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Spring 2018 / Volume 19, Issue 2







Utah Fire and Rescue Academy Magazine







Visit us online at

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4 STATE FIRE MARSHAL Upcoming Legislation






Fire Service Strategic Planning

Stigma of PTS


Can Substitutions Impact Exempt Executive Status


Scene Size-up/Assessment, Part II


Top Priorities for New Fire Chiefs



Utah Division of Forestry, Fire, and State Lands


41 CLIMBING THE LADDER Washington City Fire Department

Directing Future Leaders


7 Ways to Improve Your Crews' Sleep and Safety


Wasatch County Fire/EMS

Thoughts on Leadership




Fire Restrictions In Utah





Swiftwater Rescue Response

Grantsville Fire Department Unified Fire Authority



Firefighter Kevin Koprek from Ouray Fire Department in Colorado is performing a task learned in the Ventilation Tactics and Training class at Winter Fire School (WFS) 2018. WFS is drawing more out-of-state students than ever before. photograph by Dan DeMille


Quick Calculations


Managing Editor Lori Marshall

Editor Kaitlyn Hedges

Design Phil Ah You

Published by Utah Valley University






St. George Fire Department









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Message from UFRA SPRING 2018, Volume 19 Issue 2 To Subscribe: To subscribe to the UFRA Straight Tip magazine, or make changes to your current subscription, call 1-888-5487816 or visit magazine.html. The UFRA Straight Tip is free of charge to all firefighter and emergency service personnel throughout the state of Utah. UFRA Customer Service Local (801) 863-7700 Toll free 1-888-548-7816 UFRA Straight Tip (ISSN 1932-2356) is published quarterly by Utah Valley University and the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy and distributed throughout the state of Utah. Reproduction without written permission from the publisher is strictly prohibited. Send inquiries or submissions to: UFRA Straight Tip magazine 3131 Mike Jense Parkway Provo, Utah 84601 Phone 1-888-548-7816 Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in the UFRA Straight Tip are those of the authors and may not be construed as those of the staff or management of the UFRA Straight Tip, Utah Fire & Rescue Academy, or Utah Valley University.

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You Can’t Teach Attitude by Brad Wardle

What is more important: talent or attitude? As a fire chief, I posed this question to potential recruit firefighters while interviewing them for a position in our department. Those that responded with “attitude is more important than talent” always fared better than those that said talent was the most important. The term “fire service” is what we call our craft, but the term is really prescriptive for what we do—we serve! Because we serve, our attitude can make a difference in our role. John C. Maxwell, a noted author and lecturer on leadership, stated, “People may hear your words, but they feel your attitude.” When the pager, station alarm, telephone, or radio calls us into action, our attitude is what our customers feel when we address their emergency. Empathy, sympathy, understanding, and smiling can indicate our attitudes and affect our customers’ experience during the emergency. In the fire service, we teach firefighters skills such as search & rescue, advancing a hose line, rolling hose, ventilation, and laddering a building to name just a few. However, attitude is up to each individual! No one can make us have a particular attitude (good or bad); we are in total control of this aspect of our lives. Be intentional about the attitude you present as you respond to a call and be mindful of how it may affect the customers. Consider whether you need to work on attitude. Please remember, our customers not only see our actions but they feel our attitude through our service as well.

Brad Wardle is the director of UFRA as of August 1, 2017. Brad has 31 years of fire service experience, including over 20 years as chief officer. He served as fire chief for the West Jordan Utah Fire Department and for the City of Mountain View California Fire Department and as the president of the Utah State Fire Chiefs Association. Brad has an AS degree in fire science from UVU and a BS degree in economics and a master of public administration from the University of Utah.

What Should Planning Include? An action plan can be created by identifying initiatives and establishing an objective and goals for each initiative. The plan can be broken down like this: Initiatives should be broad first steps that identify an area in which the department can improve. (Ex: Provide for the physical and mental wellness of all our members.) Objectives simplify what your organization is trying to gain from the listed initiative. (Ex: Provide effective physical and mental wellness programs to our members.) We have all heard the saying that a failure to plan is a plan to fail. Nowhere is that adage truer than in the fire service. Changing technologies, best practices, and organizational needs make strategic planning a must. Although there are many different strategic planning processes, this article will lay out the basics of one effective strategic planning process. Before your fire organization begins planning and setting future directions, your department must have a mission statement, core values, and a vision. Beginning the planning process without those is akin to driving a ship without a rudder. To have an effective strategic plan, every member of the organization must know what your core values are, know what they stand for, and know why they are the established values of your organization. How Can You Start? After you have given your proverbial ship a rudder, you can begin the strategic planning process. Since many brains are better than one, the planner (usually the chief) may seek input from all department members. The process will often begin with a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) questionnaire, which will ask department members to write a detailed document about each SWOT category as it relates to the department. In the fire service, a good starting point for a SWOT analysis is to consider FOPL: financial, operations, planning, and logistics. Once the SWOT questionnaires are completed and reviewed, the planner will generally want to meet with the organization’s top administrators. In most organizations, that means the planner will meet with the board of chiefs, but in smaller organizations this meeting may be held with captains. During these meetings, an organizational action plan that includes initiatives, goals, and objectives should begin to take shape. Off-site leadership retreats work well during this phase of planning. Getting away from the work environment with one planning goal in mind is essential to create a clear plan.

Goals are where the rubber meets the road for each initiative and objective. To establish meaningful goals in your organization, make your goals “SMART�: specific, measurable, attainable, and realistic, with a timeline for completion. (For the above physical and mental wellness initiative example, goals may list a mental health SOG, safety committee recommendations, relationships with medical and mental care providers, and the like.) Strategic plans usually vary in length from two to five years. The shorter plans may need other planning instruments like capital facilities plans and long-term financial projections and planning to back up and augment the final strategic plan. We all know that documents more than a few pages are seldom read and accessed in the fire service. I recommend that your final product be no more than five or six pages. Keep your statements short, easily understandable, and to the point. Officers in your organization should access the plan often, striking completed goals and working on those yet to be completed. Creating, implementing, and using a clear strategic plan is how our organizations can keep moving forward and keep up with the changes in the fire service. Strategic planning is the key to organizational success.

Paul Hewitt began his career as an Orem City reserve firefighter in 1987. After 20 years with the Salt Lake City Fire Department he served as a fire chief in Arizona before his 2011 appointment to fire chief of the Park City Fire District.

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Fire Service Strategic Planning


FROM THE STATE FIRE MARSHAL Upcoming Legislation By the time you get this edition of the Straight Tip, the 2018 Legislative Session will be completed. However, because as I’m writing this article the session is still underway, I want to bring your attention to several pieces of legislation that, if passed, will impact Utah’s fire service. The name of the bill denotes whether the bill originated in the senate (Senate Bill or SB) or the house (House Bill or HB). All of the bills must go through both legislative houses in order to reach the governor’s desk for signing. HB 6 Executive Offices and Criminal Justice Base Budget (Rep. Hutchings) contains the funding for the contract with the Utah Fire and Rescue Academy. These funds have been struggling, as changes were made in the way the insurance premium tax was distributed. The governor puts together his budget recommendations and the legislature puts their own together as well. HB 6 is the legislative ver-

sion. The governor’s budget has been a great help in straightening out some of the funding worries from the past two years. The legislative solution in HB 6 has a little more funding, but both the Executive and Legislative branches recognized that this was going to be a significant problem if not addressed this year. Although not done yet, I am hopeful that our funding woes will stabilize through these efforts. HB 13 Public Safety Peer Counseling Provisions (Rep. Perry) provides for peer support teams within law enforcement, fire, and EMS. To accomplish this, it addresses certification and training. HB 38 Fireworks Restrictions (Rep. Dunnigan & Sen. Iwamoto) shortens the discharge days from seven to four around each of the July holidays. It provides a 200' restriction on either side of waterways, paths/trails, etc. It gives municipalities additional options for firework discharge restrictions. It also strengthens the current language, assigns specific responsibilities, and describes the penalties involved if fireworks destroy another’s property. HB 78 Volunteer Fire Department Financial Reporting Amendments (Rep. Watkins) exempts volunteer fire districts from financial reporting as a special service district. HB 191 Carbon Monoxide Detector Repeal (Rep. Wheatley) repeals a law from about 10–12 years ago when the responsibility of having a required CO detector was shifted to be on the shoulders of renters in apartment complexes. This bill puts the responsibility back on the owner. HB 194 Hazardous Materials Emergency Amendments (Rep. Miles) gives municipalities the authority to recoup costs incurred from response and mitigation of a hazmat incident.

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HB 209 Mental Health Protections for First Responders (Rep. Kwan) makes amendments to workers comp claims involving first responder mental health. HB 305 Fire Code Amendments (Rep. Brooks) defines fire department access roads during construction that does not include asphalt or concrete, only compacted road base. Senate Concurrent Resolution 7 Honoring Firefighters and Fire Prevention Efforts (Sen. Iwamoto and Rep. Dunnigan) was a recognition ceremony that occurred on February 15th at the State Capitol. SB 21 Public Safety and Firefighter Retirement Death Benefit Amendments (Sen. Mayne) states that if a police officer or firefighter has enough years to be eligible to retire and dies in a non–line-of-duty death, this bill will assume that the firefighter retired the day before his/her death and thus speeds up the process of getting retirement funds to the surviving spouse and children. SB 67 Fireworks Amendments (Sen. Weiler) gives the Fire Prevention Board rule-making authority to establish proper disposal/destruction of “seized” illegal fireworks or “seized” legal fireworks that were being used illegally.

There are other bills, but I’ll let you jump online at le.utah. gov, and you can gain a little experience in searching out the other bills for yourself. There will be a full listing of bills that have made it through the session successfully at www. The Utah Joint Council of Fire Service Organizations meets every Thursday morning during the legislative session. They also sponsor an annual fire caucus legislative luncheon. This year the lunch was held on February 23rd. I hope you will be able to share some of your time with the joint council in the future. Please be safe out there!

Coy Utah State Fire Marshal Coy D. Porter retired from Provo Fire & Rescue after 30 years of service; he then worked for almost four years as the assistant director of training at UFRA. Porter enjoys his association with the firefighters of Utah in his position as state fire marshal.

SB 87 School Security Locks (Sen. Weiler) provides a code exemption to use an after-market locking device on classroom doors if the device meets certain qualifiers. SB 113 Postretirement Reemployment Revisions (Sen. Iwamoto) allows for PD and firefighters to be rehired after 60 days from retirement but adds significant costs to the new employer to offset retirement and unfunded liability costs. Spring 2018 | 5


Stigma of PTS by Kent Meyer, Founder, Project Hope: EMS

First responders are exposed to traumatic events and have the likelihood to develop PTS. Due to the stigma of PTS, first responders are afraid to reach out for help. They have a fear of what their peers and others will think of them. But the topic of the stigma of mental health, as it pertains to PTS, is a much broader topic. Truly understanding the symptoms of PTS can make things easier for first responders to cope with and understand their situation. It also helps in changing the stigma, and ultimately how to reach out for help from a professional. What is stigma and where did it come from? It comes from the Greek language when soldiers would mark a slave or criminal by cutting or branding them, marking them as lower moral status. This can be seen throughout history in different settings. In Nazi 6 | UFRA Straight Tip

Germany Jews had to wear a star on their clothes and then were tattooed with numbers. Mental illness is a more modern example of stigma, which is believing that such people are of lower moral status due to fear and lack of being informed. Bottom line: stigmatizing is to separate “us” from “them.” When it comes to PTS, first responders often deny or resist getting help. This can be from an internal stigma of what we think, or fear, will happen if we do reach out for help. Perhaps that first responder has judged or felt differently about others with mental illness in the past and now there is the fear of it happening to them.

Having PTS does not mean something is wrong with you. You are having a normal reaction to an abnormal event.

The number is more likely higher with those not managing their symptoms through therapy. If you had broken your arm, you would go to the hospital and get treated for it. Why should it be any different with mental healthcare? We need to accept mental healthcare and mental illness as normal. There has been a shift in acceptance of mental health, and the stigma is starting to go away. Many first responder services are starting to come on-board with the importance of mental health issues, which I find very encouraging. We can all help to change the stigma of getting help for PTS by knowing the facts and getting educated about mental illness. First responders should be supportive and understanding of their peers. We must avoid stereotyping or judging those with mental illness. There is a need for peer support programs to be in place in first responder services. This not only offers support and help for those who need it but also sends a message that it’s OK and that mental illness is normal.

Not reaching out for help usually results in poor selfcare, which is accompanied by self-medicating, isolation from others, and immersing themselves in their work. Work is a distraction, and it is easier to deal with other people’s problems than our own. That is why we struggle the most when we get home from work and we are alone with our thoughts.

We need to be careful with our conversations by making sure we are not being negative or belittling someone or attacking someone’s character. This would feed the stigma and add fuel to the fire. We need to be positive with our conversations and redirect negative comments when necessary. Changing the stigma starts with us by what we say and how we view the situation.

Stigma can lead to a fear of being labeled, to prejudice, and to ridicule by peers or others. There is also the fear of being taken off the truck or put on modified duty. Not to mention the view and opinion of ones with authority or rank. We all know someone with the old school attitude of “Cowboy up and get back to work” and has stated their position on this topic in the past. Their attitude is due to lack of understanding and education, not reality.

Educating ourselves and learning that mental illness is normal will not only help us to seek out mental health help but will also help change the stigma. Having PTS does not mean something is wrong with you. You are having a normal reaction to an abnormal event. It’s OK to reach out for help; it’s normal. It’s not weak to speak. Asking for help is a sign of strength, and you are a strong individual.

The high number of suicides by first responders has sounded the alarm and caused us to revisit the acceptance and importance of mental health in the first responder community. We define ourselves as a community, whether it be EMS, firefighters, law enforcement, dispatch, or others. What is a community? Community is defined by the New Oxford American Dictionary as “a feeling of fellowship with others, as a result of sharing common attitudes, interests, and goals.”

Kent Meyer is the founder and creator of Project Hope: EMS. He worked in EMS for 14 years as an EMT and paramedic before being diagnosed with PTSD. After his diagnosis, he had to step away from the job to get help in order to move on with his life. During his treatment and recovery, he vowed to do something to help other first responders who were feeling alone and suffering to have the hope he hadn’t had. In 2016, he created a Facebook group called EMS and PTSD: Project Hope to serve as a place for first responders to go for information, peer support, and—most important—hope.

So, I ask you this: “What are the attitudes, interests, goals, and perceptions in your community?” We can all change the view of stigmatization by understanding the normalcy of mental health. Mental health issues are common in all walks of life. According the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), four out of five adults living within the United States, or approximately 42.5 million adults, suffer from some sort of mental illness.

For the full story on Mr. Meyer’s PTSD journey or for more information about Project Hope, visit Originally posted by Project Hope: EMS at on January 31, 2018. Reprinted with permission.

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Can Substitutions Impact Exempt Executive Status by Curt Varone

Today’s burning question: Can substitutions impact an employee’s exempt status? What I mean is – if a battalion chief who is classified as an exempt executive is allowed to trade time (substitute) with captains or lieutenants that are “nonexempt”, would that have any bearing on whether the battalion chief qualifies as exempt or not? I looked at the US Department of Labor’s regulations on substitutions (specifically 29 CFR §553.31) and it dawned on me that if the BC could serve in a non-exempt position and vice versa, it may affect the executive exemption given the language outlined in 29 CFR §541.102 for management like activities. Answer: Wow… tough question. To start, there are two tests to determine whether an employee is an exempt executive: the salary test and the primary duty test. An employee must satisfy

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both tests in order to be exempt and ineligible for overtime under the FLSA. Your question goes to whether performing non-exempt duties might disqualify someone who is classified as exempt. In other words, the focus of your question is on the primary duty test. The primary duty test for the executive exemption is explained in 29 CFR §541.100 and states essentially that to be an executive the employee’s primary duty must be management of the enterprise. That begs two questions: what is management of the enterprise and what does primary duty mean? §541.102 explains what duties qualify as managerial: Generally, “management” includes, but is not limited to, activities such as interviewing, selecting, and training of

employees; setting and adjusting their rates of pay and hours of work; directing the work of employees; maintaining production or sales records for use in supervision or control; appraising employees’ productivity and efficiency for the purpose of recommending promotions or other changes in status; handling employee complaints and grievances; disciplining employees; planning the work; determining the techniques to be used; apportioning the work among the employees; determining the type of materials, supplies, machinery, equipment or tools to be used or merchandise to be bought, stocked and sold; controlling the flow and distribution of materials or merchandise and supplies; providing for the safety and security of the employees or the property; planning and controlling the budget; and monitoring or implementing legal compliance measures. As for a definition of primary duty, it is the principal, main, major or most important duty that the employee performs. Whether a certain activity is primary or not depends on the totality of the circumstances. To better explain the issue, let’s consider someone who is clearly an executive, such as the manager of a restaurant. His primary duty without question is managing the restaurant. The fact he might have to perform non-exempt duties such as clearing a table or taking an order when the restaurant is busy, does not change the fact that his primary duty is managerial in nature. Change the facts a bit: What if the manager spends 95% of his time waiting on tables and is involved in managerial activities only 5% of the time. At some point the manager is doing so much non-exempt work that his status as an executive may come into question. Can someone’s primary duty be something he only does 5% of the time? The answer to that question in a contested case would be up to a court, and perhaps a jury, to wrestle with.

seen a case where either side of this convoluted hypo has ever been contested, but I suppose it is possible. Highly unlikely but possible. One of the big factual questions will be whether a captain or lieutenant substituting for an exempt battalion chief for a few hours up to a full shift, actually exercises managerial prerogatives (exercise discretion in regards to matters of significance such as hiring, firing, budgeting, making purchases, etc.), or whether their actual role is to baby-sit the position during the battalion chief ’s absence. Once again, there is a factual question that in a contested case would require a trial to answer. Curt Varone has over 40 years of fire service experience and 30 as a practicing attorney licensed in both Rhode Island and Maine. His background includes 29 years as a career firefighter in Providence (retiring as a Deputy Assistant Chief), as well as volunteer and paid on call experience. He is the author of two books: Legal Considerations for Fire and Emergency Services (2006, 2nd ed. 2011, 3rd ed. 2014) and Fire Officer’s Legal Handbook (2007), and is a contributing editor for Firehouse Magazine writing the Fire Law column.

Originally posted by Curt Varone on on February 7, 2018. Reprinted with permission.

Back to your question: Your question assumes the battalion chief is properly classified as an exempt executive. We will accept that assumption for the purposes of answering your question. What happens when an exempt battalion chief engages in non-exempt activities while subbing for a captain or lieutenant? Like the manager of the restaurant, so long as the battalion chief ’s primary duty remains management of the enterprise, the fact he engages in non-exempt activities does not cause him to flunk the primary duties test. Could engaging in non-exempt duties potentially call his exempt status into question? Sure, just like the restaurant manager. There is a factual question there, requiring a trial to answer in a contested case. The flip side becomes just as interesting. When a non-exempt captain or lieutenant substitutes for a battalion chief, and presumably takes on the primary duty of managing the enterprise, might the captain or lieutenant meet the requirements for being exempt? Theoretically, I suppose that could happen. I have never

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Unstable vehicles are unsafe and must be stabilized before any extrication activities begin.


SCENE SIZE-UP/ASSESSMENT, PART II Vehicle extrication incidents are fraught with safety hazards. During the scene size-up/assessment phase of an extrication incident, procedures must be implemented to reduce the associated risks or eliminate the dangers inherent with these hazards. All safety hazards or potential hazards must be controlled for extrication activities to begin. Incident Command must make competent decisions that control, neutralize, or eliminate the existing hazards. The following hazards can be found at an incident: Unstable Vehicles: Unstable vehicles are unsafe and must be stabilized before any extrication activities begin. Unexpected vehicle movement can aggravate existing victim injuries and/ or cause injury to rescue personnel. During the scene size-up, Incident Command must recognize unstable vehicles and determine the safest stabilization process to minimize the possibility of injury to the victims and rescuers. Fire: A vehicle fire is a serious safety threat to victims and responders. Incident Command must factor the risk of a vehicle fire into the Incident Action Plan and implement control measures to eliminate/control the danger of vapor flash or fire. 10 | UFRA Straight Tip

NFPA code A.10.1.3 states that a “team should be in the ready position with a charged hose line of at least 38 mm (1½ in.) diameter or greater (no booster lines) to function as a rapid intervention and extinguishment team.” Leaking Fuel: During the scene size-up, Incident Command should look for leaking fuel from all involved vehicles. Fuel leaks can consist of gasoline, diesel, propane, butane, natural gas, or other alternate fuels. Once a leak has been detected and the type of fuel identified, proper procedures must be implemented to stop the leak and prevent the possibility of fire/explosion. Emergency responders should have a working knowledge of the properties and hazards of the most common vehicle fuels. Common properties of gasoline include weight: 5.6 pounds per gallon (lighter than water); vapor density: heavier than air; flash point: -45°F; ignition temperature: 495°F to 918°F; vapor travel: down grade. Electrical Wires: Downed wires are a serious danger to all personnel on the emergency scene. It is difficult to determine whether they are energized or dead. Energized wires can be motionless and yet contain fatal amounts of current. In addition, depending on the system, an unenergized line may be automati-

emergency responders as well as the victims involved. Hazards must be minimized or eliminated in order to provide the safest environment for those involved. All members of an emergency service organization should train, drill, and practice extrication incident scene size-up/assessments to maintain proficiency. Stay Safe‌Chief Young

During the scene size-up/assessment, the incident commander must assess the scene for any signs of hazardous materials (placards may not always be present).

cally reenergized through breakers, bypasses, and relay resets. As little as 1/10 amperes of current can be fatal. A 19,900-volt line can contain a 19 amperes current (190 times the fatal amperes). Incident Command must contact the local utility company and have a representative respond to the scene. Hazardous Materials: During the scene size-up/assessment the incident commander must assess the scene for any signs of hazardous materials (placards may not always be present). If hazardous materials are present, responders must not attempt a rescue until the nature of the materials has been determined and the scene handled appropriately. Resources that can help the first arriving emergency responders determine the type of materials present include the US Department of Transportation’s (DOT) Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG) and the Chemical Transportation Emergency Center (CHEMTREC). CHEMTREC operates 24 hours a day and can be reached through a toll-free hotline at 1-800-424-9300. Most resources can be downloaded to phones, tablets, and laptop computers for quick identification and information. Undeployed Airbags: Undeployed airbags are a serious safety concern. Airbags can deploy in 0.05 seconds at speeds over 200 mph with an inflating force in excess of 3000 psi. Electrically activated airbags continue to be armed as long as the vehicle’s battery is connected and may require from 1 second to 30 minutes to deplete the reserve power depending on the model. Electrical back-feed from plug-in devices such as cell phones, DVD players, computers, and games can provide enough current to allow activation of undeployed airbags. Hood and Hatch Struts: Commonly found under hoods and in hatchbacks, struts consist of a two-piece tubular body and are filled with either pressurized fluid or gas. When heated or cut, the strut can become a powerful projectile that can penetrate firefighter protective clothing. Extrication incident size-up/assessment involves observing, recognizing, and preventing hazards that can endanger the

Russell Young is a retired battalion chief and assistant training officer for the Orem Fire Department, where he was responsible for extrication and ambulance driving operations. He is the chief of the Duchesne Fire Department. Russ has been a paramedic for over 22 years. He has a BS in emergency services management, is currently completing his MBA and MPS, has over 25 years of experience in fire and emergency medical service, and is an instructor and certification tester for UFRA.


Top Priorities for New Fire Chiefs The requirements of being a new fire chief can be intimidating at first, especially for those who have not spent a lot of time in the fire service. Regardless, a fire chief is expected—and often legally required—to perform several specific functions. One basic duty of a fire chief that I will cover in this new section is making safety a priority, particularly through training and certification. Safety Safety should always be a chief ’s top priority. The saying “You only respond to the level of your training” is as true today as when it was first stated. Finding time for training in the volunteer world can be difficult. It’s essential that a chief recognize that firefighters, specifically volunteer firefighters, have to juggle time between work, family, and other commitments. A good fire chief will set realistic and attainable attendance, training, and certification goals based upon your firefighters’ circumstances. Since safety should be the chief ’s highest priority, focus a portion of each training on those emergency responses that are low to moderate frequency yet high risk. Adhere to the adage “Risk a lot to save a lot, but risk little to save a little.” Four safety priorities should be a main focus: 1. Life Safety: Your safety, then your victim, then the general public. Help firefighters understand that if they become victims themselves, they will not be able to help others. 2. Incident Stabilization: Keep the incident as small as possible. It may not be possible to extinguish the fire, but you may be able to prevent it from spreading beyond your scene. The toughest decision a leader will make will be to allow a building to burn and focus on exposures because it’s too risky for your firefighters to fight. Remember, all fires go out eventually; firefighters are there to help expedite the process. 3. Property Conservation: Protect what you can safely protect. No one’s property is worth risking a life for, but you may be able to safely protect some property. 4. Environment Protection: While this is a last priority, it is still a high priority. Whenever water is used, be aware that the water you apply may carry away and spread toxic substances involved in the fire to undesirable locations. In some cases, it may be advantageous to allow hazardous materials to be consumed in a fire because the risks of applying water to extinguish the fire is greater than the risks from the smoke produced by the fire. Remember, many of the firefighting foams we use today are not environmentally friendly.

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Training Safety can best be achieved by proper training. When it comes to training, UFRA has props and professionals to help the new chief. UFRA’s Command Training Center (CTC) is a good place for firefighters of all levels to start. The CTC has undergone some major curriculum changes to address volunteer fire department needs. In addition to the CTC, UFRA has knowledgeable instructors who can help you meet your department’s training needs. Plus, UFRA is free of charge as long as you meet the minimum class sizes, which can easily be accomplished by inviting neighboring departments to participate. Contact your area’s UFRA program manager for help in scheduling classes and establishing a training plan (see Certification Another critical aspect of safety is in firefighter certification. The best type of training is training that leads to an accredited certification or endorsement and that adheres to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the National Fire Protection Administration (NFPA) standards. All of UFRA’s certification standards meet or exceed OSHA and NFPA requirements. In addition to being crucial for firefighter safety, training and certification are taken into account for many state and federal grants. Certification ensures that all firefighters are trained and tested to the same level. The firefighter I & II certification classes can be scheduled to meet the timeframe of each department and its individual firefighters. A sound training plan will address one certification at a time, which helps prevent firefighter burnout and attracts potential recruits. More information regarding the certification program may be found at New fire chiefs may be overwhelmed and shocked with the load they have to deal with—no matter the type of department. But in every department type, safety, especially through training and certification, is critical and should be a top priority for the fire chief ’s agenda. Chief Paul Bedont has served as a volunteer as well as a career firefighter and is currently employed as the fire chief for Price City. He has worked for various private, state, county, and local governments and holds a degree in criminal justice from USU.

Wildland Firefighter I and II Standards Updated On November 15th the Certification Council approved the Wildland Firefighter I and II standards. The Utah standard has been updated to meet the requirements of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) standard. These updated standards, as well as all certification standards, are available by calling the Certification Office at 888-548-7816, or online at

Congratulations, Fire Officer Designation Recipients The Utah Commission on Fire Officer Designation and the Utah Fire and Rescue Academy are proud to recognize the following individuals for receiving the Supervising Fire Officer Designation. The Fire Officer Designation Program is meant to provide a coherent and attainable guide to career advancement and serves as both a development program for future fire officers and a recognition and promotion preparation program for current fire officers. Information about the program can be found at

Gaylene Fish, Hill Air Force Base Fire Department

Joel Crawmer, Layton City Fire Department

Jason Cook, Layton City Fire Department

Scott Maughan, Layton City Fire Department

John Meek, North Davis Fire District

Embret Fossum, Unified Fire Authority

The next deadline for applications is June 30, 2018. Scott Chisholm, Weber Fire District

Andy Lutz, Weber Fire District Spring 2018 | 13


Thoughts on Leadership As I have served on the board of directors of the Utah State Firefighters’ Association for the past eight years and have watched from afar for over twenty, I have observed and met many people who I consider to be great leaders. I have watched as great men serve for years, like Jay Westergard, a past USFA president and a representative on the law and legislative committee, who served until he passed away. I could list many more who have served or who are currently serving. With so many impressive examples of leadership from my time with USFA, it’s hard to condense what makes a great leader down to a one-page article. Nevertheless, I’d like to briefly discuss how these examples from great leaders can help us become better leaders ourselves. Think about someone in your life that you look to as a good leader. It might have been a teacher, a coach, or a teammate; maybe it’s a past or current fire chief. What were some of the leadership traits you admired in that person? Was it their ability to communicate? Were they loyal, fun to be around, or intensely focused on the goal? Did they take full responsibility if things went wrong but give credit elsewhere if it went right? Did they listen to your concerns and input and take them into consideration before making a plan? Were they firm and just but also understanding when it came to discipline? Try listing the attributes that these leaders you know have. These are the traits you can work to develop. As you think about the traits of a good leader, remember that there isn’t just one right answer to the question of what traits makes up a good leader. Good leadership combines many positive skills and abilities. No two individuals or leaders are the same.

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What is most important to understand about leadership is that the best leaders lead through love. Without exception, all great leaders I know show love and true concern for those they serve. You notice I said those they serve; good leaders aren’t afraid to get their hands dirty and serve those they lead. By serving those you lead and working on those traits you listed of attributes of good leaders, you can become the type of leader you hope to be.

As a leader in the Utah State Firefighters’ Association, my goal is to serve you and help you learn about this amazing association you can be a part of. Please contact us for ways we can get you and your department involved. As a first step, please take the opportunity to attend our annual convention in Price, Utah, on June 14–16, 2018. We understand that attending the annual convention can be expensive. With this in mind, the trustees have made available some scholarships to help offset the cost. The scholarship information can be found on our website, If I can help you in any way, please let me know. You can contact me at

Mike Ahlstrom President Utah State Firefighters’ Association


FIRE RESTRICTIONS IN UTAH by Jason Curry, Public Information Officer Utah Division of Forestry, Fire & State Lands

Almost every summer, fire restrictions are put in place by several different entities to prevent wildfires. How the decisions are made and who makes them can differ, but for the most part, there is a consistent process based on fire science. The restrictions, including boundary lines, activity types, and the timing of fire closures, are often confusing to the public, who the restrictions are aimed at. To avoid confusion, most agencies try to time their restrictions enactments and rescindings with partner agencies. Starting the conversation early is necessary for coordinated decision making on an interagency basis. While it’s not always possible to sync up perfectly, the more coordinating done on the front end, the more informed our public becomes. HOW are restrictions determined? When implementing restrictions, agencies consider a variety of factors that drive fire behavior and ignition probability. Fuels—The dryness of the vegetation in an area is considered first and foremost. Fire behavior is greatly influenced by fuel moisture, but the likelihood of an ignition happening in the first place is equally influenced by the condition of light fuels. Two factors are used to evaluate fuels: 1. Fuel Moisture is measured by collecting, weighing, and kiln-drying vegetation samples. A mathematical formula is then used to derive the moisture content of the samples. 2. Probability of Ignition is derived using a formula that accounts for current temperature, shading, and light fuel moisture. Weather & Climate—As daytime temperatures increase and relative humidity decreases, the probability of ignition increases and expected fire behavior changes. Higher probability of ignition and more active fire behavior require caution. Weather and climate trends such as drought that persists from year to year and how early in the season a heating and drying trend began can also enter the analysis. Long-term weather trends projections modeled by meteorologists are also factored in. Activities—The type and frequency of activities in the area are considered in the analysis. Certain activities can cause ignition—from campfires to smoking and fireworks to target shooting. During certain times of year and in particular locations, 16 | UFRA Straight Tip

expected activities have a significant impact on fire severity and, in turn, fire restrictions. Fire History—Certain areas seem to burn regularly. Everyone knows a slope or canyon mouth that seems to ignite every year. A bill being considered in the 2018 Legislative Session would enable fire restrictions based on the historical fire danger in a given area. WHO enacts restrictions and WHERE do they apply? Different jurisdictions have different requirements for fire restrictions. The process is fairly simple, but the public is often confused by the resulting restrictions, especially when the boundary lines seem arbitrary. To help avoid confusion, fire management staff have regular interagency discussions about fuels, weather/climate, and activities so fire restriction timing can be synchronized whenever possible. In addition, federal and state restrictions are carefully coordinated. Federal Restrictions—The federal lands in Utah that are subject to fire restrictions are US Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, Bureau of Indian Affairs and US Fish & Wildlife Service. They each have slightly different restriction processes. However, each must have an order signed by a designated authority like a forest supervisor or a district manager. Details about these restrictions can be found at State & County Restrictions—The Utah Division of Forestry, Fire & State Lands (FFSL) administers fire restrictions on all private land outside city/town limits and all state lands. Area fire staff coordinate with county leaders and make a recommendation for a fire restriction. The restriction is then referred by an FFSL area manager and must be signed by the state forester. Details about these restrictions can be found at Municipal Restrictions—Inside city or town limits, fire restriction processes differ widely. Some may be done through the local fire authority, while others require authorization from a city council or other public safety agency. Details about these restrictions can be found at

UPCOMING REGIONAL FIRE SCHOOLS Other—Homeowner associations and private resorts have bylaws that allow them to enact fire restrictions on their property. These restrictions are sometimes enacted in consultation with local or state fire officials, but often they are arbitrary and difficult to track. WHAT is restricted? The standard fire restriction language used by federal and state agencies covers a variety of activities: 1. Setting, building, maintaining, attending, or using open fires of any kind, except within the facilities designated for them in approved campgrounds, picnic areas, or home sites where running water is present. 2. Smoking, except within an enclosed vehicle, a trailer or building, a developed recreation site, or while stopped in an area that is paved or free from dry vegetation. 3. Discharging or using any kind of fireworks, tracer ammunition, or other pyrotechnic devices, including exploding targets. 4. Cutting, welding, or grinding metal in areas of dry vegetation. 5. Operating a motorcycle, chainsaw, ATV, or other small internal combustion engine without an approved and working spark arrestor. NOTE (optional): Target shooting restrictions can also be enacted in certain areas with a demonstrated fire danger from target shooting. The county sheriff ’s concurrence is required. To recommend a fire restriction on unincorporated private lands, contact your county fire warden. A list of FFSL offices is available online at

• Box Elder County: April 19-21

• Tooele County: April 27-28

• Sanpete County (held in Ephraim): May 4-5

• Iron County: June 15-16

• Emery County: July 13-14

• Southeast Region (held in Moab): October 12-13

See the Regional Schools page for detailed class information for these events Spring 2018 | 17

photography by Becky Tibbetts


Swiftwater Rescue Response Preparation Is Key to Success! Mountain runoff will soon be upon us, and as part of the professional rescue community, you will likely be involved with rescue situations involving moving water. This winter has been warmer, and our snow pack levels may be lower than usual in the high country. This means we could face unseasonably warm temperatures earlier this spring, which could result in rapid snow melt and early water runoff. The scenario could also result in just the opposite—a mild spring runoff with less water and a longer, slower runoff season. Whatever the result, water is powerful, and preparing for swiftwater rescue situations is critical for the safety of our rescuers. Swiftwater Defined The power and force of water are determined by the amount and the speed at which it is flowing downstream. NFPA 1670 (2017) defines swiftwater as water moving at a rate greater than one knot (1.15 mph). This means water that is moving greater than 100 feet per minute is considered swiftwater. If you were to walk 18 | UFRA Straight Tip

at this rate, you might be surprised how slow this seems. Try it—walk 25 feet in 15 seconds. What does this tell us? Most of our mountain streams and large volume waterways are typically running at or above swiftwater flows for most of the year; high-volume snow melt runoff is not our only concern. The speed of water is important to be aware of because water speed directly affects water force. Let’s examine the increased force exerted on a body with increased velocity of the water. A three-knot current puts approximately 33.6 lbs of force on the body. Double that speed to six knots, and the force quadruples to approximately 134 lbs of force on the body. The force of the water is so strong because water is approximately 800 times more dense than ambient air. Yes, it’s like having an 800-pound gorilla on your back. It’s relentless, exhausting, and overpowering to put it mildly. This is why our public safety, swiftwater instructional courses advocate keeping

Rescuers traverse powerful swiftwater current to practice effective and safe rescues.

One of the most effective ways we keep our rescuers out of the water is to plan. the rescuers out of the water whenever possible. That being said, we do practice for “go” contact rescues, but when doing so there must always be multiple downstream backup safety plans in place. Pre-planning Is Crucial One of the most effective ways we keep our rescuers out of the water is to plan. Pre-planning is key to any successful mission, where all public safety personnel, including law enforcement and EMS, go home safely and unharmed. So, run some scenarios. Before you have a person in the water, plan accessible locations where you could stage your equipment and position downstream safety systems for the best possible safe, effective rescue. Remember, safety is a priority, and we can accomplish this by redundancy. As you plan and practice, understanding the speed and force of water can affect the outcome of your rescue effort. Simply stated, knowing the speed and force of the water can ensure we can calculate the victim’s location, and we can use that information to position ourselves in front of the victim, not behind them. Once they get past us, the opportunity for rescue will be lost. Let’s look at a swiftwater rescue scenario. The speed of water is at five knots, or 500 feet per minute. By the time the call comes in, the victim has been in the water for three minutes. How far downstream has the victim traveled? Approximately 1500 feet. If it takes five minutes for first responders to arrive on scene, the victim has traveled an additional 2500 feet. In roughly eight minutes the victim may have traveled nearly 4000 feet downstream, approximately three-quarters of mile. Has your response taken any of this into account? What are potential ingress and egress locations? Are there any accessible bridges? Do you have downstream safety systems ready and in place for the safety of the rescuer? Remember the rescue sequence, from the lowest level of risk to the highest level: 1. Communicate with victim 2. Reach 3. Throw 4. Rowboat-based operation 5. Go—in water contact 6. Helicopter operations

Rescuers managing in-water patient care as part of a rescue operation.

Increasing to a higher level of technical rescue greatly increases the risk to personnel and the risk to every aspect of the rescue operation. We like to emphasize relying on training rather than relying on equipment performance. Simplicity rather than speed will minimize your risk. Our motto has always been KISS—keep it simple and safe. One simple way to minimize risk is to use the swiftwater calculator app that has been introduced by Public Safety Dive Services, a division of Technical Rescue International. Our swiftwater calculator can determine the speed of the water, manually or by GPS. The swiftwater app also comes with a calculation worksheet that is beneficial for X, Y, and Z response locations. The app is currently only available for the iPhone. Send us an email for your free download code. We have a limited quantity of free downloads; first come, first serve. Prepare for swiftwater rescue scenarios so that you can keep risk low and have the best chance for safe, successful missions. Bo Tibbetts is the full-time owner and water operations instructor at Public Safety Dive Services, a division of Technical Rescue International, which includes swiftwater, ice rescue, flood rescue, sub-surface operations, and drowning investigations instruction. He has been providing training services to public safety personnel for nearly 14 years. He specializes in surface ice rescue operations. Mr. Tibbetts has been instrumental in standardizing the ice rescue industry with operational standards and equipment protocols over the last 10 years. He can be reached at

Spring 2018 | 19


Quick Calculations When using these methods, you start from the nozzle and work your way back to the pump as a rule. Let’s look at some facts and quick methods for each: Nozzle Pressure (NP) All nozzles require, or extract from the pump, a certain amount of pressure in order to operate properly. Supplying less pressure than the amount shown below for NP does not allow the nozzle to deliver the desired stream or the desired flow. Every student in UVU’s Firefighter Recruit Candidate Academy (RCA) learns to operate a fire pump during their academy experience.

You’re the pump operator on the engine. It’s 03:00, the shadows are dark and exaggerated, the night split with the sound of breaking glass, chainsaws, ventilation fans, shouting, hustling, and compartment doors slamming. The radiant heat can be felt in the air and the darkness is lit by the light of the fire, it’s a house up in flames—a family’s worst nightmare. You were sound asleep six minutes ago and your training is barely holding your brain together. It’s controlled chaos. And in the midst of all this… let’s do some algebra? There are probably operators out there that can do it; I was never one of them. I wanted to learn the quick methods that I could use without bringing out a calculator when the chaos ensued. For starters, there are only four basic pressures to learn, and if your preconnected lines are the same size and length, you really only have three. All departments may run a little differently, but a typical fire engine has a deck gun with a fog nozzle, two 1 ¾” cross lays, and at least one rear 2 ½” pre-connect. So I had to remember that the deck gun was 125 psi, the rear pre-connect was also 125 psi, and the crosslays were both 140 psi. Easy, right? Until the officer called for a line to be extended or the interior crew took the line to the third floor or the 20 | UFRA Straight Tip

line went over the side of the freeway 30 feet below the pump. Or what if I had to change to a smooth bore stacked tip on the deck gun? Now what? I’m a big proponent for being able to stand next to the pump panel in all that turmoil and make accurate decisions based on quick methods rather than exact calculations. I’ve come to this conclusion based on both years of personal experimentation with pressure loss and the fact that 125 years ago Mansfield Merriman, an early hydraulics pioneer, discovered a fact that is not in dispute even today. In his 1893 book, A Treatise on Hydraulics, he made a statement regarding errors in what he called “head” or pressure: “In most cases of the design of pipe systems, errors of five and ten percent are not important” (p. 164). Basically, you can’t distinguish pressure differences of 10% if you’re on the nozzle. With this in mind, the quick methods I will describe here generally get us within 10% of a mathematical calculation. Ultimately, we solve for total pump discharge pressure (PDP). For this calculation we need the Nozzle Pressure (NP) + Appliance Loss (AL) + Friction Loss (FL) and ± Elevation Pressure (EP). The whole formula looks like this: PDP = NP + AL + FL ± EP.

Fog Tips: Regardless of size = 100 psi. (Dual pressure fog tips may be different, so check.) Smooth Bore Tips: Handheld = 50 psi, and Master streams (stacked tips) = 80 psi. Appliance Loss (AL) An appliance is any device through which water flows, not including a hose coupling. Anytime the flow is over 350 GPM (gallons per minute), the AL is 10 psi. Under 350 GPM, the AL is 0 psi. Some AL figures are standardized, such as an aerial ladder waterway, portable master stream device, or a mounted deck gun on an engine; all require 25 psi to operate regardless of flow in GPM. Standpipe and sprinkler system fire department connections (FDC) and piping have zero loss for AL when flows are less than 350 GPM and only 10 psi AL if more than 350 GPM (this will be rare for these systems). For these systems, EP is a more common factor. Friction Loss (FL) The term “Q” represents a factor used to determine FL in several formulas. In order to determine Q from flow, we use Q = GPM/100. So for a flow of 300 GPM/100, Q = 3. Q must then be squared in the formula to determine FL from Q. To square, Q2 = Q x Q. Thus, when flow is 300 GPM, Q is 3 (300/100), then 32 is 3 x 3. So Q2 = 9.

Squaring can be tricky when flows are not exact hundreds, such as 150, 250, 350, etc. These squares can be memorized—sorry I don’t have a better way (see Table 1). All of these quick methods have accuracy within the normal flows of these hoses (see Table 2). Flow (in GPM) 150 250 350 450 550 650

GPM/100 = Q 150/100 = 1.5 250/100 = 2.5 350/100 = 3.5 450/100 = 4.5 550/100 = 5.5 650/100 = 6.5

flows, which is not practical, or be able to calculate FL no matter the GPM demand. Standpipe and sprinkler systems are considered zero loss for friction due to the coefficients being so low when these are calculated. In other words, the inside of a pipe is smooth, creating little friction. Consider Q2 FL to be zero in 1.5² = 2 these pipes. 2.5² = 6 3.5² = 12 4.5² = 20 5.5² = 30 6.5² = 40

Table 1. Calculating Q and Q2

Hose Diameter 5” Supply hose 3” Supply hose 2 ½” Hose 2 ½” Hose 1 ¾” Hose 1 ¾” Hose

FL per 100’ of hose FL = Q2 / 10 FL = Q2 FL = 2Q2 + Q FL = (GPM/10) - 12 FL = (GPM - 100)/2 200’ Rule: At 200’ of hose, your GPM = PDP

Example 600 GPM: 62 = 36/10 = 3.6 FL/100’ 300 GPM: 32 = 3 x 3 = 9 FL/100’ 300 GPM: 2 x 32 + 3 = 21 FL/100’ 250 GPM: (250/10) = 25 - 12 = 13 FL/100’ 150 GPM: 150 - 100 = 50/2 = 25 FL/100’ 150 GPM = 150 PDP

Table 2. Quick methods for FL and PDP

The farther the deviation from the standard flows, these methods will lose accuracy, but you have to wonder why you’re flowing more or less than standard flows. Is your hose diameter too small or too large for your current operation? “Hand methods” for figuring FL seem to change often and have always been confusing to me, so I won’t cover them here and I don’t recommend them; however, if they work for you, keep using them! Standard Flow in GPM: 1¾” = 150 2 ½” = 250 3” = 350 5” = 1,000 Operators will flow the GPM that the operation requires. This will not always be the “Standard” flow. Interior attack crews will appreciate a lower hose pressure producing 120 GPM, not 150 GPM, when trying to maneuver the interior of the structure fire. Just because there are “Standard” flows doesn’t mean the operator will flow them, and so operators need to either never deviate from standard

Elevation Pressure (EP) The EP can be either added or subtracted from the PDP depending on whether you’re pushing water up by adding pressure to overcome gravity or by subtracting pressure when water moves downhill below the pump due to gravity, which decreases the amount of work your pump needs to do. EP is sometimes called “head pressure.” 1 foot = .5 psi Ex: 90 feet up a hill = +45 psi EP (90 ft. x .5 psi) Ex: 40 feet down an embankment = -20 psi EP (40 ft. x .5 psi) Fire floor - 1 = number of stories 1 story = 5 psi Ex: Fire on the 5th floor = +20 psi EP (5 floors - 1 = 4 stories x 5 psi) Ex: Standpipe at 8 stories = +40 psi EP (8 stories x 5 psi)

While all of these quick calculation methods will hopefully make your calculations easier, none of it will be meaningful unless you train with these methods. Practice, practice, practice until it becomes automatic. When I train operators, they must be able to stand with me at the panel and provide solutions to changes in the four basic discharge pressures and be within 10% of a calculated pressure. Quickly performing these calculations is a fundamental firefighting skill that every firefighter should master, not just the pump operator. There are many aspects of hydraulics and pump operations that are not covered in this article. I encourage you to seek more training through mentors in your organizations or in other departments. Seek opportunities to teach classes in hydraulics and pump operations; it’s a great way to learn and internalize these concepts. Every progressive fire service organization develops competent pump operators that can adapt to changing conditions on the fly to maximize responder safety. Speed and accuracy— without breaking out a calculator—are critical to safe and effective operations. Practice, practice, practice. Reference:

Merriman, M., (1893). A Treatise on Hydraulics, 4th Ed. John Wiley & Sons: New York, New York.

Andy Byrnes, EFO, MEd, retired after 21 years at the Orem Fire Department as a special operations battalion chief. He currently works as an associate professor for Utah Valley University and as director of the university's Recruit Candidate Academy.

Spring 2018 | 21


ST. GEORGE FIRE DEPARTMENT by Amanda Creathbaum, Administrative Assistant

St. George Fire Department's 2017 Pierce 107' Ascendant quint. photo by Battalion Chief Robert Hooper

The annual call volume for St. George Fire is around 6,500 calls, nearly 70% of which are for emergency medical services. St. George Fire Department provides emergency first response service at the Advanced EMT level. The fire department also manages the city’s AED program, which has kept AED devices in all St. George city facilities for the past 20 years. CPR and AED training is offered regularly to citizens and city employees.

The St. George Fire Department was organized on December 9, 1936. At the time, all 23 department members—chief, captains, and crews—were volunteers. These dedicated volunteer firefighters met St. George’s needs for nearly 50 years. It wasn’t until 1983 that the first full-time chief was hired. By 1992, St. George had grown large enough to require a full-time staff of firefighters, but to this day, most of its fire stations remain staffed by reserves. The department’s first fire engine was a 1936 Studebaker, which is still used as a ceremonial vehicle in parades and other community events. St. George’s first fire station is still in service in the heart of the downtown area. Staffing and Stations The St. George Fire Department currently has an overall staffing of 117, which includes the chief, deputy chief, 32 full-time firefighters, 12 part-time firefighters, 70 active reserves, and a full-time administrative assistant. Chief Robert Stoker and Deputy Chief Kevin Taylor, who is also the city fire marshal, have served in their positions for nearly 20 years.

22 | UFRA Straight Tip

St. George has eight fire stations for a service area of about 75 square miles. St. George Fire Department has mutual and automatic aid agreements with all agencies in Washington County and also responds into Arizona along the I-15 corridor and the Arizona Strip district. The department is planning construction on its ninth fire station within the next year, and the plans for three more fire stations are being conceptualized. In 2017, the St. George Fire Department purchased a new Pierce 107’ Ascendant Quint and three new Pierce PUC engines to add to their fleet. Growing Call Volume With a growing population of 82,000 citizens, St. George has been within the top five fastest-growing cities in the United States since 2005. Plans were recently unveiled for a new 3,350-acre masterplanned community in St. George with 10,000 new residences. Because of this rapid growth, coupled with the increased visitation to nearby national parks, the EMS call volume in St. George is growing at a significantly more rapid pace than that of the fire call volume.

Training Although the St. George Fire Department has always responded to technical rescue calls, the department received grant monies in 2004 to purchase specialized equipment and training through certified instructors. Every month, crew members train on specialized skills and real-life training scenarios. The technical rescue team has had the opportunity to further practice manipulative skills with a recent donation of a retired school bus from the Washington County School District.

Extrication training on a donated school bus. photo by Captain Coty Chadburn



Red Hills Pkwy

St. George Fire Station

St. George Fire Station


St. George Fire Station

St George Blvd

St. George Fire Station

River Road Mall Dr

In addition to the technical rescue training the department receives, St. George Fire is also certified in hazmat awareness and operations response, with 14 of its firefighters being certified hazmat technicians. St. George Fire is equipped with a heavy rescue apparatus capable of supplying downrange offensive operations with a multi-stage decontamination corridor. The department also has a dedicated decontamination trailer and pop-up shelters to assist with mass decontamination and technical decontamination. In 2002, St. George Fire was involved with the development of the Southwest Regional Response Team, which provides hazmat

1450 S



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Black Ridge Dr

and all-hazard response to five counties in southwestern Utah. This team has responded to a wide variety of hazards, ranging from suspicious packages to rural propane leaks.


All staff members of St. George Fire Department are trained at an operations level for technical rescue, with some certified as technicians in rope, confined space, trench, heavy machinery extrication, and structural collapse. Because of the beautiful weather in southern Utah and the extensive hiking trail system in and around St. George, the majority of these high-risk, low-frequency technical rescue calls are for rope rescue.

Riverside Dr


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Riverside Dr


St. George Fire Station

2450 S

With St. George’s rapid population growth, the high volume of tourism in southern Utah, and expanding calls for service, St. George Fire Department is actively planning for the future with additional stations, equipment, and staff.   Positions Chief Deputy Chief/Fire Marshal 3 Battalion Chiefs 17 Captains 92 firefighters

Annual fire department trench training. photo by Battalion Chief Ken Guard

Apparatus 6 type-6 brush trucks 3 service squads 1 heavy rescue 2 quints (ladder) 1 quint (platform) 14 engines 1 UTV 9 support vehicles 4 trailers (hazmat, trench rescue, confined space)

Part of St. George Fire's fleet in the red desert of St. George, Utah. photo by Battalion Chief Ken Guard

Spring 2018 | 23

LEADERSHIP Leaders look for opportunities to teach future leaders.

Essence of Leadership: Directing Future Leaders Famed author of business management practices Tom Peters once said, “Leaders don’t create followers, they create more leaders.” In fire service organizations, fostering great leadership is essential, as our service to communities impacts lives and livelihoods. A key part of leadership is the accompanying influence. With every promotion, a leader’s ability to influence expands and carries a larger weight of responsibility. As leaders in our respective organizations, a tremendous responsibility is placed upon us to develop future leaders. Combing through numerous leadership books and using my own experience, I have tried to capture and describe what I would call the Five Keys to Developing Leaders.

24 | UFRA Straight Tip

1) Identify your future leaders Look for the people in your organizations that have and are developing the right leadership skills. I am talking about the people with a positive attitude, with selfdiscipline, with effective communication skills (verbal and written), that are teachable, that have the heart of a servant, and that have great overall people skills. Ross Perot said, “Your success will be based on your judgement in building a great team.” If you are not currently developing “two deep” in your organization succession, you are behind the curve. 2) Invest in your future leaders and mentor them Promote both formal education and training opportunities. Attaining a degree through online programs has

In fire service organizations, fostering great leadership is essential, as our service to communities impacts lives and livelihoods. never been so highly supported and encouraged. These programs are extremely workable with shift assignments, and most organizations offer tuition reimbursement programs. Degree programs are just one way to invest in learning. To invest in our future leaders, our department’s training battalion chief set up a “Leadership Academy,” which involves monthly leadership and advanced training by presenters both inside and outside the organization and city. Preach (by example) leadership development through attending the National Fire Academy and conferences. Set the example of being a lifelong learner. A great tool to direct future leaders is the Utah Fire Officer Designation process (see ufra/resource_center/fodp.html). It can help evaluate where they are in terms of formal education, experience, training, and certifications. Mentoring involves time, energy, discretion, honesty, balance, and overall dedication. In the next issue I will further explore the topic of “being a mentor” to invest in future leaders. 3) Cast a vision for your future leaders Have you shared a vision with your future leaders of where the organization is going? Are the members of your organization able to envision what the future can be like? The Bible says, “Where there is no vision, the people perish” (Proverbs 29:18). Your future leaders can “buy in” to the direction of the organization and their personal potential to make an impact only if the direction is clear to them. 4) Give away the credit whenever possible Great leaders are not afraid to let others shine. Ross Perot confessed, “Obviously I was surrounding myself with people who were far more talented and gifted than I was.” True leaders are secure in their abilities, and they know that the only way to maximize themselves as leaders is to develop others. Steel magnate Charles Schwab said, “I consider my ability to arouse enthusiasm among my people the greatest asset I possess, and the way to develop the best that is in a person is by appreciation

and encouragement.” “Leaders” who become wrapped up in themselves and seek only their own success rarely last long or create a lasting legacy. As those around us succeed, don’t tell just them how you feel about their successes—tell everyone. 5) Empower your future leaders At Layton City Fire Department, we pride ourselves on our culture of empowerment—a concept originating from the Phoenix Fire Department. Empowerment simply means to give someone the authority to make decisions and be in control within their organizational level. By teaching this on “day one,” we develop leaders by letting them know it is ok to make decisions they are willing to be held accountable for. Reflecting on my four decades of fire service, I can honestly say that the career successes of those I have helped develop while in my leadership roles have been some of my greatest contributions and a legacy I will be proud to leave. As Jon Maxwell expressed, “A legacy is created only when a leader puts their people into a position to do great things without them.”

Kevin Ward is a 40-year fire service veteran, having been the fire chief for Layton City since 2004. Prior to this appointment, Chief Ward progressed through the ranks from firefighter/paramedic to battalion chief with the Chandler Fire Department in Arizona. He holds several NWCG qualifications, such as ICT3 and Structure Protection Specialist, and is an instructor for the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy. Chief Ward has been an instructor for UFRA’s Command Training Center since its inception.

Spring 2018 | 25

Have You Been “DELT” a Mayday? 26 | UFRA Straight Tip

Historically, the fire service has struggled with exactly what a mayday is or when to call it. In fact, up to the 2013 edition of NFPA, the term “mayday” was not even allowed: “The term mayday should not be used for fireground communications in that it could cause confusion with the term used for aeronautical and nautical emergencies” (NFPA 1500-45, 2007, 8.2.3). Instead, they stated (past tense) we should use terms like “fire fighter down,” “fire fighter missing,” or “fire fighter trapped” (NFPA 1500). However, thankfully, the 2013 edition of NFPA allows the use of mayday for “life threatening situations” (NFPA 1500, 2013, and provides examples of “lost or missing member, an SCBA malfunction or loss of air, a member seriously injured or incapacitated, a member trapped or entangled, or any life-threatening situation that cannot be immediately resolved” (NFPA 1500, 2013, Appendix A.8.2.3). With this important change, the fire service is free to use the term but in many instances still struggles with identifying exactly which situations present themselves as “life threatening.” To assist with identifying life-threatening situations, we can apply the acronym DELT: downed, endangered, lost, or trapped.


owned - A medical emergency that incapacitates a firefighter (e.g., heart attack, injury, or other acute incapacitating situation) ndangered - Low air alarm activation, not at exit (door or window) in 60* seconds - SCBA compromise - Flashover


ost - Cannot find exit (door or window) in 30* seconds - Zero visibility, no contact with hose or lifeline, unknown direction to exit


rapped - Collapse - Primary exit blocked by fire or collapse, not at secondary exit in 30* seconds - Tangled, pinned, or stuck with low air alarm activation

- Tangled, pinned, or stuck and cannot extricate self in 30* seconds - Fallen through roof or floor *Time is a relative parameter for calling a mayday. Time is being used here as a frame of reference only. For training purposes, time can serve as a maximum parameter to ensure maydays are called as soon as conditions are met. In application, firefighters need to understand that time is the enemy and that the earlier maydays are noted and called, the sooner a rescue or other needed reaction can be effected.

While a simple acronym is not going to solve all our issues regarding the use of the term mayday, regular practice using DELT or one similar may help us more quickly recognize a mayday situation and lead to a speedier reaction. As one author put it, “Firefighters can lose their lives by not calling a Mayday soon enough. They might be too proud, embarrassed, or not realize the severity of the situation. Firefighters go into horrible situations regularly, and while there they need to ascertain if the call for help is warranted. Nothing ever goes smoothly when in a burning structure, so whether or not to make the call can be tough.” Using DELT to determine whether to make that call and if a situation is indeed a mayday situation can be lifesaving! References: Annillo, John. “What Firefighters Know About Asking For Help That You Don’t.” NFPA 1500, Fire Department Occupational Safety and Health Program, 2007 and 2013 Editions.

Paul Sullivan is deputy chief of the Weber Fire District. He has 36 years combined Fire and EMS experience, including 21 years with the Chandler, Arizona, Fire Department, where he retired at the rank of battalion chief. He has been a certified emergency paramedic for 34 years, currently holding certifications in both Utah and Arizona. Paul has been a fire service instructor for 24 years, teaching command, WMD, truck company operations, leadership, and other topics. Paul has an associate’s in fire science, a bachelor’s in public safety administration, and a master’s of public administration from Northern Arizona University.

Spring 2018 | 27

Firefighter Sleep: 7 Ways to Improve Your Crews' Sleep and Safety With sleep deprivation being directly linked to poor decision making, physical ability and communication, firefighters must be well rested.

disease or diabetes. They were more than three times as likely to suffer from depression and anxiety.

Firefighters often don't get enough sleep. Sleep deprivation can lead to real problems, including safety concerns.

These are significant findings. Heart attack is still the leading cause of firefighter death. Vehicle accidents involving emergency apparatus not only cause damage and bodily injury, but also delay necessary response and weaken public confidence in the agency.

For anyone who has worked in the fire service, this is hardly news. One of the most difficult adjustments for new firefighters can be the shift work: the 10/14 split, the 24- or 48-hour workday. As firefighters age, sleep disorders can lead to serious health problems for them. Even though these issues may seem obvious, it is surprising how little attention has been given to the role of sleep for firefighters. Some studies have been done over the years. The most recent study was pub28 | UFRA Straight Tip

lished in the Nov. 13 edition of the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. This research effort screened a nationally representative sample of 7,000 firefighters in 66 fire departments for obstructive sleep disorder, insomnia, restless leg syndrome and shift work disorder. Researchers found that about 37 percent of the firefighters screened positive for at least one sleep disorder. Scary results After controlling for sex, race, body mass index, smoking and other factors, the researchers found that compared with sound sleepers, those with a sleep disorder were about twice as likely to have a motor vehicle crash, to nod off while driving, and to have cardiovascular

Additionally, the study revealed that more than 80 percent of firefighters who screened positive for a common sleep disorder were undiagnosed and untreated.

Diabetes is a growing problem in the general population and leads to long-term medical conditions, potential loss of a career, and large medical expenses. And firefighter suicide rates seem to be rising, with behavioral health an emerging priority for many departments. Poor-sleep history Yet few fire departments in the past have linked poor sleep to these issues. When I

first became a firefighter in 1980, helping members to sleep better was not the first thing on my department's mind. We slept in large open dorms with poor ventilation, and the mattresses were often old and saggy, with pillows smelling of cigarette smoke and after shave. But asking for improvements in this area was futile and only led to being told, "We're not paying you to sleep." Over the years things improved — new mattresses, better air circulation. Now many fire department dorms are being split up into separate sleeping cubicles, which depending on the design, may or may not improve the quality of the sleep experience. What is still mostly not addressed in the fire service is the linkage clearly shown in this recent study between sleep and safety and behavioral health issues. But the U.S. military has made this linkage strongly through decades of research. Military research In his book "Dreamland: Adventures in the Strange Science of Sleep," author David K. Randall details clear outcomes of military sleep research. Research on military pilots has shown that cognitive performance declines by about onefourth for every 24 hours spent awake. Analysis of altercations between soldiers and civilians in Iraq shows that 20 percent of soldiers who are sleeping less than four hours a night reported having an altercation with a civilian, whereas only 4 percent of those who slept eight hours a night reported such conflicts. In 1996, crew fatigue was blamed for 32 accidents that destroyed American military aircraft, including three F-14 fighter jets that cost $38 million each. Sleep deprivation has been identified as a factor in a number of friendly fire incidents that led to injury and loss of life. The U.S. Armed Forces have invested many decades and enormous sums of money into trying to find a workable substitute for actual sleep. In 2007, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency essentially gave up. Their conclusion was

that the only way to recover from lost sleep was to get more of it later. 7 steps for better sleep The implications for the fire service are clear. If you want people to make good decisions, they have to be adequately rested. If you want them to communicate effectively, they must sleep regularly. Research shows that soldiers deprived of sleep for 48 hours significantly lost their ability to understand context in communication from others or to include appropriate context in their own. People were unable to adapt to changing circumstances. They made increasingly bad decisions. All of these conclusions apply equally to firefighters, and can lead to equally bad outcomes. But what can fire service leaders do given the reality of the job and the need for round-the-clock response capability? Here are a few ideas. 1. First and most importantly, departments must recognize that adequate sleep is a wellness and performance issue equal to other priorities such as strength fitness, diet, and agility. 2. Fire departments should evaluate current logistics for sleep and consider changes. Some positive changes can be made quite simply — installing fans or white noise generating machines in common dorms, for example. Other changes are more costly, such as retrofitting common dorms into individual sleeping pods. 3. Do an assessment of the current state of sleep fitness among members. As much as possible, gather data anonymously to get an honest picture of how department members manage sleep both on and off the job. 4. Allow appropriate naps on duty. Numerous studies have shown that brief naps of 30 minutes or less can make a positive difference in cognition and reflexes for someone who is exhausted. 5. Make resources available for those who are suffering from sleep disorders. Do not stigmatize the use of these resources.

6. Reconsider shift scheduling and overtime rules to diminish the effects of sleep deprivation on emergency response. 7. Look ahead to new technology to help manage sleep and performance. The Army is currently developing a wristwatch-style sleep monitor for all soldiers that will monitor sleep/ wake cycles and can be directly linked to predicted performance. They expect these devices to be standard issue gear by 2020. Sleep is a necessary bodily function that cannot be replicated through any other means. Fire service leaders need to let go of the attitude that "we don't pay you to sleep" and firefighters need to lose the idea that they can function just as well in the 48th hour being awake as they did in the first. Assuring quality sleep for firefighters is a health and wellness issue whose time is long overdue. Lives depend on it.

Linda F. Willing worked for more than 20 years in the emergency services, including 18 as a career firefighter and fire officer. For more than 15 years, she has supported fire and emergency services and other organizations through her company, RealWorld Training and Consulting. She is the author of "On the Line: Women Firefighters Tell Their Stories." Linda is an adjunct instructor and curriculum advisor for the National Fire Academy Executive Fire Officer Program. She has a bachelor’s degree in American studies, a master’s degree in organization development and is a certified mediator. Linda is a member of the FireRescue1/Fire Chief Editorial Advisory Board. To contact Linda, e-mail Linda. Originally posted on December 1, 2014, on Reprinted with permission.

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Growing Pains, Part III Wasatch County Fire/EMS by Ernie Giles, Wasatch County Fire Chief

When you dial 911 to report a fire, what do you expect? What do the residents of our area expect? As you think about this question, consider the following facts. A fire that starts inside a structure can double in size every minute if the fire is in

Incipient Fire, Courtesy Dan DeMille, UVU

Fire Growth, Courtesy Dan DeMille, UVU

30 | UFRA Straight Tip

the free burning phase. The free burning phase is typical and can be expected inside of most buildings where fuel, oxygen, a heat source, and space are available. Virtually every building in Utah has plenty of fuel, oxygen, and a heat source in which a fire can begin and grow.

Note the size of the fire in picture 1 versus picture 2. Interestingly, the time difference from the first picture to the second picture is only two minutes and eight seconds. Response Capability The average response time for a wellequipped, well-staffed, well-trained fire department to be dispatched, to deploy, and to travel to the fire scene ranges from five to eight minutes at best. Once a fire is reported, the start of a rapid response is expected, and if that response is delayed for any reason, seconds feel like minutes and the fire continues to grow. What do the residents in our communities expect? Most people facing a disaster of any kind need and expect support from trained responders immediately and literally within a few minutes. So the difference between expectations and the current response capability is a driving factor for change and improvement at Wasatch County Fire. Simply stated, we are seeking to build a stronger, faster response to meet the needs of our growing community. It does not mean that the service we currently provide is not good; it just means that the needs are beginning to outweigh the response capability, resulting in greater risk to the community. We are working hard to compensate for increased needs. Our Plan To increase response capability, when a fire is reported in Wasatch County, a process of ranking the call and selection of closest units is set in motion. We dispatch the closest units, which includes a minimal number of full-time staff plus several volunteers from throughout the county. The goal is to reduce response times by

The difference between expectations and the current response capability is a driving factor for change and improvement at Wasatch County Fire. increasing the number of immediately available resources assigned to Wasatch County fire stations. Remember, a short window of five–eight minutes exists to minimize loss of life and property damage. So, in order to conduct the critical tasks necessary at the fire, a minimum of 10 firefighters are needed even for a small fire within a residential structure and all within a few minutes.

The drawback to our current response method is that volunteers must first travel to the stations from their homes or business and then respond to the incident from the station. This adds valuable minutes to the response time even in the best of conditions. The ideal situation would be to increase the number of full-time responders that are strategically stationed throughout the county. This solution,

though ideal, is not financially viable for all communities. But with continued growth, communities can work toward it. In closing, remember that a well-staffed, well-trained, rapid response will reduce risk in any community. With longer response times, the odds of saving lives and reducing property loss varies dramatically. As we at Wasatch County Fire/EMS move to build a stronger response for the citizens and visitors of Wasatch County, our goal is to minimize the risk factor between expectations and results. As communities across Utah continue to grow at alarming rates, it is important to ask yourself—regardless of your department’s size and current staffing levels— what can you do to improve your fire department’s response?

Springville Fire Department Hosts Another Successful Golf Tournament On September 7th, Springville Fire Department hosted the third annual Hobble Creek Firefighter Invitational at the beautiful Hobble Creek golf course. The tournament, intended to be a competition between fire departments, was a 4-man scramble with teams from all over Salt Lake and Utah counties. In addition to the many possible prizes at the tournament, the winning team took home an enormous traveling trophy that carries the name of the winning department from year to year. This year there was a tie between two departments, Springville and Provo. After a tiebreaker based off a scorecard playoff by the course pro, the Springville team was named the winner. The Springville team consisted of Chief

Henry Clinton, Ryan McConaghie, Brody Berg, and Codie Young. The Provo team consisted of Brian Roberts, Chad Chapman, Brady Johnson, and Kevin Paxton.. Several local vendors helped financially with the costs of the tournament by sponsoring holes on the course. With great weather, food, prizes, and participation the day was a resounding success. Springville Fire Department looks forward to next year’s tournament and welcomes all fire departments across the state of Utah to participate. If you are interested in reserving a spot for your department, or in sponsoring a hole, please contact Springville Fire Department at 801-491-5600.

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South Ogden City Resident Graduates from FEMA’s Emergency Management Advanced Academy series, Advanced Academy participants work within a collaborative environment on projects and establish a network of their peers. The Academy is designed for emerging leaders and midlevel managers wanting to advance their skillset. Students learn skills critical to performing leadership responsibilities, such as program management and oversight, effective communication at all levels, integrated collaboration, and strategic thinking. The Advanced Academy provides students the opportunity to demonstrate their critical thinking ability through a guided research project. Students apply the key learning concepts from the Advanced Academy curriculum relative to their own skillsets and abilities within their organizations, and their own performance environments. Emmitsburg, MD, August 25, 2017—FEMA’s Emergency Management Institute (EMI) graduated Cameron West, who completed all requirements of the National Emergency Management Advanced Academy. Paul Butki (left), Acting Superintendent of EMI is shown congratulating West (right) as he graduates. Shane Gibbon/FEMA

Emmitsburg, MD—Cameron West graduated from FEMA’s National Emergency Management Advanced Academy (formerly the Leaders Academy) at the Emergency Management Institute in Emmitsburg, MD, after he completed the full curriculum, which provides the strategic level training and education in the essential skills and tools for emergency management professionals to lead dynamic and resilient programs. West completed the four resident courses with three short distance learning sessions in the Advanced Academy, including A Survey of Advanced Concepts in Emergency Management, Assessment and Application of Professional Style in Emergency Management, Advanced Concepts and Issues in the Emergency Management Organization, and Advanced Concepts and Issues in the Emergency Management Community and Profession. FEMA’s National Emergency Management Advanced Academy reinforces the qualities needed to lead emergency management programs, provides relevant management theories and concepts, and utilizes appropriate case studies. By working within their 32 | UFRA Straight Tip

FEMA’s Emergency Management Professional Program (EMPP) curriculum is designed to provide a lifetime of learning for emergency managers and includes three separate but closely threaded training programs: the National Emergency Management Basic Academy, a specialized and technical training program to develop specific, fundamental skillsets; the National Emergency Management Advanced Academy; and the National Emergency Management Executive Academy, a program designed to challenge and enhance the talents of the nation’s emergency management senior executives through critical thinking, visionary strategic planning, challenging conventional concepts, and negotiation and conflict resolution applied to complex real-world problems. West completed his training on August 25, 2017. For more information on FEMA’s training classes through the Basic, Advanced, and Executive academies or other emergency management courses, go to

On December 13, 2017, Class #75 of the Utah Valley University Emergency Services Recruit Candidate Academy (RCA) held its graduation ceremony. The class, as well as family and friends, were privileged to hear addresses from Emergency Services Department Chair Gary Noll and RCA Course Coordinator Andy Byrnes. Recruit Greg Adams was selected as the class officer for Class #75. Candidates Katherine Ford, Andrew Lohman, and Adam Miranowski were awarded the Charles J. DeJournett Recruit Excellence Award & Instructor Recommendation. Captain Steve Schaugaard was awarded the Outstanding Instructor Award, which was voted on by the class. Candidates Jakob Rogge, Brandon Wallis, and Thomas Wood earned the Physical Training Excellence Award. Katherine Ford also received the Outstanding Student Award, which was voted on by her peers. Andy Byrnes was the lead instructor for the semester, and Captain Charles DeJournett was the assistant lead instructor.

RCA Graduation

Fall 2017 | Class #75

RCA Graduation Class #75 (left to right): Back row: Daniel Miller, Katherine Ford, Scott Hall, Andrew Lohman, Greg Adams, Chet Keller, Adam Miranowski, Jakob Rogge, Gentry Phillips, Adam Olesen Front row: Tyler Erickson, Trenton Andrus, Wilkins Melgaard, Jessica Rindlisbacher, Olivia Morgan, Brandon Wallis, Thomas Wood

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How to not win a fire, EMS grant proposal Here are four of the most common mistakes in public safety grant writing and how to avoid making them. Grant proposal writing isn’t any more complex than running a cardiac arrest resuscitation or leading a team of firefighters at a residential structure fire. It’s a learned skill. Like any fire or EMS skill, it takes practice, practice and more practice. You don’t improve your intubation skills without practice. The more grant proposals you write, the better you will get. Inexperienced grant writers tend to make similar mistakes. Here are four of those common mistakes. 1. NOT FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS Almost all funders, whether a government agency or a foundation, will tell you exactly how to present the materials. The request for proposal and proposal guidelines will tell you what information they want and how they want you to format the proposal. They will tell you what font type and size to use, the page margins, line spacing, and other seemingly unimportant stuff. If they don’t tell you, opt for simple: 11 or 12 point Times New Roman, single spaced, with one-inch margins all around. You may also encounter word limits or character limits, especially with online applications. Not following instructions is usually the first step the funder uses to eliminate proposals. If you can’t follow instructions, you probably can’t manage the grant successfully. Everything in an RFP is important. 2. NOT RESEARCHING YOUR FUNDER Many funders have very specific priorities. You need to make sure the government agency or foundation funds what you want or need. If the organization has a website, check it out. It will tell you what and who they fund and do not fund. Unfortunately, most foundations do not fund municipal agencies, but they might fund nonprofit fire/ambulance services. If the website lists a contact person, it’s always good to call and ask questions. That way you can introduce yourself and your agency and the contact person can put a voice to an application if you decide to submit.

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For foundations, websites such as GuideStar will give you a lot of information and if you register, which is free to do, you can access the most recent IRS 990 forms. These will tell you how much the organization gave during that year and the 990 lists the organizations to which they gave money and the amounts. For government funders, the agency website will list the grant recipients and what they received. is the go-to place for Federal agency grants. Grant Finder, a Praetorian Digital product, is another good way to look for state government funding sources, as well as many foundations. You can also check your local public library. It often provides access to the Foundation Center’s Foundation Directory. The online directory only list foundations, but they have the largest number of foundations in their database. 3. NOT USING PLAIN ENGLISH Every occupation has its own language, buzzwords, jargon and acronyms. Different occupations often use the same acronyms to represent different things. These words are common for you, but a grant reviewer might not know what you mean or the context in which you are using the words. If the reviewer doesn’t understand your words and must continually look them up to know what you are saying, this will drastically reduce your chance of success. Most reviewers are reading dozens of applications and they are looking for ways to eliminate applications quickly. Two of the worst things you can do are losing the reviewer’s attention or interest and making them do extra work to understand what you are saying. They will probably toss your application, even if it is for a worthy cause or a community need. Don’t use fancy words and phrases to impress the reviewers. They will know you are trying to polish a poor application with a fancy vocabulary. Instead, use simple and concise words. Avoid words like innovative, cutting-edge, game-changer or unique, unless you have done your research and you find you are the only one in the country doing what you propose. You may think it’s new and innovative, but it rarely is. 4. NOT USING A PROOFREADER Not much puts off a reviewer more than a proposal that has grammar, spelling and punctuation mistakes. The reviewers have probably read many proposals and they will not tolerate bad

writing. This will cause the reviewer to eliminate your proposal or give it a low rating. It shows that you don’t care enough about what you are presenting to correct your mistakes. If you don’t care about the accuracy of your proposal, why should they? To avoid this, have another person review your writing; preferably someone who doesn’t know anything about the subject. When my wife was alive, she reviewed everything I wrote. She had a keen eye for spotting mistakes. If I saw a puzzled look on her face, I knew something was amiss. If it confused her, then it probably would confuse the reviewer. Today's grant world is very competitive. Foundations and government agencies will always have many more applications than they can fund. One of the local health care foundations in my area routinely has more than $20 million worth of "asks" and only $4 million to award. That means even very good proposals don’t get funded. I’m not saying don’t try. An old fundraising adage says, "You don’t get what you don’t ask for," so keep working to present the best possible application you can. Ask for professional help if you need it.

Climbing the Ladder Brian Trick has been hired as the Wasatch Front area manager. Brian is responsible for Tooele, Davis, Morgan, Salt Lake, and Utah counties, where he will be managing a variety of division issues including wildfire suppression, mitigation, and prevention. Brian is 29 years old. In that short time, he has accomplished more than most of us in the fire community could hope to. At 17 he served as a paratrooper for the Israeli Defense Force (IDF) for two years, earning commendations for his part in the Second Lebanon War. After that, he went stateside and became a seasonal employee for the forest service. In an 11-year career with the forest service, he saw time as a lookout at a watchtower, hotshot, heli-repeller, and finished as a smoke jumper for Redding.

Mark Dunlap is a Grant Professional Certified (GPC), through the Grant Professional Certification Institute, and is a member of the Grant Professionals Association. He has been a full-time grant professional since August 2006 and has more than 19 years of experience identifying and securing grant funding. He has been a grant consultant since January 2012. He has written 160 successful grant proposals, totaling more than $37.7 million and reviewed/edited 15 successful proposals totaling more than $17.03 million. He averages 11 successful grants per year and more than $3.8 million per year in grant funding. He has achieved 61 successful health and healthcare-focused grants, totaling more than $25.18 million, for hospitals; safety-net clinics; and fire/EMS departments. Contact Mark by email at Originally published on on March 6, 2017. Reprinted with permission.

Utah Division of Forestry, Fire & State Lands

Between seasons, he earned a degree from the University of Utah in 2011 and a master’s in forestry from Oregon State University in 2014. Cornell Christensen has been hired to be the deputy director. As deputy to Director Cottam, Cornell supports the division’s six areas in various administrative duties and assists with fire policy. Cornell comes to us after retiring from the feds in 2011. The division is gaining a public servant with 34 years under his belt. In that period, he saw time as a firefighter on the ground all the way up to working on a Type 2 Incident Management Team and culminated as a district manager for the BLM. Cornell lives in Utah County with his wife of 42 years and has five kids. When he

has time away from his 12 grandkids, he enjoys fishing, golfing, and hunting. Brett Ostler has been promoted to the state fire management officer (FMO). In his new role, Brett will manage all state wildland firefighting resources and ensure that the fire program as a whole runs smoothly. Brett got his start with the BLM in 1991 as a seasonal wildland firefighter. In 1996 he moved to the division as an assistant fire warden, where he remained until 2006, when he was promoted be to the full-time Juab County fire warden. Brett brings 25 years of fire experience and local knowledge to the state office. Brett resides with his wife and three kids in Juab County, where he manages their family farm. On days when fires are quiet and the farm is taken care of, he enjoys trap shooting, hunting, and camping. Spring 2018 | 39


Chief Paul J. Erickson recently retired as the fire chief at Hill Air Force Base after serving in that position since 2008. He was responsible for managing and providing direction for emergency operations, fire prevention, dispatch, training and education for 101 personnel, a $10M vehicle fleet, and four fire stations. This responsibility also includes emergency response coverage for 25,000 personnel, 1,420 facilities with 14.5M square feet inspectable space worth $7B. His department responds to over 1,200 incidents annually and is an accredited fire department since 2003. Chief Erickson manages and executes a $6.5M annual operating budget. He has been an incident commander for 12 Class A mishaps and numerous high hazard incidents. Chief Erickson is an active member of the International Association of Fire Chiefs and the Utah State Fire Chiefs Association. Chief Erickson was born March 3, 1965, in Alameda, California. After graduating from high school in California, he attended Merced Community College, the University of Alaska, and Community College of the Air Force. Chief Erickson enlisted in the Air Force May 1984. He has served as a firefighter, driver/operator, lead firefighter, dispatcher, assistant chief of training, assistant chief of operations, and fire chief. His previous experience includes working in TAC, SAC, ACC, PACAF, USAFE, and AFMC. Prior to his current assignment, he was fire chief at RAF Menwith Hill, UK. Among other achievements, Chief Erickson was awarded the Meritorious Service Medal with two oak leaf clusters, the Air Force Commendation Medal with one 40 | UFRA Straight Tip

oak leaf cluster, the Air Force Outstanding Unit Award with valor, and two Exemplary Civilian Service Awards. On October 1, 2017, Mike Bohling retired as a captain from Unified Fire Authority. Captain Bohling was originally hired in April of 1993. While at UFA he has served as a firefighter, paramedic, and an inspector before becoming a captain. Deputy Chief/ Fire Marshal Brandon Thueson has retired from the Weber Fire District after 21 years in the fire service. During his career he served the communities of Ogden, Hooper, West Haven, Marriott-Slaterville, Farr West, Huntsville, and Unincorporated Weber County. Chief Thueson graduated with honors from Utah Valley University with an associate’s degree in fire science. He holds numerous certifications and is a certified special functions officer. Along with administrative duties, his responsibilities included oversight of the fire prevention division, which is responsible for the investigation of fires; site plan reviews; subdivision reviews; wildland-urban interface developments; conditional use permits; commercial and residential property reviews; fire suppression system and fire alarm system reviews and inspections; public education; and general fire code inspections. During his career he has been the part of several hundred fire investigations, including many fatal fire investigations

and numerous incendiary fires, including a homicide cover-up fire. He served as the president of the Fire Marshal’s Association of Utah in 2015 and has served on several code committees. Chief Thueson assisted in the writing of the current Fire Investigator I curriculum taught by the Utah Fire and Rescue Academy. He leaves the fire service with a history of dedication and professionalism. He will be going to work alongside retired Chief Scott Adams in the private sector as a fire plans examiner and code consultant. Jim Guynn started his public safety career in December 1980 with the Santaquin Police Department. While working in Santaquin, he and two other EMTs started Santaquin’s First Responder Program. In July 1983, Jim hired on with the Provo Police Department and worked in various capacities within that department. Jim later tested with and was selected for hire by Provo Fire & Rescue. His career with Provo Fire & Rescue was both rewarding and challenging. He worked as a firefighter/EMT and later as a hazmat technician and hazardous materials management program coordinator. A short time after that, he was promoted to fire inspector/ investigator and served in that position until his appointment to Provo fire marshal. Jim was a part of many humbling and rewarding opportunities. He successfully served on the Utah County Arson Task Force, as part of the fire marshal’s work group for the 2002 Winter Olympics, as chair of the Utah Fire Service Standards and Training Council, as president of

the Utah Fire Marshal’s Association, as president for the Utah Chapter of the International Association of Arson Investigators, as president of the County Fire Chiefs Association, and on many state and local EMS committees. He represented Utah at fire code hearings and special interest groups hearings in Washington, DC. He was selected to sit on Utah Fire Service Council technical committees for fire inspector and fire investigator certifications.

In January 2009, Jim left Provo City and joined the Washington City Department of Public Safety. There he had the honor of working with some of the finest men and women in law enforcement and the fire service. His time in Washington has been some of the best years in his career. Jim’s greatest honor during nearly 38 years in public safety has been being a part of his family. His wife, three children, and now six grandchildren have supported him beyond measure. They are his heroes!

Climbing the Ladder

Washington City Fire Dept. In the fall of 2017, Washington City Fire Department promoted Julio Reyes and Kelly Lang to the position of captain.

hiring announcements you would like included in the Straight Tip, please send it to

Grantsville Fire Department Robert Critchlow was sworn in as the new chief of Grantsville Fire Department, with First Assistant Travis Daniels, Second Assistant Jason Smith, and Secretary Jason Remick. We’d like to thank Captain Casey Phillips for his service as fire chief.

Kelly Lang

Unified Fire Authority

Cameron Ascarte Connor Barton Brian Beck Tyson Bowles Jesse Carpenter Daniel Coleman

obituary, promotional, or

Left to right: Rob Critchlow, Travis Daniels, Jason Smith, Jason Remick Julio Reyes

The following were promoted to the rank of engineer.

If you have any retirement,

Brandon Dodge David Fillmore Chance Fivas Braden Hudson Chet Jensen Kelly Long Andrew Malzer Alec Moyer Tyler Ownsbey Eric Pace Brian Pickett Alex Rogerson

Unified Fire Authority held a Retiree and Promotional Ceremony in December 2017. The following promotions were recognized:

Steven Sharp Paul Story Molly Swenson Daniel Tuohy Edward Walden Geoff Walker Troy Gundersen was promoted to inspector specialist. Spring 2018 | 41

INCIDENT RESPONSE TO TERRORIST BOMBING FOUR-DAY COURSE Incident Response to Terrorist Bombings is a four-day course designed to help participants safely and effectively respond to incidents involving bombs and explosives. Any first responder can attend—paid or volunteer, rookie or fire chief.

September 16–20, 2018 New Mexico Tech University (Socorro, NM) Travel, room, and board are provided through a grant sponsored by the US Department of Homeland Security.

The application deadline is August 15, 2018. For more details or to apply, visit or contact Art Deyo, deputy state fire marshal, at or 801-618-9277.

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ES 1150 Community Emergency Preparedness Now is the time to begin working on your emergency services degree or finish the degree you have been working on.

Why Should I Earn a College Degree? • • •

Personal improvement Preparation for promotion Expand career opportunities

What Degrees are Offered? Certificates • Firefighter Recruit Candidate • Paramedic • Aviation Fire Officer

Associate of Science Emergency Services Associate of Applied Science Emergency Services • Fire Officer • Emergency Care • Wildland Fire Management • Aviation Fire Officer Bachelor of Science Emergency Services Administration • Emergency Care • Emergency Management (offered 100% online)

How Do I Enroll? • •

Apply for admissions by going to: If you have attended another college or university, request an official transcript be sent to: UVU Admissions Office 800 West University Parkway MS 106 Orem, Utah 84058-5999

What Will It Cost?

• For official UVU tuition/fee amounts go to: • Some courses have “course fees” in addition to tuition.

For more information regarding admissions and registration, call 801-863-7798 or 888-548-7816 to schedule a phone or office appointment with an Emergency Services Administration Academic Advisor.

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ESFF FACE-TO-FACE CLASSES ESFF 1360 Recruit Candidate Academy Internship ESFF 281R Emergency Services Internship ESFF ONLINE CLASSES ESFF 1000 Introduction to ES & Physical Ability Testing ESFF 1120 FES Safety & Survival ESFF 2100 The Desire to Serve ESEC FACE-TO-FACE CLASSES ESEC 114A Emergency Medical Tech Basic – Part I ESEC 114B Emergency Medical Tech Basic – Part II ESEC 114C Emergency Medical Tech Basic – Part III ESEC 4110 Paramedic IV ESEC 4120 Paramedic Clinical Concepts ESMG ONLINE CLASSES ESMG 310G Introduction to Homeland Security ESMG 3200 Health Safety Program Management ESMG 3250 Managing Emergency Medical Services ESMG 3600 Psychology of Emergency Services ESMG 4150 Humanitarian Relief and Disaster Relief ESMG 4200 Disaster Response and the Public ESMG 445G Human Factors Emergency Management ESMG 4500 Customer Service & Marketing for ES ESMG 4650 Emergency Services Capstone ESMG 481R Emergency Services Internship ESMG 489R Special Topics in Emergency Services ESMG 491R Topics in Cardiology and Medical Trends ESMG 492R Topics in Trauma and Pharmacology ESMG 493R Topics in Medical Litigation ESWF FACE-TO-FACE CLASSES ESWF 1410 Wildland Firefighter Intern I ESWF 1420 Wildland Firefighter Intern II ESWF 2430 Wildland Firefighter Intern III Enroll early! Please note that courses are subject to cancellation due to low enrollment.

DEGREE AT UVU RECRUIT CANDIDATE ACADEMY (RCA) By application only. For more information visit or make an appointment with an academic advisor by calling the Student Center at 801-863-7798. On-the-job internships are available for all RCA graduates. Application deadlines: June 1 for Fall Semester and October 1st for Spring Semester. st

PARAMEDIC By application only. For more information visit or call 801-863-7798 or 888-548-7816. Please check for current and updated course listings.

Attention: Certification Fee Increase for Non-fire Agencies Beginning July 1, 2018, the certification fee for all non-fire agencies will increase to $90. This fee covers the cost for the examination and certification. This increase does not affect fire departments. If you have any questions, please contact the Certification Office at 801-863-7752.

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Nonprofit Organization U.S. POSTAGE

Nonprofit Organization U.S. POSTAGE

Utah Valley University

Utah Valley University




. MS 193 R E A N D R E800 S C UW. E UNIVERSITY A C A D E M Y PARKWAY, OREM, UT 84058-6703

U N I V E R S I T Y P A R K W AY, O R E M , U T 8 4 0 5 8 - 5 9 9 9




UFRA Straight Tip Spring 2018 - Volume 19, Issue 2  

UFRA Straight Tip (ISSN 1932-2356) is published quarterly by Utah Valley University and the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy (

UFRA Straight Tip Spring 2018 - Volume 19, Issue 2  

UFRA Straight Tip (ISSN 1932-2356) is published quarterly by Utah Valley University and the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy (