Winter 2019 / Volume 20, Issue 1
Utah Fire and Rescue Academy Magazine
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4 STATE FIRE MARSHAL 6 VOLUNTEER CHIEF’S CORNER Understanding ISO
8 VEHICLE EXTRICATION
Who’s in Charge? Incident Command & Extrication
10 FIRE TACTICS
FEATURES 3 SPRINGVILLE FIRE DEPARTMENT HOSTS ANOTHER SUCCESSFUL GOLF TOURNAMENT
Transitional!? Did I Really Say That Word?
17 NVFC RELEASES NEW “GUIDE TO COMMUNICATING WITH ELECTED OFFICIALS”
25 LEADERSHIP: PRACTICE 10,000 HOURS
Measuring the 2018 Wildfire Season
28 36 COMMIT TO EQUAL OPPORTUNITY & INCLUSIVITY 38 CLIMBING THE LADDER
North Davis Fire District, Wayne County Fire District
FIRE OFFICER DESIGNATION RECIPIENTS
40 FIRE MARKS
13 BATTALION CHIEF
26 UFRA LAUNCHES NEW INCIDENT COMMAND TRAINING FOR VOLUNTEER FIRE DEPARTMENTS
14 BACK TO BASICS
28 THREE SUCCESSFUL FUELS MITIGATION PROJECTS AVERT CATASTROPHES
30 THE STRAIGHT TIP ON THE ADO PUMPER AND AERIAL COURSE
ON THE COVER:
Pride and Prejudice Physical Fitness – Working to Stay Alive, Part I
Rescue Me – Managing Employee Fires
18 FIREFIGHTER MENTAL HEALTH
Brothers and Sisters in Need: What to Say and Do
32 QUALITY ASSURANCE / COURSE EVALUATIONS 33 ACCOUNTABILITY: A POWERFUL LEADERSHIP TOOL
20 TECHNICAL RESCUE
Water from South Weber's fire ladder runs down the helmet of Uintah City Captain Casey Dixon during a live training exercise in South Weber on Saturday, June 20, 2015. photo by Briana Scroggins, Standard-Examiner Managing Editor Lori Marshall
Editor Kaitlyn Hedges
Design Phil Ah You
Published by Utah Valley University
Lehi Fire Department
22 DEPARTMENT IN FOCUS
Orem Fire Department, Hurricane Valley Fire Special Service District
Longer Reach Rescues – A Safer Alternative
42 CLIMBING THE LADDER
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WINTER 2019, Volume 20 Issue 1 To Subscribe: To subscribe to the UFRA Straight Tip magazine, or make changes to your current subscription, call 1-888-5487816 or visit www.uvu.edu/ufra/about/ magazine.html. The UFRA Straight Tip is free of charge to all firefighter and emergency service personnel throughout the state of Utah. UFRA Customer Service Local (801) 863-7700 Toll free 1-888-548-7816 www.uvu.edu/ufra UFRA Straight Tip (ISSN 1932-2356) is published quarterly by Utah Valley University and the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy and distributed throughout the state of Utah. Reproduction without written permission from the publisher is strictly prohibited. Send inquiries or submissions to: UFRA Straight Tip magazine 3131 Mike Jense Parkway Provo, Utah 84601 Phone 1-888-548-7816 email@example.com Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in the UFRA Straight Tip are those of the authors and may not be construed as those of the staff or management of the UFRA Straight Tip, Utah Fire & Rescue Academy, or Utah Valley University.
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Message from UFRA Help Us Out—Return Borrowed Books by Dave Owens, Assistant Director, Operations and Training
As we travel around the country and meet with our counterparts at other state-run training organizations, we find that most of them are surprised by the number of classes we deliver each year, the quality of our winter fire schools and regional fire schools, and the low cost and convenience of our training—most of our training is free of charge, and we practically bring it to the doorstep of Utah firefighters. In my opinion, we have one of the best training programs in the country, and most of the subject matter experts (SMEs) we bring in from around the country agree. The only event we charge for is winter fire school, which costs $40 for a two-day training seminar—a nominal fee in comparison to surrounding states, where the fees for similar training events range from $150 to $350 per day per student. Since most of the training we offer is free, we strive to use our funding prudently. One of the ways we have chosen to use that funding and to keep the training free for students is to purchase and loan students the textbook for most* of our classes. Which brings me to the reason for this article. From the moment I started working as a UFRA program manager in 2009, books have been a constant problem. We spend much more time and money than we should buying new books or chasing down books that should have been returned at the end of a class. Of course, we expect to buy books occasionally when they wear out, if a few get lost, or if a new edition comes out and the old books become obsolete. However, most of the time we are buying books because they were not returned from a prior class. In the past, our program managers (PMs) had a few days, or a week or two, to round up the books from a previous class, but those days are in the past. UFRA has seen a 62% increase in the number of classes we deliver annually. The books are literally moving from a class that tested on a Saturday to another one starting the following Monday or Tuesday. For about three years now, we have had a book return system, which we have stressed in annual instructor/tester seminars. But we still have instructors and testers who don’t know it. Consequently, we plan to make sure every tester and instructor know the system and are held accountable for using it. The system is as follows: • Each box of books will come with a book sign-out sheet. When books are passed out to the students, either before the class starts or on the first night of the class, everyone receiving a loaner book from UFRA will sign the book sign-out sheet with their contact info (name, phone, email, and department). The sign-out sheet also includes a column to mark when the books are returned. • If the books are delivered to a training officer or some other point of contact, that person will account for the books they deliver. Example: If the training officer from a department is given the box of books and four go to XYZ department and six to ABC department, that should be noted on the book sign-out sheet. • On the first night of class, the lead instructor will make sure that every student that borrows a UFRA book has their name on the book sign-out sheet. The instructor should reconcile who from ABC and XYZ departments have books and get their contact info and add it to the sheet.
We spend much more time and money than we should buying new books or chasing down books that should have been returned at the end of a class. • That sign-out sheet stays with the book bin at the venue for the class. The PM will leave the bin at the class venue, so if someone drops out and leaves a book, there is a place for the instructor to put that book. Keeping the bin in the classroom shouldn’t be a problem because it can be kept in a secure location with the media kits, which we also leave there. • On the day of the certification test, the tester will collect every UFRA book and check off the names of the students who return them. The front cover of every book has a half-page sticker that says, “This book is your pass to take the certification test. If you don’t return the book at the certification test, you can still take the test. However, we will not issue your certification until the book is returned.” • The certification tester will leave the books at the testing venue with the media kits. The PM in that area will pick up the books there. • The testers, lead instructors, and the PMs should make it clear to the students who fail to turn in their books on the day of the certification test that they will be responsible to return their books to UFRA in order to get their certification. I hope you understand our need to be more vigilant with this process and getting textbooks back, and more importantly, I hope you understand the lending and returning process. Spending time and money either chasing books down or prematurely buying replacements is reflected in our ability to deliver training and provide the caliber of the classes and fire schools we now enjoy. *The only book we don’t supply is the Firefighter I & II textbook.
Springville Fire Department Hosts Another Successful Golf Tournament
On August 27th at the beautiful Hobble Creek Golf Course, Springville Fire Department hosted the third annual Hobble Creek Firefighter Invitational. The tournament was a 4-man scramble, with teams made up of firefighters from all over Salt Lake and Utah counties. In addition to the many possible prizes at the tournament, the winning team took home an enormous traveling trophy that carries the name of the winning department from year to year. This year the winning team was Provo Team #1 with Scott Anderson, Brennin Anderson, and Codie Young. Provo Team #2 got second place, and Murray Team #1 got third place. With great weather, food, prizes, and participation as well as several local vendors sponsoring holes on the course, the day was a resounding success. Springville Fire Department looks forward to next year’s tournament and welcomes all Utah fire departments to participate. If you are interested in reserving a spot for your department or in sponsoring a hole, please contact Springville Fire Department at 801-491-5600. Left to right: Scott Anderson, Codie Young, Brennin Anderson
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STATE FIRE MARSHAL
FROM THE STATE FIRE MARSHAL Will you be remembered as someone who made a difference or just someone who showed up? This was the question posed at the 4th annual NFPA Responder Forum held in Birmingham, Alabama, in mid-October. The Responder Forum brings together members from 14 national and international public safety (mostly fire service) agencies once a year for open discussions and presentations. Each participant is an attendee for three years and at the end of their participation, they are “commissioned to apply the knowledge and information acquired to engage in activities promoting responder health and wellness along with working towards the elimination of death, injury, property, and economic loss due to fire and other hazards.” I want to share a few items from this year’s discussions. The main discussion focus is typically divided between three groups. My group was given the topic of diversity in the station: hazing, bullying, inclusion, and LGBTQ. The second group’s topic was diversity in the organization’s membership, specifically centered on hiring, recruiting, and retention. The third group took on the topic of diversity in the organization’s community, with the focus on community engagement, cultural awareness, and social media. All the topics are broad and have multiple facets that could be brought to the forefront. All three groups participated in formal presentations by experts from around the country and from the U.K. We then had opportunities to divide into our respective groups and have our own facilitated discussions. This all culminated on the final day with each group delivering a presentation to the entire assembly. I want to share just some of the general points and areas of interest that all the groups experienced. We were introduced to “The NFPA Way,” which is five objectives the NFPA has gotten behind and is moving forward with: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Bring Passion (have energy, drive, and enthusiasm). Be Bold (speak up, take risks, and make moves). Be Curious (ask, experiment, and discover). Get Connected (share, collaborate, and innovate). Own It (take initiative and responsibility).
With this introduction and the question that I began this article with, we began the journey toward better understanding diversity. We learned new vocabulary words, including “non-heterosexual and noncisgender identities.” We learned about “cross culturally competent communication skills,” which is a mouthful just by itself. We learned
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EQUALITY about equality, equity, and fairness and the differences between them, which I’d like to just touch on to wrap up my article. When you need to address an issue, I’d like you to reflect not on “What’s in it for me?” but rather on “What’s in it for WE?” Many of you have seen the image of three people trying to look over a fence to watch a sports game. Each of these three individuals were given the exact same size box to stand on; however, all three were different in height. So although they were treated equally (equality or sameness), some still couldn’t see the game because the box they were given didn’t really address their issue (height difference). When the box of the tallest individual (who didn’t need anything to stand on) was added to the box of the shortest individual, then all three could see over the fence (equity or fairness). Some of you know of individuals within your community who can never really be a firefighter but who may be an asset to your organization by serving in a different capacity. Often there are those who would say, “They don’t get to wear the tee shirt because they are not one of us.” May I leave you with a quote from Mahatma Gandhi: “Your beliefs become your thoughts, your thoughts become your words, your words become your actions, your actions become your
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EQUITY habits, your habits become your values, your values become your destiny.â€? I am hopeful that we have learned to put away our biases and prejudices. I am hopeful that we will embrace all those who, like us, want only to help others as best they can. Please be safe out there! Many are relying on you to be there. We both know that their worst day is your everyday! Be someone who makes a difference and doesnâ€™t just show up.
Coy Utah State Fire Marshal Coy D. Porter retired from Provo Fire & Rescue after 30 years of service; he then worked for almost four years as the assistant director of training at UFRA. Porter enjoys his association with the firefighters of Utah in his position as state fire marshal.
There is a new job board at ufra.info/jobs where Utah fire departments can advertise job openings. New listings will be posted as we become aware of them. Winter 2019 | 5
VOLUNTEER CHIEF'S CORNER
determine a department’s capability to prevent and suppress fires. o Firefighter capability: your department’s manpower, training, response times
Volunteer Chief’s Corner
o Apparatus and equipment capabilities: number and type of apparatus available including its pump capacity, hose supply, and equipment as well as its annual maintenance and testing o Apparatus and firefighter response protocols
If you have been a firefighter for long, you have probably heard about ISO. ISO stands for Insurance Services Office, which is a subsidiary of Verisk. ISO is an actuary, insurance risk analysis company, that evaluates fire risks for most of the insurance companies in the United States. Insurance companies set their premium rates, the amount charged for an insurance policy, based on risk. If you have a teenage driver, you know that auto insurance rates for young drivers are substantially higher than for adults. The reason is teens have a higher accident rate than the general population, so insurance providers charge more in order to cover their risk. If they didn’t charge more they would most likely go out of business, because the claim payments would be more than the premiums charged. When it comes to fire insurance, business owner’s and homeowner’s insurance is no different; however, the monetary risk of losing a business or home to a fire is much higher than losing a car in an accident. ISO evaluates a community’s capability to prevent and suppress building fires and offers their findings, for a fee, to insurance companies, who use it to establish insurance premium rates. In their evaluation, ISO uses specific criteria to help in their evaluation process: • Fire Department: As ISO analyzes a fire department, they look for a broad range of items to 6 | UFRA Straight Tip
Fire Risk Reduction: o Building construction plan reviews, suppression systems, inspections, public education, and fire pre-planning
Water Supply: ISO evaluates a city’s/district’s ability to provide water. o Water system capabilities, including hydrants and their placement o Water system testing including hydrants
Emergency Service Calls: ISO evaluates a city’s/ district’s ability to receive and manage emergency service calls. o Telephone system o Receiving and handling fire alarms o 911 dispatching system and circuits o Dispatchers and their training
It’s in a department’s best interest to work toward improving their fire protection services and achieving the best ISO score possible.
When these areas are evaluated, a numeric score is given. Just like golf, a lower number means a better score. The lower the number, the better the insurance rates are for your city’s businesses and residents. The lowest rating is a 1. Salt Lake City Fire Department recently attained an ISO score of 1. The highest score would be a 10. Many rural areas have a score of 9 or 10 due to residents’ remote locations in relationship to the fire station, lack of apparatus access, or absence of appropriate water supplies. Urban areas generally have only one ISO classification number given. Often rural departments will have two ISO classifications; we call these a spilt ISO rating, such as a 5/9 or a 6/10. The first number relates to the department’s response area within its city, generally within five miles from the closest fire station. The second number relates to areas outside of the city, generally greater than five miles away from the fire station. This allows ISO to more closely evaluate the risks as they relate to a fire department’s ability to prevent and suppress fires.
All departments will eventually have a visit from an ISO representative. All of the ISO associates I have dealt with have been willing to share ideas to help our department improve our ability to serve the community and improve our ISO score. Since no one wants to have a higher risk of losing a home or business to a fire or to pay higher insurance premiums, it’s in a department’s best interest to work toward improving their fire protection services and achieving the best ISO score possible. ISO also provides information to help fire chiefs better understand ISO, its evaluation criteria, and ways to improve your department’s capability to protect your community. To learn more about ISO and its evaluation process, you can go to the following web pages: https://www.isomitigation.com/ and https://www.nfpa.org/iso. Since most businesses and homeowners, including you, will need fire and hazard insurance and no one wants to pay more for insurance premiums, it’s important that your department does all it can to help keep insurance premiums low by attaining the best ISO classification possible. Paul Bedont has served as a volunteer as well as a career firefighter and is currently employed as the fire chief for Price City. He has worked for various private, state, county, and local governments and holds a degree in criminal justice from USU.
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EXTRICATION TOOL BOX Who’s in Charge? Incident Command & Extrication
A disciplined and experienced incident commander (IC) is essential for a safe and effective extrication. The IC must have a vast working knowledge of scene safety, extrication techniques, extrication tool operations, vehicle anatomy, personnel capabilities, and available resources. Below are a few basic principles that an IC at vehicle extrication incidents should follow. Scene safety: The IC must understand that safety on scene is always the priority. For the duration of the extrication incident, the IC must ensure that all persons on scene operate safely, wear proper personal protection equipment (PPE), and adhere to organizational standard operating guidelines (SOGs). Scene safety should be a priority and practiced during every training to ensure all personnel operate safely. Command location: The IC must establish and position the incident command post (ICP) in a correct location. The IC should remain (except for a 360-degree assessment) stationary and not be physically involved with the incident unless immediate life threat is present and the involvement of the IC could positively change the outcome. The IC should have a full view of the incident area in order to continually evaluate the incident. Correct positioning of the ICP is critical to the effectiveness of the IC. If the IC is positioned too close to the incident, the IC’s view is limited to a narrow aspect of the scene much like “tunnel vision”; this enhances the chance of missing important details that are happening outside the “hotzone.” When positioned too far from the scene, the IC can miss important details that can affect the incident outcome. 360-degree assessment: Once the ICP is established, the IC should assign or complete a 360-degree assessment of the incident. This assessment provides valuable incident information about the entire scene and allows the IC to plan and implement proper, informed decisions regarding the operational requirements of the incident.
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For the duration of the extrication incident, the incident commander must ensure that all persons on scene operate safely, wear proper personal protection equipment (PPE), and adhere to organizational standard operating guidelines (SOGs).
Communication: An extrication scene is dynamic and requires the IC to continually gather and assess a lot of information in a short time. The IC must continually receive and communicate pertinent updated information to and from the appropriate onscene personnel. Maintaining understandable, clear communications throughout the incident ensures that the ICâ€™s position is effective. Updates from the extrication personnel inform the IC if the incident action plan is working and provides the IC with information necessary to modify the plan if needed. Post-incident debrief: At the end of an incident, the IC should conduct an After Action Review (AAR) / Debriefing of the incident. The information discussed in an AAR/Debrief is extremely valuable, and both positive and negative aspects should be reviewed. A review such as this provides a controlled atmosphere for rescuers to learn from mistakes and reinforce correct procedures and can also illuminate training needs.
The incident commander should have a full view of the incident area in order to continually evaluate the incident. Correct positioning of the incident command post (ICP) is critical to the effectiveness of the incident commander.
Extrication incidents are a significantly stressful event for rescue personnel both physically and emotionally, especially if fatalities are involved. The AAR/Debrief is a perfect time to evaluate respondersâ€™ emotional and physical well-being. A significant traumatic incident can cause lasting mental and physical problems with responders long after the event occurred. Information regarding counseling, coping, and support should be available to anyone that has been involved in a traumatic incident. For an IC to effectively establish incident command, these principles need to be followed, as they are necessary steps to safely and proficiently mitigate an emergency scene regardless of the severity of the entrapment and/or patient condition. Stay Safeâ€ŚChief Young
Russell Young is a retired battalion chief and assistant training officer for the Orem Fire Department, where he was responsible for extrication and ambulance driving operations. He is the chief of the Duchesne Fire Department. Russ has been a paramedic for over 22 years. He has a BS in emergency services management, is currently completing his MBA and MPS, has over 25 years of experience in fire and emergency medical service, and is a UFRA training program manager.
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Transitional!? Did I Really Say That Word? We can gain a lot on our potential for a positive interior fire attack if, when encountering a significant amount of fire exiting the structure, we provide a quick straight stream blast of water. While discussing fireground strategy and tactics, the T word is likely to come to the forefront, with multiple opinions, misconceptions, and some passionate speech. When it comes to transitional firefighting, we should understand that transitional fire attack is a tactic that, according to research and recent studies, makes interior fire conditions in a structure more tenable for firefighters about to enter or for trapped occupants. As UFRA Command Training Center students learn, all fireground operations and tactics are conducted within either offensive or defensive strategies. Understanding the overall strategy prior to making tactical decisions is important so that our fire crews know our “playbook” (see my Summer 2014 Straight Tip article on the subject). Transitional firefighting is a tactic that is part of an offensive strategy. Conceptually, transitional tactics work by applying water to improve conditions and, as some term it, “reset” the fire. Taking the opportunity to apply sufficient water to overcome the BTUs being faced is paramount to safe and effective firefighting. When using an offensive fire strategy, taking the opportunity to knock down visible flames and venting can be beneficial. I’ve mentioned this tactic in several prior Straight Tip articles, such as for fires involving basements (volume 16, issue 1, page 15), attached garages (volume 15, issue 4, page 14), and strip malls (volume 16, issue 4, page 17) prior to interior operations. I recall from recruit training the phrase “Never pass up active fire when you have a hoseline.” I took that to mean that if I saw fire, I should put it out because water always makes things better. My inference was confirmed several years ago in a Fire Rescue magazine that had findings from studies conducted by Underwriter Laboratory (UL) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Their studies concluded that fire can’t be 10 | UFRA Straight Tip
photo © KSL Broadcast Group
pushed. In each of their experiments, water put the fire out and air influenced fire flow, so the quick application of water with a straight stream improved conditions and tenability.1 In my own experience, every time I’ve tried to push fire, it went out. A few years ago in Layton, there was a significant fire in a two-story single-family dwelling. A car was visible in the driveway with no occupants to be found. The initial fire attack included knocking down fire venting through the living room window area as well as through the front door. Once a large volume of fire was knocked down, the crews made entry to continue the fire attack and search for any potential victims. Fortunately, we had an “all clear,” but the right call was made due to the lack of fire involvement of the second floor and potential “survivable” bedroom spaces. We can gain a lot on our potential for a positive interior fire attack if, when encountering a significant amount of fire exiting the structure, we provide a quick straight stream blast of water. The advantage of the straight stream is the limited air flow that accompanies it. Taking advantage of the transitional tactic will buy some time prior to entry, if the offensive strategy is the right call. Water application will always make things better with a venting fire! 1 Nozzlehead, “Can You Really ‘Push’ Fire?” Fire Rescue volume 6, issue 10, October 2011.
Kevin Ward is a 40-year fire service veteran, having been the fire chief for Layton City since 2004. Prior to this appointment, Chief Ward progressed through the ranks from firefighter/paramedic to battalion chief with the Chandler Fire Department in Arizona. He holds several NWCG qualifications, such as ICT3 and Structure Protection Specialist, and is an instructor for the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy. Chief Ward has been an instructor for UFRA’s Command Training Center since its inception.
Understanding Your Firefighter and Your Relationship Being a Firefighter Spouse is a "job" in and of itself– and not an easy one! The stress a firefighter brings home takes a heavy toll on family relationships. Firefighter relationships take a unique approach and understanding to be successful. Come learn about: • • • •
Stresses that commonly exist within a firefighter relationship Common versus alarming behaviors in firefighters Strategies to make sure you’re taking care of yourself as a spouse Ways spouses can support their firefighter and their unique relationship
The firefighter spouses class is a free offering during Winter Fire School with no registration needed. Simply come and learn about ways to take care of yourself and your firefighter when the stresses of the fire service creep into relationships.
Saturday, January 26, 2019, 1-2:30
Hilton Garden Inn - Mariposa Rm 1731 S Convention Center Dr, St. George, UT 84790 The spouses class can be requested at any time by contacting the UFRA program manager in your area. Winter 2019 | 11
Measuring the 2018 Wildfire Season As I look back on the 2018 fire season, I think to myself, “What am I thankful for?” First, I am very thankful we finally received moisture in the areas that really needed it. But what is it about this fire season that I am really thankful for? I’m always asked, “I bet you’re happy the fire season is over.” Well, of course I’m happy it’s over, but my feelings go much deeper. At the time I’m writing this in October, here are a few numbers from 2018. We had 684 human-ignited wildfires, down from last year’s 732. I am truly thankful for that, while also reminding myself that all of those are preventable! We responded to 1,318 wildfires and burned 486,020 acres. That is up compared to last year’s 1,166 wildfires and 250,000 acres burned. Another not-sogreat figure is the number of structures lost. The Dollar Ridge Fire in Wasatch and Duchesne counties claimed over 450 structures; that is devastating and a record I hope never to come close to again. This season was also record-breaking for the Division of Forestry, Fire & State Lands (FFSL); I believe this is the first year in its history that we had to have an Incident Management Team in every one of the division’s area boundaries. Although 2012 was a busier year as far as the number of responses, with 1,534, this year we saw more of those 1,318 go large. I would be remiss if I didn’t mention the fires that took place on the Uintah Wasatch Cache (UWC). The Pole Creek and Bald Mountain fires burned a combined 120,811 acres, the largest in the history of this forest. This event was also responsible for the evacuation of over 6,000 individuals and 3,500 structures in Utah County. Even more impressive than those numbers is that not one primary structure was lost, thanks to the efforts of many firefighters and fire departments. Another thing I am grateful for is the cooperation that we have on all levels of wildland fire in this state, and it really goes right to the top with Governor Herbert and Lt Governor Cox; they could not be more supportive. We have a great working relationship in this state with our federal partners and all the local fire departments. It is humbling to see how the volunteer fire departments are engaged, leaving their families and full-time jobs that keep them housed and fed to help their friends and neighbors. One of my 2018 memories I keep close and personal to me is the loss of a dear friend and fellow firefighter, Matthew Burchett. Though this tragic event did not occur in Utah, it affected us as though it did. I will always remember Matt for the work he did with Unified Fire Authority (UFA) and the relationship between UFA and FFSL. He will truly be missed. While trying to understand the loss of that great friend, just three days later I was notified of an engine burnover on the North Eden Fire just outside of Woodruff, Utah. There were two vehicles involved, and an air attack radioed in that that they witnessed the event but could not 12 | UFRA Straight Tip
Dry Canyon Fire, Iron County, 2018. photography by Brandon J. Everett, US Forest Service
see occupants of either vehicle. I literally fell to my knees and felt as though my heart stopped. Wow, really, really is this happening right now? Within 30 seconds I received another call from the county warden indicating that everyone was ok and there were just some minor burns, but both vehicles were completely destroyed. I was so grateful the individuals made it to safety and that their training paid off that day. I am thankful for the many efforts and sacrifices firefighters in this great state make to serve their fellow men. I am also grateful that, within the state of Utah, everyone did this as safely as possible and went home to their families. That is how I measure success: everyone goes home, even those we serve and protect! Brett Ostler, state fire management officer, got his start with the BLM in 1991 as a seasonal wildland firefighter. In 1996 he moved to the division as an assistant fire warden, where he remained until 2006, when he was promoted to be the full-time Juab County fire warden. Brett brings 25 years of fire experience and local knowledge to the state office.
PRIDE AND PREJUDICE The title of the early 1800s novel Pride and Prejudice provides a topic and a cautionary note for this issue’s battalion chief article. Pride and prejudice are two human traits that can keep you from realizing your full potential in the fire service. To grow to be effective leaders, a self-analysis of our personal pride and prejudices should take place regularly. Pride Our profession requires a careful balance of a sense of confidence and competency with a sense of humility to be open to the abilities and knowledge of those you work with. You will likely spend decades in the fire service perfecting your craft. There may come a time when you forget that the skills familiar to you now were once far more difficult. Take care to prevent the personal pride in your abilities from transforming into judgmental impatience as you teach the newer members in your organization. What may be ridiculously easy to you now may not be for a newer member. Unbridled pride can grow to a point that you become deaf to others’ opinions and ideas. This can hurt your career and your organization. Every member in your fire department has the ability to come up with the next great idea for improvement. As a chief officer, be ready to recognize these great ideas.
There are scenarios where information from your crew should be considered and acted upon. Scenarios like this where information was not heeded became problematic in the airline industry when several accidents might have been avoided if critical information from the crew had been heeded. In the fire service you will see similar scenarios; keep an open mind toward the information coming to you. Too much pride can also lead to complacency. The feeling of entitlement during your career can be a symptom of this. The “I’ve served my time” attitude has destroyed or minimized many careers. The not so funny acronym “RIP” or retired in place arose from such a sense of entitlement. Remaining sharp and expending a solid effort throughout your career will serve as an example to those who report to you.
Even though some may think it okay to treat others in your organization with disrespect, do not be one of them. Prejudice For this article, we will use the word prejudice as a verb. In other words, during your long careers you may be tempted to develop biases with other stakeholders both inside and outside your organization and let those biases determine how you treat others. If you have been in the fire service long enough, you might have seen others’ personal biases turn into a more judgmental and consequently prejudiced attitude. However, every member should treat all members in an organization professionally. This does not mean you have to be besties; it does mean, however, that members of your organization should treat everyone with basic respect. Everybody has a personal agenda. Some are more centric while others are more global. You may find yourself developing small prejudices towards those with agendas different from yours. Over such long careers these tiny, almost imperceptible at times, prejudices can affect your ability to play well in the sandbox with others. Even though some may think it okay to treat others in your organization with disrespect, do not be one of them. All of our careers are enhanced and the fire service continues improving if we self-analyze throughout our careers. As a chief officer, this self-analysis may not be mandatory, but it is crucial to your continued personal growth.
Paul Hewitt began his career as an Orem City reserve firefighter in 1987. After 20 years with the Salt Lake City Fire Department, he served as a fire chief in Arizona before his 2011 appointment to fire chief of the Park City Fire District.
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BACK TO BASICS
Back to Basics Physical Fitness – Working to Stay Alive, Part I In 2017, 87 firefighters died in the line of duty, according to the latest statistics from the US Fire Administration (USFA). In the Western Region there were 18 total fatalities: nine career, three volunteer, and six wildland (p. 35, UFSA 2018). Of the 87 total firefighters who died in the line of duty nationwide, 52 died as a result of “stress or overexertion”: 50 from heart attacks and 2 from cerebrovascular accidents—stroke. That amounts to 59.8% of all fatalities in 2017 being attributed to stress or overexertion—still the number one killer of firefighters (p. 21). There are many causes for overexertion on an emergency scene. Firefighting and EMS calls, as well as technical rescue operations and hazmat incidents, can be stressful and physically demanding. We work in a profession of high intensity emotional and physical effort. Is it any wonder that when we go from 0 to 60 mph in a matter of a few minutes, if our physiological state is not ready for that stress, we can acutely overload the cardiovascular system? Isn’t it amazing that our organizations, career or volunteer, support us in staying physically fit? Do we allow the chainsaw on our engines to clog the bar with oil and wood chips, become low on oil and fuel, or leave them with a broken or dull chain? Of course not; they would be useless when called upon to perform. Then why do so many organizations tolerate their human assets, the most important kind, to become dull, broken, out of fuel, or unprepared for the rigors of the mission?
The bottom line is that prevention is for all firefighters, regardless of age, and is critical to our survival.
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The USFA 2017 Firefighter Fatalities Report states, “Younger firefighters were more likely to have died as a result of traumatic injuries, such as injuries from an apparatus accident or becoming caught or trapped during firefighting operations. Stress-related deaths are rare below the 31- to 35-years-ofage category and, when they occur, often include underlying medical conditions” (p. 29). Heart attack and stroke hit the 46–60+ age group the hardest. This doesn’t mean that younger firefighters are completely immune: of all the firefighters age 31–45 in 2017, ten died from stress-related causes (p. 29). The bottom line is that prevention is for all firefighters, regardless of age, and is critical to our survival. It is interesting to note that most fatal heart attacks occurred after the responder went off-duty. Many of these responders went home after feeling ill and were found unresponsive. Some, after returning to the station, fell ill and coded while on-duty. In 2003, President George W. Bush signed the “Hometown Heroes Survivors Benefit Act” into law. The law presumed that if the heart attack or stroke occurred within 24 hours after engaging in physical activities while on-duty, then the fatality would be considered in the line of duty (p. 3). The number of fatalities since 2003 include these incidents. In fact, 54% of all fatalities in 2017 occurred during non-emergency activities, such as “training, administrative activities, performing other functions that are not related to an emergency incident, and post-incident fatalities where the illness or injury does not become evident until after the emergency” (p. 13). There is a simple answer to preventing stress-related fatalities: staying physically fit and medically healthy. Staying alive is a team effort. We all have our part to play. Our obligation is to work hard to stay alive while the organization provides realistic annual physical fitness evaluations and at least biennial medical examinations by a qualified physician. When we choose to give up control of our own physical fitness and/
Attention Utah Fire Chiefs: or the organization doesnâ€™t provide criteria for physical evaluations or the budget for meaningful medical examinations, the chances of someone dying increases. In Part II of this article, I will provide some easy ways to stay physically fit without a gym membership by using the equipment available in every fire station as well as some easy resources to research and implement. Commit today to become physically fitâ€”do it for the ones you love. Stay safe! USFA (September 2018). Firefighter Fatalities in the United States in 2017. Retrieved October 22, 2018, from https://www.usfa.fema.gov/downloads/pdf/publications/ff_fat17.pdf.
The Educational Technology Team is expanding its library of video footage to use in UFRA training videos. If you have an acquired structure to burn that we could film, please contact Dalene Rowley at firstname.lastname@example.org. Thank you!
Andy Byrnes, EFO, MEd, retired after 21 years at the Orem Fire Department as a special operations battalion chief. He currently works as an associate professor for Utah Valley University and as director of the university's Recruit Candidate Academy.
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Rescue Me – Managing Employee Fires I was promoted to captain right about the time that the series “Rescue Me” premiered on television. It was fun to watch a crew running dynamic situations in the FDNY, and I would find myself asking what I would do if I were to respond to that emergency. They would typically respond to a fire during each episode. Some of these fires were more trying than others. As the series continued to unfold, I found myself asking what I would do in regard to the fires that were occurring inside the firehouse. The series deals with almost every employee fire that you could imagine; some of them are hard to even fathom. I grew up watching a similar fire service television show called “Emergency,” which had the same sort of dynamic. A few basic emergency calls, one big rescue or a fire, and then a little drama back at the fire house. However, I never saw Johnny sleeping with Roy’s wife or Chet getting in a fist fight with Marco. Good thing for them; I don’t think Captain Stanley would have stood for that type of behavior. Nonetheless, the human interactions were always there. We live with our second family almost half of the year. There are going to be fires in the firehouse that as a captain you will need to extinguish. I can guarantee that you will fight more fires in the firehouse than you will ever respond to out on the streets. Why then do we do more training on sizing up and fighting a building fire than the ones that are occurring in our own homes? The Modern Fire Environment Today’s employee fires are similar to what is going on in the real firefighting community out in the streets. The employee fires are burning hotter than before due to a few factors: More Fuel—The added fuel is added responsibility, increased variables in public perception or expectations, and added rules, regulations, and standard operating procedures (SOPs). This does not create fires on its own but obviously if you mix this fuel with heat, usually from friction, it is going to create an employee fire. Lower Flashover Temperatures—Today’s firefighters, because of these increased expectations, will automatically create more 16 | UFRA Straight Tip
smoke (signs of fire) or possibly smaller, more frequent fires. If these small fires go unchecked or the signs of smoke are not investigated by the company officer, then the fires will be expected to grow. Many of them will reach a flashover stage in which someone will possibly get burned. With the increase of heat, pyrolysis (the continued breakdown from exposure to heat into a flammable gas), and smoke, the flashovers are more common, and they frequently occur at lower temperatures. Newer Building Construction—Now I don’t want to blame it on the new generation of firefighter, but the new buildings that may be coming into the fire service may be part of the problem. I definitely don’t want to call it lightweight construction because some of our new firefighters are big and strong and there is nothing lightweight about them. But I will say that the new construction could be more susceptible to the effects of fire as well as building collapse if exposed to heat. The exterior may also be a little softer then the firefighter of the past. This should be considered in the modern fire environment. However, just like in the new building construction that we are all dealing with in the fire service, it is partially our fault. We have not created fire codes (SOPs) to keep these building from being built this way. The builders (maybe their parents) that are constructing these buildings are not designing them to survive a fire. This construction is also not conducive to firefighter safety. We also have options to make additions or remodel when we take ownership of the building. This building construction can be modified. It just takes putting in the time and hard work. Someone needs to take charge, use a blueprint, remove the unwanted portions of the building, and rebuild. This is the time to do it. When the building is new and unoccupied it is easier to make these changes. Require More / Controlled Ventilation—The other part of the new fire environment is that these buildings are often ventilation driven. They require the ability to ventilate thoughts, ideas, and problems. Just like with any fire, it can be ventilation limited and you need to open them up. In the current fire behavior environment, many of your fires are rich in smoke and fuel; the only thing missing is air. If they are allowed to vent uncontrolled, then that smoke will ignite and become a fire. Never before has the need to conduct tactical ventilation been such a necessity. More Fatality Fires—Unfortunately with the increase in fuel, heat, and smoke, there is more of a possibility of this becoming a career ending or fatal fire. This will require us as a fire service to adjust our tactics and how we respond to the employee fire. These are the fires that are often Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health. The other big difference between the employee fire problem and real fires is that on the co-worker side of things, the number of fires is increasing as opposed to decreasing. Many departments have young captains and chiefs who may not have fought too many fires before they were promoted. Just like in the real fire medium, it requires training, knowledge, and experience. All these things come with time and practice. Com-
NVFC RELEASES NEW “GUIDE TO COMMUNICATING WITH ELECTED OFFICIALS” pany officers and battalion chiefs must have a tactical worksheet, if you will, on how to respond to employee fires as well as how to try to prevent them. We must increase our training for supervisors to give them a slide carousel of fires to draw from to help them make tactical decisions. Jesse Quinalty is a master instructor and the owner of Red Helmet Training, which houses four classrooms and a command training center and is located in Southern California. He specializes in company officer training as well as table top and digital fire simulations. He is a captain with the San Bernardino County Fire Department working in Battalion 10 and was the operations and training captain at his previous department. Jesse has also been fortunate to be in the wrong place at the wrong time. He has been the incident commander for multiple structure fires and other incidents, including city-wide flooding during two monsoon storms. He was involved in a burnover during the Sawtooth Incident and credited with saving the engine crew with his command presence. He has presented at several conferences, including the Fire Department Instructors Conference (FDIC), Firehouse World San Diego, Firehouse Expo Nashville, Fire Rescue International (FRI), Fire Shows West— Reno, Fire Rescue South Carolina, and the Virginia Fire Rescue Conference. He has authored several articles in fire service magazines and is currently writing a book. Jesse will be teaching a class at Winter Fire School 2019 on this topic as well as a class on SLAB SAVERS Strategies and Tactics.
The National Volunteer Fire Council (NVFC) has released an updated version of its “Guide to Communicating with Elected Officials.” Designed to help members of the fire and emergency service with grassroots advocacy, the guide includes tools on drafting letters and emails, using social media to interact with members of Congress, setting and conducting meetings with members of Congress and their staff, developing a public relations strategy, and using the NVFC as a resource. “As the national voice of the volunteer emergency services, the NVFC is proud to be able to provide this guide to our members,” said NVFC Chair Kevin D. Quinn. “Effective communication doesn’t have to be complicated. This guide contains a number of very straightforward recommendations for how to get the most out of your interactions with elected officials and be a strong advocate on behalf the volunteer fire, EMS, and rescue services.” The 2018 guide is available to download online, free of charge. This eight-page guide can be used as a reference as you interact with the elected officials in your area. To download the pdf, go to Bit.ly/ 2Rpbkol. Winter 2019 | 17
Brothers and Sisters in Need: What to Say and Do I want to first start off by saying that there are times when no matter what we say or do, our words may fall on deaf ears. There is only one way to help someone, and that is if they seek/accept the help and continue with the needed treatment. In our Firefighter Behavioral Health Alliance workshops, I call this doing an Internal Size-Up. One must listen to others and then look within themselves to see what issues and challenges they are facing, some they might not realize yet others can see so well. It can be very difficult to discuss behavioral health issues with friends and loved ones, especially if you don’t know what to say or do. We must face the facts that most of us in the fire service haven’t had communication training on behavioral health for each other. Below is just a small list of tips to assist you when you see someone struggling with issues such as relationships, depression, stress, anxiety, or other behavioral health issues. 1. Be Proactive, Be Direct: We do this when responding to emergencies. We need to take the same approach when our brothers or sisters appear to be struggling. 2. Direct Questions: Remember these two questions if a member comes to you with suicidal ideations. A) Do you feel like killing yourself now? B) Do you have a plan? A “yes” to either one of these questions means you need to enact your department procedures or protocols if in the firehouse. If outside of the department then they need help immediately. NEVER leave them alone!
If this is a crisis moment then do not leave the member alone.
3. Compassion: The themes to our workshops are Be Direct and Be Compassionate. Stay in the moment when talking to them. These are the most difficult type of conversations, but always speak from the heart.
statements just to fill a void. An example might be: “I never realized you were struggling with this issue and I don’t have a lot of knowledge on this problem, but let me find out a little something about this and we will talk later.” (If this is a crisis moment then do not leave the member alone.)
4. Discretionary Time: If a member comes to you to talk about a difficult issue they are struggling with and you have never dealt with this type of issue, then let them know but also use discretionary time. Do not make
5. Walk the Walk: I cannot tell you the amount of firefighters, officers and EMTs/paramedics who help their brothers or sisters out by either taking them to AA classes, counselors, or even marriage counseling. They
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sit outside and wait until the appointment is over. Taking care of our own goes well beyond the station or fireground. I know it is difficult to have these conversations, but showing compassion, being direct, and speaking truthfully from the heart is a great start to helping those struggling. If you don’t understand what they are saying then ask them to clarify. Summarizing is an excellent way to let others know you are staying in the moment. Don’t ever underestimate their situation because what you might feel is a solvable situation they might believe is a wall they can’t climb.
Reprinted with permission from the National Volunteer Fire Council’s Helpletter, 2016, p. 5.
Jeff Dill is a member of the National Volunteer Fire Council’s Health and Safety Work Group, a retired fire captain, and founder of Firefighter Behavioral Health Alliance. He holds a master’s degree in counseling.
The greatest gift we can do for others who are struggling is to let them know you are there for them just by listening and not judging them.
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Longer Reach Rescues – A Safer Alternative Which is safer, a reach rescue or a direct contact rescue? Provided your department has the proper equipment and understands the correct methodology, a reach rescue is the safer option. In any ice rescue, a variety of factors must be considered for a safe, effective rescue. Evaluate the Victim One of the first considerations of any ice rescue is the victim evaluation. Evaluating the state of the victim is essential before deciding which rescue method to use, as victim care should be paramount when planning any rescue. Victims may be in a weakened condition due to exposure to extreme cold, so they should be handled with the utmost care. For a reach rescue to be appropriate, the victim must be in an alert state and/or a state capable of self-rescue. Reach rescue techniques reach the victim by use of a throw rope, heaving line, or tactical reach pole (we recommend the Tactical Reach Pole System by Ice Rescue Systems). Tactical reach poles in particular allow the rescuer to execute a more controlled extended reach rescue while giving the rescuer a self-rescue extrication device for his or her own safety as well. When executing any reach rescue, a longer reach rescue is a much safer alternative because it minimizes the risk to the rescuer. Minimizing risk is always an important key to a successful rescue! This system requires no setup and is ready to deploy when necessary. Always remember that communicating with victims throughout the rescue operation is crucial; let them know what you are doing and what you need them to do. Evaluate the Conditions Another primary consideration is the environmental conditions surrounding the incident. The ice is obviously fragile and weak because a person or pet has broken through the ice. The primary rescuer must carefully consider these elements, asking, “Is there any open water to navigate? How is the weather? Is the victim a person or an animal?” These considerations will define which method and equipment to use in the rescue operation. Remember, you don’t want to break the ice around the victim; that ice may be the only thing keeping the victim from submerging. 20 | UFRA Straight Tip
If the victim happens to submerge, slipping under the ice shelf, the rescuer can still perform a rescue and give the victim a chance of survival: the rescuer can use a grapnel device that is easily attached to the reach pole. This attachment will assist in retrieving the submerged victim. Keep in mind the key piece of equipment for any water rescue is floatation. We like to attach a rescue tube or a buoyant sling to the tactical reach pole. When victims are buoyant, they feel secure, which calms them. In addition, the rescuer also knows the victim is not going to submerge, and this gives the rescuer valuable time to slow down and plan the next move. photography by Becky Tibbetts
Utilize Proper Equipment As with most rescues, it is essential to have the proper rescue tools and equipment for the job. All rescue personnel must always have the appropriate PPE for the job. Whether it be an ice rescue suit or a drysuit, the PPE must offer protection against exposure to extreme weather conditions and frigid water. In addition, a PFD with the use of a drysuit is mandatory for operational personnel and those using drysuits in the role of the rescue technician.
Beyond the use of a throwbag, reach poles can greatly increase your chance of rescue, which ultimately minimizes rescuer exposure. Prepare for Every Scenario Reach rescues can be safest in other cases as well, such as if a dog needs rescuing. Rescuers should try to avoid entering the water, especially with a dog in the icy water. Like people, dogs in this high-stress environment are frightened and will bite the in-water rescue personnel. In dog rescues, it is extremely important to always be independent of the dog, meaning rescuers should not attempt to grab the dog's collar or place a “dog-catching device” on them. These methods require rescuers to hold the dog, which means rescuers become dependent with the dog while in close proximity to the dog’s face and in danger of getting bitten. In an ice rescue scenario with a dog, dog rescue devices are available that are specifically designed for dog rescues (we use the Dog Rescue Device in conjunction with the Tactical Reach Pole System). These rescue devices keep the rescuer at a safe distance and independent of the dog. If the rescuer finds it necessary to get out on the ice to perform a rescue, dispersing weight evenly is crucial. Stay off the knees and elbows; these are pressure points, and the ice is fragile and subject to breaking. Weight dispersion is why we use an extrication sled, which is designed to disperse the rescuer’s weight and provide the compromised victim with a smooth, safe ride back to shore. We always support our rescue response teams by teaching the safest, most effective methods while ensuring the best possible outcome for the rescuer and the victims they rescue. Public Safety Dive Services will be teaching at UFRA’s Winter Fire School 2019. Sign up for the one-day awareness and operations course and learn more about effective reach rescues. Educating yourself may save your life and those you are called to save.
Bo Tibbetts is the full-time owner and water operations instructor at Public Safety Dive Services, a division of Technical Rescue International, which includes swiftwater, ice rescue, flood rescue, sub-surface operations, and drowning investigations instruction. He has been providing training services to public safety personnel for nearly 14 years. He specializes in surface ice rescue operations. Mr. Tibbetts has been instrumental in standardizing the ice rescue industry with operational standards and equipment protocols over the last 10 years. He can be reached at email@example.com.
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DEPARTMENT IN FOCUS
LEHI FIRE DEPARTMENT by Lehi Fire Chief Jeremy Craft
Lehi Fire Department was founded February 28, 1901, when eleven community members met at city hall and organized the Lehi Volunteer Fire Department. The city had just seen a population increase due to the building of the Lehi Sugar Factory. The department depended on local farmers and business owners to man the newly acquired fire apparatus. The first engine was purchased from the Salt Lake Hardware Company for $570 and weighed 800 pounds. The hand pumper had to be pulled by firefighters until a horse team could be found. The first motorized apparatus was purchased in 1916 for $2,500 and was a modified 1914 Ford. The truck could carry eight men and about 1,500 feet of hose and came with a 35-gallon water tank and several ladders. Most impressive was the 12-inch rotary gong to alert the citizens the apparatus was coming. As Lehi grew, so did the fire department. Lehi maintained their volunteer fire department until 1995, when the first full-time fire chief was hired. Ten years later, the full-time department was founded due to an increase in population and in calls for service. According to the 2000 census, Lehi had a population of 19,000. It has now grown to 66,000. Lehi Fire Department has undergone rapid growth to keep up with the cityâ€™s growth. After going to a full-time service in 2005, Lehi Fire built Station 82 in 2009 and just opened Station 83 in January of 2018. Lehi is currently listed as the seventh-fastest-growing city in the United States; therefore, the city and department administration are already planning Station 84, which will be built on the west side of Lehi. The department is an all-hazard department, providing all the services needed in the city from the flight park in north Lehi to the lake in south Lehi. The department currently covers 36 squares miles of incorporated Lehi City and provides fire suppression, hazardous materials response, technical rescue, water rescue, natural disaster response, emergency medical service, and fire prevention. As mentioned previously, these services are provided out of three stations with the following apparatus:
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Lehi FD Station 83 92
Lehi FD Station 82 68 85
Lehi FD Station 81 73
74 145 145
Engine 81, Tower 82, Engine 83, Ambulances 81â€“84, three brush trucks, a tactical water tender, an auxiliary truck, and a battalion chief vehicle. Lehi Fire Department currently has 52 full-time members, 27 part-time members, 1 volunteer chaplain, and 1 fire dog. The department members include Chief Jeremy Craft, 1 division chief/ fire marshal, 3 battalion chiefs, 9 captains, 1 deputy fire marshal,
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9 engineers, 53 paramedic/firefighters, and 2 administrative assistants. Lehi Fire is currently an ISO rating of three and will respond to just over 3,000 calls for service in 2018. They provide and receive mutual aid from the surrounding cities. Lehi Fire is a part of Utah County Search and Rescue Team and has active members on Task Force 5. Our biggest challenge is keeping up with the continued growth in the city. For the past five years, we have seen an average of a twelve percent increase in call volume every year. It seems like there is a new 5- to 7-story building being completed weekly. Lehi Fire Department has a very progressive community outreach program. We are known for our social media program as well as our community involvement. We strive hard to not just be an answer to a call for service but be a true member of the community.
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Leadership: Practice 10,000 Hours by Steve K. Holley, UVU Emergency Services Assistant Professor
Training officers and educators constantly contend with pushback from both professionals and students when requiring consistent, repetitive attempts at otherwise banal tasks. What is the best germane rejoinder to such grousing? In Malcolm Gladwell’s best-selling book Outliers, Gladwell expounds the experiences of several eminent world-class experts in their fields. What is the secret sauce common to their success? According to Gladwell, “The closer psychologists look at the careers of the gifted, the smaller the role innate talent seems to play and the bigger the role preparation seems to play” (38). From this research, Gladwell brought to the rank and file the 10,000hour rule: to become an expert in ANYTHING, one must spend at least 10,000 hours practicing that endeavor. Martial arts legend Bruce Lee previously arrived at that number, as he opined, “I fear not the man who has practiced 10,000 kicks once, but I fear the man who has practiced one kick 10,000 times.” The time exigent to perform 10,000 kicks does not even approximate 10,000 hours, but it is a worthwhile starting point. Are first responders exempt from this rule? I think most of us would emphatically answer no. Owing to the diverse job description of fire and rescue workers, a true expert in any facet of our craft is probably rare indeed. When one considers that according to the 10,000-hour rule, it is impossible to be an expert at breathing until one reaches at least 14 months of age; sleeping, about 3.5 years; walking, about 4.5 years; and eating, about 9 years of age, attaining expertise becomes rather daunting. Any claim by a person in our profession who claims to be an expert, cadre included, should peg the bovine excrement meter in each of our cerebral cortexes. Consequently, how can we apply Gladwell’s findings to the fire service?
Foremost, leaders should inspire trainees to greatness, even expertise. One frequently hears the adage that a good leader should inspire. How, then, should a leader inspire trainees who complain about repeating the tasks they claim to have performed millions of times? In David Lieberman’s book Get Anyone to Do Anything, he suggests, “Provide more than just the desired destination; also give her a map for getting there” (62). He also admonishes the more assiduous student to “focus on what he will be saving himself from (i.e., the heartache…etc.) rather than what he has to gain from listening to you” (63). A second way leaders can apply these findings is by explaining the 10,000-hour rule to trainees; they can be assuaged with the promise that they may cease donning clothing, laddering buildings, pumping trucks, ventilating, etc., after the minimum of 10,000 iterations or hours is spent training in each of those skills, whichever comes first. Further, one should be encouraged to stay in their lane, as it were, before more advanced skills are practiced with any regularity. In practice, if a platoon works ten shifts monthly and trains in ten of those months, each of the skills would be practiced 1,000 times per year. In ten years of practicing those skills, that process would render a platoon with a skillset that would satisfy Sensei Bruce and may begin to placate the minimum threshold purveyed by Dr. Gladwell, not accounting for a promotion or for attrition, relevance, or perishability of the skills. Lastly, to make the first step—the most difficult one—on this journey, keep it simple. Does every firefighter have a few feet of practice line to practice knots? Do they tie each knot daily? Does each have a practice tourniquet? Do they practice in low light or weak-handed scenarios? To avoid professionals from taking umbrage at the suggestion, a leader could remind them that this repetition may save the life of their children, mother, or patient. Motivating students and professionals to train on essential skills is and will continue to be an onerous aspect of leadership at all levels. It is incumbent on each leader to inculcate a desire in each professional to attain and preserve expertise in the maximum number of skills available. To do anything less is a vapid dereliction of duty to the professionals with whom we work and the constituents whom we serve. Now, put this copy of Straight Tip down and tie 10 bowlines with your left hand and your eyes closed. Are you faster than last shift? References Gladwell, M. (2008). Outliers: The Story of Success. New York: Little, Brown and Company. Lieberman, D. J. (2001). Get Anyone to Do Anything: Never Feel Powerless Again—With Psychological Secrets to Control and Influence Every Situation. New York, NY: St. Martins Griffin. Winter 2019 | 25
UFRA Launches New Incident Command Training for Volunteer Fire Departments In an effort to better meet the needs of the diverse fire departments throughout the state, UFRA decided to fast-track an update on Command Training Center (CTC) courses. The first priority was to tailor a course specific to the needs of rural fire departments. Course Creation Recognizing rural departments don’t have the same resources covered in the original CTC courses, UFRA turned to Rod Hammer, who served as firefighter, captain, training officer, and assistant chief many years with the Lewiston Fire Department before being hired as the Cache County fire chief. Rod worked with UFRA to adapt a successful presentation he has been teaching up north into the new Rural Incident Command course. UFRA Program Manager Kevin Bowman was the UFRA lead and subject matter expert, and he coordinated with UVU’s Educational Technology team on the effort. Knowing the importance of making this a statewide effort, Rod and Kevin brought in fire chiefs from Blanding, Tropic/Bryce, Price, Duchesne, Box Elder County, and Cache County to help home in on the specific needs of Utah’s rural departments. Rod and Box Elder County Fire Chief Corey Barton presented an initial version of the course at Bryce Canyon in December. 26 | UFRA Straight Tip
This pilot provided an impactful experience that further shaped UFRA’s vision for supporting the unique needs of Utah’s rural departments. Feedback from Bryce Canyon was invaluable in further refining the course, which was officially piloted by Rod and Corey at UFRA’s 2018 Winter Fire School in St. George, where it received excellent reviews. As interest in the class grew, UFRA built an instructor cadre from chiefs and leaders with experience managing small departments and volunteers—people who know firsthand the realities of operating with limited resources. The instructor cadre includes experience and expertise from Garland, Kanab, Logan, Moab, Tropic/ Bryce, and both Box Elder and Cache counties: Rod Kearl, Jason Winn, Jake Johnson, Ron Harris, Rob Johnson, Joe Decker, TJ Brewer, and Jeff Peterson. Another invaluable asset to the course has been Kenny Pratt, West Jordan fire captain and UFRA adjunct instructor. Kenny has been a controller since the CTC’s inception and provided a key assist with the train the trainers, while also training additional controllers in order to meet the increased demand for the prop. Kenny is now charged with coordinating the scheduling of all the CTC courses.
Students in the new course have the opportunity to practice both handson skills on the fireground (left) and simulated structure fires (right), all tailored to their training needs as a rural department.
Course Specifics The course itself begins with a four-hour classroom presentation that addresses the challenges of rural firefighting and how to safely manage them. The presentation includes basic principles of fire behavior; a section on risk management, strategy, and tactics; and an introduction to SLICE-RS, in preparation for applying those principles in simulated incident command situations. Students practice doing arrival reports in class and then are divided into two groups to apply what they’ve learned. One group takes turns managing incident command via radio for simulated structure fires in the CTC prop, while the other practices communication and hands-on skills during one-minute drills on the fireground. After a two-hour block, the groups switch so everyone gets a turn. Accolades Rural Incident Command has now been offered at regional fire schools in Box Elder and Tooele and to over two dozen volunteer departments, reaching nearly 200 students. Additional requests are lined up through this spring. Enthusiastic reviews and evaluations of this new course indicate it is filling a critical need for rural departments. At the end of the course, participants will frequently tell us, “I would like to get this class for all firefighters in my department!” Meeting this critical need for our volunteers has been a positive experience for everyone involved in the course, as evidenced by Kevin Bowman’s remarks about his own experience with the course: “I have had the opportunity to meet, learn from, and share knowledge from many amazing people across this state. In particular, the thing I enjoy most is working with volunteer firefighters, men and women who risk much and give of themselves freely. They are the backbone of the American fire service.”
“Rural Incident Command is hands down the best UFRA course I have taken. The instructors who taught Rural Incident Command had a passion for the subject matter that helped elevate the training from good to excellent. “After completing the Rural Incident Command course, my firefighters talk about how that training opened their minds to look at fire scenes in a whole new way. It was nice to see firefighters taking the skills they learned in Rural Incident Command and applying them on real incidents.” —Jared McGee, Training Officer, Lapoint-Tridell Fire Department Dalene Rowley is an instructional designer with UVU’s Educational Technology Team. Educational Technology has provided training solutions and marketing tools for UFRA since 2014.
“One of the best classes I've taken in my 8 years with UFRA.” —student, Tooele Regional Fire School “This was great! It helped bring my other training into practice and helped me really understand and apply it.” —student, Box Elder Regional Fire School “I feel I can handle being IC 100% better. Also gave me many valuable pointers on communication. Loved the class. Thank you for teaching us.” —student, Box Elder Regional Fire School “Being part of a rural department, we have limited resources, including personnel. Having the information this class provided helps us in our duty as a fire department to provide the best service possible to our community.” —Echo Sheffer, Deputy Chief, Jensen Fire Department
photograph by Lally Laksbergs
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Three Successful Fuels Mitigation Projects Avert Catastrophes by Leann Fox, Communications and Prevention Coordinator Utah Division of Forestry, Fire & State Lands
Hill Top Fire On August 6, 2018, the Hill Top wildfire started near Milburn, Utah, in Sanpete County, just three weeks after the Crooked Creek Fire had been suppressed in the same area. Hundreds of homes were immediately threatened and mandatory evacuations were quickly put in place. Years before this fire, fire managers had recognized the probability of a fire starting in the area and the numerous risks. Consequently, in the spring of 2015, they implemented a 603-acre fuels treatment project located on the east bench in Sanpete County south of Black Hawk Estates Subdivision. The Hill Top Fire spread in all directions due to high temperatures and erratic winds. When the fire advanced south, it aggressively hit the fuels treatment area that was intended to slow its progress and give firefighters an advantage. The treated area undoubtedly decreased the fire’s intensity. Because of the previously implemented fuels reduction project, the fire only grew to 1,861 acres and was 100% contained in five days. The impact and loss from this fire was significantly different from the Wood Hollow Fire of 2012 in the same area, which prompted the fuels reduction efforts in Sanpete County. The Wood Hollow Fire grew to 47,387 acres and resulted in 160 structures destroyed, 52 of which were homes. Through Utah’s Catfire funding, fire managers were able to treat hazardous fuels, protect communities, and prevent catastrophic wildfires like the Wood Hollow Fire. This specific project is only phase one of three across the east bench of Sanpete County. The project will cover 755 acres by 2019. Middle Canyon Fire On July 26, 2018, a wildfire started around 9:00 p.m. in Middle Canyon, east of the city of Tooele. The community has a population of 34,628. Residential homes and campers in the Middle Canyon campgrounds were imminently threatened. Local resources quickly responded, and the decision was made to order
28 | UFRA Straight Tip
Middle Canyon: pre-treatment
a Type 3 Incident Management Team (IMT). The fire blazed through everything in its path; however, as it burned down canyon, its progress was significantly slowed by a fuels mitigation project initiated only six weeks prior. “It was fortunate that we started the project in the area threatened by the Middle Canyon Fire,” said Dan Walton, Tooele County fire warden. “The crew had put in the fuel break and the
It would have been a very different outcome had the continuous fuels been there to carry the fire closer. In the six weeks prior to the Middle Canyon Fire, Utah Division of Forestry, Fire & State Lands Wasatch Front Area had a fire engine crew spend twelve days removing the overgrown fuels on both sides of the Middle Canyon Road. One of their objectives was to create an effective fuel break designed for minimal visual impact. A shaded fuel break is constructed by reducing the density of vegetation and removing low fuels to slow a fire. The break in fuels then enables firefighters to get close enough to build direct containment lines. “Because we had removed the continuous ladder fuels, the ground fuels were fairly sparse,” said Walton. “The down slope, down canyon winds were fairly strong that night and we were glad we had a barrier to stop the spread of the primarily winddriven fire.” As a result of the fuel break, the fire only grew to 171 acres. It would have been a very different outcome had the continuous fuels been there to carry the fire closer to the city of Tooele. photograph by Adam Hyder
The project is in the early stages. When completed, it will be a 4.5-mile barrier 40 feet wide on each side of the Middle Canyon Road. The project is funded by Tooele County. West Valley Fire On June 27, 2018, a wildfire started around 3:00 p.m. in the Pine Valley Mountains north of St. George. Homes, rangeland, water systems, and access bridges were threatened. The fire eventually grew to 11,771 acres, costing $477,037.33 in suppression efforts. Earlier that same day, a state partnership between Utah Division of Forestry, Fire & State Lands and the Dixie National Forest, through Catfire funding, began its work on a fuels reduction project, just miles from the origin of the West Valley Fire.
Middle Canyon: post-treatment
line tied directly into a rock scree. As the fire attempted to burn down and out of the mouth of the canyon it was stopped by the rock scree and was unable to burn through the fuel break.” Walton said the Middle Canyon vegetation had not been maintained and the fuels were thick. The risk of a wildfire starting and then spotting across the canyon was high. He identified the risk and initiated the project in June of 2018.
The work continued as fire blazed through acres of land. Once the fire advanced down canyon, heading north, the decision was made by fire managers to use the newly established fuel break to conduct a burnout operation. The operation was successful and resulted in a change of direction for fire progression, significantly limiting the fire’s ability to cause structural damage. Because of the planned and implemented fuels reduction project, firefighters were able to gain an advantage over the fire and increase fire protection for the nearby structures and natural resources. Without the fuel break, interagency teamwork, and firefighters’ efforts, the result of the West Valley Fire would have been drastically different.
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The Straight Tip on the ADO Pumper and Aerial Course by Kevin Bowman, UFRA Program Manager
UFRA’s Apparatus Driver Operator (ADO) Pumper and Aerial course began in 2006. At the time, Andy Byrnes was over UFRA curriculum development and saw a need to have a course for one of the most critical jobs in the fire service: the apparatus driver operator. The engineer transports the crew to every incident, becomes the informal leader, serves as a sounding board for the company officer, is responsible for scene safety, and acts in charge when the company officer is gone. As one company officer stated, “I relied on my engineer more than anyone else on my crew.” At about the same time Andy was considering this training need, Chris Milne and Kelly Carter had just finished an engineer school in Salt Lake City and wondered about creating a similar program through UFRA. Chris decided to make a presentation at UFRA regarding developing a program. Shortly thereafter, Andy Byrnes was tasked with overseeing a group of subject matter experts (SMEs) to develop the curriculum. 30 | UFRA Straight Tip
Curriculum Development Andy’s initial group of SMEs included Orem Fire Captain Jason Earl and four Salt Lake City Fire engineers: Chris Valdez, Chris Milne, Kelly Carter, and Robert Stanley. Chris Valdez led the team in designing a draft syllabus and course menu, and then each SME was given a portion of the curriculum and was responsible for building a PowerPoint presentation, skill sheets, and flow charts for their respective modules. For the most part, the curriculum followed IFSTA textbooks Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator Handbook and Aerial Apparatus Driver/Operator Handbook. Hydraulics was emphasized right from the get go. The intent was to make the class as hands on as possible. Andy Byrnes, Dennis Goudy, and Gary Kilgore at UFRA provided additional source materials to those created by the curriculum team. Kelly Carter and Chris Milne were responsible for the
“Mass Water Drill,” which has been a successful component of the program and is still used today. The idea was to simulate the stress an engineer experiences at the beginning of a structure fire. Typically, the class really gets into it after a student does a changeover and they are all more prepared to pump any fire that might come their way. As the individual curriculum developers completed their assigned presentations, they sent them to the rest of the team for peer review. Jason and Andy formatted the curriculum and put the finishing touches on supporting course material. The group met again to review the curriculum and prepare for the first Train the Trainer. The Train the Trainer was two days long and very thorough. Applicants for the cadre were usually recruited by the team or came highly recommended. The careful, selective recruiting of trainers was instrumental in the success of the program. The strength of the program has always been its instructors and the experience they bring to the table. Delivery of the Course The first pilot delivery was held in 2006, hosted by the Clinton Fire Department at their original fire station. The class was a big hit and as word got out, it developed into one of UFRA’s most sought-after core classes. As Chris Valdez explains, “Over the years as we have added new instructors and new perspectives, the program has evolved into what we have today. There have been about as many curriculum updates as there have been certification standard updates. Each revision has allowed us to streamline, eliminate redundancies, clarify skills, and deepen our own understanding of our craft. Each revision has also included new content contributors.” In addition to the continual influence from members of the instructor cadre, key UFRA personnel have provided ongoing contributions that have proved invaluable: Dennis Goudy, who provided initial content, in particular on positioning,
strategy, and tactics; Gary Kilgore, who has helped coordinate the program since 2006; and Lori Howes, who has worked hard to coordinate SMEs as needed to keep certification standards and the test bank current and valid. The Course Currently Since the inception of the ADO courses, UFRA has provided 122 direct deliveries at 53 locations to over 1,700 students representing 91 different departments spanning all of Utah. The skilled instructor cadre is composed of experienced leaders from departments across the state, including Cedar City Fire, Delta Fire, Hill Field, Lehi Fire, Ogden City Fire, Orem Fire, Provo Fire, Salt Lake City Fire, Sandy City Fire, South Davis Metro Fire, South Jordan Fire, South Salt Lake Fire, St. George Fire, Unified Fire Authority, Washington City Fire, and West Valley City Fire. The instructors from these departments hold the rank of engineer, captain, or chief officer, each having career experience as an engineer. So far in 2018 alone, these instructors have traveled over 20,000 miles and taught over 930 hours for the ADO courses. One of the instructors passionately involved in the course stated, “Of all of the things I have participated in over the course of my career, I am most proud of this program. To have been involved since its inception and to see the impact we collectively have made across the state is both humbling and inspiring. Many times, we return to class and hear excited and proud tales of a fire that went well, or a problem that was overcome, because of the skills they learned in this program.” Kevin Bowman served 34 years in the fire service before retiring as deputy fire chief from South Salt Lake Fire Department in 2014. Kevin currently serves as the northern region program manager for the Utah Fire and Rescue Academy.
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Quality Assurance / Course Evaluations July – September 2018
In the July–September quarter of 2018, the Quality Assurance office noticed a slight increase in the number of comments from course evaluations. One thing for sure is that firefighters will let you know if they are extremely satisfied or dissatisfied with training or classroom presentations. They also tend to speak up if an instructor did not meet their expectation or was disrespectful in any way. From a quality assurance perspective, this indicates that the evaluation system is working. It also tells us that students are gaining confidence that our message to improve our products is not just talk. We highly encourage anyone who participates in a UFRA course to submit feedback and suggestions regardless of whether their experience was good or bad. With that said, here is the breakdown of survey data. During the July–September 2018 quarter, UFRA surveyed 71 courses (483 student surveys). These courses received an overall approval rating of 99%. We received a range of feedback on these courses; some comments we receive are suggestions or areas for improvement while others are quite complimentary. Here are some examples of feedback that we receive and how we use that feedback to improve. From a recent Fire Officer I course: “We got two different times for our half day classes. Our training BC said 18002200 and the Lead Instructor said 0800-1200.” This type of feedback allows us to improve communication between the sponsoring agency and the course instructors. In another course, Cedar Mountain Fire Protection District crews attended the Rural Incident Command Training course and said that the training was amazing! One student commented, “I felt that Chiefs Hammer and Harris were fantastic. In fact, all the instructors were outstanding. The learning environment was great and everyone felt comfortable with going out of their comfort zone. I honestly feel that this course was exactly what my fire department needed. We all learned a great deal. Thank you, UFRA.” With this type of comment, we can mark the success of an instructor and continue to raise the bar. Another comment in an evaluation suggested, “The lead instructor should be to class on the first day to explain assignments the way he wants them done.” Most UFRA courses have the lead instructor attend the first class in order to set the pace, establish expectations, and clarify the course outline and flow. Although not mandatory, it
32 | UFRA Straight Tip
We highly encourage anyone who participates in a UFRA course to submit feedback and suggestions regardless of whether their experience was good or bad. makes good sense and the consensus is that it is rare to not have the lead instructor at the first class. Next, during an Apparatus Driver Operator–Pumper course taught in St. George, a student made the following comment: “This has been a great class. The instructors were awesome and willing to put in time to help students who struggled. Thank you for allowing these programs to be available to us.” We appreciate the comments and other feedback we receive from students in course evaluations as we continue in our mission to improve our training. During this quarter, the data showed that 46% of students who attended courses were from career / full-time departments, and 43% registered as volunteer / other. (Note: Not all students surveyed provided their affiliation information.) UFRA continually monitors the type of students attending in order to make sure that all departments have the opportunity to receive the best training. The number of courses requested and delivered throughout the state continues to rise. Both career and volunteer firefighters are looking to UFRA to assist in their training needs, knowing that the quality of the training will continue to meet or exceed their expectations.
100 80 60 40 20 0 Career / Full-time Firefighters (46%)
Volunteer Firefighters (43%)
Evaluation Score (99%)
Accountability: A Powerful Leadership Tool Accountability can be a very powerful tool; however, it can also be a double-edged sword. The importance of holding personnel accountable for their actions and decisions cannot be overstated, but used incorrectly, it can become a morale and motivation killer. The reality of how accountability is used and viewed in an organization begins with the leader. Do you want accountability to be viewed as a form of punishment or an honor? Setting the Right Foundation Accountability is a key component of leadership, but for accountability to be the powerful, effective leadership tool it can be, leaders must first give personnel a solid foundation for decision making. All forms of accountability and expectations for decision making should be based on the organization’s mission and value statements and department goals. Accountability without expectations can lead to failure, since employees do not know what they are accountable for and the supervisor has no means to measure accountability. Expectations can also help relieve fear or stress a person may have about the project, as they can be a way of tracking successes. Another foundational component to how accountability is viewed in your organization is the tone by which you express your expectations. When a leader says “I will hold you accountable” or “I will hold them accountable for their actions,” the tone indicates there will be a punishment for those actions or lack thereof. The tone essentially tells personnel you are waiting for them to make a mistake so you can discipline them. Ultimately, fear will overtake your personnel. A culture of fear will destroy progress. Alternatively, stating “You have accountability for the project” indicates that you expect the person is ultimately in charge. That tone may give the person a sense of ownership. Crafting a positive tone of accountability, as long as it is accompanied with expectations as mentioned above, is a great leadership tool. It is also important that, as a leader, you use accountability in the same manner you speak about it. Caution should be taken to not create confusion, because confusion will only lead to a negative culture. Allowing Autonomy Once personnel understand the foundation for their accountability, then comes autonomy. Allowing your personnel to make
Creating a culture where decisions are analyzed and learned from is the key to accountability. risky decisions is part of allowing them to assert and practice their leadership skills. However, if they are afraid they will be criticized or disciplined for every decision they make, they will no longer feel comfortable making decisions. Creating a culture where decisions are analyzed and learned from is the key to accountability. Reaping Success I have found that a culture of accountability can also strengthen relations with the department. When personnel are held accountable and successes are highlighted through expectations, a trust bond can be formed and working relations are strengthened. The bottom line is that accountability can equal success for individuals and for the organization. Organizational leaders need to make a conscious decision about the culture of accountability in their organization and act accordingly. Accountability should never be equated with punishment for how a person does or does not perform. When disciplinary actions become necessary, let job descriptions guide leaders into ensuring personnel are performing appropriately. Organizational leaders need to be constantly vigilant about how their leadership tools are being viewed. Every leadership tool can be a positive or a negative. It all depends on implementation. Accountability can and should be used as a powerful tool of success for leaders and their personnel.
Jeremy Craft has been in the fire service for the past twenty-five years. After beginning his career as a ski patrol volunteer, he trained as a paramedic and worked for the South Davis Fire District and then Provo Fire and Rescue. Jeremy has worked as a medic engineer, captain, and battalion chief. Jeremy has attained a bachelor’s degree in public emergency services management and a master’s in public administration. He completed the Executive Officer Program in 2014. Jeremy took the job of Lehi City fire chief in December 2014 and still holds that position today.
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34 | UFRA Straight Tip
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Commit to Equal Opportunity & Inclusivity by Mark Becraft, President of the Utah State Chiefs Association
When warranted, the IAFC will call out and draw attention to attacks on our members who are victims of this type of hatred. Like the entire fire service, the membership of the International Association of Fire Chiefs (IAFC) faces challenges as we continue to provide leadership to a fire and emergency service that is ever evolving in an environment where technology and the demographic composition of our society and workforces are changing at unparalleled rates. Unfortunately, we have recently seen examples of such challenges in some local jurisdictions, some higher profile than others. Our greatest resources for meeting the challenges of change are the members of the IAFC and their respective agencies who respond daily in operational and support roles to carry out their organizationsâ€™ missions in taking care of the public and each other. As stated in the IAFC Human Dignity statement adopted in 2013: â€œAs an organization, we must take positive steps to ensure human dignity by avoiding any remaining vestiges of discrimination or unequal treatment including, but not limited to, a basis on race, color, spirituality, gender, age, national origin, ancestry, socio-economic backgrounds, sexual orientation, gender expression, gender identity, ethnicity, marital status or any legally protected characteristic.â€?
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It is important for leaders to maintain a fire and emergency service where each of us is morally committed to ensuring equality of opportunity and inclusivity for every individual. Allowing such discrimination or unequal treatment, whether active or passive, breaks down our abilities to work together in serving our communities. While certainly not a singular event, within the past month one of our members, a fire chief, was attacked on social media by several anonymous, faceless, and cowardly individuals using racial slurs and despicable language that has no place in the public domain. The chief who was the subject of the online attack stated he was not concerned about himself when these racist rants were posted about him. His concern was for his department and the larger fire and emergency service. The IAFC will continue to lead by example to ensure an equal opportunity and fair treatment for all. When warranted, the IAFC will call out and draw attention to attacks on our members who are victims of this type of hatred. Further, the IAFC strongly recommends that all fire and emergency service organizations and agencies develop written policies and have procedures in place to support these recommendations. Included in these policies should be a statement reinforcing a zero-tolerance posture for acts of deliberate or intentional discrimination and clear understanding of consequences. It is important for leaders to maintain a fire and emergency service where each of us is morally committed to ensuring equality of opportunity and inclusivity for every individual.
About the International Association of Fire Chiefs (IAFC) The IAFC represents the leadership of firefighters and emergency responders worldwide. IAFC members are the world's leading experts in firefighting, emergency medical services, terrorism response, hazardous materials spills, natural disasters, search and rescue, and public safety legislation. Since 1873, the IAFC has provided a forum for its members to exchange ideas, develop
The words we speak and write play a significant role in creating the reality of an inclusive work environment. With an increasingly diverse workforce, the IAFC recognizes the need for inclusive language in written fire department policies and communications, as well as in daily fire department verbal communications. The IAFC has an Inclusive Language Guidance document available to assist.
The IAFC will lead by example to ensure an equal opportunity and fair treatment for all. Further, the IAFC strongly recommends that all fire and emergency services organizations/agencies develop written policies and have procedures in place to support these position recommendations. Included in these policies should be a statement reinforcing a zero tolerance posture for acts of deliberate and/or intentional discrimination. It is important to maintain a fire and emergency service where each of us is morally committed to ensuring equality of opportunity and inclusivity for every individual. We all assume a personal responsibility for assuring that our responsibility transcends throughout our fire service. We must practice inclusive behaviors and we must educate others regarding the benefits and wisdom of inclusive behaviors while carrying out our missions.
As an organization, we must take positive steps to ensure human dignity by avoiding any remaining vestiges of discrimination or unequal treatment including, but not limited to, a basis on race, color, spirituality, gender, age, national origin, ancestry, socioeconomic backgrounds, sexual orientation, gender expression, gender identity, ethnicity, marital status or any legally protected characteristic. To allow such discrimination or unequal treatment, whether active or passive, weakens our abilities to respond to our varied customer bases.
F I R E
IAFC 2013 Human Dignity Statement The IAFC faces many new challenges as we continue to provide leadership to a fire and emergency service that is ever evolving and in an environment where technology and the demographic composition of our society and workforces are changing at unparalleled rates. Our greatest resources for meeting the challenges of change are the members of the IAFC and their respective organizations who respond daily in operational and support roles to carry out their organizations’ missions.
UTAH STATE H I EF • C •
professionally, and uncover the latest products and services available to first responders.
C H I E F S
Mark Becraft began his 31 years of experience and education in the Utah fire service in 1986 as a member of the Roy City Fire Department, following in the footsteps of his father, Jerry Becraft, a retired 40-year veteran of the fire service. For the past eight years, Mark has been employed by the North Davis Fire District (NDFD) and has served as the deputy chief. He is currently the fire chief for NDFD. Chief Becraft graduated from the Weber State University Paramedic Program, is an IAFC Chief Executive Officer II, and is a Certified Fire Investigator. Through serving in these areas, he has gained a vast knowledge in areas such as leadership, command and control, fire department resource management, and Title 17-D of the Utah State Statute pertaining to special service districts. Chief Becraft has received many awards from both local and state governments for his service in the fire industry. Several of these awards include the State of Utah Paramedic of the Year award and the Utah State Firemen’s Association Firefighter of the Year award. Chief Becraft is currently serving as the second vice president of the Utah Association of Service District’s board of trustees and has also served as the president of both the Weber County Fire Officers Association and the Davis County Fire Officers Association.
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North Davis Fire District
Climbing the Ladder On July 1, 2018, North Davis Fire District promoted the following firefighters to the rank of engineer: Myles Combe
Wayne County Fire District The Wayne County Fire District successfully concluded its search for a highly qualified individual to take the reins as fire chief of the countywide district. The new chief, Mr. Doug Jansen of Loa, is a former member of the St. George and South Salt Lake fire departments. He brings a number of professional certifications to the job, including Firefighter II, Wildland Firefighter, EMT, Fire Inspector, Instructor, Apparatus Driver-Operator, Fire Officer, and Haz Mat Technician. His extensive experience responding to all types of emergencies will be invaluable to Wayne County. Doug Jansen (left) and Mike Thompson (right)
Mike Thompson was a firefighter in Texas before moving to Utah and joining the Lyman Fire Department. He has served as chief of Lyman for several years before being selected as deputy chief of Wayne County Fire District.
Congratulations, Fire Officer Designation Recipients The Utah Commission on Fire Officer Designation and the Utah Fire and Rescue Academy are proud to recognize the following individuals for receiving the Supervising Fire Officer Designation Award:
The next deadline for applications is March 31, 2019. 38 | UFRA Straight Tip
Jeremy Stell, Layton Fire Department
Matthew Cloutier, Tooele Army Depot FD
The Fire Officer Designation Program is meant to provide a coherent and attainable guide to career advancement and serves as both a development program for future fire officers and a recognition and promotion preparation program for current fire officers. Information about the program can be found at uvu.edu/ufra/fodp.html.
Winter Fire School
MARK YOUR CALANDARS FOR
JANUARY 25 â€“ 26, 2019 At the Dixie Convention Center and Dixie Technical College St. George, Utah
Visit our website for more details and the complete list of classes: uvu.edu/ufra/training
Wane Oviatt 1956–2018 Wane Arden Oviatt, of Lindon, Utah, was born October 21, 1956, to Arden Oviatt and Melba LaRue Allen in Salt Lake City, Utah. He passed away on his 62nd birthday, October 21, 2018. Wane worked for 30 years for the Provo City Fire Department as a paramedic/ firefighter as well as the mountain rescue team. He won many awards, including paramedic of the year, firefighter of the year, and had an award named after him, the “Amazing Wane Award.” Wane loved camping and the outdoors. He supported his children by becoming an official for Utah Swimming. He served for five years as the officials chair for the Utah Swimming community. He and his wife, Carri, were recently recognized with the Conoco Phillips Outstanding Service Award. Wane also received several other awards in recognition of his service. Wane was a faithful member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. He served a mission to Sweden. He had many years of outstanding service with the Boy Scouts and served several years in the Mount Timpanogos Temple. Wane is survived by his wife, Carri Lynn Peck Oviatt; his four children, Brianna (Jon) Hansen of Provo, UT; Kara (Brad) Leavitt of Lehi, UT; Jessica Oviatt of Lindon, UT; and Michael Oviatt of Lindon, UT; two grandchildren, Amiria and Logan Leavitt; mother Melba Oviatt; brothers Dee and Gary and spouses.
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Russell Feala 1978–2018 Our souls are shattered as we say goodbye to Russell Feala, who was taken from us after a long and valiant struggle with PTSD on September 12, 2018. Russ was born July 27, 1978, and raised in Detroit, Michigan. Anxious to leave, in 1998, Russ joined the Air Force. His bravery and grit quickly led him to Special Forces as an Air Force Combat Pararescueman. After he was honorably discharged for serving his country, Russ spent time in Upper Michigan rebuilding a cabin that he loved. There he spent quiet and reflective time with his son, Eryk, and his beautiful daughter, Heidi Ann, whom he affectionately called Hildegard. Russ started his career as a firefighter after his military service—first as a contractor in Kuwait and then returning to the US at the Tooele Army Depot in Utah, where he spent the past 13 years doing a job he excelled at and making lifelong friends that will always protect him and carry his memory. His family celebrated his hard-earned promotion to fire captain with him in 2016. In 2006 at the Army Depot, Russ was introduced to his captain’s daughter, Brittany Thomas. Russ and Brittany quickly fell for each other and were married in 2007. They have two beautiful children together, Lucy Jean (10) and Aleksander Thomas (5). He loved his children with every bit of his soul. He cooked them big, delicious breakfasts and every year went to Bear Lake to spend fun and heartfelt time together.
Russ made a lasting home and family for himself in Utah. He found a family that accepted, wanted, and adored him, and he loved them immensely in return. His genuine smile and affection made him an instant friend to all who knew him. Russ was famous for his bear hugs (which could be nearly crushing sometimes!) and a habit of giving nicknames. Russ also cherished the rare times he was able to spend with his brother Aaron and nephew Ivan. Russ was generous and kind with both people and animals. He was always quick with an offer to help, and his friends and family knew he genuinely cared about them. The void Russ’s death leaves in the lives of his children and family is immense, but so is the love he gave them in life. He was an amazing father who cherished his children and wanted everything good for them. We will miss him always. He was the greatest love of our lives. If you know someone who is struggling with PTSD or depression, please take active steps to intervene when you hear a cry for help. Remember, not all wounds from war are visible.
If you have any retirement, obituary, promotional, or hiring announcements you would like included in the Straight Tip, please send them to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Orem Fire Department
Climbing the Ladder
Captain The Orem Fire Department has experienced a lot of movement within the organization and are very pleased to announce the following promotions:
Operations Battalion Chief
Bryant Boehner Steve Pearson II
Gary Rawlings Blake Jolley
Hurricane Valley Fire Special Services District New Hires
Bill Lytle, Firefighter/ AEMT
Clint Talbot, Firefighter/ EMT
Dominick Draper, Firefighter/EMT
Eric Freiberg, Firefighter/ Paramedic
The Hurricane Valley Fire Special Services District would like to welcome our eleven newest full-time firefighters as well as recognize two recent promotions. These new members bring many talents and years of experience. We are excited to put their knowledge and skills to work in our vastly growing fire district. Congratulations on your start and progression in one of the best jobs in the world!
Haven Barlow, Engine Boss/ Paramedic
Kassi Kuhlmann, Firefighter/AEMT
Kendrick John- Lorenzo Barson, Firefighter/ low, FirefightAEMT er/Paramedic
Wildland Captain Steve Harris Marc Rose, Firefighter/ EMT
Melvin Barlow, Firefighter/AEMT
42 | UFRA Straight Tip
Roman Pantoja, Daniel Barlow, Firefighter/ Firefighter/ EMT AEMT
Captain Tyler Ames
EARN YOUR EMERGENCY SERVICES SPRING 2019 SEMESTER
ES FACE-TO-FACE & ONLINE CLASS ES 1150 Community Emergency Preparedness Now is the time to begin working on your emergency services degree or finish the degree you have been working on.
Why Should I Earn a College Degree? • • •
Personal improvement Preparation for promotion Expand career opportunities
What Degrees are Offered? Certificates • Firefighter Recruit Candidate • Paramedic • Aviation Fire Officer
Associate of Science Emergency Services Associate of Applied Science Emergency Services • Fire Officer • Emergency Care • Wildland Fire Management • Aviation Fire Officer Bachelor of Science Emergency Services Administration • Emergency Care • Emergency Management (offered 100% online)
How Do I Enroll? • •
Apply for admissions by going to: http://www.uvu.edu/admissions/ If you have attended another college or university, request an official transcript be sent to: UVU Admissions Office 800 West University Parkway MS 106 Orem, Utah 84058-5999
What Will It Cost?
• For official UVU tuition/fee amounts go to: http://www.uvu.edu/tuition/docs/tuition-fees1617.pdf • Some courses have “course fees” in addition to tuition.
For more information regarding admissions and registration, call 801-863-7798 or 888-548-7816 to schedule a phone or office appointment with an Emergency Services Administration Academic Advisor.
44 | UFRA Straight Tip
ESFF FACE-TO-FACE CLASSES ESFF 1000 Introduction to ES & Ability Testing ESFF 1120 Principles of Fire & ES Safety & Survival ESFF 1360 Recruit Candidate Academy Internship ESFF 250A Firefighter RCA I ESFF 250B Firefighter RCA II ESFF 281R Emergency Services Internship ESFF ONLINE CLASSES ESFF 1000 Introduction to ES & Ability Testing ESFF 1120 Principles of Fire & ES Safety & Survival ESFF 2100 Introduction to Emergency Services Leadership UFRA-SPONSORED CLASSES WITH UVU CREDIT AVAILABLE ESFO 2050 Fire Protection and Detection Systems ESFO 2080 Building Construction for the Fire Services ESEC FACE-TO-FACE CLASSES ESEC 1140 Emergency Medical Technician, Basic ESEC 3060 Emergency Medical Technician, Advanced ESEC 3110 Paramedic I ESEC 3120 Paramedic Lab ESEC 3130 Paramedic II ESEC 3140 Paramedic III ESEC 4110 Paramedic IV ESEC 4120 Paramedic Clinical Concepts ESMG ONLINE CLASSES ESMG 310G Introduction to Homeland Security ESMG 3150 Principles of Management for the ES ESMG 3200 Health and Safety Program Management ESMG 3250 Managing Emergency Medical Services ESMG 3300 Master Planning for Public ES ESMG 3600 Psychology of Emergency Services ESMG 4150 Humanitarian Relief and Disaster Relief ESMG 4200 Disaster Response and the Public
DEGREE AT UVU SPRING 2019 SEMESTER
ESMG ONLINE CLASSES (continued) ESMG 425G Crisis and Disaster Management ESMG 445G Human Factors Emergency Management ESMG 4500 Customer Service and Marketing for the ES ESMG 4550 Principles of Disaster and Emergency Mgnt ESMG 4600 Public Administration for the ES ESMG 4650 Emergency Services Capstone ESMG 481R Emergency Services Internship ESMG 489R Special Topics in Emergency Management ESMG 491R Topics in Cardiology and Medical Trends ESMG 492R Topics in Trauma and Pharmacology ESMG 493R Topics in Medical Litigation ESWF FACE-TO-FACE CLASS ESWF 1400 Wildland Firefighting Fundamentals PARAMEDIC By application only. For more information visit http://www.uvu.edu/esa/paramedic/index.html or call 801-863-7798 or 888-548-7816. RECRUIT CANDIDATE ACADEMY (RCA) By application only. For more information visit http://www.uvu.edu/esa/rca/ or make an appointment with an academic advisor by calling the Student Center at 801-863-7798. On-the-job internships are available for all RCA graduates. Application deadlines: July 15 for Fall Semester and November 15 for Spring Semester. Enroll early! Please note that courses are subject to cancellation due to low enrollment.
YOUR LADDER TO SUCCESS MASTER OF PUBLIC SERVICE
new twoâ€“year online degree now enrolling for Fall 2019 visit
Please check http://www.uvu.edu/esa for current and updated course listings.
Winter 2019 | 45
Nonprofit Organization U.S. POSTAGE
Nonprofit Organization U.S. POSTAGE
Utah Valley University
Utah Valley University
UTAH FIRE AND RESCUE ACADEMY . MS 193
. MS 193 R E A N D R E800 S C UW. E UNIVERSITY A C A D E M Y PARKWAY, OREM, UT 84058-6703
U N I V E R S I T Y P A R K W AY, O R E M , U T 8 4 0 5 8 - 5 9 9 9
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UFRA Straight Tip (ISSN 1932-2356) is published quarterly by Utah Valley University and the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy (https://www.uvu.edu/...
Published on Dec 11, 2018
UFRA Straight Tip (ISSN 1932-2356) is published quarterly by Utah Valley University and the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy (https://www.uvu.edu/...