly. New systems also come equipped with Material Discrimination X-ray (MDX) dual energy algorithms that increase contaminant detection of foreign bodies previously unseen by X-ray or any other conventional means in difficult product applications. Originally pioneered for use in the security sector, the MDX technology is able

Table 1 - “Radiation threats and your safety” by Armin Ansari, 2010. Source

Average Dose (Millisievert per year)

Typical Range (Millisievert per year)

Space 0.4 Earth 0.5 Human body 0.3 Radon 1.2 Total (rounded) 2.4

to discriminate materials by their chemical composition and allows the detection and rejection of historically undetectable inorganic contaminants such as glass shards, rocks, rubber and plastic. X-ray inspection systems can also verify fill level, measure headspace and verify component presence and absence to alert manufacturers to check if food containers have been overfilled in order to avoid waste. For example, Eagle’s system, Quadview, provides four-view detection

0.3-1.0 0.3-0.6 0.2-0.8 0.2-1.0 1-10

coverage and full inspection of high-speed jar, bottle and composite lines as well as other upright container formats, eliminating blind spots that commonly occur at the bottom of such containers during inspection. This system is also network compatible, allowing remote access by technicians to quickly diagnose and correct issues. Some advanced systems can also be set up for remote server access and integrated with networking programmes to allow around-the-clock monitor-

ing of statistics, images and reports generated from the individual X-ray system, from any computer with network access. This helps manufacturers adhere to retailer codes of conduct and help prepare for safety audits. What is fat analysis and what is the most effective method? Fat analysis is the process of determining the fat content in a given product, which is crucial for food manufacturers to meet the requirements of increasingly health conscious consumers. Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) technology is the most accurate and repeatable method of fat analysis to date. This technology measures the amount of X-rays that are absorbed by the fat content and lean meat through the use of

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february -


two specific X-ray energies. By evaluating the ratio of energy absorbed at a high energy to the level of energy absorbed at a lower energy, the technology infers the average atomic numbers of the product scanned to provide the chemical lean value. This determines how healthy and lean the food product is for consumers who want to reduce their risk of certain health conditions such as heart disease. In addition to analysing the chemical lean value, these systems also verify weight and inspect for contaminants at speeds of up to 145 tonnes of bulk or carton meat per hour.

What does the future look like for X-ray inspection systems in the food industry? We believe the food industry will continue to invest in food X-ray inspection systems that incorporate dual energy and fat analysis as they will provide manufacturers a strong return on investment (ROI) very quickly. This is due to the overall low cost of ownership, from a simple low-cost maintenance and replacement structure. Also, with ever-changing trends in the food industry, producers of X-ray inspection equipment need to consider new food demands and more innovative packaging designs.

For example, multi-textured foods have many density levels within the pack which result in a crowded X-ray image. To manage the increased desire for these types of products, extra demands are being made on image analysis software to find contaminants. MDX technology, which is especially useful with crammed images, is a good solution to this potential problem. Innovative packaging designs also lead to their own challenges as machines previously calibrated to scan standard types of packaging will have to adapt to be able to accurately analyse new shapes, sizes and materials

such as flexible packaging and pouches. As food and drug safety regulations intensify, compliance and traceability through every stage of a productâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s life cycle will grow in importance. For full compliance, it is essential that food manufacturers are able to access product tracking information simply and quickly. In the future all product inspection equipment will need to dually function as management tools as well as process control tools to give company leadership the information they need to make informed decisions and guarantee compliance.

Optical sorters To emerge in more and more demanding and competitive markets, where the highest quality standards are required, it is fundamental to offer the best technological innovations and to focus on continuous sorting improvements. Since 1970, Sea has been producing optical sorters in monochrome, bichrome and trichrome, IR and UV versions, which are successfully installed in the food, seeds, grains, and plastic recycling industries. The Pixel series is the result of extensive research aimed at placing the finest skills of Sea at the service of customers. The Pixel series offers better efficiency and higher production capacities with minimum rejects, low operational costs, and customized solutions. Regarding the working process, the input product is loaded into the in-feed hopper, it moves along the vibrating plate until it flows onto a sloping chute, where it is individually checked and sorted by state-of-the-art CCD cameras situated at the front and rear of the flow. Depending on the signals received by the optical device, the sorter software controls the pneumatic device which physically separates the unwanted products from the conforming ones, which naturally reach the discharging hopper. The rejected products are, instead, deviated by a jet of compressed air produced by the relevant

ejector and discharged in the front side hopper. In automatic re-pass versions, the sorted or rejected product is automatically conveyed to another section to undergo an identical process. Pixel optical sorters have a resolution of up to 1 tenth of a millimetre, while product inspection speed can reach 4 m/s. Optical system definition and quality of signals produced by Pixel CCD cameras make it possible to obtain a signal/noise ratio never achieved before. This optical system grants an extreme flexibility in image processing, including the possibility of adjusting the sorter sensitivity depending on the colour and dimension of the defects to be sorted out. The electronics are organized in easily replaceable cards, which have been developed using the latest SMD technology, managing millions of processes per second. Processing speed, combined with high-tech software, allow a user-friendly functioning of the sorter, also thanks to self-control functions, such as auto-diagnosis and autocalibration. The XP embedded graphic interface assures an easy connection to company networks and to remote assistance systems. Thanks to the new user-friendly technologies, it is possible to make a back up of the operating software and to save several data.

Pixel Next optical sorter (Sea).

Pixel uses state-of-the-art ejectors which guarantee the utmost expulsion rapidity and precision. It produces highly concentrated rejects and it reduces the false rejects to minimum. Pixel pneumatic ejectors are guaranteed for over 2 billion operating cycles and they can be easily repaired or replaced. The total attention paid to the sorter design and construction, the use of the most advanced technologies and over 2,000 sorters installed all over the world are the proof of SEA product reliability. Pixel sorters can be divided into independent sections to meet any production requirement. This grants the utmost flexibility in sorting production cycle with simultaneous resorting operations. The auto-diagnosis system enables an immediate indication of anomalies, for a prompt intervention on the relevant part. The 12-inch

colour touch-screen allows an easy and quick control of all functions in the most common languages. The sorters are also equipped with a built-in remote assistance system via Internet and they are provided with flanges for dedusting systems. The tilting optical boxes allow the full opening of the sorter, facilitating its cleaning and maintenance, and in the mechanical structure, special attention has been paid to preventing leaks or accumulations of product, in compliance with hygiene regulations. The noise level never exceeds the legal limit imposed by laws. A EC certification of conformity can be combined with Atex 22 certification as optional. (Sea - Via Ercolani 30 - 40026 Imola - BO - Italy - Tel. +39 0542 361423 - Fax +39 0542 643567 - email: info@seasort. com)

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february -


Air swept mill Cimma has developed the PPS Series mills with air classifier for the fine or finest grinding of many materials with a medium hardness and abrasiveness, such as vegetables and dried vegetables, cocoa, soya, and cereals.

A PPS mill presents highspeed vertical axis rotors on which many vertical pins or hammers of suitable shape are fixed. The grinding action is provided by means of impact against smooth or toothed lining and by friction between

layers of the processed material. The product is pneumatically discharged upwards by means of an air classifier. The special design of the mill with coaxial shafts of rotor and classifier mounted on suitable bearings provides a compact construction and an easy installation of the machine.

PPS mills are characterized by a dynamic micro classifier with a special shape and a deflector which is suitable to obtain powders at a fineness of up to 99% finer than 30 Âľm, with an average diameter, adjustable in the range 2-20 Âľm, and the granulometry distribution in a narrow range. The mills provide the customer with the right adjustment of the desired fineness providing a choice of variation in the classifier speed, the capacity of the suction blower, and the rotor speed. The oversize, not passing through the microclassifier, falls down onto the pin disc where it is pulverized further. Finally, the high flow of air (or other gas) and the particular design reduce the heat transfer to the product, compared with other types of mills. (Cimma Ing. Morandotti Via Quaglino 14/16 27100 Pavia - Italy - Tel. +39 0382 422012 - Fax +39 0382 526951 - email:

etables, pigments, cocoa, sugar, etc. The product is fed into the sifter through the inlet and the screw provides the feeding into the sifting chamber, where the product is collected and distributed along the sifting surface by means of

rotating paddles or brushes (which pulls the product through the screen). Feeding must be continuous and regular, avoiding any overfeeding, where the fine would be discharged together with the coarse. The finest will be collected in the central outlet

PPS Series micronizer mill (Cimma Ing. Morandotti).

