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Summer 2019 / Volume 20, Issue 3







Utah Fire and Rescue Academy Magazine







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DEPARTMENTS 2 MESSAGE FROM UFRA 4 STATE FIRE MARSHAL 6 WILDLAND Utah Communities Take Action on Wildfire Community Preparedness Day

7 BATTALION CHIEF Managing Our Digital Communications

8 VOLUNTEER CHIEF’S CORNER Code of Federal Regulations – Keeping Your Firefighter Safe


12 FIREFIGHTER MENTAL HEALTH Post-Traumatic Growth: Thriving in Spite of Adversity


Attic Fires: Hit It at the Eave


FEATURES 17 FIRE LAW First Amendment Right To Film and On-Duty Personnel

18 LEADERSHIP The Power of Positive Public Engagements

22 DEPARTMENT IN FOCUS Tooele City Fire Department

Knowledge is Power: Be Proactive in Protecting Yourself from Firefighter Cancer



Brigham City Fire Department, Uintah City Fire Department




Salt Lake Fire Department, Tooele Army Depot Fire Department & Riverdale City Fire Department


45 RCA GRADUATION Spring 2019 | Class #78


Editor Kaitlyn Hedges


Design Phil Ah You

Published by Utah Valley University




Managing Editor Lori Marshall Y


photo by Dan Demille


Logan City Fire Department


“ Chief, What Makes a Great Firefighter?”

UFRA Instructor Jared Christensen explaining concepts in the SCBA Search and Rescue class at Winter Fire School 2019.








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SUMMER 2019, Volume 20 Issue 3 To Subscribe: To subscribe to the UFRA Straight Tip magazine, or make changes to your current subscription, call 1-888-548-7816 or visit The UFRA Straight Tip is free of charge to all firefighter and emergency service personnel throughout the state of Utah. Available online: View current updates on Facebook and Twitter at: Twitter: @ufra_fire UFRA Customer Service Local (801) 863-7700 Toll free 1-888-548-7816 UFRA Straight Tip (ISSN 1932-2356) is published quarterly by Utah Valley University and the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy and distributed throughout the state of Utah. Reproduction without written permission from the publisher is strictly prohibited. Send inquiries or submissions to: UFRA Straight Tip magazine 3131 Mike Jense Parkway Provo, Utah 84601 Phone 1-888-548-7816 Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in the UFRA Straight Tip are those of the authors and may not be construed as those of the staff or management of the UFRA Straight Tip, Utah Fire & Rescue Academy, or Utah Valley University.

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Message from UFRA

Perishable Skills Growing up, I could be found all hours of the day in the backyard playing basketball. I would do lay-ups, dribble around, shoot, and practice foul shots. Other boys in the neighborhood would join in, and we would play different games to improve our skills. As we played, both our individual abilities improved as well as our team skills. Repetition and correct application of techniques were the keys to becoming a better basketball player. Today, I can still catch a basketball and bounce it up and down. I can attempt shots, but I seldom make the ball through the hoop. The neighborhood kids let me try to make a basket when I see them playing, but it’s the same outcome: I miss. The ball goes everywhere but through the hoop. What happened to the skills I developed so many years ago? At this point in my life, my skills have perished all together. My failure to continue to practice basketball skills has caused me to lose my ability to perform the basics needed to play the game. Being a firefighter is not any different. Being a proficient firefighter and productive member of a crew requires continual practice and training. Let me point out a few areas where skills and knowledge can be lost if not frequently practiced.

Equipment Location Do you know what pieces of equipment are in each compartment of your apparatus? If asked to retrieve a specific piece of equipment, could you locate it? Or would you have to search several compartments? Do you feel confident enough to find the proper tools and equipment during an emergency event? If not, take time each shift to practice locating equipment on your apparatus. Furthermore, equipment is misplaced over time due to so many people using it. Make sure the equipment is where it is supposed to be and that you know where it is. Chainsaws and Rescue Saws Another skill that seems to disappear easily is the ability to start a chainsaw or rescue saw. When we are at a fire in full personal protective equipment (PPE), basic skills become more difficult. Our sense of touch is different due to the gloves. We are excited, and many times it is dark. Remembering the correct steps required to start the chainsaw becomes more difficult. When was the last time you trained on how to start the chainsaw? In the past year, have you started the saw while wearing gloves and full PPE? Have you practiced cutting with the saw so you’re proficient? If not, your skills with this tool may be diminishing.

Ladders Another basic skill that needs to be practiced is properly using a ladder so as not to injure your back. In my opinion, ladders are one of the most basic pieces of firefighting equipment. Are you ready to place the correct ladder safely at a house fire or other emergency events? Can you and the other members of your crew work as a team to place, extend, and lower a ladder into place, as you were taught as a new firefighter? If not, now is a good time to once again learn and train on the skills you will need to properly and safely use the different types of ladders on your apparatus. Driving Apparatus Safely driving the different apparatus in your department is another skill that requires practice. All of us can get to a designated location in the fire apparatus in normal circumstances—good weather, dry roads, normal traffic, and without time constraints. But we don’t always have those conditions. Regardless of conditions, we are called upon to respond with lights and sirens to an emergency, and we may be required to drive and operate any apparatus in the station. The drive may be on tight roads and congested traffic, snow-packed or muddy roads, and all manner of road and driving conditions. Driving a grass truck is different than driving an engine. A ladder truck requires different

driving skills than those needed to drive an ambulance. If called upon, could you safely drive the required apparatus to the emergency scene? If you have any doubt, talk to your officer and take the time to practice driving all apparatus at your station. Hydraulic Calculations We have all had classes on hydraulic calculations. It seems logical and practical in a classroom. We leave the class and feel we are ready to work at the pump panel. What happens when the opportunity to apply what we have learned in the classroom arrives and we have failed to practice the calculations? Do you feel confident in calculating the pump pressure and hose line pressure for one or more hose lines? What happens to all the calculations that seemed so easy and logical in the classroom? Again, these skills are perishable if not practiced and applied regularly. I have identified just a few skills that require ongoing training. In cooperation with your officer and crew, review other areas where ongoing training is needed. Each of us have different skills and ability levels. Identify where you need to improve, and start today. Polishing and learning skills through training are central to the mission of the Utah Fire and Rescue Academy (UFRA). UFRA was

established to help Utah firefighters learn new firefighting skills and to assist departments in continued education and training. We offer many training courses that departments can schedule to help new or existing firefighters become better emergency responders. UFRA is continually developing new courses and props to assist departments in reaching their goals of safe and proficient training. Contact your regional program managers to discuss your department’s training needs. They are there to assist you both in classroom learning and in hands-on skills.

Chuck Querry worked for the Salt Lake City Fire Department for 27 years. He retired in 2007 as the fire chief and came to work as a UFRA program manager. He has been an assistant director since 2009 and has had responsibility for training, certification, and most recently transportation and logistics.

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From the State Fire Marshal Protecting Mental Health

The survey found that first responders can be more open to getting help if those around them are willing to discuss mental health.

During the recent 2019 Legislative Session, Representative Karen Kwan sponsored HB 154: Mental Health Protections for First Responders. Senator Karen Mayne carried the bill in the Senate. The main thrust of the bill “establishes a temporary working group to study a first responder’s workers’ compensation claim due to mental stress.” The bill further defines a First Responder as “a law enforcement officer; an emergency medical technician; an advanced emergency medical technician; a paramedic; a firefighter; a dispatcher; or a correctional officer.” The passed bill requires that a group be created known as the “Mental Health Protections for First Responders Workgroup.” The group, which will have at least 18 members (four of whom will be first responders), is tasked to study and make recommendations relating to the following: the alleviation of barriers, including financial barriers, to mental health treatment for first responders inside and outside of the workers’ compensation system; statutory requirements for compensability of mental stress claims from first responders; improvement of a first responder’s accessibility to mental health treatment; and any additional issue that the workgroup determines is an important issue related to workers’ compensation for first responders and decides to review. This workgroup is charged to report back to the Legislative Business and Labor Interim Committee on or before September 30, 2020, with their findings and recommendations. How important is this to all first responders? A recent report known as the ESO 2019 Predictions FIRE made several predictions about the future of the fire service. Among other predictions, the report asserted that over the coming years, “awareness of mental health and overall wellness will be an area of focus.” The reasoning for the prediction is this: “While wear and tear for firefighters is not new, increased acknowledgement of wear and tear (especially around cancer and suicide since they are the top two killers)—and ways to address the issue—continues to gain momentum. Departments will need to create programs to prepare, educate, and respond to mental and physical health needs, including budget consideration, preventative measures, and the potential impact on other resources. From a software perspective, we will begin to see functions and features that create reporting and automatic flags to help agencies develop proactive programs for responders.” The report also includes three recommended actions to take in regard to this topic, but I’ll let you look that up on the website.1

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Another validation of mental health discussion comes from a survey administered by the University of Phoenix.2 The survey found that 93% of first responders agree that mental health is as important as physical health. It also showed that 83% believe that people who receive counseling generally get better. However, 47% feel that there would be repercussions on the job for seeking professional counseling. Sam Dutton, PhD, and program director for the University of Phoenix College of Humanities and Sciences, stated, “As a community, there are steps we can take to erase the stigmas associated with receiving professional counseling. There is no shame in seeking treatment for the flu or visiting the dentist. The same should be true of taking care of our mental well-being.” The survey found that first responders can be more open to getting help if those around them are willing to discuss mental health. If leaders spoke about their own experience, 82% of respondents said they would be encouraged to seek counseling. Peers have an even greater influence, with 89% of first responders saying if a close friend, colleague, or family member spoke up, they would be encouraged to seek help for themselves.

The University of Phoenix operates six counseling centers in five states (Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, and Utah) that offer free services to anyone in the community, including first responders. The Utah center is located at 5373 South Green Street in Murray; services are by appointment only. You can find more information at students/counseling-skills-centers.html.

Always be safe out there!

Coy Utah State Fire Marshal ___________________________________________________

I would be remiss if I didn’t recognize the considerable efforts of Jack Tidrow, president of the Professional Fire Fighters of Utah, who has been working with Representative Kwan and the Workers’ Compensation Fund staff over the past two legislative sessions to get to this point. Jack has also been instrumental in hosting the Utah Firefighter Behavioral Health Summit, which discussed a wide variety of mental health issues relating specifically to firefighters. Obviously, we need to work together to ensure that training and assistance is available to all of our brothers and sisters. We need to be more supportive of our coworkers and recognize that anyone can, at any time, be in need of services other than just those relating to our physical health. Let’s be better at helping to recognize and encourage those around us to be cognizant of the signs and symptoms of stressors and mental health issues. Let’s be proactive in getting assistance right away and ensure that we are all healthy in both body and mind.

The report in its entirety can be read here: wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Fire_Predictions_19_final.pdf. 2 “University of Phoenix Survey Finds 93 Percent of First Responders Say Mental Health is as Important as Physical Health.” UOPX News, September 11, 2018.


Coy D. Porter retired from Provo Fire & Rescue after 30 years of service; he then worked for almost four years as the assistant director of training at UFRA. Porter enjoys his association with the firefighters of Utah in his position as state fire marshal.