Centrifugal sifter Turbowest is the centrifugal sifter developed by Vibrowest Italiana. The centrifugal sifter assures the customer different a p p l i c a t i o n s , s u ch a s controlled sieving, clas-

sifying the granulometry, homogenizing of mixtures and crushing of friable lumps. Several products can be handled such as phosphates, salt, milk powder, dehydrated veg-

54 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february

Belt curves

Bottle laners

Slat dividers/Combiners

Handling systems and conveyors

LM s.p.a. - v.le delle Nazioni, 95 - 41100 Modena Italy tel. 0593164411 - fax 0593164404 e-mail: http: In-line buffers/Storage system


connectable to any piping system. The waste product will be discharged through the side outlet. (Vibrowest Italiana - Via

XXV Aprile 73 - 20051 Limbiate - MB - Italy - Tel. +39 02 99482788 - Fax +39 02 99057544 - email:

corners of cast aluminium, the tubes of either galvanised mild steel or stainless steel, the cables are made of galvanised mild steel, stainless steel or textile fibre, instead the discs are available in polyurethane, nylon, estane, etc. With regard to the technical details, the HiWay conveyor is characterized by low power requirements,

the minimal maintenance required, the simple assembly, the fine design, the modular construction, and high performance. For those reasons, it meets the most difficult challenges. (HiWay - Via Felice Beretta 2 - 24030 Medolago BG - Italy - Tel. +39 035 4933050 - Fax +39 035 901475 - email: info@

Turbowest centrifugal sifter (Vibrowest Italiana).

Mechanical conveyors HiWay distribution conveyors has been developed to convey and distribute a wide range of powders and granulate products to multiple outlets of the circuit. They consist of special housings linked by tubes, within which a metallic or synthetic cable fitted with plastic discs runs. In each of the housings, there is a sprocket that turns the cable and moves it onto the conveying tubes. The system is started by means of a drive unit and the cable is automatically tensioned. The discs carry the material by mechanical action thanks to the linear speed imparted by the cable. The material is discharged by

gravity action by means of manual or pneumatic outlet valves, which are mounted on the tube. The low power requirements, the totally enclosed dust-free handling environment, the wide range of handled products with specific weights, and the extreme adaptability of the system to already existing plants make HiWay mechanical conveyors highly efficient, reliable, ecological, and versatile. HiWay mechanical conveying systems are made of high quality materials; the drive units, loading hoppers and discharge ends are made of mild steel or 304 or 316 stainless steel, the

56 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february

Drive units for mechanical conveyors (Hiway).

Optical sizing machines Agrimat has developed different optical sizing machines to meet the specific needs of small and medium producers and traders of fruit and ve getables. The two models Agrical 2000/OT with 1 row and Agrical 4000/OT with 2 rows are optical sizing machines with diameter,

width, volume and colour selection and a production rate of up to 10 pieces of fruit per row. It is possible to assemble various models with different singulator systems, and the unloading phase is on accumulation tables coated with soft, foodcompatible material. The number of delivery points

is unlimited and users can choose a standard delivery point centre distance size of 80 cm or others. OTB are the two optic a l e l e c t r o n i c g ra d e r machines for small and large fruit and vegetables. Mod. Small is suitable for apples, oranges, apricots, and tomatoes, and Big for melons, peppers, etc. The innovation of the machines consists in the singular ejector with a concave shape for turning the product on both sides of the machine. Advantages are less space and lower production costs, more storage space and high technology at low prices. The Small and Big models are made completely of stainless steel and pretreated aluminium, and present an electronic component that consists of a Pentium IV PC with

hardware interface for image acquisition. The machines are characterized by unlimited bilateral exits of the fruit, a velocity of up to 10 pieces of fruit/second per exit with an error of only ±1 mm on diameter and ±3% on weight, and by a system of calibration that is based on diameter, length, volume, and weight. Finally, the selection system has 4 settings: the software free choice; for flat products such as tomatoes, Gala apples, etc.; for long products such as Golden Delicious apples, kiwi fruit, or pears; and a selection of weight with a specific weight setting for the fruit. (Agrimat - S.S. per Voghera 97/1 - 15057 Tortona - AL - Italy - Tel. +39 0131 866304 - Fax +39 0131 815289 email:

dicates that the desired stocking conditions have been reached, but after the stress period the oxygen concentration needs to be increased, in order to allow for a complete removal of the alcohol produced. In fact, high levels of ethanol can compromise fruit organoleptic properties. It is therefore extremely important to precisely monitor what happens directly in the fruit following the entire stocking process. So, measuring the stress conditions of the fruit gives crucial indications on how to

carried out directly on the fruit, with no sample pretreatment required. Senzytec2 is currently implemented to monitor several DCA systems. There are no other such simple and informative ways commercially available at the moment to monitor the DCA stocking process of different types of fruit. The system has been validated by the S. Michele Agricultural Research Institute (Italy). Several tests on apples and pears stocked in the Trentino region (Italy) demonstrated how Sen-

Atmosphere packaging monitoring Tectronik has recently developed Senzytec2, a new multilayer biosensor for monitoring the stocking process of fruit in a dynamic controlled atmosphere (DCA), by measuring ethanol with extreme specificity. The operation principle of DCA is based on varying the percentage of oxygen, reaching very low levels (<0.5%) during what are called “stress

periods”. Fruit preservation can thus be prolonged, with the quality and nutritional aspects being maintained without using any chemicals. However, when subjected to hypoxic conditions, the fruits change their metabolism radically, with fermentative metabolic pathways taking place (i.e. production of ethanol). Ethanol production in-

Senzytec2, a new multilayer biosensor for monitoring the stocking process of fruit in a dynamic controlled atmosphere (Tectronik).

control the process (i.e. O2 and CO2 levels). Senzytec2 ensures quick, easy and reliable measurements of ethanol concentration, even at very low levels (<10-20 ppm), like those at the end of the stocking period. The analysis can be

zytec2 could be successfully used to monitor DCA processes and guide their control. (Tectronik - Via Battisti 63 35010 Limena - PD - Italy Tel. +39 049 768699 - Fax +39 049 8840804 - email:

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february -


CONSUMER TRENDS Convenience continues to be the key factor

Fresh fruit salad without time-consuming cutting and slicing, crispy rolls for warming in the oven. Fast preparation and ease of use offer so many tempting advantages that more and more people are buying convenience products. Demand for these food products will continue to rise in the coming years because shopping habits are changing, and a growing number of people are making spontaneous purchases instead of stocking up on groceries in advance. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is a process that makes many convenience products possible, especially baked goods, cheese, sausage and fresh meat, many ready-meals, sandwiches and fruit salad. Packaging food products under modified atmosphere conditions or protective gas is a process that has been in use for many years now in various segments of industrial food production. Depending on the gas mixture used, the shelf life of pressure-sensi-

tive food products can be lengthened, for example, and the bright red colour of beef and pork can be preserved longer. As a rule, the protective gas is a mixture of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen.

Individually tailored to the productâ&#x20AC;¨ During the packaging process the air is suctioned

58 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february

out of the package, which is then filled with the protective gas. Under normal conditions, this minimizes the residual oxygen content in the package and in the product. The protective gas can be a single gas or a combination of various gases. Protective gases or protective gas mixtures are individually tailored to the food product to be packaged. And there are also processes in which the gas

mixture contains a higher proportion of oxygen than the air customer breathes. These protective gases are used above all in the packaging of beef and pork. MAP packages can be produced using either thermoforming machines or tray sealers. Thermoforming machines use rolls of plastic film, which can be refilled inline. They are very efficient, operating at a high cycle time and

with very little wastage of film. The rolls of packaging film can be stored without problems. Tray sealers, on the other hand, work with prefabricated trays.

ing four indentations. The skewers are anchored by clicking them quickly and securely into slots, where they present an appetizing appearance.

Products with not only longer shelf life, but also more visual appealâ&#x20AC;¨

Packages that open without implements

MAP packages are intended to not only ensure longer product shelf life; they also are designed to be environmentally friendly, practical, and convenient. At Anuga FoodTec (27th to 30th March, Cologne), the latest developments in terms of consumer friendly solutions that also ensure visual appeal to customers at the point of sale will be shown. In many cases, for example, clever little technical features in the package make it easier to handle ready-meals. The company ES-Plastic of Passau, Germany, for example, offers two-compartment PP trays for pasta dishes with a perforation. After heating in the microwave, the speedy cook can pour the sauce over the noodles, easily and without dripping. Another example is a polypropylene tray that holds four small skewers with meat, vegetables or fruit. The skewers seem to float in the tray. This type of presentation is made possible by two small side compartments, each featur-

Easy opening without having to use implements such as scissors or knives is also increasingly in demand in the area of MAP packaging for fresh meat. Here the peel-back cover foil must manage a balancing act between an absolutely hermetically sealed closure, even in the event of contamination at the seal edges, and an easy to open solution. This is necessary to ensure a high degree of food product safety, which reliably prevents oxygen from penetrating into the package.

Even micro-defects can diminish the effectiveness of a packaging materialâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s barrier function, which means oxygen can penetrate into the package. That is why only vacuum-packed food products have been processed under high pressure until now as a rule. Now Multivac has improved the HPP (High Pressure Processing) process in collaboration with the company Uhde High Pressure Technologies: regulated build-up and release of pressure in an autoclave and appropriate MAP packaging concepts are used to prevent

damage to the materials. High-pressure processing of packaged food is considered worldwide to be one of the most promising technologies for reducing harmful germs on meat and poultry, ready-meals and other food products. This type of processing makes it possible to increase the shelf life and safety of food products without using heat or preservatives, which has advantages for food producers and consumers. The original nutritional value and flavour of the foods is almost completely retained.

Fewer germs, greater safetyâ&#x20AC;¨ Until now, the main reason that high-pressure processing of food products in protective gas has been almost impossible is that the packaging materials were often damaged as a result of the processing. With multi-layered packaging materials, for example, undesirable delamination of individual layers occurred; and the foils would break where bent or become deformed.

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february -


PACKAGING TRENDS Researching for new materials for fresh-cut vegetables Fresh-cut vegetables that is fresh and ready for consumption because they have been washed, chopped and packaged, are without doubt practical because they manage to combine the need to increase the intake of fruit and vegetables with the (unfortunately) ever reduced time available to dedicate to preparing a meal. However these products are characterized by a short shelf life, due to the respiration activity of the same vegetables and microbial proliferation. Apart from an attentive selection of the raw material and following the correct hygiene procedures, the packaging takes on a vital role for

keeping both the microorganisms and the respiration rate under control. It is on these conditions that the Vegapack project has been based, lasting two years (2009-2011), financed by the Lombardy Region and managed by Distam (University of Studies of Milan) and Imac-CNR (Institute for the Study of Macromolecules) in partnership with the association AOP “Unolombardia” and the Organisation “Produttori Oasi”. The aim was to identify the more critical products and study their respiration activity and the bacterial load, to develop new packaging materials having a modulated permeability, to find natural

60 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february

antimicrobial substances which could be incorporated into the packaging material. The final results were presented in Bergamo, on 26th September and are summarized below. The respiration rate Different types of lettuce, separated into leaves and carrots cut into narrow strips were tested. They were packaged using polypropylene films of different thicknesses, with antifog characteristics, in air or in protected atmosphere (with or without oxygen). The researchers at Distam measured the “respiration rate”, that is the rate of CO2 production and the consumption of O2, which is an indication of catabolism in vegetables. “The respiration rate increases with the increase in temperature”, explained Sara Limbo from Distam. “This was already known but we have quantified it”. For example, it resulted that carrots undergo the greatest increase and the producers have to keep this in consideration in the “mix”. The experimental data were then implemented in mathematical models (which already existed) which allowed the respiration rate to be predicted, giving a good agreement with the experimental values and the theoretical ones calculated by applying the mathematical equation.

Microbiological aspect “Pre packed products are very critical from a microbiological point of view”, underlined Laura Franzetti from Distam, “because they represent an excellent substrate for the development of microorganisms (PH close to neutral and a high amount of water available) and furthermore they do not undergo any stabilizing treatment”. On each of the products in question, the microorganisms which are indicators of quality (total bacterial load, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds, Enterobacteriaceae), of process (Escherichia coli) and of safety (Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus) were detected. The results of the microbiological tests (count and biomolecular ch a r a c t e r i z a t i o n ) s h o w t h a t the microbiological quality of the product is good. The most significant microbic index is the total bacterial load, where the most important component resulted to be Pseudomonas Fluorescens in all the products (and in particular in those packaged in air rather than MAP). This microorganism, resistant and ubiquitous, causes alterations in the colour. The most abundant biovar was the G in the products analysed, which produces coloured pigments. Contrary to what might be expected, the intensity of the colour increases as the temperature decreases, that is when the product is chilled. The lactic acid bacteria resulted to be a minority in leaf products packaged in air, while they had a certain numeric importance as far as carrots and products in MAP packages are concerned. The mould content was marginal in all the products, while there was a significant presence of yeast in the carrots.

Film with modulated permeability Within the project the Ismac researchers produced, synthetically or by mixing, new film with a base of polyolefin which is more permeable to gas than the material normally used (polythene, polypropylene), modeling the circulating properties in order to maintain the correct atmosphere inside the packaging. At the Milan

their optic and mechanical properties substantially unchanged in respect to the PP matrix and the permeability to gas significantly increases. Natural anti-microbial substances Among the aims of Vegapack, there was also the control of the microbic proliferation by using antibacterial substances of natural origin. At Distam some phenolics present in essential

The two copolimers mixed by Ismac.

branch of the Institute the 4-methyl1-pentene was used (a non-traditional branched comonomer) to obtain, by means of chemical synthesis, ethylene and polypropylene based copolymers. The steric effects of the 4M1P give a greater free volume of the polymer and therefore an increased permeability of the film, both in the ethylene based copolymer and the polypropylene based copolymer. Instead, at Ismac, in Genoa, the path of mixing in the melt was followed: Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polypropylene (PP) were mixed with polyMethylPentene, the polymer form of4M1P commercialised by Mitsui Plastics as TPX. While the mixes LDPE/TPX were not found to be suitable due to their fibrillar morphology, the mixes PP/TPX maintain

oils of plants such as oregano, thyme, as well as lauric arginate (LAE, a synthetic ester approved by EFSA and FDA) were tested. For all of these substances the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration on strains of collection and strains isolated from the pre-washed vegetables. While with the thyme there was no evidence of inhibition of the microorganisms, even when used in high concentrations, LAE and carvacrol sowed antimicrobic activity, with a synergic effect for some microorganisms. For these two substances, therefore, the effectiveness was evaluated after they were incorporated in the packaging film. The carvacrol, used in a capsule form (in β-ciclodestrina) due to its volatility, was included in a gluten matrix, which was the most suitable in respect to the other two

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february -


matrixes tested (soya and gelatin). In the case of LAE, gelatin was chosen as a matrix. The two matrix containing the active ingredients were used as a coating on the film and this was used to make bags for the packaging of the vegetables (lettuce leaves)

Conclusion The Vegapack project brought important results, which are worth looking into further and above all integrating between them. It would be interesting to continue with the research by trying

US aseptic packaging demand still grows Drug sterility requirements and ambient distribution and storage advantages for food and beverages will drive the growth of US demand for aseptic packaging. Specifically, the

increasing availability of biotechnology-based injectable drugs necessitates aseptic filling and packaging as such drugs tend to be heat sensitive, making the high heat used in termi-

to spread the antimicrobic coating formulated at Distam onto the modulated permeable material produced at Ismac and testing the film obtained with the vegetables selected in the preliminary phase of the work. Rossella Contato

nal sterilization processes unfeasible. According â&#x20AC;&#x153;Aseptic packagingâ&#x20AC;?, the Freedonia study, the US demand for aseptic packaging is projected to expand 8.0% per year to $5.1 billion in 2015, well above the overall packaging average. The shelf stability of aseptic packaging will fuel rapid growth in dairy-based beverages and other

ALBA & Teknoservice s.r.l. Via delle Industrie, 16/B - 35010 VILLAFRANCA PAD. (PD) - ITALY Tel. +39 049.9070380 - Fax +39 049.9074042 e-mail:


62 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february

US aseptic packaging demand in million dollars (The Freedonia Group). % Annual growth Item





2010 2015

Aseptic packaging demand






Plastic bottles






Vials and ampuls






Prefillable syringes






Bags and pouches












Cups and glass bottles






dairy products as it enables these perishable products to move through the supply chain unrefrigerated. Advances will be moderated by the high capital investment of aseptic processing equipment and the reluctance of food and beverage firms to shift away from highly efficient hot-fill and retort processing operations. Pharmaceuticals were the largest aseptic packaging market in 2010, accounting for 64% of the total.

Through 2015, demand is forecast to advance 8.4% annually to $3.4 billion, reflecting the broadening availability and consumption of biotechnology-based drugs, and aseptic filling requirements with other liquid pharmaceuticals. Additionally, opportunities will be driven by preferences among health care providers for unit-dose delivery formats. Growth for aseptic packaging in the beverage market will be restrained by the maturity of the

Calming alufoil production According to data published by the European Aluminium Foil Association (EAFA), the international body representing companies engaged in the rolling and rewinding of alufoil and in the manufacture of alufoil containers and of all kind of flexible packaging, the total production declined by almost 4% to 609,000 t. The economic slow down in Europe also affected the deliveries of aluminium foil in the first nine months of 2011. The thinner foil segments mainly

used for flexible packaging and household foil fell by 7%, while the thicker foil segments declined slightly by 1%. On the other hand exports outside the EAFA region (EU Countries and Armenia, Norway, Russia, Switzerland, and Turkey) grew by almost 5%. Stefan Glimm, EAFA Executive Director, remains cautious for 2011: â&#x20AC;&#x153;Especially in the third quarter we could see destocking as well as a more cautious behaviour along the whole value chain. Aluminium foil

fruit beverage market, expectation among US consumers for chilled milk and competition from hot-fill packaging, which has a well-established base. Gains in the food market will be driven by shelf-stability advantages, as well as by expanding applications in liquid, low-particulate and pumpable foods, often via the replacement of metal cans and glass jars. The ongoing commercialization of biotechnology-based drugs will fuel above-average demand growth for aseptic vials and ampuls, and prefillable syringes, which are prevalent delivery systems for these drugs. Prefillable syringes will represent the fastest growing aseptic packaging product type through 2015, with demand projected to expand 11.0% yearly to $1.1 billion. Moreover, opportunities for aseptic prefillable syringes will benefit from safety and convenience advantages and the prevalence of chronic conditions necessitating lifetime drug regimens.

has a healthy future because of its advantages as a sustainable and innovative packaging material. It plays an essential role in the prevention of food waste through its excellent barrier and preservation propertiesâ&#x20AC;?. Aluminium foil characteristics are strength, formability and barrier properties which have made it an essential part of many flexible packaging and container applications. Other uses of aluminium foil include automotive and heat exchange components, insulation material and many industrial applications.

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MARKETING REPORTS Supply discipline will be essential for the European meat industry Rabobank Industry Note published last December presents an improving but fragile outlook for EU meat industry in 2012. The outlooks will be positive for most players, although significant differences exist between the sectors and the various positions along the value chain. Current market conditions are fragile and the supply discipline will be the key success factor for the industry performance. There are three main swing factors. Feed prices, which account for 50 to 70% of the total cost of production, will be relatively high though slightly declining. Any further decline in economic conditions could affect EU meat consumption, but stable performance supportive for industry are expected with slightly better for western and eastern Europe than for southern Europe. Finally, global meat markets will remain tight, this will support EU market prices and could impact exports; EU meat demand tends to follow historic market trends and will see a slight increase in poultry consumption and a fall in pork and beef consumption. Looking in detail feed prices. The developments in the grain and oilseed markets are of key importance for the 2012 outlook. The Russian drought in August 2010, the growing importance of Asia (especially China) as a buyer, ongoing biofuel

demand, as well as worries over supply from exporting Countries around the world have caused the second half of 2010 and Q1 2011 periods of increasing grain and oilseed prices. Rabobank outlook for grain and oilseed markets in 2012 indicates a slightly declining price trend. Grain and oilseed fundamentals have improved in recent months but remain tight, especially for corn, with ongoing low stocks-to-use ratios. The supply of wheat in international markets has improved after the return of Russia as an exporter and the increased production volumes that are expected in many parts of the world, including the US third-biggest crop in history. Soybean prices have remained high due to ongoing strong demand for soymeal, while soy oil prices have recently declined. As is the case with meat, economic developments remain a key swing factor for grain and oilseed prices, and an economic downturn could affect demand for grain for feed and fuel. The stable to slightly declining price trend for grains and oilseeds is positive for the EU meat industry, as it will relieve some pressure from the cost-price side. However, in addition to economic developments, other swing factors, such as policy, exchange rates and supply uncertainty, could easily affect the grain

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price outlook and therefore the meat margin outlook. To keep markets in balance with demand growth it is essential for the meat industry to be very restrictive in supply planning for 2012. More disciplined supply will make the industry more flexible in times of unfavourable costprice developments. Companies can influence their margin outlook by adjusting their business models to the new market realities. Market positioning, efficiency, flexibility and power will all be important success factors. Companies who outperform the industry in these areas often achieve higher margins than the industry average. Pork The signs for profitability in 2012 appear positive for the EU pork sector. Margin pressure should be relieved, especially at the primary level, due to the lower forecast for EU production, which should support prices while the current feed price outlook will be positive for the cost price. At the processing level â&#x20AC;&#x201C; for both slaughter and further processing â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the sourcing position and the ability to forward possibly higher raw material prices will be key for 2012 profitability; the main determinants are plant utilisation, plant efficiency,

client dependency and, most importantly, the companyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s market position. However, uncertainties remain the real recovery of margins in the EU pork sector is largely dependent on the developments of demand for pork in both the EU and in the export markets. Within the EU, Northwestern Europe will further strengthen its position in the EU pork sector in the coming years. The current economic crisis, which is affecting Southern and Central Europe more severely than Northern Europe, and the 2013 investments will especially support this development. 2011 has been a disappointing year for the entire EU pork sector. The average negative profitability at the primary level in the last few years will result in a downward adjustment of the EU sow herd in the coming months. After the 5% decline in May/June, Rabobank expects the sow herd to have dropped about 9% at the next counting in December. The expected lower pork production will support 2012 pig prices, which are expected to remain around the current, relatively elevated level. Export demand remains the key for 2012 margins in the pork sector. EU pork consumption is expected to remain under pressure, driven by the combined effects of lower availability of pork and consumers trading down to cheaper products due to the continuing economic problems. Rabobank forecasts a decline in pork consumption of about 1% in 2012. A new economic crisis would negatively impact this forecast, but the impact on pork consumption would be smaller than during the previous crisis in 2008/2009. Pork consumption has only partly recovered to pre-crisis levels both in volume and product mix.

The lower EU production, the recovery of pork production in China and South Korea, growing Russian production and the opening of both China and Japan to Brazilian pork may negatively affect EU pork exports in 2012. But the expected decline in EU exports might not be as sharp as was previously expected. The increased incidence of diseases such as foot and mouth disease, Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome in China, which Rabobank expects to worsen in the coming months as hog immunity usually decreases in winter, enlarges the uncertainty about the recovery of pork production in China. Moreover, the slow spread of African swine fever outbreaks across Russia seems endemic and will consequently impact the growth of pork production, while the still relatively

high feed costs will slow production growth in many Countries. This will be supportive for EU pork export demand and EU pork prices. Analysing the developments per Country, the North-western Europe will further strengthen its position in the EU pork market in 2012. The biggest declines in the sow herd will be experienced in the rest of Europe, where the primary industry reacts faster to changes in profitability due to its relatively small scale and the high share of mixed farms. Especially the Czech Republic (-15.4%), Poland (-12.8%), Italy (-7.6%) and Spain (-7.3%) have seen sizeable declines in sow herd, which will have a negative effect on pork production in 2012. In North-western Europe, where pig farms are largely specialised, the sow herd only decreased slightly in

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EU feed ingredients prices 2008-2011 (Rabobank).

Beef herd index, 2000-2011 (Rabobank).

2011; only Sweden saw the impact of a relatively small-scale structure and regulation-driven higher cost prices result in a sharp downward adjustment of the sow herd (-9.6%). The UK has actually expanded the sow herd following a strong advertising campaign â&#x20AC;&#x153;Buy Britishâ&#x20AC;? and the depreciation of the British pound sterling against the euro in recent years. However, also in the UK, the impact of the high feed costs limits the appetite to further

expand production and a downward adjustment of the sow herd is expected in the coming year. Beef Due to the expectations of lower global availability and the return of EU beef exports to more normal levels after the recent Turkey-driven upsurge, the prospects for 2012 are mixed. The expected lower supply will support ongoing good price lev-

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els and robust margins at the primary level. However, at the processing level, the sourcing position and the ability to forward higher raw material costs will be key for processor margins. In 2010, global beef prices rose as a result of the decrease in world beef production in recent years, strong global demand and especially the opening of Turkey as an export market. In the first half of 2011 the EU became a net exporter of beef for the first time since 2002 and has seen positive returns across the entire value chain, including farmers and processors. However, most indications show that the sector is in the midst of a turnaround. EU beef exports declined gradually during 2011. For Russia, the high prices limited the appetite for EU beef with the current stabilisation resulting from the ban on Brazilian beef. Turkey increased the customs tax in three steps of 15% each in March, May and July to the current 75% of imported value. Rabobank expects that EU beef exports to both Russia and Turkey will continue to decline into 2012, negatively impacting EU beef prices. For these reasons and because of a decline in EU consumption and an increase in production, EU beef production resumes a declining trend in 2012. Just three producers were almost totally responsible for most of the increased supply, UK (109,000 tonnes, 8.4%), France (100,000 tonnes, 4.5%), and Ireland (45,000 tonnes, 5.7%). Beef production in Spain and Germany increased just 0.8 and 0.1%, respectively, in the last 18 months, while production in Italy even declined 0.1%. This clearly shows the low availability of

cattle ready for slaughter. Moreover, even in the UK, France and Ireland, the production growth was at the expense of the herd. With the exception of Poland, the cattle herd declined in all major EU Countries in 2011. Especially in Italy (-4.4%), Spain (-3.5%), the Netherlands (-2.6%) and he UK (-2.2), a clear decline of the cattle herd can be observed. In Germany and France, the decline is reasonable at 1.9 and 1.5%, respectively. Poultry In 2011, the EU poultry sector registered improved margins after weak first quarter. The year has represented challenging for many players in the sector. After facing unfavourable market developments between Q3 2010 and Q1 2011 due to increased feed prices and limited demand, the poultry sector had some success in cutting production. This reduction has restored market balance and resulted in better prices and margins; additionally the stabilisation in feed prices since Q2 further relieved pressure on the poultry sector and the industry was able to regain margins. The margin outlook for the EU poultry sector looks stable to slightly improving for 2012. Rabobank expects consumption to increase between 0.7 e 1.5%. Long-term market trends combined with current economic problems in the EU will support demand growth for poultry meat in 2012 as they did directly after the start of the economic crisis in 2008. Any further decline in economic conditions in the EU is likely to benefit the poultry sector as consumers tend to trade down. Countries in Southern Europe have a fairly large appetite for poultry and

EU poultry production, 2009-2012f (Rabobank).

may slightly adjust their consumption pattern based on economic conditions. EU poultry exports are expected to grow again between 5 and 7% to 1.4 million tonnes, although at a slightly slower pace than in 2010 and 2011. EU poultry will herein benefit from growing demand for poultry in world markets; the main growth markets will be Hong Kong, markets such as Benin, Ghana and Congo in Africa, as well as Countries in the Middle East like Saudi Arabia, Yemen and the United Arab Emirates. EU production is expected to increase slightly by 1.2%, which will be reasonably in line with expected EU demand growth and export potential. The trend towards concentration of EU poultry production seen in previous years will continue and will likely accelerate in central and eastern Europe. Germany, Poland and, more recently, Hungary are especially improving their market positions thanks to the poultry sectorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s investments in efficiency (Germany), cost price benefits (Poland and Hungary) as well as domestic demand growth. All of these central European Countries are currently

improving their positions in export markets in Central and Eastern Europe. Germany and Poland face expansion in processing capacity as well as farming capacity while Hungary is improving its existing technology. In other EU Countries, such as France, Spain, Italy and the Netherlands, trends of production are expected to be relatively stable to slightly growing and will be in balance with local demand growth. The outlook for 2012 remains fragile because price development of grains and oilseeds, foreign exchange developments, industry supply discipline and economic conditions have a high impact on profitability. A further slowdown in economic conditions in the EU could affect the European poultry production. The years 2008 and 2009 also showed some reductions in eastern European production levels due to the local industryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s difficulties in financing working capital; this might happen again if economic conditions worsen, although the impact might be bigger for the pork and beef sectors as they are more capital intensive and less vertically integrated.

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Sugar: global supply/demand balance Rabobank presents its current projections for the global supply/demand balance for the 2011/2012 international sugar crop year. It discusses on key-issues such as the decline in international raw sugar prices, the low stocks and the preliminary projections for Centre/ South harvest in Brasil, coupled with the expected continuation of tightness in the Brazilian ethanol market. The declining prospects for Centre/ South Brazil’s crop helped to maintain world raw sugar prices in a range of 12.7 and 13.6 cents of dollar per kg until mid-September. Since then there have been two factors which have pressured prices down to the 9.98 to 10.9 cent/kg range. These are the uncertainty in global financial markets and perceptions of weaker demand. Despite the recent fall in prices, import demand continues to appear generally lacklustre, and even the news in October that Malaysia was actively looking for a million tonnes of sugar for three years starting in 2012, and the subsequent news in November that a deal had been clinched, failed to move the market. Rabobank points to a global surplus of around 6 million tonnes raw value in 2011/2012. The global surplus is mainly driven by expectations of increased production from the EU, Russia, and India. EU sugar production is expected to reach 18 million tonnes in 2011/12, an increase of 2 million tonnes compared to 2010/11. The EU quota for 2011/12 remains at 13.5 million tonnes (the same as last year) which means that the EU should have more than 4.5 million tonnes of out-of-quota sugar available in the season, resulting in a considerable increase in EU exports. On 12 October, the European

Global supply/demand balance (million tons, raw value).

Commission submitted a proposal to abolish sugar production quotas and guaranteed minimum prices as of October 2015. The development of the Indian and Thai harvests in the coming months will be important in the evolution of the 2011/12 global supply/demand balance. Their progress will be monitored closely. India will face cane prices and export licences. Thailand will face the flood damage; the worsening delays in the onset of harvesting for the central zone along with the damage to infrastructure such as roads have, in fact, implications for cane quality and processing. The annual growth in China beet sugar production of above 25% has been supported by a 16% increase in sugar beet harvested area along with improvements in field and processing productivity. Additionally, China’s cane sugar production should increase in 2011/12 from the 9.6 million tonnes of sugar produced in 2010/11. The late rains in southern China have been beneficial for the 2011/12 cane crop,

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while the area of cane to be harvested in 2011/12 is estimated at 6% above harvested area in the previous season. With the harvest in Brazil’s Centre/ South coming to an end in sight, there is increasing focus on the prospects for new crop, due to start in April 2012. Most preliminary projections point to limited gains at best compared with this season’s output. As ever, there are a number of variables that have the potential to impact the crop. As a whole, the cane will still be far from its optimum age structure, implying reduced productivity and greater vulnerability to pests and disease. The domestic ethanol market is expected to remain tight, suggesting that in the new season, the arbitrage between the world sugar market and the domestic ethanol market could have a role to play in determining Brazil’s sugar production and exports. According Rabobank data, the surplus will permit some rebuilding of global stocks, but given the current extremely low level of global stocks, a 6 million tonne surplus would not, in its estima-

tion, bring the global stocks/consumption ratio back to or near long-term average levels. It will be many months before it is clear to what extent this projected 6 million tonne surplus is confirmed. The harvest in Russia is now entering its most vulnerable phase with the arrival of heavy frosts that could impact the final phase of

beet-harvesting. Elsewhere, key Northern Hemisphere cane crops in India and Thailand are at the very beginning of their respective campaigns. If the crops in the EU, Russia, India and Thailand were all to reach the top end of current expectations, export availability in 2011/12 would be likely to exceed current expectations

and could weigh on prices. Additionally, the macroeconomic environment, and specifically the ongoing drama in the euro area, continues to be a major threat to market sentiment. At the very least, these influences are likely to trigger further bouts of market volatility in the coming months.

High demand for food safety products in the US Recent high-profile foodborne illness outbreaks, in addition to large product recalls due to food safety concerns, will continue to fuel demand in the US. Demand for food safety products will also be boosted by the adoption of more stringent food safety regulations. These and other trends are presented in Food Safety Products, a new study from The Freedonia Group. The food processing segment, which accounted for 70% of total demand for food safety products in 2009, will continue to dominate the overall market. Among the various food and beverage processing industries, the largest share of food safety product demand will stem from the meat industry. Advances in meat output will support demand for diagnostic testing products (such as those used

to detect Salmonella and E. coli) and disinfectants and sanitizers, as well as disinfection equipment. Demand for food safety products in foodservice establishments will be supported by growth in the foodservice industry, as consumers seek convenient, ready-to-eat offerings that provide alternatives to what is typically made at home. Food safety product demand in the foodservice sector will also be boosted by efforts on the part of restaurant operators to avoid the devastating impact of a foodborne illness outbreak on their image. In particular, such efforts will include the use of more effective disinfection products, which will fuel demand for disinfectants and sanitizers used in restaurants and other eating and drinking establishments. Disinfection and diagnostic products

will remain the largest product segments by far. These products tend to go hand-in-hand, as diagnostic products are often used to verify that disinfection products are being utilized appropriately. Sales of smart labels and tags will experience the fastest gains among product types, driven by the rapid adoption of new smart label technology in food packaging and by their use in providing traceability throughout the food supply chain. Gains in RFID tags are expected to be strong, as their use for inventory tracking and management continues to grow. On the other hand, demand for bar code labels and tags will be restrained due to market maturity, as well as continued loss of market share to RFID tags.

Food safety product demand in the US in million dollars (The Freedonia Group). Item


Food safety product demand Disinfection products Diagnostic products Smart labels & tags Software & tracking systems Other

1,531 2,115 2,920 781 1,060 1,445 528 730 1,000 119 180 280 71 95 125 32 50 70



%Annual growth 2004-2009 2009-2014 6.7 6.7 6.3 6.4 6.7 6.5 8.6 9.2 6.0 5.6 9.3 7.0

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Are nutrition facts labels read in detail by consumers? Nutrition facts labels have been used for decades on many food products. But there is a doubt about whether consumers read the labels in detail when making purchases or only certain portions of the labels. A study published on Journal of the American Dietetic Association reports that consumer self-reported viewing of nutrition facts label components was higher than objectively measured viewing using an eye-tracking device. Researchers also determined that centrally located nutrition facts labels are viewed more frequently and for longer than those located peripherally. “The results of this study suggest that consumers have a finite attention span for nutrition facts labels: although most consumers did view labels, very few consumers viewed every component on any label,” according to investigators Dan J. Graham, PhD, and Robert W. Jeffrey, PhD, Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Twin Cit-

ies. “These results differed from the self-reported survey responses describing typical grocery shopping and health behaviors submitted by the participants”. Currently most US nutrition facts labels are positioned peripherally, not centrally, on food packages and, as such, may be less likely than they could be to catch and hold the eye of a potential consumer, according to the study. In a simulated grocery shopping exercise, 203 participants observed 64 different grocery products displayed on a computer

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monitor. Each screen contained three elements, the well-known nutrition facts label, a picture and list of ingredients, and a description of the product with price and quantity information. These three elements were presented so that one third of the participants each saw the nutrition facts label on the left, right, and centre. Each subject was asked whether they would consider buying the product. Participants were aware that their eye movements would be tracked, but unaware that the study focus was nutrition information. Using a computer equipped with an eye-tracking device, investigators observed that most consumers view label components at the top more than those at the bottom.

Further data suggest that the average consumer reads only the top five lines on a nutrition facts label. Self-reported viewing of nutrition facts label components was higher than objectively measured viewing. 33% of participants self-reported that they almost always look at calorie content on nutrition facts labels, 31% reported that they almost always look at the total fat content, 20% said the same for transfat content, 24% for sugar content, and 26% for serving size. However, only 9% of participants actually looked at calorie count for almost all of the products in this study, and about 1% of participants looked at each of these other components (total fat, trans-fat, sugar, and serving size) on almost all labels. When the nutrition facts label was presented in the centre column, subjects read one or more sections of 61% of the labels compared with 37 and 34% of labels among participants randomly assigned to view labels on the left- and right-hand sides of the screen, respectively. In addition, labels in the centre column received more than 30% more view time than the same labels when

located in a side column. “Taken together, these results indicate that self-reported nutrition facts label use does not accurately represent in vivo use of labels and their components while engaging in a simulated shopping exercise. In addition, location of labels and of specific label components relate to viewing. Consum-

ers are more likely to view centrally located labels and nutrients nearer the label’s top. Because knowing the amounts of key nutrients that foods contain can influence consumers to make healthier purchases, prominently positioning key nutrients, and labels themselves, could substantially impact public health.”

Scarcity and price fluctuations pose threat to food supply In Washington, during the Rabobank Duisenberg Lecture that was held in conjunction with the Annual Meetings of the IMF and World Bank, the “The impact of agricultural price volatility on sourcing strategies” Rabobank report was presented. Title suggests the no obvious conclusions, because if rising commodity prices and the increased volatility are not a new phenomenon in itself, what is happening this time is genuinely different. Worldwide food production will be unable to keep up with population growth because the harvest of commodities is lagging behind. This will be accompanied by price volatility for these commodities. Rabobank believes solutions to these problems can be found in

partnership with all the players in the production chain, ranging from knowledge institutions to traders, governmental agencies, and producers. They will need to join forces with the farmers in an effort to double production in a sustainable manner. And this will have to be achieved with half as much water, agricultural land, fossil fuels, fertilizers and chemicals. Only then will there be enough food for the total world population in 2050, which will have then risen by 50% to nine billion. Rabobank foresees the emergence of new alliances and it also anticipates that governments will increasingly organise their supply of commodities themselves because their citizens will need to have food. “Grain or soybean, for

example, will have to be grown in areas in which the agricultural land produces the most commodities. I am thinking about Countries including those in the Black Sea region and in West Africa”, says Sipko Schat, Member of the Executive Board of the Rabobank Group. He believes we will see this happen in 30 to 40 years. “But this will require free trade and fair division agreements, which are currently still a long way off”. Otherwise the primary sector will come under pressure from all sides. The farmers should receive a higher price for their products. The proceeds in the chain should consequently be divided more fairly in order to enable this. This can be achieved by making guaranteed, sustainable production and purchase

agreements with the farmers. The case studies in the report demonstrate how producers in different food and agriculture sectors are already actively involved with the farmers in order to guarantee sustainable production. “If they join minds and think a couple of steps further ahead, it will be possible to produce twice as much with less water and energy. We absolutely believe that”. Rabobank also believes technological progress can be beneficial in relation to increasing yields. “We are talking about the welfare of the world”, Schat explains. “While there is not yet a shortage in the West, there will be in the longer term if we do not invest in sustainable and efficient production”.

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Cooked food may provide more energy than raw A study published in the journal PNAS has indicated that cooked food may provide more energy than raw food. Although energy gain is a well-known effect from cooking starch-rich foods, the idea that cooking meat increases energy gain has never been tested. Energy values of food are often assessed using the water activity (Aw) general factor system. Energy value of foods are based on the main food components, protein, fat, and carbohydrate which have a single energy factor, regardless of the food in which they are found or how they are processed. To investigate the effect of unprocessed, pounded and/or cooked diet on body mass, Carmody et al. from Harvard University fed two groups of mice a numbers of diets that consisted of either meat or sweet potatoes prepared in four ways, raw and whole, raw and pounded, cooked and whole, and cooked and pounded. The mice were administered each diet for 4 days with a 6-days washout period. During each diet changes in each mouse’s body mass, controlling for how much they ate and ran on an exercise wheel were recorded. The study notes that cooking tends to increase weight

gain in animals fed starchrich foods. Mechanisms involved include heat gelatinising starch and transforming it into compounds, which are hydrolysed to sugars and dextrins, resulting in higher consumer specific digestibility. However, Carmody et al. state that the effect of non-thermal processing has never been investigated. They hypothesised that pounding potatoes would effect energy gain but not as significant as cooking. Their findings were that net energy gain over 4 days improved by both cooking and pounding the potatoes, however cooking exceeded the effects of pounding, with

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mice maintaining weight on cooked diets but losing weight on raw diets whether those diets were whole or pounded. No differences were observed in activity levels between the diets. The scientists report two additional mechanisms for this. Firstly that mastication was likely to be facilitated by the physical effect of pounding and the physical and chemical effect of cooking on the mechanical properties of tuber diets. Secondly water lost during cooking leads to increased gross energy density in cooked diets. Cooking meat but not pounding it had a positive effect on energy gain. Again the researchers note a number of proposed mechanisms for this including the fact that heat-induced denaturing of protein

improves consumer specific digestibility, with tightly bound structures when heated adopting a random coil configuration that increases their susceptibility to proteolytic enzymes in the small intestine. This increases the proportion of protein digested. In conclusion, Carmody et al. question the Atwater system stating: “the problem with the Atwater system is that it ignores changes in digestibility, costs of digestion, and costs of immune defence, all of which are likely influenced by food processing. The result is nutritional inaccuracy”. They state that their research also supports the idea that the advent of cooking was key in helping early humans become bigger, stronger and more advanced. RSSL

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Pesticide residues compliance continues to rise Known by the acronym MRLs, Maximum Residues Levels are the upper levels of a concentration of pesticide residues legally permitted in food or feed. Before an MRL can be set a risk assessment must be carried out to ensure consumer safety. After September 2008, the initial mixed system of harmonised EU MRLs and national MRLs has been simplified the MRL system in Europe and it has became applicable for all active substances used in plant protection products that have the potential to enter the food chain. EFSA Pesticide Unit is the responsible for assessing MRLs for pesticides through a comprehensive evaluation of consumer exposure and of any potential health effects which may result from use of the substance in food and animal feed. The EFSA unit verifies that exposure levels are safe for all EU consumers, including vulnerable groups such as young children, the elderly and vegetarians.

An overview of pesticide residues found in food in the European Union during 2009 and the assessment of the exposure of consumers to those residues through their diets are presented in the third Annual Report on Pesticide Residues, which has been published by the European Food Safety Authority. The report shows a good trend, compliance rates continue to raise with 97.4% of the samples analysed falling within the permitted MRLs, a rise of about one percentage point since 2008. Each Country has carried out two control programmes, a national programme (designed by the same Country) and a EUcoordinated programme, which specifies the control activities to be carried out. The EU-coordinated programme analysed 20 to 30 crops (fruit, vegetables, cereals and products of animal origin), considered to be the major components of the European diet, over a three-year period. The se-

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lected products were aubergines, bananas, butter, cauliflower, egg, orange juice, peas, peppers, table grapes, and wheat. The number of pesticides analysed in samples of plant origin has increased from 55 in 2006 to 120 in 2009. In the EU coordinated monitoring programme, 61.4% of samples were free of measurable pesticide residues. Compared with 2006, the last time the same food commodities of plant origin were analysed under the EU-coordinated programme, the MRL exceedance rate has fallen from 4.4 to 1.2%. EFSA said this could be partially ascribed to the harmonisation of MRLs, which came into

force in September 2008, but the more effective use of legislation compelling producers and other industry players to implement safety systems and changes in the pattern of pesticide use in Europe have contributed to the improvement. EFSA Pesticides Unit, which prepared the report, emphasised that the presence of pesticides in food at a level exceeding the MRLs does not necessarily imply a safety concern. Reporting Countries, which include all EU Member States, but also Iceland and Norway, analysed nearly 68,000 samples of food commodities for 834 pesticides. The number of food commodities analysed rose

from just fewer than 200 in 2008 to approximately 300 in 2009. The introduction of a new data-reporting format enabled a more accurate assessment of the long-term risks to consumers from exposure to pesticide residues. EFSA concluded that based on current knowledge long-term exposure to residues detected in major foods that make up the European diet would not raise health concerns. The assessment of shortterm acute exposure was based on worst-case scenarios – assuming the consumption of large portions of a food item containing the highest recorded residue – and EFSA concluded that risks to consumers were unlikely. Of the 10,553 samples taken in the EU coordinated programme, a potential risk could not be ruled out for 77.
 MRLs were more

often breached in samples from Countries outside the European Economic Area (6.9% of samples) than in those from the EU and EFTA Countries (1.5% of samples). The lowest exceedance rates overall were for food products of animal origin (0.3%). No specific MRLs have been established for organically produced commodities so those used for conventionally produced commodities are applied. The MRL exceedance rate recorded for organic produce was lower by a factor of 7 compared to conventionally grown produce. In conclusion, EFSA also makes a number of recommendations aimed at improving future monitoring programmes and the enforcement of European legislation on pesticide residues.

Recommended framework for bioactive intake Recommended intake for bioactive food components should be based on the totality of the evidence, the latest scientific publication from the International Alliance of Dietary/Food Supplement Associations (IADSA) has stated. Titled “Bioactive food

components: Changing the scientific basis for intake recommendations”, the publication proposes a new framework for recommended intake, enabling the incorporation of aspects of basic, pre-clinical and clinical research – including the Evidence

Based Medicine approach of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) – but allowing for decision-making based not primarily on RCT but on the totality of the evidence. The report, which is freely available from the IADSA website, was drafted by Dr David Heber from the Centre for Human Nutrition at the David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, and Dr Andrew Shao PhD from the IADSA Scientific Group. The report suggests the need for human intervention studies of a smaller scale than those used to evaluate drug efficacy and safety, arguing that RCT used to establish the safety and efficacy of drugs is, alone, not an appropriate method for establishing recommended intakes for nutrients and other bioactive substances. It also suggests post-marketing surveillance for potential adverse events. “Unlike drugs, bioactive substances pose minimal risks when consumed in the nutritional range and provide evidence for efficacy from a totality of evidence beyond the prospective randomized controlled trials (RCT),” Dr Shao said. “Often they have less marked acute effects which are not apparent or cannot be tested using the RCT. It is not surprising that such an approach often fails to detect any

benefit of bioactive substances even when there has been considerable evidence published in the peer-reviewed scientific literature in cell culture, animal models and humans. In fact, it can be argued that this Evidence Based Medicine approach should be reconsidered as a way of evaluating the potential health benefits of bioactive substances”. Potential elements of the new framework proposed in the report include evidence on the chemical composition; studies showing the biological underpinning of proposed health benefits in appropriate cell culture and animal models, and information on the bioavailability, site of action, absorption and metabolism of the bioactive substance or mixture. “There is clearly a need to develop a scientific framework to communicate the potential benefits of bioactive substances to the public that establishes reasonable certainty of benefits while also providing assurance of safety,” he continued, “and all scientifically valid evidence of biological effects supporting health benefits based on observations in cell culture, animal models, and in human populations and intervention trials should be considered as a whole in making recommendations for the intake of bioactive substances”.

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The first Italian certification for organic products L AV, A n t i v iv i s e c t i o n League, in collaboration with ICEA, (Institute for Ethical and Environmental Certification) has produced the first “100% Organic” certification which offers the consumers the certainty of buying a completely organic product, respectful of animals, the environment and health. This complies with a technical specification for food

products, and not only, which foresees the absence of ingredients of animal origin during all phases of the production process up to the packaging, the absence of using genetically modified organisms, the absence of additives, preservatives, other chemical substances and the finished product itself which have been tested on animals and the absence

Many events about packaging during Ipack-Ima A rich calendar of events and meetings has been planned for the IpackIma 2012 edition. All the events involve all the business communities represented at the fair. The opening day, Tuesday, 28th February, features an opening press conference taking stock of the exhibition itself as well as of market scenarios and the economic and technological prospective of the industries represented at the event. Innovative materials are the protagonists, both as part of the product display and on the conference floor. On Wednesday, in

cooperation with IpackIma, the Italian Association of Micromolecular Science and Technology (AIM) has organized the Technology Day dedicated to “Bio-plastics for food packaging, the new solutions”. The aim is to spread knowledge and awareness on bio-plastics used in food packaging, emphasizing the standards reached so far, its potential, critical areas, the relationship with current composting regulations and to promote a comparison with oil-derived plastics. The international convention “Enhancing Food Safety and Food Security

76 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february

of the contamination of the product by other animal products or substances. The logo “100% VEGETALE”, represented by the symbol of a green fork, will be placed on the certified product, that is, on all products that have satisfied all the requirements foreseen by the technical specification and this will guarantee the absence of any contamination from substances of animal origin, without having to read the ingredients on the label, which are not always easy to interpret.

in Africa - Processing and Packaging Technologies from the Farm Gate to the Consumer’s Table”, which is developed in partnership with the UN Food Agencies and scheduled on 1st March, represents the topof-the-agenda and extends the scope of the exhibition beyond Europe and defines its prospective in view of the Expo 2015. Regarding technical meetings, “Food Contact Materials (FCM)”, a discussion organized by AIDEPI on the role of food safety in connection with packaging and in particular with the new EU Regulation 10/2011 on plastic items and materials designed to come into contact with food products. This issue is especially crucial since packaging technology and

materials are acquiring an increasingly important role in the food industry, both in terms of safety and of quality preservation. For this reason, a meeting on issues connected with the “CAST Project”, developed in 2007 with the objective to experiment new integrated strategies and approaches to food safety involving both private and public institutions has been organized by the Italian Packaging Institute. The discussion is open to any company interested in the issue of compliance with the provisions on food-contact materials (discussion topics include the application guidelines of Regulation 2023/2006/ CE) with the participation of the National Health Authority, responsible for the



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international events in italy 28 February - 3 March 2012 - Rho-Pero (Mi): Ipack-Ima, int. packaging, food processing and pasta exhibition. Ipack-Ima - Corso Sempione 4 - 20154 Milano - Italy Tel. +39 02 3191091 - Fax +39 02 33619826 - email: 25 - 28 March 2012 - Verona: VinItaly+Enolitech, int. wine Show. Veronafiere - Viale del Lavoro 8 - 37135 Verona - Italy - Tel. +39 045 8298111 - Fax +39 045 8298288 - email: 25 - 28 March 2012 - Verona: SOL, int. olive oil show. Veronafiere - Viale del Lavoro 8 - 37135 Verona - Italy Tel. +39 045 8298111 - Fax +39 045 8298288 - email: 7 - 10 May 2012 - Parma: Cibus, int. food show. Fiere di Parma - Via Rizzi 67/A - 43031 Baganzola - PR - Italy Tel. +39 0521 996206 - Fax +39 0521 996270 - email: 24 - 27 May 2012 - Verona: Eurocarne, int. exhibition for the meat industry. Ipack-Ima - Corso Sempione 4 20154 Milano - Italy - Tel. + 39 02 3191091 - Fax +39 02 33619826 - email: 26 - 28 September 2012 - Cesena (Fc): Macfrut, int. fruit processing show. Cesena Fiera - Via Dismano 3845 47023 Cesena - FC - Italy - Tel. +39 0547 317435 - Fax +39 0547 318431 - email: 23 - 24 October 2012 - Verona: Save, int. show on automation and instrumentation. E.I.O.M. Ente Italiano Organizzazione Mostre
 - Viale Premuda 2 - 
20129 Milano - Italy - Tel. +39 02 55181842 - Fax +39 02 55184161 - email: 27 - 29 November 2012 - Bologna: Fruitech, int. fruit processing show. Ipack-Ima - Corso Sempione 4 20154 Milano - Italy - Tel. +39 02 3191091 - Fax +39 02 33619826 - email: 11 - 14 June 2013 - Rimini: Packology, int. packaging industry show. Rimini Fiera - Via Emilia 155 - Rimini Italy - Tel. +39 0541 744111 - Fax +39 0541 744255 email:

78 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LXVII (2012) february

scientific aspects of the “CAST Project”, and of key stakeholders involved in the food industry and in the various supply chains of the basic materials used in packaging production. Finally, the meeting titled “Packaging for vending”

and promoted by CONFIDA, the Italian Vending Association, features a debate on new distribution channels and packaging solutions for vending machines and the problems connected to it.

A conference on dietary fibre in Rome From 7th to 9th May 2012 the fifth international conference on Dietary fibre (DF 12) will be held in Rome. The conference will have the same successful formula as the previous editions, from the first, held in Ireland in 2000 up to the fourth held in Vienna in 2009, that is, the integraton of Nutritional science and consumer science with food technology, product development, analyses and legal aspects. DF 12 is the occasion for scientists, legislators and representatives of the industry from all over the world to meet. The scientific committee is preparing the programme which will include authoritarive speakers on the effects of all the components of fibre on health, as well as the presentation of a wide range of new developments in science and technology. During DF

12, all sources of dietary fibre will be discusses (natural fibres, obtained from all kinds of vegetables including cereals, legumes, fruit, and isolated artificial fibres) and their role in human nutrition and innovative food products. Furthermore, DF 12 offers the opportunity of a forum covering a wide range of topics for all the disciplines and industrial sectors involved in the research and use of dietary fibre. Taking into consideration the ongoing debate on the definition of dietary fibre and the difficulty in communicating the benefits gained from the intake of fibre to the consumer, the programme is not only important for scientists but also for those who are involved in the definition and preparation of the standard regulations. Http://


Now available in PDF format only filling in this form and sending it by fax or mail to: Fax +39 0121 794480 - e-mail:

e-mail ............................................................................................................................ Name ............................................................................................................................ Company ........................................................................................................................ Address ......................................................................................................................... City .................................................................................. State ................................... Country ................................................................... Postal Code ...................................

J food industry supplier

J food producer

J beverage industry supplier

J beverage producer

J services - research

J wine producer

Alba & Teknoservice - Villafranca Padovana................................................... 62

Agrimat.......................................................................................................... 56

Bruno Wolhfarth - Sordio.............................................................................. 27

Brambati........................................................................................................ 34

Chiriotti Editori - Pinerolo........................................................................41-77

Cimma Ing. Morandotti................................................................................. 54

CMT - Peveragno..................................................................... gatefold cover 1

Dolzan Impianti............................................................................................. 48

Escher Mixers - Schio....................................................................................... 2

Eagle Product Inspection............................................................................... 50

FBF Italia - Sala Baganza................................................................................. 1

Escher Mixers................................................................................................ 36 73

F.lli Naddeo................................................................................................... 39

GS Italia - Marnate......................................................................................... 35

FBF Italia........................................................................................................ 31

Ing. A. Rossi - Parma.............................................................................. cover 3

Firex............................................................................................................... 30

Italo Danioni - Milano................................................................................... 41 Gelmini.......................................................................................................... 34 LM - Modena................................................................................................. 55 HiWay............................................................................................................ 56 Ing. A. Rossi................................................................................................... 48 Mini Motor - Bagnolo In Piano...................................................................... 44 Labs............................................................................................................... 31 Mix - Cavezzo................................................................................................ 59 Moriondo - Besana........................................................................................ 33 Movinox - Acquaviva Picena.................................................................. cover 2 Omac Pompe - Rubiera.................................................................................. 49 Partisani - Forlì............................................................................................... 29 Pigo - Caldogno............................................................................................. 45 Sacchi - Vidigulfo........................................................................................... 52 SCA - Fiorenzuola D’Arda.............................................................................. 25 Tecno 3 - Corneliano d’Alba.................................................................. cover 4 Tecnopool - San Giorgio in Bosco......................................................... cover 1 Trivi - Galliate................................................................................................ 47

Company index

Advertiser Index

Me.Tra - Vago di Lavagno............................................................................... 37

Nuova Guseo................................................................................................. 32 Pigo................................................................................................................ 38 Rev Packaging Solutions................................................................................ 49 Roboqbo........................................................................................................ 35 Sea................................................................................................................. 53 Tecmon.......................................................................................................... 40 Tecno 3.......................................................................................................... 46 Tectronik........................................................................................................ 57 Turatti............................................................................................................ 39 Vibrowest Italiana.......................................................................................... 54

n. 67 - February 2012 ISSN 1590-6515


Supplemento al n. 2, febbraio 2012 di Industrie Alimentari - Sped. in A.P. - D.L. 353/2003 (Conv. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46) art. 1 comma 1 DCB TO - n. 67 anno 2012 - IP


processing & packaging



Hall 15 - Booth D19




Tecnopool has been in business for over 30 years and continues to be a leader in the business of designing, manufacturing and installing machinery to deep-freezing, cooling, pasteurizing and proofing food industry products. The systems’ versatility means they can be fitted to existing production lines, even at a later date.


Tecnopool S.p.A. via M. Buonarroti, 81 - San Giorgio in Bosco (Padova) Italy tel. +39.049.9453111 - fax +39.049.9453100 -

CHIRIOTTI EDITORI - 10064 PINEROLO - ITALIA - Tel. +039 0121393127 - Fax +039 0121794480 -

e bl la ai av sts nt u ne te la yo hi r t p t o ac fo ilo ed M p t ts A ica tes d







We will be present at booth N.C26-D21 Hall 1



Vertical roaster for cocoa beans Model : TFC





% 40 INU













Via Mastri Cestai, 2 12040 CORNELIANO D’ALBA (CN) ITALY Tel. +39 0173 61.05.64 - Fax +39 0173 61.94.94 - -






the traditional process combined with today’s technology

Machinery and plants for the confectionery industry


% 5 , 0







COSTRUZIONI MECCANICHE E TECNOLOGIA Via Cuneo, 130 - 12016 PEVERAGNO (CN) - ITALY Tel. + 39 0171 339456 - Fax + 39 0171 339771 -


Rivista esclusivamente in inglese, sviluppata a supporto di tutte quelle aziende italiane che vogliono puntare sull’export di macchine, prod...

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