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Utah Communities Take Action on Wildfire Community Preparedness Day The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and State Farm® champion the Wildfire Community Preparedness Day, a national campaign throughout the United States and Canada. May 4, 2019, was the 6th Annual Wildfire Community Preparedness Day. The Preparedness Day is a call to action that gives community members of all ages a chance to plan and participate in a risk reduction or wildfire preparedness activity to make their community a safer place. Residents living in high-risk wildfire areas, who want to take steps to increase their safety but are unsure how to start, can find the information—and the inspiration—they need to organize and accomplish wildfire risk reduction projects in their community. “Nearly 400 structures were lost to wildfire in 2018, primarily in Duchesne County due to the Dollar Ridge Fire where at least 87 homes burned,” says Jennifer Hansen, Utah’s wildfire risk reduction coordinator for Utah Division of Forestry, Fire & State Lands (FFSL). “That’s why several communities organized an event on this day and are committed to working together with FFSL, NFPA, State Farm, and other partners to make their community safer from the threat of wildfire. We believe the Preparedness Day is a great way to raise awareness of this important issue.” As event sponsors, the NFPA and State Farm® awarded a $500 grant to two communities in Utah: Stockton/South Rim in Tooele County and North Sanpete Community Wildfire Council in Sanpete County. Stockton and South Rim in Tooele County The combined event for the Town of Stockton and the unincorporated community of South Rim, both in Tooele County, was coordinated by Amy Lyman. The goal of the event was to

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educate homeowners on defensible space and actually get them to work on it. The event also aimed to build fire department and community relations. Although the Wildfire Community Preparedness Day was officially May 4th, Stockton and South Rim actually started the event in April, when information was sent out to homeowners on ideas to create and maintain defensible space around homes, such as trimming low branches on trees, mowing down weeds, and removing debris near homes. The information was distributed by social media, electronic road signs (provided by the county), and flyers sent out with the water bills. Ms. Lyman added, “As a member of the local fire department, I have also been providing wildfire property assessments to help residents identify those projects that will be most beneficial to protecting their homes.” On the day of the event, the two communities gathered at the Stockton Community Park to share projects that were accomplished and compile the hours homeowners spent on their properties. Ms. Lyman reported that “250 people attended and logged 172 hours of defensible space projects completed in conjunction with our event.” In addition, the day’s event included activities that engaged the entire family, and the Tooele County fire warden, Dan Walton, gave a projection of the upcoming 2019 fire season. North Sanpete Community Wildfire Council in Sanpete County The event in North Sanpete was organized by Kathi Walters and others from the North Sanpete Community Wildfire Council, who partnered with Hideaway Valley residents, Indianola Valley Fire Department, FFSL, and youth from the Youth in Custody Program.

Ms. Walters described that the day of the event consisted of clearing downed trees, slash, and ladder fuels along the easement of Shadow Canyon Drive. She stated, “Identified as a fire risk, this one-mile stretch of road winds through the northeast perimeter of Hideaway Valley and then follows most of the eastern edge of Hideaway as it heads south. Adjacent lots are primarily absentee landowners meaning little or no fuel mitigation is done.” The event’s goal was to enhance the road as a fuel break, provide better access for brush trucks, and raise community awareness regarding the importance of fuel mitigation. A total of 24 community members and volunteers showed up to haul and cut woody material and slash to the road and into trailers to transport to the chipping site, unload woody material into piles for chipping, and sort larger material into piles for firewood. At the end of the day, eight trailer loads of vegetation had been removed from the community’s high firerisk project area. This year was the 6th Annual Wildfire Community Preparedness Event. You can help promote wildfire safety by encouraging residents to work together on a project or event next year on Saturday, May 2, 2020. Participation helps create a sense of community, where neighbors begin to look out for and care about each other. Wildfire Community Preparedness Day projects can also help strengthen relationships among residents, the local fire department, land management agencies, community leaders, and elected officials. Get more information at https://www.nfpa. org/Public-Education/Campaigns/NationalWildfire-Community-Preparedness-Day.

In the early nineties, I bought one of the first brick cell phones sold in Utah. The next decade brought enormous advances in digital communications technology. I remember thinking that this would be the way of the future, and we would eventually do much of our communication as chiefs on our smartphones and computers. Most of us could not have imagined just how many hours a day we would be spending in the digital world. As a chief officer, consider the following suggestions that can help make our lives a little less digital intensive.

Consider using the BCC (blind carbon copy) option when sending emails to more than a few people. An email sent to a large group with each recipient listed in the “To” line may start a firestorm of replies that go to the entire group and that the group does not need. In general, don’t reply to official emails from your phone. Wait until you are at your desk and the information has your department stamp instead of the “sent from my iPhone” stamp. Also important is your frame of mind when sending an official communique. Sending a critical communication while at Lagoon with your family might not be the best idea. Most of our electronic communications can wait. Triple check the intended recipients of emails and text messages. Who has not made the mistake of sending emails or texts to the wrong recipient(s)? Be careful using humor or sarcasm in your communications. We have an abundance of funny people in the fire service. However, without the advantage of body language and other physical cues, your sarcasm and humor may be misinterpreted.

• •

Be patient in receiving responses. We are all busy and spend a lot of time on the road or away from our computers. It may be a while before your recipient has time to consider the contents of your information or request. Voicemails are a bit antiquated. A text works better for most of us as long as it is clearly written and easy to quickly understand. Not all of us are speed-reading graduates. Inversely, all of us have short digital attention spans. Be concise in the information you are sending. If your email or text message does not get to the point quickly, the recipient may not get the point. Scour your communication to ensure that all the content is relevant. If you receive an email with all the recipients listed, it is usually most appropriate to reply to the sender only. Consider carefully when using “Reply All.” Blowing up others’ emails with “ok” is not ok. Be careful not to substitute digital communication for real, in-person communication. Both written and in-person communication have their place. Make sure you use the best form of communication for the situation.

Chief officers get dozens of electronic messages each day. If we all use better electronic communications etiquette, we will undoubtedly increase our work efficiency and, most importantly, get back to the work that makes us all more competent at our jobs.

Paul Hewitt began his career as an Orem City reserve firefighter in 1987. After 20 years with the Salt Lake City Fire Department, he served as a fire chief in Arizona before his 2011 appointment to fire chief of the Park City Fire District.

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Managing Our Digital Communications


Code of Federal Regulations – Keeping Your Firefighter Safe Understanding federal regulations governing firefighter safety is critical for today’s fire chief. However, while visiting departments throughout the state, I’ve found that many chiefs are completely unaware of many of the safety regulations that pertain to their department, particularly when it comes to firefighter safety. With so many different regulations, it’s no wonder that many of the strictest regulations regarding firefighter safety can get confusing and hard to keep track of. The fire chief ’s challenge, especially rural chiefs with limited budgets, is to find the most cost-effective and realistic way to comply with these regulations. For example, if a regulation stipulates a set number of firefighters are required to perform a task while working in an environment that is immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) (fires, hazmat incidents, confined spaces, etc.) and you do not have the required number of personnel available, then how do you comply? The technical answer is that if you cannot comply with the regulation, then you should change your strategies and objectives to ones that will not violate the regulations and, most importantly, keep your firefighters safe. I know this is generally not what fire chiefs and firefighters want to hear, but the overriding objective of this law is firefighter safety. Most firefighters, by their nature, are driven to act when the call comes in, even if only one or two people can get to the scene. Regardless of the number of firefighters available–or whatever challenge the department is facing in regards to code compliance—the fire chief must remember that life safety should be the number one incident objective, and compliance with state and federal regulations will help you achieve that objective. Addressing these compliance issues must occur during training, prior to arrival at the incident, during the operation at an incident, and as the incident winds down.

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The regulations specific to working in an IDLH atmosphere are found in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). The code is intensive and was built upon the human experience—injuries and death—in the workplace. The CFR is administered by the Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) and, when teamed with the National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA) standards, make for a

safer work environment for your firefighters. For this article, let’s look at CFR 1910.134— Respiratory Protection and highlight some of the regulations specific to self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) fit testing, training, use, and maintenance.1 To make the information easier to read, I have laid out each regulation in lay terms, along with a brief summary of how you can comply.

Step 1—1910.134 (e): Medical Evaluation What Is the Regulation? This rule stipulates that the firefighter’s employer—the fire department, volunteer as well as career department—shall provide a medical evaluation to determine the employee’s ability to use a respirator. We commonly refer to this as pulmonary testing, and it is generally completed by a physician or health care provider. In this testing, the examiner asks questions and performs testing to ensure a firefighter can safely wear a respirator and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA).

How Can You Comply? Your department or city physician or health care provider can provide this service; most are willing to work with you on payments, and many are willing to give group discounts for fire departments. Many times, pulmonary testing is performed as part of a preemployment or annual physical examination. Respirator medical clearance is required by the CFR and OSHA. All of this should be completed prior to allowing the firefighter to operate in the IDLH environment.

Step 2—1910.134 (f) & (m): Fit Testing What Is the Regulation? These rules require that before an employee uses any respirator with a negative or positive pressure tight-fitting facepiece, the employee must be fit tested with the same make, model, style, and size of respirator that will be used. This ensures no contaminants from the IDLH atmosphere enter the mask. It also specifies the kinds of fit tests allowed, the procedures for conducting them, and how the results of the fit tests must be applied.

How Can You Comply? Fit testing is the only way to ensure SCBA masks are sized and fit appropriately. These tests are done using a fit testing machine. These machines are expensive ($8,000– $14,000), so it may benefit you to contract with someone to complete these tests for you or to team up with other departments to purchase one. A good place to start is to contact your SCBA supplier; most of them can offer this service to you at a reasonable cost. Additionally, you can reach out to other departments in your area to share resources and work together in reaching compliance.

Step 3—1910.134 (k): Training and Information What Is the Regulation? This rule outlines the training requirements for the use of your SCBAs and SCBA failure procedures. Departments must produce and maintain documentation that tracks the amount, type, and frequency of training.

How Can You Comply? These requirements are incorporated into the Firefighter I & II certification standards and skills and should be reviewed, at a minimum, annually. The chief of a department must stay vigilant and pay strict attention to keeping and maintaining documentation for each member.

Step 4—1910.134 (g): Use of Respirators What Is the Regulation? This rule directs that firefighters work in pairs and be in visual or voice contact whenever they are in an IDLH atmosphere. This applies to structural firefighting, hazmat, and any IDLH incident. In addition to requiring that firefighters enter IDLH atmospheres in pairs, it also stipulates that at least two firefighters be located outside to perform rescue if needed; we commonly call this the 2-in / 2-out rule. This rule does not preclude firefighters from performing emergency life-saving rescue activities before an entire team has assembled.

How Can You Comply? The Utah Fire and Rescue Academy has incorporated the 2-in / 2-out rules into the Firefighter I & II certification standards and skills. As far as facial hair goes, the CFR is very clear that facial hair, or any obstruction, that interferes with the mask-to-skin seal is not allowed. I have seen some firefighters get very creative with their beards or mustaches in order to comply. Checking the facepiece seal before every use is easily done and is also part of the Firefighter I skills standard.

Step 5—1910.134 (h): Maintenance and Care of Respirators What Is the Regulation? This section addresses the cleaning, inspection, disinfection, repair, and storage of your SCBA facepiece. The details suggest how to write up procedures to follow that will meet the regulation.

How Can You Comply? SCBAs should be inspected on a regular basis for damages. Check with your SCBA provider for information and training on these inspections. Your SCBAs should be inspected and tested by a factory-trained individual annually. Your SCBA bottles and valves also require testing on a three- or five-year schedule, based on the type. These inspections and tests can be expensive and generally represent one of the largest maintenance expenditures for a fire department; however, partnering with neighboring fire departments may be a cost-effective option.

I need to mention that nothing in CFR 1910.134 precludes firefighters from acting in situations where lifesaving rescue actions are needed. Specifically, the CFR 1910.134 note to paragraph g, which is the 2-in / 2-out rule, says: “Nothing in this section is meant to preclude firefighters from performing emergency rescue activities before an entire team has assembled.” The intent of CFR 1910.134 (g) is to ensure firefighters have firefighter rescue teams established before they enter an IDLH atmosphere, but the CFR also allows for unusual and rare emergency lifesaving situations. In conclusion, understanding the vast number of regulations placed upon fire departments today can seem intimidating and challenging, but it is manageable. We can no longer simply use the rationale that firefighters can respond to an incident and just do whatever it takes to mitigate the incident. We must be able to show that any fire department employee (volunteer or career) is thoroughly equipped, trained, and tested in the use of provided safety equipment. Departments must have policies and procedures that demonstrate compliance with federal regulations. Departments can use the regulations to guide department policies and procedures to provide the best for their team and to demonstrate compliance with federal regulations. With some creative management principles, a fire department can seek the best and most cost-effective way to meet and comply with those critical regulations that are intended to keep us alive. Since every chief should be fully informed, here is the OSHA website for CFR 1910.134 where the entire code can be viewed: https:// 1

Step 6—1910.134 (i): Breathing Air Quality What Is the Regulation? This regulation stipulates the quality of the air used in your SCBAs. There are limits to the oxygen concentration, hydrocarbon particulates, carbon monoxide content, carbon dioxide content, and moisture levels present in your SCBA or compressor storage cylinders. All of this is critical in order to eliminate risk while the equipment is used in an IDLH environment.

How Can You Comply? CFR requires that your SCBAs be filled with air that meets specific oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water content requirements. Most departments have their SCBA air compressors and storage containers tested every quarter through an independent laboratory, and these tests will usually cost about $150 per test, depending on the laboratory. If you use a cylinder cascade system, ask the bottled air contractor to provide these test results. Make sure you keep these test results on file as proof of compliance. Again, you may want to work with neighboring departments in order to build a program that helps you meet this requirement.

Paul Bedont has served as a volunteer as well as a career firefighter and is currently employed as the fire chief for Price City. He has worked for various private, state, county, and local governments and holds a degree in criminal justice from USU.

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VEHICLE EXTRICATION Use the gap that is created to insert the spreader tip and lift the dash section up and away from the trapped victim.

EXTRICATION TOOL BOX Modified Dash Lift Every first responder’s extrication toolbox should include the modified dash lift. Unlike a traditional dash roll, where the entire dash is “rolled” up and away from the trapped victim(s), or a traditional dash lift, where the entire dash is “lifted,” the modified dash lift is used to “lift” a section of the dash away from the victim. This technique can be employed when the extrication requires the rapid removal of a single front passenger. Rescue personnel should practice and train on various dash entrapment situations to understand the capabilities of their extrication tools and personnel. At every extrication incident, several tasks must happen before the cutting, spreading, and lifting begin. Every incident should start with establishing Incident Command (IC), followed by a comprehensive scene size-up / evaluation, including a 360-degree survey. The vehicle(s) then needs to be stabilized to prevent any unwanted movement. Rescue personnel should then check the vehicle for undeployed airbags and seatbelt tensioners. After those tasks are accomplished, extrication can begin. To effectively perform a modified dash lift, rescue personnel must remove the door, either by exposing then spreading or by cutting the hinges. A relief zone can be created by using the spreaders to crush a section of the front fender in-line with the strut tower (approximately at the middle of the wheel well); the relief zone can also be made by using the cutters in the same area. For time constraints, use the same tool to make the relief cut as was used to remove the door. Next, make a relief cut through the A post near the top rail; the A post will move clear of the roof as the lifting process begins. If the windshield

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The modified dash lift is used to “lift” a section of the dash away from the victim.

is intact, use a glass saw to cut the windshield across the top. Cut from the A post relief to the opposite A post. Use cutters to make two deep cuts about four inches apart in the lower A post. The two cuts should form a tab—the first cut at the top of the lower hinge and the second cut at the bottom of the lower hinge. Due to the firewall and footwell reinforcing, it is important the relief cuts are as deep as possible into the firewall. The deeper the cut goes into the firewall, the more effective the dash lift will be. Once the two cuts are complete, use the spreader to clamp down and crush the hinge and metal, and then bend the tab out of the way with the spreaders. Use the gap that is created to insert the spreader tip and lift the dash section up and away from the trapped victim. Remember, the dash only needs to be moved enough to remove the victim.

A relief zone can be created by using the spreaders to crush a section of the front fender in-line with the strut tower (approximately at the middle of the wheel well); the relief zone can also be made by using the cutters in the same area.

This lift is most effective with cribbing placed under the vehicle’s A post/firewall area to prevent the rocker channel and floor pan from moving downward as the dash is lifted. photography by Russell Young

This lift is most effective with cribbing placed under the vehicle’s A post/ firewall area to prevent the rocker channel and floor pan from moving downward as the dash is lifted. However, some downward movement will create space that can assist in victim removal as long as the footwell material does not buckle and injure or further trap the victim. This is a rapid, effective technique to add to your “toolbox” of skills. Practicing this and all skills is the only way to have them work effectively during an emergency incident. Train often, train hard, and train realistically. Stay Safe…Chief Young

Russell Young is a retired battalion chief and assistant training officer for the Orem Fire Department, where he was responsible for extrication and ambulance driving operations. He is the chief of the Duchesne Fire Department. Russ has been a paramedic for over 22 years. He has a BS in emergency services management, is currently completing his MBA and MPS, has over 25 years of experience in fire and emergency medical service, and is a UFRA training program manager.

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Post-Traumatic Growth: Thriving in Spite of Adversity

Since we can’t avoid negative, stressful, or traumatic events, we need to know how to best strengthen and prepare ourselves for them. It is not a matter of if one of these events will occur; it is when. That is the nature of emergency services. So, what do we do? First of all, knowledge is power. Learning what is out there, what is possible, and what the best ways to protect ourselves are is critical because we are in charge of our own mental, emotional, and physical health and well-being. No one will do it for us. In learning about trauma and post-traumatic effects, many of us have heard of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and post-traumatic stress (PTS). But there is another term that many haven’t heard of but can be valuable to learn about: post-traumatic growth (PTG). If you have been around the emergency services arena for any length of time, you have probably heard of PTSD. This is a commonly used term to talk about the severe outcome from traumatic situations. This term is often confused with the not-as-commonly used term PTS. These can easily be confused and are often thought to be the same thing. Although they do share a similar name and there are some overlapping symptoms, it is important to differentiate between the two.

PTSD is a clinically diagnosed condition. It can develop after any exposure to a traumatic event where there was a possibility of death or serious injury. To be diagnosed, a person has to meet certain requirements listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Requirements include re-experiencing the event, avoiding related stimuli, negative alterations, and changes in reactivity. Some of these symptoms are similar to PTS. The biggest difference between the two is the severity, duration, and intensity of symptoms. PTSD symptoms continue for more than a month and significantly affect daily

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functioning. To help with these symptoms, seeking treatment administered by a clinician can be beneficial.

PTS, on the other hand, is a normal and quite common reaction to a traumatic or stressful event. Most people tend to show at least a few signs of PTS if exposed to this type of situation. Symptoms can be intense at the beginning but will diminish over time and won’t cause long-term effects. Symptoms also seem to resolve themselves within a month. It is important to note that PTS is not considered a mental disorder, and treatment is not required unless symptoms persist or are severe. With that in mind, treatment may help to reduce symptom duration and intensity. Now here is a new term that only about 10% of the public has heard of before: post-traumatic growth (PTG). That’s right, growth. We now know that it is possible to grow and find meaning from a traumatic event. If you weren’t aware that growth after trauma is possible, then you would never consider that an option. Now you know. Knowing that PTG is a potential outcome from a traumatic event changes your mindset. Not only can you heal from trauma, but you have the power to become more resilient and to ultimately grow stronger from these intense experiences. Definition of PTG “PTG is defined as positive changes stemming from being victimized or encountering adversity. Growth is further understood to be the ability to create meaning from the traumatic event.” (Tedeschi & Calhoun) Benefits from PTG • Greater emotional growth • Closer family relationships • A better perspective on life

• Greater self-insight • Positively altered values and priorities

So, how do we grow from trauma? There are many theories and methods out there to utilize. One excellent resource to investigate is the Posttraumatic Growth Path (PTGP), which is a brief therapy model that covers four steps addressing problematic recovery areas. The Posttraumatic Growth Path (PTGP) • Deal—Writing a trauma narrative; face the reality and pain associated with the trauma. • Feel—Exposure; purge negative emotions while remembering the event. • Heal—Freedom of choice, finding meaning from experience, and the hero archetype. As well as PTG channeling negative into positive energy. • Seal—The mind as a filing cabinet; moving on and not dwelling. Your scars are your triumph, not your tragedy. Another resource is the Post Traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI), which is categorized into five dimensions of PTG and includes 21 statements to measure potential growth and change since the event. 5 Dimensions of PTG from the Post Traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) • Relating to others • New possibilities • Personal strength • Spiritual change • Appreciation of life Another avenue to check out is EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) therapy with a trained clinician. Reputable internet searches can help to find more information about these growth options. The information is there, but it comes down to you

going through the process to strengthen yourself. Even though we don’t hear of it as often, research has shown that PTG is actually more common than PTSD. Trauma is inevitable in this line of work. We all will encounter it at some point and probably even multiple points. So, the next time you find yourself in the middle of pain and suffering, trauma, and stress, remember that there is a strength inside of you to not only overcome those challenges but to grow and become even stronger because of them. It is up to you to decide where you want to be down the road—a victim, a survivor, or a thriver. References: American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: Fifth edition. Arlington, VA. Nelson, S. D. (2011). The posttraumatic growth path: An emerging model for prevention and treatment of trauma-related behavioral health conditions. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration 21, 1-41. Doi:10,1037/a0022908 Posttraumatic Growth Research Group. (2014). What is PTG? UNC Charlotte Department of Psychology. Retrieved from Tedeschi. R. G., & Calhoun, L. G. (1996). The posttraumatic growth inventory: Measuring the positive legacy of trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9, 455-471.

Joy Stearns is a captain with West Jordan Fire Department and has been in the fire service for over 16 years. She has a master’s in health promotion and education through the University of Utah. She has worked with fire departments and various other agencies across the state, spreading knowledge and skills on resilience and peer support. She is excited to be a part of the UFRA team and looks forward to helping promote mental health in emergency services.

Tedeschi. R. G., & Calhoun, L. G. (2004). The foundations of posttraumatic growth: New considerations. Psychological Inquiry, 15, 1-18.

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Attic Fires: Hit It at the Eave

Throughout my firefighting career, I have seen and handled many attic fires and had many debates on tactical approach. At the end of the day, I believe we can all agree that an incident action plan (IAP) should protect life safety, effectively extinguish the fire, attempt to prevent unnecessary water and fire damage, and deploy effective salvage operations. Before determining the best tactical approach to an attic fire, a basic understanding of attic construction and incident tactics must be grasped.

Attic Construction

Knee Wall Attic Space Construction Residential roof structures are designed to protect the home from the elements. Understanding the construction and ventilation system of an attic is critical in developing our IAP for these fires. We can use this construction and its own ventilation pathways to our advantage during a fire attack.

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Knee wall construction is common in our area. We see this construction with homes that have living space above the garage and other areas of the attic. Extinguishing fires in structures with knee walls can be challenging and will require good communication and understanding of that construction. As we will discuss further, the most effective way to extinguish fires in attic spaces with knee wall construction is through the eaves. However, all attic fires in open web residential construction can benefit from water application at the eave.

Attic Space Ventilation Proper ventilation of attic space uses convection. This natural passive movement of air throughout the attic space removes moisture and excessive heat. This is typically accomplished through the installation of soffit vents along the bottom of the roof and a combination of roof (whirlybird, static, O’Hagen, and domer), gable, and ridge line vents to the top of the roof.

photos courtesy of UL Firefighter Safety Research Institute

not only unsuccessful but creates unnecessary damage to the structure and contents. If an aerial operation is your only option, place the master stream device through a window or sweep the eaves, applying water upward. Keep in mind the weight being applied to floors and the damage that can occur to structural members. Crews may still have to make entry to fully extinguish the fire, but prior to entry, structural integrity needs to be closely evaluated. There are many positive reasons to utilize an eave attack, especially over the traditional gable attack with fire showing. It is far safer to our firefighters to be standing on the ground able to control nozzle reaction while keeping them out of the vent path of the attic space. In addition, water applied through the eave is also the path designed for ventilation. Water that is applied through the eaves will apply water to the roof sheathing, wetting the fuel and cooling the environment. Wetting the fuel will allow for reduced fire spread and cooling of the attic space. This will maintain and control the attic fire while still maintaining the drywall and insulation as fire barriers. Once the fire has been controlled, structural integrity should be evaluated. If safe, crews need to move interior to control and extinguish the fire and hopefully conduct salvage operations simultaneously.

As the heat rises in the attic, heated air is exhausted through upper vents, which causes a negative pressure to occur. This negative pressure draws cooler air into the attic from the eave. Under fire conditions, this leads to limited ventilation fire and should be recognized as such. Caution should be used in opening large holes or placing positive pressure into the space. Adding outside air into an attic space needs to be wellcoordinated with the fire attack and the incident commander.

Attic Fire Tactics After understanding the basics of attic construction, attic tactics can be better understood. The Underwriters Laboratory Firefighter Safety Research Institute conducted a two-year study on residential attic fires. Though the entire report will not be covered in this article, here are two great points from the report: “If the fire starts on the outside, start fighting it from the outside.” I must emphasize the importance of the 360 at any fire scene. We must make every attempt to locate the fire prior to entering the structure. Extinguishing the exterior fires controls the spread of fire to adjacent structures and affected exposures. Many firefighters have been killed due to exterior fires not being extinguished prior to entry, especially during wind-driven fires. “Wetting sheathing with an eave attack slows attic fire growth.” Unlike in living spaces in the structure’s interior, over half of the flammable materials in the attic space comes from the sheathing of the wood structure. Going back to attic ventilation, fire will move to the highest point of the structure, with fire most often visible first at the upper ventilation points. To properly extinguish an attic fire, water must be applied to these burning surfaces from below. Time and time again, we see departments place aerial devices to the roof of these structures, applying thousands of gallons of water. As roof structures are built to repel water, this tactic is

Attic firefighting is all about keeping attic fires ventilation limited and getting water into the environment from the safe area to control the environment. Attic fires can challenge the most experienced incident commanders. No single tactic works on all fires. The most successful incident commanders understand which tactic to deploy in each given fire situation. To read the entire UL Firefighter Safety Research Institute report and to use the institute's online training module, go to https://ulfirefightersafety. org/research-projects/residential-attic-fire-mitigation-tactics-and-exteriorfire-spread-hazards.html#more. “Residential Attic Fire Mitigation Tactics and Exterior Fire Spread Hazards on Fire Fighter Safety,” UL Firefighter Safety Research Institute, Sept. 7, 2012.

Jared Sholly is a twenty-six-year veteran of the fire service. He started his career with Layton City Fire and moved through the ranks of firefighter, driver/ operator, captain, battalion chief, and training battalion chief. Jared is currently the Riverdale City fire chief. He has a bachelor’s degree from Utah Valley University and lectured at local fire academies, the Utah Fire and Rescue Academy, the State Fire Chiefs Conference, the Fire House Expo, the Utah Governor’s Public Safety Summit, and many local leadership programs. Jared developed and reviewed the LODD of Kendall O. Bryant and has shared his personal experience of this incident with more than 3,800 firefighters in multiple states for almost fifteen years. Most notably, he had the opportunity to present his experiences during a class at the National Fire Academy. “We will never forget and will always honor our fallen brother.”

Summer 2019 | 15


Back to Basics “Chief, What Makes a Great Firefighter?” I often get asked by young recruits, “Chief, what makes a great firefighter?” Obviously, I have my own opinions after hiring many new recruits and training 28 recruit classes at the Recruit Candidate Academy (RCA) at UVU. So, what did I do? I Googled it. Isn’t that what most young firefighter hopefuls do? The advice I got were things like “Don’t let the phone ring twice”; “Be the first one up and start doing the station chores”; “Don’t be late”; and “Keep busy.” All good suggestions. However, before giving any of those answers, I would offer the recruit the following opinion. Recruits are not hired because of their outstanding knowledge and physical prowess; they’re hired because they’re good people. When a recruit is a great person first, the rest will naturally follow. Good people will work hard to gain the knowledge, skills, and abilities they need to be successful. Conversely, I have seen, and trained, recruits who are physical specimens, with above-average knowledge, skills, and abilities—but who suck as people. They don’t get hired. And if they happen to get past the entry-level process, they don’t make it off probation. Why? Because they aren’t “getting along” with the crew or officer or organization. It’s rarely because they don’t have the knowledge or skills. It’s because they don’t fit. Recruits that “don’t fit” are the recruits who think only of themselves. They are unhelpful; even when they have the answers, they keep those answers to themselves. Those recruits enjoy watching a peer suffer with performance that they could have helped avoid. They don’t take responsibility for mistakes, even when the crew knows whose fault it is. They’re the recruits who complain about administration, supervisors, and peers and believe that those comments will never get back to any of them. They’re the recruits who work hard when the officer is watching but who lean back, letting others do the work, when the officer is gone. They’re the recruits who don’t possess a servant’s heart—who get annoyed at the “inconvenience” of the station alarm. And they’re the recruits who think nobody notices. On the other hand, great firefighters show respect for peers, supervisors, and the organization. Great firefighters say, “Yeah that sucks, but here’s

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A great firefighter doesn’t mind doing the right thing. a possible solution.” Great firefighters seek to contribute, not complain. Great firefighters are able to harness anger in an adult way. They can be the butt of firehouses jokes (which we all are from time to time) without taking life too seriously. Great firefighters are kind, positive, and upbeat, not chronically negative and dark. Nobody wants a negative atmosphere—great firefighters avoid it. Great firefighters are always learning and striving for professional and personal goals. Notice that I haven’t said anything about having great firefighting skills? Emergency response professionals will have ample time to train and remain proficient with knowledge, skills, and technology necessary for the job. However, they won’t typically be trained in the finer points of interpersonal dynamics, team skills, and cooperation. Those skills come naturally to a good person. It will take a crew approximately one shift to size up a new recruit and be able to say “They’re gonna make it; that’s a good recruit” or “Who does this guy think he is?” And it may take an entire career to turn that first impression around—if the recruit makes it off probation. Having said all that, knowledge, skills, and abilities required to do the job are extremely important. You must be able to perform competently and safely. However, if a recruit wants to know what it takes to be a great firefighter, I’d tell them, “Be a good person first—be helpful and work hard to build relationships with the people.” The rest will take care of itself.

Andy Byrnes, EFO, MEd, retired after 21 years at the Orem Fire Department as a special operations battalion chief. He currently works as an associate professor for Utah Valley University and as director of the university's Recruit Candidate Academy.

Today’s burning question: My chief thinks he can stop us from taking photos at incident scenes. He does not seem to understand we have a 1st Amendment Right to film in public places. Can you point me to any cases showing that an on-duty firefighter has a 1st Amendment Right to film? Answer: No, I cannot. It’s probably because as an on-duty firefighter, you do not have a 1st Amendment Right that trumps the right of your employer to prohibit you from filming. When you are on duty, you are a governmental agent: you work for government. Your fire chief, subject to collective bargaining laws where applicable (and even that may be a stretch), has the right to prohibit you from taking photos while on-duty. There are plenty of cases where firefighters have been disciplined for using their personal cameras/cellphones to film while on duty. I have not seen one where a court has ruled that an on-duty firefighter has a 1st Amendment Right to film. The reality is when a firefighter goes to an emergency scene—any images he/ she takes will likely qualify as a public record under state law. That being the case, the firefighter and the fire department have a legal obligation to retain any photos taken and make them available to the public as required by the public records law. A public employee in possession of a public record can be required to produce that public record. Failing to produce a public record when lawfully requested is a criminal offense in many states. In addition, the destruction of a public record in violation of the public record law is a criminal offense in many/

most states. All in all, I find it hard to believe that a court would conclude that an on-duty firefighter would be able to use the 1st Amendment to force his/her employer to allow filming at emergency scenes. I will open this up to anyone who is aware of such a case where a firefighter argued (successfully or otherwise) that such a 1st Amendment Right existed. Off-duty is another story… An off-duty firefighter has 1st Amendment Rights to film in public… but on-duty personnel at incident scenes can be prohibited from doing so by their employer. An interesting (and very advanced) question arises: While a fire department/employer has a right to control what a firefighter/employee does while on-duty… might an on-duty firefighter have an enforceable 1st Amendment Right to film if an entity other than his/her employer (perhaps the State Police) sought to prevent him/her from filming? Again, I have not seen any case law on this issue. It is possible that a fire department may be able prohibit an on-duty firefighter from filming despite the 1st Amendment, while another government agency could conceivably violate the 1st Amendment by blocking the same firefighter from filming.


First Amendment Right To Film and On-Duty Personnel Curt Varone has over 40 years of fire service experience and 30 as a practicing attorney licensed in both Rhode Island and Maine. His background includes 29 years as a career firefighter in Providence (retiring as a Deputy Assistant Chief), as well as volunteer and paid on call experience. He is the author of two books: Legal Considerations for Fire and Emergency Services, (2006, 2nd ed. 2011, 3rd ed. 2014) and Fire Officer's Legal Handbook (2007), and is a contributing editor for Firehouse Magazine writing the Fire Law column.

I’d appreciate any cases or thoughts folks care to share in this regard. Originally posted on on February 7, 2019. Reprinted with permission from Curt Varone.

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Positive public engagements– both planned and unplanned

Increased expectations

Positive perceptions about the department’s value to the community

Increased opportunities for education

The Power of Positive Public Engagements A lady in our community recently sent me a message, thanking a crew that helped her in a tough time. The message was not referring to a call for service; rather, she had been at the grocery store checking out, and her children were being less than cooperative. The next thing she knew, the crew was talking to the children, offering them fire department stickers, and bagging her groceries. This allowed her the time she needed to pay for her groceries. Since the firefighters were done with their shopping, they also helped her to her car. I like this story because it highlights two indicators of a strong culture of service: 1) The crew that helped the lady did not come back to the station and tell everyone what they had done, indicating they did it to serve and not for personal gain. 2) The fact that it happened. The crew could have easily walked past the woman and her children. No one would have been upset that they did not help her. No one is going to send a message stating they should have helped. Quite frankly, it would be difficult to know how many of these opportunities are lost. In the fire service, customer service and public expectations are two interrelated topics that are often talked about but seldom acted on proactively. The above story is a great example of proactive customer service or, as I like to call it, positive public engagements.

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Generally speaking, we know our communities hold the fire department in high regard. However, it can be a mistake to assume that this regard equates to value. Positive public engagements are how we create value. Let me explain further. Beyond answering the call for service, a fire department’s main mission to a community should be to provide a sense of safety and security. After all, we are their safety net when they have a problem they cannot solve. However, most citizens in our community rarely use our emergency service. Therefore, they give no thought to our value (safety and security) to the community. Value is created by taking advantage of unplanned and planned public engagement. By creating value through these engagements, we can win the hearts and minds of our community members. Once we are valued by the public, we will have an opportunity to educate them. When we are actively educating the public, we can play a part in establishing their expectations of us, thus completing the circle. We can no longer simply be an answer to 911.

The interrelated issue to customer service—public expectations—is part of this consideration. Did the crew’s grocery store experience align with our community’s expectations? I believe this particular action would align with any community’s expectation of their fire department. Our community’s expectations direct current services and should play a major role in influencing future direction. Using the community’s expectations to guide our service will create value for the department. If we allow ourselves to become just an answer to 911 calls, we leave ourselves vulnerable to unwarranted criticism. We are always quick to react to a citizen that may have an issue with how we are operating. Just one citizen can cause us to quickly evaluate our customer service and the perception of the department. Being proactive in our approach by seeking positive engagements to educate and set expectations will hopefully allow us to manage perceptions. Not being proactive allows the community to develop their perceptions and expectations elsewhere. I for one cannot meet the expectations set by the recent slew of emergency

services sitcoms. Positive public engagements are a segue toward being an intricate part of the community and provide an opportunity to educate and ensure we are setting and meeting the community expectations. As leaders, we need to encourage and support these types of behaviors from the department personnel.

Chief Jeremy Craft has been serving as the fire chief in Lehi since December 2014. Craft has 20 years in the fire service and spent 18 of those with the Provo Fire and Rescue Department. Chief Craft has a B.S. in emergency services, and a master’s in public administration. He is also a recent graduate of the Executive Fire Officer (EFO) program.

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Knowledge is Power: Be Proactive in Protecting Yourself from Firefighter Cancer

All through my childhood, I remember the old plextron monitor going off when there was a fire or EMS call. My father was a 45-year member of the fire service when he passed away and my mother was very involved in the Ladies Auxiliary until she passed away. Growing up in a small rural town in western New York, what else was there to do but volunteer at the local firehouse where your parents, older brother, and friends belonged? As rich as my family history is within the fire service, it is also wrought with cancer diagnoses. Even so, I never really thought cancer would strike me. Then I began a long struggle with female reproductive health issues that are still difficult for me to talk about. These included several bouts with a precancerous condition as well as severe endometrial hyperplasia where cancer was not ruled out. I ended up having a hysterectomy followed by weeks of radiation therapy to kill off the remaining cells left behind. In 2015, the Firemen’s Association of the State of New York asked me to participate in a

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video about cancer in the fire service. I was reluctant, as my long road with reproductive health issues was a private and personal journey for me. I did the interview, but I wasn’t really convinced my issues had a direct correlation with the fire service. However, since then I have had another journey, and this is one I would like to share. On August 24, 2012, I was in the grocery store checkout line with my two sons when my pager went off for a field fire in the Iroquois Wildlife Management area. Like many volunteer fire companies, staffing is limited during the day. I finished my checkout, drove the half mile to my house, threw my perishables in the refrigerator, and headed to the scene to assist. It was a warm and sunny day, so I was wearing shorts, and I didn’t take the time to grab a pair of pants. However, I had an extra pair of socks in my gear bag for emergencies like this when I am wearing sandals or flip flops! When we arrived on-scene I put on all my proper PPE for the field fire and went to work. My kids were so excited that they could sit

safely at Incident Command and watch Mom, who was a Fire Rescue Captain, in action. It was dry marsh that was burning, containing a plethora of cat tails. We had a slight breeze that day, and that did not help us. What started as a small fire grew to burn 11 acres. We spent the rest of the day there, as we wanted to make sure we completely put the fire out and didn’t get called back later. During the call I felt a burning sensation on my right inner calf, which I suspected was from my boot rubbing on my leg and sweating with all my gear on. When we got back to the firehouse and I removed my gear, I found it was rubbed raw and oozing. I had a darn good case of “boot burn.” I didn’t go to a doctor. Instead I washed it out when I got home and “doctored” it for a week or two with Neosporin and gauze pads. Once it scabbed over and healed I didn’t think of it again…. UNTIL, April 18, 2016, when I went to my dermatologist’s office for my yearly skin check. The doctor found a suspicious spot and had a 3mm-round, medium-dark maculae with

Track Your Exposures! It is important to track your exposures to understand your risks, help your healthcare provider diagnose you, and provide documentation needed for benefits claims. You can use paper forms, spreadsheets, or online services like NVFC partner First Forward (, which is a free online service that allows you to track your exposures over the course of your fire service career.

you’re placing the same helmet on your head for an automobile accident. We have to think in advance. Do I have clean equipment, not only on the outside but inside also? Am I dressed properly under my gear, with socks, pants, and (for the guys) shirt, even in the dead of summer? The days of “Hey, look how dirty my gear is after that fire” are over.

photo by Lauralee Veitch

darker-brown pigment removed from my right calf. The cancer was in the exact same spot I had experienced the “boot burn” four years prior. With all the talk about cancer in the fire service, washing of all gear is a must. We throw our bunker pants, coat, and hoods in the washer or send them out for cleaning. But what about our boots and helmets? I mentioned this at my own fire station and they laughed, insisting “I wear my gear the right way, I don’t wear my boots inside out.” Well, I wear my PPE the correct way too, but dirt, debris, smoke, and particles travel. When we get back to the station and place our bunker pants with our boots in our locker, where do we hang our coats? Most stations I see they hang over top the boots. Did you ever look inside your boots after a fire call or after a year of wearing them to calls? Is it clean or dirty? Perhaps you wash your helmet off on the outside, but did you ever think of cleaning the inside? You wear it inside a fire one day with your hood on, and then next day

We have to wear all of our PPE on scenes where there is the potential of coming into contact with carcinogens. Think about how much faster and hotter house fires are now compared to 30 years ago. The materials used to make most everyday products are not simply wood, paper, and metal anymore. So much in our homes is synthetic and manmade materials. We need to wear pants, boots, jackets, hoods, helmets, gloves, and SCBA. SCBAs are not just for inside before the fire is knocked down. We NEED them during overhaul and for exterior operations as well. During overhaul, all the small particles of debris are still floating in the air and the smoke still rises from hot spots that are smoldering. What about when you open the wall up, whether interior or exterior, and smoke pours out into your face? Do you know what the insulation is made out of? What about when you’re digging through the debris during fire investigation — do you realize how many airborne particles you are stirring up and breathing in? Getting annual checkups is critical. Early detection of cancer saves lives and can mean less invasive and intensive treatment options. Let your doctor know you are a firefighter, and keep track of any exposures you may have had so you can be proactive in monitoring your health.

All these actions may seem cumbersome, but remember, we are trained professionals, and we make sacrifices to protect and serve our communities. We sign up because of loyalty to our communities, the feeling we get when giving back, the adrenaline rush it gives, and, most importantly, the brotherhood of service. Please think about your family and friends when you’re at the scene and back at the hall cleaning your equipment. It may feel daunting to take those few extra minutes to clean your gear thoroughly and wear that pack just a bit longer; however, in the long run you will save your loved ones the heartache and pain of telling them, “I have cancer.” My cancer journey has been a rough, emotional road that I pray is over. Only time will tell, but I have learned a lot from peers and mentors in the fire service. And as Confucius said, “Real knowledge is to know the extent of one’s ignorance.”

Darlene Gurnett is a fire rescue captain and interior firefighter/ EMT with the Wolcottsville (NY) Volunteer Fire Company. She has also served as president and in other leadership roles with the Niagara County Volunteer Fireman’s Association and as a fire investigator with the Niagara County Origin and Cause Team. She is a senior dispatcher in the communications division of the Niagara County Sheriff ’s Office.

Originally printed in Firefighter Strong, Issue 2, 2018. Firefighter Strong is a National Volunteer Fire Council publication. Reprinted with permission.

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On February 3, 1919, Tooele City Volunteer Fire Department was recognized as a permanent organization with 23 members. Since then, there have been 269 members who have served as volunteers. Currently, the department has 50 volunteer firefighters: 1 chief 2 assistant chiefs 5 captains 5 lieutenants 37 firefighters Firefighters within the department have obtained certifications in Fire I & II, Hazmat Operations and Awareness, and Wildland. Tooele City Fire Department is committed to providing emergency and non-emergency services to protect the lives, property, and environment of their community. The department has an ISO rating of 4. The department offers a wide variety of services, including medical response, heavy rescue, hazmat, wildland, fire prevention, and many other services. During 2018, the department responded to 404 calls for assistance. On average, Tooele City Fire responds to about 410 calls each year. Tooele City Fire protects about 22 square miles and serves a population of over 34,600 residents. The department assists other fire entities throughout Tooele Valley and other areas based on mutual aid agreements. The department currently has two stations and one fire museum (see for more information). The department has the following active apparatus: Engine 9, 1972 Van Pelt Engine 14, 1982 Mack Brush Truck 15, 1992 Ford F350 Brush Truck 16, 1992 Ford F350 Brush Truck 17, 2003 F550 Brush Truck 19, 1996 F350

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Engine 20, 1996 Pierce Quantum Engine 21, 2002 Pierce Quantum Ladder 22, 2002 Pierce Quantum Brush 23, 2008 Chevrolet 3500 Ladder 24, 2015 Pierce Quantum Significant Fires In the past few years, the Tooele City Fire Department has responded to several significant fires. On July 19, 2016, Tooele City Fire responded to a fire that became known as the Van Dyke Fire. The fire broke out around 10:45 pm in a field at 700 South and 500 West. The fire burned only six acres in the field where it started, but strong winds estimated to be around 30–40 mph fueled the blaze north toward a residential area. The fire destroyed 10 homes and damaged eight more homes and several vehicles. Several firefighters throughout the Tooele Valley assisted in battling the fire. Another fire of note began on the evening of July 25, 2018. This fire, the Middle Canyon Fire, burned 171 acres. The Tooele City Fire Department responded to provide mutual aid assistance.

Members of the Tooele City Volunteer Fire Department early in the department's history.

Tooele City Fire Department Station 1.

Tooele City Fire Department Station 2.





Main Street


Utah Ave.


Utah Ave.


r Rd



400 North

400 North

Utah Ave.

Station 2

Station 1 Vine


7th Street

200 East

Main Street

200 South

100 East






400 South



The current volunteer firefighters of Tooele City Fire Department (2018).

Changes and Challenges The Tooele City Fire Department continues to protect and serve the residents, businesses, and schools within Tooele Valley. As it fulfills this mission, the department has faced the challenge of continual growth in population, residential, business, and industry. The department continues to change as the city grows, providing the best service to its residents. As part of the growth that the city has seen, Tooele looks forward to welcoming the newly announced Tooele Valley Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Community Outreach The Tooele City Fire Department’s Fire Prevention Program assists and educates the community. The program is one of the largest fire prevention programs in Utah. The program includes an annual Fire Prevention Week, which includes a station open house hosted by the department. As part of the open house, they offer free hot dogs and cookies, lessons on fire safety, and demonstrations of fire equipment.

During Fire Prevention Week, the department’s firefighters also offer fire prevention presentations to all the elementary schools within Tooele City. Outside of Fire Prevention Week, Tooele City firefighters conduct over 100 The department received the Congressional Patriotism and Service Award station tours for schools, for their exceptional service and dedication to their community. community groups, and organizations throughout the Tooele Valley. Moving Forward The department takes great pride in sharing The Tooele City Fire Department’s vision is and educating community members about to be dedicated to being the best communitytheir resources in the fire department. They focused volunteer fire department, working enjoy demonstrating their tools and vehicles as a team to ensure a safe and secure environto better educate the community about the ment for all those entrusted to their care. fire service and how our firefighters will be responding if they ever call in need. To celebrate 100 years of service, the department will be hosting an open house on July 13, 2019, at 11 am. The open house is open to the community of Tooele City, and any department is welcome to join in the celebration.

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New Interagency Wildfire Dispatch Center Opens in Richfield by Leann Fox, Communications and Prevention Coordinator Utah Division of Forestry, Fire & State Lands

Utah’s Division of Forestry, Fire & State Lands along with the U.S. Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management officially opened Central Utah’s new interagency wildfire dispatch center in Richfield on April 8, 2019. “It’s a larger facility; it houses nine dispatch pods which will give us more capacity during our busy times,” said FFSL’s Fred Johnson. “It should provide for a smoother support to firefighting resources on the ground. Additionally, it will contribute to the local economy through employment and often host fire resources.” The new center has been part of a longterm plan for fire managers for years, according to Johnson. “The old fire dispatch center was a lease property that was up in April 2019. Because the center was hosted at a leased property, fire dispatch managers have been pursuing a new permanent facility for about ten years,” said Johnson.

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The Department of Natural Resources went to the legislature and received funding for the building, and shortly thereafter, in August 2018, ground was broken. “It was a very quick turnaround time. Once the funding was secured, we started building immediately,” said Johnson. The location for the new center was identified years ago when DNR built a campus for the Division of Forestry, Fire & State Lands in Central Utah. “We knew when we built the campus that we would be attaching the dispatch center eventually,” said Johnson. The campus is shared with School & Institutional Trust Lands Administration (SITLA), Division of Water Rights and Wildlife, and others. The U.S. Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management have been involved in

the funding, planning, and building of the new dispatch center. The facility will be staffed to support interagency wildfire efforts that include federal, state, and local wildland fire resources. Johnson said, “We would like to acknowledge the state of Utah in providing this new state of the art facility as well as the F.S. and BLM for their contributions and recognize this facility will serve the wildland community for decades in the future.”






Department Recognition Brigham City Fire Department Congratulations to the Brigham City Fire Department and the firefighters who have worked so hard to achieve state certifications! Special acknowledgement goes to Chief Joseph Bach and the training officers of the Brigham City Fire Department for their efforts to move the fire service to a higher level of professionalism through certification. All certification levels that Brigham City Fire Department hold are accredited, which leads to increased professionalism and thus better service to the organization’s community. Brigham City Fire Department was recognized at the following levels:

Certification Program Manager Lori Howes presents the Department Recognition Award to Chief Bach and members of the Brigham City Fire Department.

Uintah City Fire Department

Certification Council Member Paul Bedont (second from the right) presents the Department Recognition Award to Chief Sacco and members of the Uintah City Fire Department at a city council meeting.

Firefighter I—Gold Firefighter II—Gold HazMat Awareness—Gold HazMat Operations—Gold Fire Officer I—Gold Wildland Firefighter I—Silver Apparatus Driver/Operator Pumper—Bronze

We would like to congratulate the Uintah City Fire Department and its firefighters on receiving the Department Recognition Award! They have worked hard to achieve state certifications. We would especially like to acknowledge the efforts of Chief Marc Sacco and the training officers of the Uintah City Fire Department as they help the fire service pursue a higher level of professionalism through certification. All certification levels that Uintah City Fire Department hold are accredited, which leads to increased professionalism and better service to the organization’s community. Uintah City Fire Department was recognized at the following levels: Firefighter I—Bronze Firefighter II—Bronze HazMat Awareness—Bronze HazMat Operations—Bronze Fire Officer I—Participating Apparatus Driver/Operator Pumper —Participating Wildland Firefighter I—Participating

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Hobble Creek Firefighter Invitational Springville Fire Dept August 28th, 2019 7:00 am Check In 8:00 am Start 4 Man Scramble Format Traveling Trophy Award-winning Course Lunch, Green Fee, Cart, & Prizes included

$50 per person Hobble Creek Golf Course 94 Hobble Creek Canyon Springville, UT 801.489.6297 – Call to Sign Up Contact: Springville FD......801.491.5600

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The Straight Tip on Forcible Entry by Kevin Bowman, UFRA Training Program Manager

Imagine this: As a young boy or girl, you’ve always dreamt of being a firefighter. You keep dreaming that dream until you finally come of age to pursue your goal. You find yourself in a small volunteer fire department, scared to death, but knowing this is exactly what you want. You feel it’s your calling in life, and you want to be the best. You learn the process of acquiring fire certifications. You learn a great deal of theory, but you find yourself itching for hands-on experience. Eventually real-life calls come in, and you get a little hands-on application. But the calls are so few and far between that you’re still not really sure what you should be doing and how you should be doing it.

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You seek more fire training and continue to learn. You are excited to learn firefighter safety and to learn to fight fires with heavy but useful tools and respond on medical calls to help the public. You hire on with a new department. It’s a small combination department, and you jump right in but receive little hands-on training. You still don’t get the calls where you can apply the theories you were taught. Eventually you are hired on with a career department. The calls start coming in, and you realize you really don’t know as much about firefighting as you thought you did. This story is all too familiar for many firefighters—and it is why the Forcible Entry class became a reality.

The Inception “Very good course. Useful information. Everyone should attend this course in their career. The earlier the better.”

To hear how the idea behind the class began, we’ll let Dan Anderson, aka DA, take up the story from here: “While going through a demanding and intense recruit class and apprenticeship program, I was handed a 12 lb. sledge and was told, ‘This is the key to the city, son.’ That never really made sense. Later I found out that that was not the only key to the city. I then started seeking out every opportunity to acquire knowledge and experience and build my skills and experience. “Then I met Chris Bluth. Chris is an amazing firefighter and is well versed in many areas of firefighting, ventilation, and forcible entry.

“I loved this course!! Tons of hands-on experiences. Instructors were knowledgeable and encouraging. Lecture was engaging. Thanks for sharing your time and skills with us. I am more prepared to respond to an incident because of the things I learned today.”

“Together, we started working on acquiring structures and participating in training opportunities wherever we could find them. I started helping him with the truck operations class at Winter Fire School about 15 years ago. We worked together and began building various forcible entry props for our department. We knew there was a great need for knowing how to gain entry and how to properly use a set of irons and saws, and we wanted more people to get this type of handson training on our newly created props.”

Enter UFRA DA approached the Utah Fire and Rescue Academy with his concerns and made a case for more hands-on forcible entry training for both current and future firefighters. After lots of hard work and planning, he got the green light to build a prop and a curriculum for FF I & II for both volunteer and career departments. “This was my opportunity to give back and provide invaluable repetition and training that I had personally acquired over the past several years of my career,” says DA.

The Curriculum A good deal of collaboration went into creating a forcible entry curriculum and making sure it was going to fit for career and volunteer departments and fit with the new FF I & II state curriculum standard. DA, Chris Bluth, Jeff Jones, and Gary Kilgore created a classroom presentation to prepare firefighters to get the most out of the hands-on portion of the training. The class covers all types of forcible entry on all types of homes, windows, doors—barred and unbarred—fences, etc.

The Prop The original prop layout design was sketched in crayon. The design was then tweaked in order to accommodate and train as many students as possible within

the space. To make the dream a reality, DA—in collaboration with UFRA’s Chuck Querry, Dave Harding, John Brimley, Rickey Hathaway, and Mark Price—took bits and pieces of the props he and Bluth had built over the years and pieced them together, installing them on the deck of a gooseneck trailer. The next challenge was to make it as easy and cost effective as possible to reset each door jamb or overhead door prop while using the least amount of materials per class. DA contacted several garage door vendors in Utah and Salt Lake counties, building relationships and selling them on the benefits of training hundreds of firefighters across the state. After DA made a case for the lives that could potentially be saved, his contacts were happy to help with the cause, thus keeping costs low and helping more firefighters receive the training throughout the state.

The Objectives The main purposes of the forcible entry class is to learn prying, striking, and cutting and to identify all types of locking mechanisms and learn how to gain access through them quickly and efficiently. The training consists of inward and outward swinging doors, learning how to take a halligan tool and use the baseball swing to drive the pike end into a door jamb and be able to pop the locking mechanism to gain entry. Students learn to make several cuts in overhead garage doors and curtain-style roll up doors with the K-12 or rotary saw. One of the key learning phrases is, “If you can see the lock, you can cut it”; it’s like the “try before you pry” theory. This class is a hands-on, confidencebuilding class, using hand tools, a set of irons, the flat head axe, and halligan bar. Students learn to make cuts with rotary saws above and below their head both efficiently and safely. The “Gee Whiz” section is to learn to identify mortise locks and figure out the mechanism of those locks in both commercial and residential systems. Students are shown the “Truckie Plyer” and how it is used, and they even learn how to make their very own to carry daily in their bunker gear.

The Instructor Cadre UFRA worked together to put together a competent cadre of instructors, with a variety of backgrounds, who had the same passion for this class as DA. We currently have 28 instructors from Northrup Grumman, Cedar City Fire, North Davis Fire, Ogden Fire, Orem Fire, Payson Fire, Provo Fire, Sandy Fire, South Davis Metro Fire, Salt Lake City Fire, South Salt Lake City Fire, St. George Fire, Unified Fire, and Weber Fire to teach this class.

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“I cannot provide enough positive feedback. DA and his instructors were amazing. The class is definitely amazing, worthwhile, informative, and appreciated. This is a must for all first responders, not just fire. Thank you so much.”

The Rollout Once the Forcible Entry Prop was completed, we put it to the test. The first class was held in fall of 2016. In the two years it has been offered, 151 classes have been taught at 39 locations throughout the state. Over 100 departments have participated in the class, reaching over 1,400 students. We have moved these props all over the state, totaling 10,954 miles. Because of the success of and high demand for this program, DA was asked to help design a second prop to create even more training opportunities available to every firefighter in the state. The second forcible entry prop has now been added to UFRA’s training trailer fleet. This second prop was made by repurposing and redesigning UFRA’s oldest FAST prop. The second prop is very similar to the original forcible entry prop, with the exception of several more doors to pry, garage doors to cut, and the ability to build a roof off of the prop to have additional ventilation training.

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As Tyler Bowman, an instructor, stated: “This course is a confidence builder where students get to manipulate all the different tools. Students will go completely hands on and perform multiple real-life techniques that range from the infamous baseball swing with the halligan, all the way to throwing a K12 rotary saw on your shoulder for a horizontal garage door cut. This course really takes you out of your comfort zone, but in turn makes you stronger, smarter, and more reliable on the fire ground.”

Kevin Bowman served 34 years in the fire service before retiring as deputy fire chief from South Salt Lake Fire Department in 2014. Kevin currently serves as the southern region program manager for the Utah Fire and Rescue Academy.








School 2020 UFRA -2 020-

JANUARY 24 – 25, 2020 At the Dixie Convention Center and Dixie Technical College

St. George, Utah

2019 Certification Testers of the Year Every year the Certification Office recognizes three certification testers during our annual Certification Tester Seminar. These testers promote professionalism while administering exams, return complete paperwork and orderly test boxes, and are consistently reliable. It is not how often they administer exams but how they administer exams. Please join with us in congratulating the 2019 Certification Testers of the Year!

Jeff Bentley, Layton Fire Department

Bridger Williams, West Valley Fire Department

Mark Youngberg, Santa Clara–Ivins Fire & Rescue Summer 2019 | 33

Meeting the Challenges of Training Volunteer Fire Departments– Spring City The increasing challenges of volunteer fire departments have been featured on many news stations throughout the state again this year. The challenges include limited resources, struggles finding time for training, and a shortage of volunteers, as people carry one or more other jobs located further away from rural areas. Recognizing the reality of these obstacles, UFRA recently spoke with Spring City Chief Clarke Christensen about how they’re rebuilding their volunteer department despite such challenges. Spring City is located in Sanpete County. Its primary livelihood is farming, but it’s also the home of growing number of artists, among other professions. The population is just over 1,000 people (2016). And its volunteer fire department has more than doubled in size. Chief Christensen came to Spring City from Orem, where he was cross trained in both the police service and the fire service. He was first asked to serve as the city’s police chief and then as the fire chief. At the time, Spring City’s volunteer fire department was struggling to get enough responders out to calls, often only having one or two responders arrive on scene. Christensen’s primary goal was to build a functional fire department that would be complete enough to safely meet the needs of its jurisdiction—“Enough people that regardless of when or where, we had enough people ready and trained who could show up and manage an incident.” Chief Christensen promptly set about recruiting: “I asked everyone to join; some came right away, some of them I badgered.” And it worked. The department quickly grew to some two dozen volunteer firefighters, 18 of them at that time were “brand brand new.” Since proper training impacts safety and success, the department set about getting everyone trained. To take advantage of a slower season in winter, they set aside Tuesday and Thursday evenings and some time on Saturdays for training. The department then set its sights on getting everyone through UFRA’s Firefighter I and II training, which includes vehicle extrication, live fire evolutions, flashover, and forcible entry. Spring City volunteers attended several UFRA trainings hosted by Sanpete County Fire District in Ephraim and attended a number of classes at UFRA’s winter fire school in St. George.

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In addition to having dedicated time set aside, a sense of teamwork has been a huge asset to Spring City’s approach to training. Says Christensen, “This is an interesting group in that they take everything they learn and they share it.” For example, Christensen recently started one training night by sending his firefighters out on a mock call to his mother’s house. Dispatch described the simulated conditions of the building that was “burning,” and told them to ladder it and where to vent. They responded to the scene in their turnouts and went through the mock incident, then went back to a hot wash and to receive feedback on what they did well and where they could improve. They used whiteboards to detail the entire incident so they could evaluate together and acknowledge what they learned and where they could improve. Spring City also likes to take advantage of UFRA’s regional fire schools nearby, which provide an excellent opportunity to pack training into one or two days. Last year, one of the fire captains noticed information about a regional fire school being held in Tooele, which is a couple of hours away. He knew he had some volunteers who needed new training, so early in the morning on the first day he drove a group of students to the training, turned around, and took them home that night. He then showed up early the next day with new students ready to go. This kind of commitment to training makes all the difference! “We love training. Training builds confidence incredibly. When [firefighters] know and understand what they can do and how to do it, they really light up!”

Dalene Rowley is an instructional designer with UVU’s Educational Technology Team. Ed Tech has provided training solutions and marketing tools for UFRA since 2014.

UFRA Training Staff Changes It has been said that one of the only things we know for sure is that change will happen. Well, at UFRA we are have undergone some recent staffing changes. We say goodbye and farewell to Chuck Tandy. Chuck has been the training program manager in the southern part of the state for almost ten years. Chuck recently decided to take a position as an emergency manager to move closer to his family. We want to thank him for his dedication and service and wish him the best of luck in his new endeavor. With this change comes a couple of new faces. Russ Young and Marc McElreath are now program managers for UFRA.

Russ Young retired as battalion chief from the Orem Fire Department. He is still the chief of Duchesne Fire Department. He has been an adjunct instructor and contributing author for the Straight Tip for many years. He will be assigned to five eastern Utah counties and will be the point of contact for many of our specialty programs, including the Command Training Center (CTC) and the Emergency Apparatus Driving Simulator (EADS). Also, and most important, he is now assigned as the incident commander for winter fire school.

Climbing the Ladder The Logan City Fire Department held an Oath & Pinning Ceremony on May 8th in the Logan City Council Chambers. The following personnel were recognized:

Marc McElreath retired from West Jordan Fire Department as fire chief after 27 years of service. Marc will take over the northern region of counties that Kevin Bowman has served for the past few years. Marc comes with a lot of administrative experience and a network of contacts from his work in the fire service at the state level. Marc has been working for UFRA as an adjunct instructor. His focus was working with airport managers across the state and with other key stakeholders, trying to revive the ARFF training program that was once part of Salt Lake City Fire Department. Kevin Bowman will start serving counties in southern Utah, which was the area vacated by Chuck Tandy. Since starting with UFRA a few years ago, Kevin has done an excellent job and has set the bar higher for all program managers. We are excited about these changes at UFRA and welcome the experience and expertise these new faces bring to the fire service. For more information about the changes, please visit

Logan City Fire Department Promoted to Engineer Russell Farnsworth Ryan Sadler Diego Carta Promoted to Paramedic Ryan Sadler Chris Morgan Eric Backus (not pictured) Completed Probation Jayson Ward Trevor Mortenson Brandon Wallis

Russ O'Donnell Eric Shields New Probationary Firefighters Jared Sturm (PM) Eric Lofthouse (PM) Kaden Hartman (AEMT) Cole Mallory (AEMT) Joseph Tate (AEMT) Jacob Pearson (AEMT)

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She graduated from Provo College with an associate degree in executive office administration and soon after joined the UFRA Certification Team. She is the mother of seven children and grandma to six. She currently lives in southern Utah County with her husband and youngest daughter.

Certification Specialists Assigned by Counties On May 16, 2019, the Certification Office at the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy changed internal processes to provide better customer service for our fire departments and other entities we serve. Each certification specialist has been assigned to a group of counties and tasked to provide the following services: • • • • • •

Scheduling of exams Grading of exams Mailing of results Processing certification/ re-certification requests Processing red card requests General inquiries

Please contact the specialist listed for your county for all certification questions and requests. Office hours for the certification specialists are Monday–Friday, 8:00 am–5:00 pm.

Northern Region Jennifer Lindley, Certification Specialist Office: (801) 863-7773 Email: Counties served: Box Elder, Cache, Davis, Morgan, Rich, Summit, Tooele, Weber

Central Region Marta Morrow-Oman, Certification Specialist Office: (801) 863-7746 Email: Counties served: Carbon, Daggett, Duchesne, Juab, Millard, Sanpete, Uintah, Utah, Wasatch

Salt Lake County / Southern Region Hilary Kline, Certification Specialist Office: (801) 863-7745 Email: Counties served: Beaver, Emery, Garfield,

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Grand, Iron, Kane, Piute, Salt Lake, San Juan, Sevier, Washington, Wayne Lori Howes, Certification Program Manager Office: (801) 863-7752 Cell Phone: (801) 592-6968* Email: *Please contact Lori on her cell phone after hours for testing problems and other issues that cannot be addressed by your specialist during regular business hours. In order for you to get to know each certification specialist better, short bios on each one are listed below.

Hilary Kline began working for the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy in 2011. She was hired into a part-time position working in the Certification Office and accepted a full-time position four months later. In the fall of 2016, an exciting job offer for Hilary’s husband took their family to Wyoming. Although plans didn’t go as expected, they enjoyed their time there and grew from their experience. They decided to return to Utah, and Hilary was re-hired at UFRA in 2017. The opportunity to work alongside the staff at UFRA and to serve and learn about the Utah fire service has been one Hilary has thoroughly enjoyed. She looks forward to many more years here. Hilary and her husband have four children. They enjoy the outdoors and spend most of their vacation time either up in the mountains or at the beach.

Jennifer Lindley started at the Utah Fire and Rescue Academy in 2014. She currently works as a certification specialist for the Northern Region. She received her bachelor’s degree from Weber State University in exercise and sport science with a minor in health education. She loves spending time with her family and working in her flower garden in the summer. Marta Morrow Oman started working for UFRA in 2014 as a certification assistant. She became the certification coordinator in 2016 and is now the certification specialist for the Central Region.

There is a new job board at where Utah fire departments can advertise job openings. New listings will be posted as we become aware of them.

Climbing the Ladder Last August, St. George Fire Department was awarded FEMA’s Staffing for Adequate Fire & Emergency Response (SAFER) grant. The SAFER grant provides funding for the creation of new, permanent firefighter positions while allowing the city to absorb the cost of the new salaries and benefits over time. It was a long hiring process, and we interviewed many qualified candidates. Now that all the positions have been filled, we’d like to introduce you to St. George Fire Department’s newest firefighters! We’re glad to have them on the team, and we look forward to many, many years of service from these nine excellent crew members! Garret Gleed joins us from Cache County Fire District and North Logan Fire Department. Not only is Garret a skilled firefighter and EMT, but he also came to us with a wealth of wildland firefighting experience and fuel mitigation knowledge. Tyler Guymon served with us part time before becoming one of our full-time operational personnel. Tyler has been making great strides in his career, having recently obtained his emergency medical technician certification through Dixie Technical College. Dusty Humphries also recently obtained his emergency medical technician certification through Dixie Technical College and served with us part time before becoming a full-time operational member. Dusty races motocross in his spare time and manages his own business.

St. George Fire Department

Kyle Nay was a firefighter with Springville City Fire & Rescue before joining us here in St. George. Kyle also worked as a mechanic at the Utah County Motor Pool and will be an asset to have around our motorized equipment. Bryce Santy served with Cedar Fort Fire Department and Utah County Fire Department before joining us here in St. George. Bryce is also a skilled mechanic and a certified wildland firefighter. Kennedy Storwold is an advanced emergency medical technician joining us from North Tooele Fire District and Mountain West Ambulance. He also served previously as a wildland firefighter for the Bureau of Land Management. Kennedy obtained his fire certifications from West Valley Fire Academy. Austin Swayt joins us from Cedar Fort Fire Department and also served as an emergency medical technician with the Utah Department of Corrections. Austin studied business management at BYU Idaho and spent several years working with atrisk youth. He and his family are very excited to be a part of the St. George Fire Department and live so close to the great places they love hiking, biking, and camping. Kloie Wilson is a local recruit joining us from Washington City Fire Department. Kloie is St. George Fire Department’s first female career firefighter. An

avid crossfit enthusiast, Kloie passed the St. George firefighter physical agility test with flying colors! Adam Young has a unique and diverse public safety background, having previously served as a fire captain with Wendover City Fire Department, a firefighter at the Las Vegas Motor Speedway, an emergency medical technician with Caesars Entertainment on the Las Vegas Strip, and a deputy sheriff in southern Utah. Adam comes to St. George with his wife and two children. In addition to our new hires, St. George Fire Department would also like to announce two promotions: Jay Quayle has been promoted to captain. Jay started with the department in 2003 as a reserve and was hired full time in 2005. He is an advanced emergency medical technician and certified rescue technician. Coty Chadburn has been promoted from captain to captain/fire inspector in St. George Fire Department’s fire prevention division. Coty started as a reserve in 2003 and was hired full time in 2004. Coty is an emergency medical technician and certified rescue technician. He also serves as the department’s rescue technician specialty supervisor and a trustee with the Utah State Firefighters Association.

Summer 2019 | 37

UFRA Spot Awards UFRA has begun awarding quarterly Spot Awards to staff employees who have demonstrated exceptional job performance above and beyond their job descriptions. Chris Cox, Lori Howes, and Dave Harding each received an award for the second quarter of 2019. Here is what their supervisors had to say about them:

ing work that Chris does for us every day. We just don’t know how lucky we are that we have him. Each year, he sees himself as a “strong performer” in his evaluations; however, I always rate him as exceptional, because he is simply that. —Darryl Pranger

Chris Cox Chris works tirelessly behind the scenes to make UFRA employees effective each and every day. He doesn’t just do his job; he is always learning new technologies and methods that allow us to work more efficiently.

Lori Howes Lori has always had her eye on customer service and efficiency when it comes to the certification program. Because of that, Lori put a lot of thought and research into implementing a “one-stop shop per region” concept that will benefit chiefs, training officers, and UFRA program managers as well as the certification staff.

Every year at fire school, many people have breaks; however, once the trucks are unloaded, Chris works fiercely to ensure that each class is set up properly, and he comes prepared with enough resources in reserve for any possible miscues. Any miscues that may occur are not even noticed, since Chris is so prepared. Quite simply, UFRA and our UFRA team would be lost were it not for the outstand-

The idea was thought out in great detail from start to finish and presented to various chiefs and training officers, councils and boards, UFRA administration, and others for input. The idea has received positive feedback inhouse and statewide. —Jolene Chamberlain

Dave Harding Dave is fully capable of stepping in and filling in during my absence at any time. He is my right hand when designing and developing training props. Dave is continually looking out for safer ways of doing business in logistics and transportation. Dave fully understands all aspects of the Support Division, transportation, logistics, and inventory control along with the state and local governmental laws and regulations pertaining to all areas of the Support Division. He has a long history and knowledge base of all areas of his responsibility. Dave readily accepts my suggestions and feedback, and I have found him a pleasure to work with. —Chuck Querry

Certification Council Changes The Certification Council is the governing body of the firefighter certification system in Utah. They establish uniform minimum standards for firefighter certification and ensure quality and uniformity. Council members serve three-year terms and are devoted to making the Utah Fire Service Certification System one of the finest in the nation.

The Utah Fire and Rescue Academy would like to thank the following individuals for their dedicated service on the Utah Fire Service Certification Council. Reappointed Rodney “Hoss” Tomkinson, Captain Logan Fire Department

Term Expired Shane Freeman Division of Forestry, Fire & State Lands

New council member Wayde Snyder

Newly Appointed Wade Snyder, Assistant Fire Management Officer Division of Forestry, Fire & State Lands

Summer 2019 | 39

Climbing the Ladder

Salt Lake Fire Department On Tuesday, February 12, the Salt Lake City Fire Department promoted the following personnel: • Battalion Chief Chris Milne to Assistant Chief • Captain Richard Boden to Battalion Chief • Engineer Bill Krohn to Captain • HazMat Technician Brian Staheli to Captain • HazMat Technician Tony Stowe to Captain • Heavy Rescue Technician Jason Buhler to Captain Pictured, left to right: Jason Buhler, Bill Krohn, Brian Staheli, Tony Stowe, Chief Karl Lieb, Chris Milne, Richard Boden

Tooele Army Depot Fire Department The Tooele Army Depot Fire Department would like to congratulate the department’s newest captain, Aaron Hottel. Hottel has worked with Tooele Army Depot Fire Department for three years now, since transferring from Mountain Warfare Training

Center in California. Hottel is also currently in the Utah Air National Guard 151st Medical Squadron, working as a senior medical technician, E-8 (senior master sergeant). Between his firefighting and National Guard service, Hottel has spent 15 years in

Riverdale City Fire Department

Congratulations, Fire Officer Designation Recipient

The following promotions have been made at Riverdale City Fire Department over the past year:

Nate Tracy, Captain

Garrett Henry, Captain

JR VanDyke, Engineer

Aaron Kissell, West Valley City Fire

Steve Whetton, Engineer

Dean Gallegos, Engineer

40 | UFRA Straight Tip

federal service. He hopes to bring a lot to the table with assisting our department in its future goals. Captain Hottel will be an operations shift captain at Station 1 in our north area.

The Utah Commission on Fire Officer Designation and the Utah Fire and Rescue Academy are proud to recognize West Valley City Fire Captain Aaron Kissell. Aaron has completed the work necessary to earn the Supervising Fire Officer Designation Award. This award demonstrates Aaron’s commitment to advancing his career through education, training, certification, and experience. Congratulations to Captain Kissell on this accomplishment.

The Managing Fire Officer level has just been released. For more information, see

The next application deadline is September 30, 2019.


Ron Morris has retired as fire chief of South Salt Lake Fire Department as of January 2019. Ron was hired as a volunteer firefighter with Salt Lake County Fire Department in 1974. In August of 1977, Salt Lake County Fire Department hired him as a full-time firefighter. In 1980, Ron attended paramedic school at Weber State College and graduated with his paramedic certification. He quickly moved up the ladder at Salt Lake County Fire, being promoted to the ranks of lieutenant, captain, battalion chief, and finally deputy chief. As deputy chief, Ron oversaw a $35 million budget and the day-to-day operations of the

450-employee department. In his career, he has supervised the Emergency Medical Services Bureau, Fire Prevention Bureau, Emergency Services Bureau, and Special Operations Bureau, which includes Hazmat, Heavy Rescue, Wildland, Urban Search and Rescue Team, Bomb Squad, and Arson Investigation. Ron took the lead for Salt Lake County Fire during the 2002 Winter Olympics. He also played an instrumental role in the transition of Salt Lake County Fire to the Unified Fire Authority. Ron worked as a flight paramedic for AIRMED at the University of Utah for twelve years.

Ron married his wife, Becky, in 1977, and they have three daughters. He enjoys basketball, football, baseball, cars, and spending time with his family.

If you have any retirement, obituary, promotional, or hiring announcements you would like included in the Straight

In 2005, Ron retired from Salt Lake County Fire and was appointed the Utah State Fire Marshal. In 2011, Ron was appointed the fire chief of South Salt Lake and retired January 2019.

Tip, please send them to






new new two–year two–year online online degree degree new two–year online degree now enrolling for 2019 new nowtwo–year enrolling online for Fall Falldegree 2019 now enrolling for Fall 2019 now enrolling for Fall 2019 visit visit visit UVU.EDU/MPS visit UVU.EDU/MPS


Dennis Goudy Awarded UFRA’s First Employee of the Year We are pleased to announce that Program Manager Dennis Goudy has been named the Utah Fire and Rescue Academy’s 2018 Employee of the Year. Dennis was selected for this award due to his extraordinary efforts in the design, development, and implementation of Smartsheet—a resource scheduling / coordination software designed specifically for UFRA. Now incorporated, this tool has already substantially improved efforts to organize people and resources more effectively. Simply put, this is an unprecedented accomplishment! Last winter, Dave Owens and his program managers started with the following

the Utah Fire and Rescue Academy is going to be better off, for many years to come. “We kid him a lot about being so long-winded. But, that is the very reason he is receiving this award. It demonstrates how his mind works. He is extremely thorough and very detailoriented when he explains anything, and that is the way he has done every assignment he has been given and every job he has had.” objective: design a scheduling matrix that will allow the program managers to schedule everything needed for a class (instructors, supplies/equipment, delivery/set-up instructions) in one place. When asked about Dennis’ contribution to the project, Dave stated: “After talking with Dennis and explaining my vision and why I thought this aspect was so important, he was ‘all in’ and the only thing I’ve done since that moment is hold on tight! “Dennis has been working on this project day and night since then. He didn’t just help, he did it all! His efforts have taken this project further than I could have ever imagined, and

Dennis’ efforts have been noticed by all around him. Every day, he sets an example with his can-do attitude, work ethic, attention to detail, and most importantly his kind heart! He inspires all of us to tackle tough assignments with tenacity and to see them through! As Employee of the Year, Dennis will receive a designated parking space (for one year), a $400.00 (SPOT) cash award, and a fire department shield, helmet, and plaque. UFRA is thankful for Dennis and his hard work and the very significant impact he has had in our organization in 2018!


ES FACE-TO-FACE & ONLINE CLASS ES 1150 Community Emergency Preparedness Now is the time to begin working on your emergency services degree or finish the degree you have been working on.

Why Should I Earn a College Degree? • • •

Personal improvement Preparation for promotion Expand career opportunities

What Degrees are Offered? Certificates • Firefighter Recruit Candidate • Paramedic Associate of Science Emergency Services Associate of Applied Science Emergency Services • Fire Officer • Emergency Care • Wildland Fire Management Bachelor of Science Emergency Services Administration • Emergency Care • Emergency Management (offered 100% online)

How Do I Enroll? • •

Apply for admissions by going to: If you have attended another college or university, request an official transcript be sent to: UVU Admissions Office 800 West University Parkway MS 106 Orem, Utah 84058-5999

What Will It Cost? • •

For official UVU tuition/fee amounts go to: Some courses have “course fees” in addition to tuition.

For more information regarding admissions and registration, call 801-863-7798 or 888-548-7816 to schedule a phone or office appointment with an Emergency Services Administration Academic Advisor.

44 | UFRA Straight Tip

ESEC FACE-TO-FACE CLASSES ESEC 1140 Emergency Medical Tech Basic ESEC 3060 Emergency Medical Tech Advanced ESEC 3210 Paramedic I—Operations ESEC 3220 Paramedic II—Cardio/Respiratory ESEC 3225 Paramedic II Lab—Cardio/Respiratory ESEC 3230 Paramedic III—Trauma ESEC 3235 Paramedic III Lab—Trauma ESEC 3240 Paramedic IV—Medical ESEC 3245 Paramedic IV Lab—Medical ESEC 3250 Paramedic V—OB/Peds ESEC 3255 Paramedic V Lab—OB/Peds

ESFF FACE-TO-FACE CLASSES ESFF 1000 Introduction to Emergency Services & Ability Testing ESFF 1120 Principles of Fire & ES Safety & Survival ESFF 1360 Recruit Candidate Academy Internship ESFF 250A Firefighter RCA I ESFF 250B Firefighter RCA II ESFF 281R Emergency Services Internship

ESFF ONLINE CLASSES ESFF 1000 Introduction to Emergency Services & Ability Testing ESFF 1120 Principles of Fire & ES Safety & Survival ESFF 2100 Introduction to Emergency Services Leadership

ESFO ONLINE CLASSES ESFO 1100 Fire Behavior and Combustion ESFO 1110 Fire Prevention

ESMG ONLINE CLASSES ESMG 310G Introduction to Homeland Security ESMG 3150 Principles of Management for the ES ESMG 3200 Health and Safety Program Management ESMG 3250 Managing Emergency Medical Services ESMG 3300 Master Planning for Public ES ESMG 3350 Analytical Research Approaches to Public ES ESMG 3400 Critical Infrastructure Protection ESMG 3600 Psychology of Emergency Services ESMG 4150 Humanitarian Services and Disaster Relief




ESMG 4200 Disaster Response and the Public ESMG 4400 Legal Considerations for the Emergency Services ESMG 445G Human Factors in Emergency Management ESMG 4500 Customer Service & Marketing for ES ESMG 4550 Principles of Disaster and Emergency Management ESMG 4600 Public Administration Emergency Services ESMG 4650 Emergency Services Capstone ESMG 481R Emergency Services Internship ESMG 489R Special Topics in Emergency Management ESMG 491R Topics in Cardiology and Medical Trends


Please check for current and updated course listings.

Recruit Kyle Schock was selected as the class officer for Class #78. Candidates Kyle Schock and Ryan LaCroix were awarded the Charles J. DeJournett Recruit Excellence Award & Instructor Recommendation. Tolo Martinez was awarded the Outstanding Student Award, which was voted on by his peers. The class voted that Captain Steve Schaugaard be given the Outstanding Instructor Award. Candidate Joseph Partridge earned the Physical Training Excellence Award. Andy Byrnes is the RCA course coordinator. Firefighter William Mackintosh was the lead instructor, and Captain Jeff Jones was the assistant lead instructor.

RECRUIT CANDIDATE ACADEMY (RCA) By application only. For more information visit or make an appointment with an academic advisor by calling the Student Center at 801-863-7798. On-the-job internships are available for all RCA graduates. Applications will be accepted until the academy is full.

ESWF 1400 Wildland Firefighting Fundamentals

On April 24, 2019, Class #78 of the Utah Valley University Emergency Services Recruit Candidate Academy (RCA) held its graduation ceremony. During the program, CHPS Assistant Dean Dustin Berlin, Emergency Services Department Chair Gary Noll, and RCA Course Coordinator Andy Byrnes spoke to the parents, friends, and family of the class.

By application only. For more information visit or call 801-863-7798 or 888-548-7816.

Enroll early! Please note that courses are subject to cancellation due to low enrollment.

RCA Graduation Spring 2019 | Class #78

RCA Graduation Class #78 (left to right): Back row: Khylen Rasmussen, Wyatt Francis, Ryan LaCroix, Preston Mad-Plume, Curtis Hutchinson, Joseph Partridge, Austin Svenson, Tolo Martinez, Kyle Schock, Dylan Malm Front row: Danny Donlevy, Gavin Harris, Andrew Robinson, Mark Chatterton, Michael Johnson, Jed Martinez, Jake Anderson, Devin Bills

Summer 2019 | 45

Nonprofit Organization U.S. POSTAGE

Nonprofit Organization U.S. POSTAGE

Utah Valley University

Utah Valley University




. MS 193 R E A N D R E800 S C UW. E UNIVERSITY A C A D E M Y PARKWAY, OREM, UT 84058-6703

U N I V E R S I T Y P A R K W AY, O R E M , U T 8 4 0 5 8 - 5 9 9 9




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UFRA Straight Tip Summer 2019 - Volume 20, Issue 3  

UFRA Straight Tip (ISSN 1932-2356) is published quarterly by Utah Valley University and the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy (

UFRA Straight Tip Summer 2019 - Volume 20, Issue 3  

UFRA Straight Tip (ISSN 1932-2356) is published quarterly by Utah Valley University and the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy (