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Winter 2018 / Volume 19, Issue 1







Utah Fire and Rescue Academy Magazine







Visit us online at




Due Process Basics


Firefighter Stress: Manage It So It Doesn't Manage You


No-Show Tattoo Policy Questioned


Scene Size-up/Assessment, Part I


Elected Officials and the Fire Chief









In Extremis Leadership: Leading When Lives Are on the Line


Sprinkler Systems: How Much Water is Enough?



Unified Fire Authority, North Davis Fire District


Hurricane Valley Fire District

Junction Fire Department

As part of Winter Fire School 2016’s rope rescue course, Jo Jensen of the North Tooele Fire District is preparing to perform a “pickoff” maneuver. In this maneuver, the rescuer is lowered to a victim/patient, and the victim is attached to the rescue system (or picked off of their problem). This technique is commonly used in a top-down rescue evolution to rescue/retrieve a stranded person, whether that person was hiking and “cliffed out,” had fallen into fall protection, or needed rescuing from a variety of other situations.




Managing Editor Lori Marshall

Editor Kaitlyn Hedges

Design Phil Ah You

Published by Utah Valley University




Avoiding a Confined Space Tragedy, Part III 2017 Summary Report


photograph by Dan DeMille







Public Information Officer Basics








Visit us online at


Message from UFRA WINTER 2018, Volume 19 Issue 1 To Subscribe: To subscribe to the UFRA Straight Tip magazine, or make changes to your current subscription, call 1-888-5487816 or visit magazine.html. The UFRA Straight Tip is free of charge to all firefighter and emergency service personnel throughout the state of Utah. UFRA Customer Service Local (801) 863-7700 Toll free 1-888-548-7816 UFRA Straight Tip (ISSN 1932-2356) is published quarterly by Utah Valley University and the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy and distributed throughout the state of Utah. Reproduction without written permission from the publisher is strictly prohibited. Send inquiries or submissions to: UFRA Straight Tip magazine 3131 Mike Jense Parkway Provo, Utah 84601 Phone 1-888-548-7816 Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in the UFRA Straight Tip are those of the authors and may not be construed as those of the staff or management of the UFRA Straight Tip, Utah Fire & Rescue Academy, or Utah Valley University.

The Volunteer Chief’s Corner by Dave Owens Assistant Director of Training

Many people walk into the position of fire chief with no idea how complex it can be. Some may even have the position without seeking it, but all accepted it because of a dedication to providing service to their community. They don’t have a clear idea of what needs to be done or what the ramifications of not doing them can be. As the chief, do you know if your department is NIMS compliant and why that is important? Do you understand how the ISO rating for your community is determined and where you can make the most of the money spent on pursuing the best rating you can for your community? How current are your SOGs? Do they address social media? Do you understand how to use social media to your advantage? Do you know what grants are available and how to write an effective narrative on the grant application? When was the last time your SCBA tanks were hydrostatic tested? These are just a few of the topics a chief should be concerned with. The information overload to the new fire chief feels very much like drinking from a fire hose. To address this training gap, the Straight Tip magazine is adding a new section titled “Volunteer Chief ’s Corner.” Our intention for this section is to create an ongoing forum that will facilitate the exchange of information between chiefs who have learned how to successfully navigate the position’s “minefield” of duties and responsibilities and new chiefs who need to learn the best practices in dealing with the challenges of this very complex position. The section will be geared toward all fire chiefs but is particularly meant to help the fire chiefs of volunteer and small, part-paid departments. Although the focus will be on helping volunteer chiefs, this information will be valuable to every member of the fire service. It does not matter whether you are volunteer, part time, or career. Each issue will explore a topic relevant to the fire service today and what the best practices and concerns are with respect to that topic. While we have some initial topics we plan to cover, we would also be interested in hearing from you. You can either recommend topics that you feel would be beneficial or contact us to propose an article on a relevant or critical topic. With this issue being the kickoff of the new section, there will be two articles in “Volunteer Chief ’s Corner”: One will go over how to effectively work alongside elected officials (page 12), and the other will discuss designating and training a department public information officer (page 14). We look forward to hearing from you about this new section, and we hope you use it as another tool in your toolbox as you progress in your organization. To submit topic ideas, article proposals, or questions, contact Lori Marshall at

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Due Process Basics One of a chief officer’s many responsibilities is to take disciplinary action when it is warranted. Though this may not be a coveted responsibility, it is a significant one that must be managed promptly and properly. To deal with disciplinary actions, many fire organizations have due process components woven throughout their policies. It’s important for chief officers to understand the basics of due process. Familiarity with these fundamentals is necessary to successfully navigate the disciplinary process. Procedural due process is required when an employee is being deprived of property (pay, position, employment, etc.). Some of the basic steps and terms of due process and employee procedural rights that chief officers must understand will be detailed in this article. The first step of due process should be an initial investigation, which should be conducted as a fact-finding mission. Certain questions should be answered and certain steps should be followed during this initial investigation: What are the specific allegations? Who should be interviewed and in what order? What questions are pertinent to the investigation? What evidence exists? After answering these questions, develop a plan for the investigation. Make verbatim transcripts of all interviews. Use open-ended questions and allow employees unlimited response time. Avoid using suggestive or leading questions. Employees serving as witnesses do not have same rights as the accused and should be reminded of their obligation to fully and honestly answer all questions. In conducting an investigation and navigating through the disciplinary process, it’s essential the employee being disciplined be treated with “fundamental fairness.” In order to treat the employee under investigation with fairness and not infringe upon the employee’s due process rights, certain terms and processes established by past court cases are important to understand: Loudermill Hearing or Pre-disciplinary Hearing: This hearing is usually held prior to an initial determination of the employee’s guilt (also known as a pre-deprivation hearing). This hearing serves as an initial check against mistaken direction. Inversely, the appeal process is usually a far more evidentiary and inclusive hearing. The Loudermill Hearing provides the employee an opportunity to present his or her side of the story before the employer makes any decision on discipline. Prior to the hearing, the employee must be given a Loudermill letter, which is a specific, written notice of the charges and an

explanation of the employer’s evidence so the employee can provide a meaningful response and have an opportunity to correct factual mistakes in the investigation. This letter sets the time and location of the interview. In addition, the employee should be reminded of his or her right to have legal or other representation present. Garrity Right: This right protects employees from being compelled to incriminate themselves during investigatory interviews. An employee can be compelled to answer interview questions; however, answers to questions that the employee has been compelled to answer cannot be used in criminal proceedings. Alternatively, the employer can allow an employee to remain silent. The Fifth Amendment to the US Constitution states that no person can be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against oneself. Weingarten Rights: This ruling means the employee has the right to have representation of their choice present during any questioning that may result in disciplinary action. Weingarten Rights apply to both unionized and nonunionized work places. This article is of course a synopsis of some of the components of due process. Fire chiefs are bound by the policies of their organization. Review your policies to ensure inclusion of the above principles. Discipline should be looked at as a process that takes corrective measures as early as possible. Shying away from taking warranted disciplinary action is a bad strategy for any organization. For more detail about what chief officers should know about due process and discipline, attorney/author Curt Varone offers a seminar entitled “Managing Disciplinary Challenges in the Fire Service.” He will present this training in Park City on February 20–21, 2018. To register for this and other courses, go to Training seminars like this go a long way toward a more complete understanding of your job as a chief officer. Paul Hewitt began his career as an Orem City reserve firefighter in 1987. After 20 years with the Salt Lake City Fire Department he served as a fire chief in Arizona before his 2011 appointment to fire chief of the Park City Fire District. Winter 2018 | 3


On a recent flight, my wife and I happened to sit next to Dr. Grace K. LeMasters, a longtime professor at the University of Cincinnati’s College of Medicine. After some conversation about our occupations, she told us that over ten years ago she had led a research team to study cancer risk to firefighters. We discussed what has been happening with regard to firefighters and cancer over the past 10+ years, including the number of states that had passed some type of presumptive cancer legislation around the country, peer counseling, and the various support groups on both local and national levels. She referred us to her published findings: “Cancer Risk Among Firefighters: A Review and Meta-analysis of 32 Studies” in the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, volume 48, number 11, November 2006. The article made the following conclusion: “Our results confirm previous findings of an elevated metarelative risk for multiple myeloma among firefighters. In addition, a probable association with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, prostate, and testicular cancer was demonstrated.”


Dr. LeMasters’s work is not the only research that has been done to understand cancer risk. A current study being led by the University of Arizona, the “Fire Fighter Cancer Cohort Study,” is a long-term (three-year) information collection effort to address questions such as which exposures are responsible for cancer in firefighters, the mechanisms by which exposures cause cancer, and the most effective means of reducing exposures. Updates will be provided at intervals throughout the study’s duration (see

Knowing the need to protect ourselves from contaminants, one of the questions in recent years for all of us to address has been, “How clean is clean?” While general cleaning procedures have evolved as best practices, scientifically established methods for removing toxic chemicals, biological pathogens, and other hazardous substances from PPE is lacking. “Validation of Cleaning Procedures for Fire Fighter PPE” (a three-year study due out in late 2018) is working to identify the contaminants found on PPE and the disinfection/sanitization procedures required to remove them (see

As you all know, within the fire service, not using SCBA and wearing dirty PPE were long considered badges of firefighter toughness and bravery. For many firefighters, those perceptions have been costly, and in some cases deadly. Firefighters who for years didn’t regularly wear SCBA or clean their PPE after returning from suppression incidents have developed various forms of cancer and other long-term illnesses. Even some young firefighters with far fewer years of contaminant exposure have received cancer diagnoses. Protecting ourselves from contaminant exposure has become something that we all need to be more proactive on and make sure that we are

One of the questions in recent years for all of us to address has been, “How clean is clean?” working together to better protect ourselves and our brothers and sisters in the fire service.

On the Hill, we’ll continue to work on legislation to enhance our existing cancer presumptive law, but we all need to be aware of the potential hazards and make sure that we are taking the steps to keep our PPE as clean as possible and to wear all of our protective ensemble, including SCBA, at all times, including during overhaul. Please be safe out there!

Coy Utah State Fire Marshal Coy D. Porter retired from Provo Fire & Rescue after 30 years of service; he then worked for almost four years as the assistant director of training at UFRA. Porter enjoys his association with the firefighters of Utah in his position as state fire marshal.

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Firefighter Stress: Manage It So It Doesn’t Manage You by Mark Lamplugh

All firefighters can identify a reason that sparked their initial passion for becoming a firefighter—to serve their community, to save people, to work as part of a team, to become part of the station house brotherhood, or something else. That reason turns into a passion that supersedes any fear of danger or job-related stress. Firefighting: The Second Most Stressful Career When comparing vocations with the highest stress levels, those that top the list involve some kind of personal danger. CareerCast (The Most Stressful Jobs of 2016, n.d.) studied stress factors with regard to 200 jobs including required travel, deadlines, working under public scrutiny, physical demands, environmental conditions, hazards, risks to one’s own life, and interactions with the public at large. Firefighting came in second place as the most stressful job, trailing just behind enlisted military personnel. One of the greatest stress factors for firefighters is bearing the heavy responsibility for

being entrusted with the safety and well-being of others. Short and Long-term Effects of Chronic Stress While prospective firefighters are aware of some of the risks of being a firefighter, they are not likely aware that research and evidence shows that unmanaged stress may lead to anxiety, depression, and PTSD (Snyder, Sournier, Michelle, Pickel, & Cameron, 2011). Chronic stress impairs clear thinking and decision-making. When stress becomes unbearable, some firefighters binge on alcohol at a rate of 2-3 times the general population, according to various studies (Jahnke, 2015). The U.S. Firefighters Association estimates that drug abuse among firefighters is around 10%. In a 1993 study, Boxer and Wild (Boxer & D.A., 1993) found that more than 40% of firefighters experienced extreme psychological distress. Other studies report 30-50% of American men and just over 25% of women with

PTSD struggle with drug abuse or dependence at some point in their lifetime. That is about twice the rate of individuals without PTSD. When we correlate the high rate of firefighter stress to PTSD, it’s easy to connect the dots between stress and the occupation of firefighting. Multiple Stressors Having repeated exposure to sudden, traumatic events is not the only stressor that firefighters face. Standard stressors that other employees face add to the chronic stress for firefighters. Consultant Linda F. Willing notes 9 sources of firefighter stress (Willing, 2015) including: 1. Shift work-stresses spouses and children 2. Sleep deprivation-leads to physical and mental issues 3. Inadequate training-fear leads to holding back or not working as a team 4. Technical problems-problems with gear and safety equipment Continued on next page.

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Continued from previous page.

5. Bad crews-annoying habits and personality conflicts 6. Malicious co-workers-harassing or inconsiderate co-workers 7. Inconsistent policies-uneven or unjust leadership practices 8. Poor leadership-lack of trust and respect in leadership 9. Rough calls-firefighters need effective intervention after crisis Managing Stress on the Front End When firefighters understand the signs of stress and how it can impact them physically and mentally, they are more apt to take measures to manage stress on the front end. The end result is that firefighters will have a greater likelihood of overall wellness. Firefighters who enjoy optimal health have less absenteeism and sustain a higher morale. Making a stress management regime part of firefighters’ daily routine may alleviate some of the effects of chronic stress so that they sleep better, and aren’t susceptible to unhealthy coping strategies like over-eating, taking drugs, or abusing alcohol. One of the first steps in making a commitment to managing chronic stress is to acknowledge the stigma against getting psychological help. Firefighters need to support one another in recognizing signs and symptoms of debilitating stress and support each other. They need to change the station house conversation from using unhealthy coping strategies as a means for dealing with trauma and create an environment that encourages conversations about instituting regular, healthy stress-prevention strategies. Basic Care Most people have a routine that includes some order of brushing their teeth, getting dressed, making their beds, showering, grooming, preparing meals, and getting ready for whatever the day holds. Part of the daily routine for firefighters should include eating healthy, wellbalanced meals, even when they don’t feel up to it. In and among the abundance of station house fare, they need to see food as a source of fuel for their bodies. Focused Stress-relief Strategies Performing physical exercise reduces stress hormones. Whether firefighters’ 6 | UFRA Straight Tip

days begin at home or at the station house, they need to work daily physical exercise into their daily routines, giving it the same degree of importance as brushing their teeth and taking a shower. Donna M. White, LMHC, CACP, states that practicing relaxation techniques is a way of rejuvenating our minds and bodies. It quiets the body, giving it time to repair itself (White, 2015). White notes that all highly stressed individuals can fend off physical and mental health problems by carving time into each day to work on relaxation techniques. Some examples of relaxation techniques include: • Breathing exercises • Active relaxation exercises • Visualization exercises • Mindfulness exercises • Stretching exercises • Yoga • Tai Chi Other stress-reducing therapies that may be helpful in reducing stress are biofeedback and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR). Biofeedback is a type of therapy that trains an individual to have control over various parts of their bodies including brainwaves, breathing, heart rate, muscles, sweat glands and body temperature. EMDR is a type of therapy that is used to mirror eye movements during the REM sleep phase. The therapist guides the patient through processing painful memories while using manipulatives to coach the patient’s body into a form of REM sleep. EMDR allows the patient to hold onto traumatic memories long enough to process and resolve them. Creating a comfortable, relaxing zone of space at home or in the station house can also be helpful towards reducing stress. Comfortable seating, aromatherapy, and soft music in a designated space can offer short respite for hectic days. Having short periods of private time, away from the public and other firefighters, helps refresh and ground stressed firefighters. The most crucial time to be aware of firefighter stress is after a traumatic call. The International Critical Stress Foundation recommends dealing with stress within the first 24-48 hours after a stressful call. Some ways to reduce stress include:

Alternating physical exercise and relaxation exercises • Keeping busy—do things that make you feel good • Remember that you're normal—flashbacks and dreams will decrease with time • Talk about it and help coworkers with it • Resist the temptation to cope with drugs or alcohol • Ask for help and be willing to receive it • Maintain a normal schedule (as much as possible) • Spend time with others— don’t seclude yourself • Journal Receiving Support from Family Members The effects of stress can be as perplexing to family members of firefighters as they are to the person experiencing severe stress. Firefighters need to share with other family members what they can do that feels supportive. They may just need someone who will listen or spend time with them without talking about it. They may need to be reminded to resume doing everyday chores and tasks as they feel able to. The firefighter may need some private time to process the traumatic event, and need to be gently reminded that it’s not healthy to isolate for too long. Firefighters may need to educate others about the kinds of comments that are not helpful like, “It could have been worse,” or other statements that make them feel worse rather than better. Family members may need to be educated about how they can offer patient and reassuring support. Firefighters who don’t actively address stress can expect job-related trauma to affect them in every way possible. Certainly, firefighters need to be encouraged to process traumatic calls soon after the event, but because of the chronic nature of the stress, they need to manage it on a daily basis. The firefighter’s best defense against PTSD, depression, and anxiety is to make self-care an everyday activity. Sources Boxer, P., & D.A., W. (1993). Psychological Distress and Alcohol Use Among Firefighters. Retrieved from NCBI: http://www.

Jahnke, S. (2015, April 7). Firefighter Research. Retrieved from FireRescue1: Snyder, J. S., Sournier, A. B., Michelle, Pickel, J., & Cameron, H. A. (2011). Adult hippocampal neurogenesis buffers stressresponses and depressive behaviour. Retrieved from http:// epdf?referrer_access_token=Raxdh2N_Sq rLlao7guZ379RgN0jAjWel9jnR3Zo Tv0NLOepdRm9DrPko_4bfU0Km7rkxPhOa2ZJc_2NpIvyvpXF3xoOFTcxw9ABQKc-4kguvmODxl-a97l14jgfRPokezV3vcO6iq6xbkb1G6xJLeU95BH8JzbLYrtyfBAjBxmcDKO_p0L7vkC-Y The Most Stressful Jobs of 2016. (n.d.). Retrieved from CareerCast: http:// White, D. M. (2015). Relaxation: Make Time and Take Time for Self-Care. Retrieved from PsychCentral: Willing, L. F. (2015, February 9). 9 Sources of Firefighter Stress. Retrieved from FireRescue1: fire-chief/articles/2100834-9-sources-offirefighter-stress/

Mark Lamplugh is a fourth-generation firefighter and former captain with the Lower Chichester (PA) Fire Company. He was the chief executive officer of 360 Wellness Inc and currently the vice president of Responder Services of Frontline Responder Services at Advanced Health & Education and Cedar Point Recovery. The Frontline program at Sprout Health Group is a comprehensive treatment program specifically designed for treating the issues of first responders and their family. The Frontline program takes a peer support approach when helping first responders recover from their behavioral and mental health issues. The Frontline program is offered at Cedar Point Recovery ( program in Sacramento, California, and Advanced Health & Education ( in Eatontown, New Jersey.

The Frontline program accepts first responders from all over the country and helps facilitate every aspect of treatment. You can learn more about their services by emailing Mark at Lamplugh is also nationally recognized in Crisis Stress Intervention through the American Academy of Experts in Traumatic Stress. Lamplugh hosts his own talk show called “Firefighter Wellness Radio” with Fire Engineering. He has helped thousands of firefighters, police officers, veterans, EMS personnel, and civilians nationwide find help for addiction, alcoholism, PTSD, and mental health support. Mark has been chosen as one of the Board of Directors at One World For Life (to head up Communication and the Health & Safety section). He can be reached for comment at

Originally published by Frontline Responder Services on on November 29, 2016. Reprinted with permission.

Changes to Fire Officer II In an effort to move our Fire Officer II certification towards accreditation, the AAS degree with the Fire Officer specialization has been removed as an option for Fire Officer II certification. With this change, note the following:

Candidates currently enrolled in the program will be able to finish their degrees and receive certification; however, they must be completed by December 31, 2021. Those candidates will receive notification by mail. • Candidates who enroll in the program in January 2018 will not be eligible for certification by the degree and will need to complete the project if they wish to be certified at Fire Officer II. Please contact Lori Howes, Certification Program Manager at UFRA, if you have any questions: 801-863-7752,

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No-Show Tattoo Policy Questioned by Curt Varone

Today’s burning question: My fire department just implemented a policy prohibiting any display of a tattoo while in uniform. Doesn’t this violate my First Amendment rights? Answer: As a general rule, no. However, that may not be the only grounds on which to contest such a policy. A no-show tattoo policy that applies while members are on-duty or in uniform does not per se violate the First Amendment. Under recent US Supreme Court case law, the First Amendment only protects public employee speech when discussing a matter of public concern as a private citizen. Arguably any statement made by a tattoo is unlikely to seriously implicate matters of public concern (I’ll leave the door ajar slightly for a specific argument in a specific case) but the bottom line is an on-duty and/or in-uniform firefighter in not a proper forum for expressing one’s views as a private citizen. Consider this quote from the US District Court for the Northern District of Texas in the case of a police officer challenging his department’s tattoo policy: “A police officer’s uniform is not a forum for fostering public discourse or expressing one’s personal beliefs.” Riggs v. City of Fort Worth, 229 F.Supp.2d 572 (N.D. Tex. 2002). The court also noted: “As with any analysis regarding the First Amendment, the threshold issue is whether tattoos are a form of expression or speech that is protected by the First Amendment. Although few Courts have considered the issue, those that have appear to agree that a tattoo is not protected speech under the First Amendment. See Stephenson v. Davenport Comm. Sch. Dist., 110 F.3d 1303 (8th Cir.1997) (stating that “the tattoo is nothing more than ‘self-expression,’ unlike other forms of expression or conduct which receive first amendment protections”); People v. O’Sullivan, 96 Misc.2d 52, 409 N.Y.S.2d 332 (N.Y.App. Div.1978) (stating that tattooing is not speech or even symbolic speech).” While the First Amendment may not offer much if any protection, collective bargaining laws may require that such a policy be negotiated as a change of the “terms and conditions of employment”. In addition, if the policy is implemented as a pretext to harass or discriminate against certain employees, or if it specifically targets members of a protected class, it may be unlawful.

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Having said all that, when I advise fire chiefs on tattoo policies, I recommend they adopt a no-show policy… assuming they have the need to address tattoos. Let’s face it—while most tattoos are benign, some tattoos are offensive. A no-show policy avoids the need for the chief to get into approving or disapproving certain tattoos which in turn would open Pandora’s Box for allegations of discriminatory censorship. Curt Varone has over 40 years of experience in the fire service. He served twenty-nine years with the Providence, Rhode Island, Fire Department, retiring as a Deputy Assistant Chief (shift-commander). He has been a practicing attorney for thirty years licensed in both Rhode Island and Maine. He previously served as the Director of the Public Fire Protection Division at the National Fire Protection Association. Curt has written two books, Legal Considerations for Fire and Emergency Services, and Fire Officer's Legal Handbook. He is a contributing editor for Firehouse Magazine writing the Fire Law column and remains active as a deputy chief with the Exeter (RI) Fire Department. Originally posted by Curt Varone on on July 2, 2015. Reprinted with permission. See page 31 for information on Curt’s upcoming class in Park City.

VEHICLE EXTRICATION During the sustained size-up/assessment phase, the incident commander must coordinate with medical personnel (ground ambulance, helicopter) to ensure the best means of critical patient transport.


SCENE SIZE-UP/ASSESSMENT, PART I One of the critical components of a vehicle extrication incident is completing a comprehensive scene size-up/assessment. There are three phases to a comprehensive scene size-up/assessment. Each of these phases overlap and expand upon each other. Phase One: Pre-Arrival The first phase or pre-arrival phase begins when the initial information is received from dispatch and rescue units go to the incident. During this phase of the assessment, responders need to consider the incident location: is the incident in rugged terrain, in a rural/remote area, or on a residential street? If the incident is located on a freeway or in a major intersection, rescuers can anticipate high-speed impacts and start to formulate an initial plan of action before arrival at the scene. Other pre-arrival factors that responders must factor into a preplan of the incident include the type and number of vehicles involved, time of day, day of the week, road construction, weather conditions, and evacuation needs if the incident involves many vehicles or mass transit such as buses or railcars. Phase Two: Initial Assessment As emergency responders arrive at the incident, the initial on-scene size-up/assessment phase begins. This phase of the scene assessment includes a 360-degree walk around of the incident. The 360 should not take more than a minute to 10 | UFRA Straight Tip

complete and yet is one of the most critical components of the scene size-up/assessment. It allows responders to have a full-view assessment of the situation and verify or modify the initial information received from dispatch. The initial on-scene size-up builds a foundation for the rest of the incident and allows the incident commander to develop the best strategy for the situation. Phase Three: Sustained Assessment When the walk around is complete and an action plan is implemented, the third phase of the size-up begins. The sustained size-up/assessment is an ongoing process that allows the incident commander to modify the action plan as the situation progresses. During this phase, the lead extrication team member should be relaying pertinent information and progress to the incident commander at least every five minutes. This allows the incident commander to measure the success or failure of the action plan and change techniques/strategies as the situation requires. During the sustained size-up/assessment phase, the incident commander must coordinate with medical personnel (ground ambulance, helicopter) to ensure the best means of critical patient transport. The incident commander is responsible for choosing the appropriate method of transportation for the injured victims based on experience and information received from the extrication and medical teams on scene.

Training for Vehicle Rescue Organizations must provide, at a minimum, basic level training (to include comprehensive scene size-up/assessment training and skills) to all members responsible for emergency vehicle rescue operations. A basic requirement outline can be found in the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 1670, chapter 8, Vehicle Search and Rescue: 8.2.3 Organizations operating at the awareness level for vehicle emergencies shall implement procedures for the following: (1) Recognizing the need for a vehicle search and rescue (2) Identifying the resources necessary to conduct operations (3) Initiating the emergency response system for vehicle search and rescue incidents (4) Initiating site control and scene management (5) Recognizing general hazards associated with vehicle search and rescue (6) Initiating traffic control (NFPA 1670, Standard on Operations and Training for Technical Rescue Incidents, 2017 Edition.) Training, practice, and realistic drills will provide an emergency service organization the foundation that is required to implement a professional, comprehensive scene size-up/assessment. Part II will cover the safety aspects of a scene size-up, watch out points, and hidden dangers. Stay Safe‌Chief Young

The incident commander is responsible for choosing the appropriate method of transportation for the injured victims.

Responders need to consider the incident’s location: is the incident in rugged terrain, in a rural/remote area, or on a residential street?

Russell Young is a retired battalion chief and assistant training officer for the Orem Fire Department, where he was responsible for extrication and ambulance driving operations. He is the chief of the Duchesne Fire Department. Russ has been a paramedic for over 22 years. He has a BS in emergency services management, is currently completing his MBA and MPS, has over 25 years of experience in fire and emergency medical service, and is an instructor and certification tester for UFRA.

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Elected Officials and the Fire Chief

By attending council meetings and listening to the demands placed on the elected officials, a chief can help other departments and thus gain support for the fire department. One of the least understood elements of being a fire chief is the human element. The position of fire chief is first and foremost about working with people—and rather than simply focusing downstream on the fire department, the chief has to work upstream with elected officials. These may be a mayor, a council, a city manager, or a fire board. Fire chiefs must recognize that these elected officials have to balance the fire service within the context of other demands. Successful fire chiefs will help this 12 | UFRA Straight Tip

balance by building relationships with elected officials and supporting the mission of the city while still promoting the needs of the fire department.

Gaining Support by Giving Support

Working with elected officials means becoming familiar with the needs of the city and the challenges of the elected officials with whom he works. The chief needs to have an attitude of cooperation and support rather than simply demanding more from leaders who have no more to give. If you are a chief and have not read Dale Carnegie’s How to Win Friends and Influence People, now is a good time to pick it up. Helping support the needs of the city can go a long way to getting the support the chief needs to run a department. By attending council meetings and listening to the demands placed on the elected officials, a chief can help other departments and thus gain support for the fire department. For example, our city has a rodeo arena and horse track. The fire department uses its water tender to wet down the arena prior to events to keep the dust down.

Elected officials usually want to help provide services, but they need information to make informed, responsible decisions. The second chief goes to his mayor, whom he sees every month at city council, and says, “Hi Bob, how are things going today?” After a few minutes of chit chat, the chief says, “Remember in my presentation on the state of the city fire service a couple of months ago I discussed the upcoming need for bunker gear for our firefighters? Several sets are approaching ten years old, which is the limit the National Fire Protection Association recommends for the life of this equipment. Not only are they reaching the ten-year mark, but with all the fires we’ve had and training we’ve done, the bunker gear is getting really worn and some of it is torn. I’m sure you agree with me that the need to keep our people safe with proper equipment should be our top priority. I have been looking into the cost of replacement, and I think that we could start by replacing four sets a year. If we do this every year for the next five years we will have everything replaced and can start a regular replacement program in the subsequent budgets. I heard the city is retiring the loan on the new snow plow. Maybe this can free up the money to get this program started.” While this doesn’t answer all the questions the mayor might have, it’s a place to start the conversation. Elected officials usually want to help provide services, but they need information to make informed, responsible decisions.

Educating with a Vision

The fire chief must provide the vision of the fire service not only to the fire department but also to the elected officials. While the chief provides the vision, the elected officials determine the level of service to the public based on the budget they allocate. It would be great to have full-time firefighters at the station ready to respond to every call; however, budgetary limitations and call volume may dictate that a volunteer firefighter model is more applicable. When discussing budgetary needs with elected officials, remember that they typically do not have the expertise or experience in fire that the chief has. It is the chief ’s responsibility to educate the elected officials on what, why, when, how much, and any other questions they might have when making requests. For example, two fire chiefs have similar departments with similar funding challenges and needs. Both need to purchase new bunker gear for all members of their department. The first chief goes to his mayor, whom he only sees when he is asking for money, and says, “You need to buy new bunker gear for all of the firefighters. The gear we have is old. If you don’t, we can’t fight fires.”

Working with elected officials is not hard. Approach them as you would like to be approached, with respect and understanding. Recognize you may not get everything you want or need, but make the effort to direct your fire service to be the best it can be within the limitations you have. Elected officials can help you get there.

Chief Rod Hammer has been the Cache County Fire Chief for the past nine years and a firefighter for 20 years. He has earned a PhD in psychology and completed the Executive Fire Officer Program at the National Fire Academy.

Winter 2018 | 13

All fire departments should have a designated and trained PIO, whether that person is selected from a pool of candidates or is the fire chief. Any department, regardless of size, has the potential of responding to a major incident—a hazardous materials incident, an aircraft accident, or a single-family structure fire that results in 14 | UFRA Straight Tip

loss of life. Major incidents like these require the skills of a public information officer (PIO). All fire departments should have a designated and trained PIO, whether that person is selected from a pool of candidates or is the fire chief. The PIO’s primary responsibility is to disseminate information to the media. Disseminating information can be done by hard copy press releases or press releases through social media platforms. The use of social media platforms, specifically Twitter—while not mandatory—is becoming the primary method for notifying the media and for the subsequent release of information because of its ease and immediacy, especially for unplanned events.

photo by Dan DeMille


Public Information Officer Basics

The PIO should always include an education component in interviews and press releases. After a major incident, the media will generally want the following answers as soon as possible: • Time and date of the incident • Incident address • Nature of the incident • Type of building or vehicles involved, such as semitrucks or trains • Names of responding organizations • Number of emergency personnel on scene • Safety equipment that played a role (sprinklers, smoke alarms, seat belts, air bags, etc.) • Cause of the incident • Damage estimates • Casualties (civilian, responder, pets) • Evacuation orders PIOs that have developed media relationships will benefit greatly when called upon for interviews or in other media contact. PIOs should establish relationships with the media in their jurisdiction, as much as possible, through visits with the media, including reporters and other staff of both print and television media. To strengthen media relations with the department, the PIO should try to quickly accommodate information requests. This may be accomplished through social media, telephone interviews, or video interviews, both live and recorded. While quick responses to information requests is important, providing correct information is more important. The PIO must make every attempt to to ensure the information they provide to the media is correct. It is absolutely acceptable to respond with “I don’t know.” However, the PIO should offer to obtain the information and provide it as soon as reasonable, unless legal or privacy issues prevent the release of information. PIOs must be educated on HIPAA in respect to what information can be released about an individual who has been treated and/or transported by an EMS agency. (Details on HIPAA can be obtained through PIO training.) In addition to disseminating information on major events, a key responsibility of the PIO is public education. The PIO should always include an education component in interviews and press releases. For example, in a structure fire that had functioning smoke detectors, a PIO would use interviews with the media to remind the public of the importance of functioning smoke detectors and relate it to the lives saved during the incident. PIOs can also utilize the media to disseminate public education unrelated to a specific incident, such as Juvenile Fire Setter campaigns.

Selection of a PIO may depend on the size of the department. In smaller departments, the PIO may be the chief or another department member who is most familiar with the media in the jurisdiction. Larger departments may be able to select a PIO from a pool of candidates. The following should be considered when there is an option to select a PIO: • Willingness to perform the role. Candidates for a PIO should want to perform the role rather than having the role forced upon them. • Availability. The PIO should be available on a regular basis. An individual who works outside of the jurisdiction or is otherwise frequently absent will not be of assistance when needed. • Experience and knowledge of fire ground operations and all other incident types that the department is expected to respond to, which may include wildland, hazmat, EMS, etc. • Ability to be articulate and professional, both in spoken and written communications. • Professional and a positive representation of your department and city at all times. • Knowledge of social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter, if possible. • A general understanding of how the media operates, both print and television. There are several courses offered for prospective PIOs to learn how to successfully fill this role. The Utah PIO Association regularly offers a basic PIO course throughout the state (see utahpio. org/training/). Advanced PIO courses are taught at the Emergency Management Institute in Emmitsburg, MD. The Utah PIO Association is an excellent resource for prospective and current PIOs. The association offers networking with other professionals and annual conferences. See their website for more information: If you have questions about being a PIO or would like more information on the subject, contact Ryan Peterson at

Ryan Peterson is a 22-year veteran of fire and EMS services. He is a battalion chief with the Orem Fire Department and currently serves as the public information officer. He is also a program manager for the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy, with oversight for the Unmanned Aerial Systems and Hazardous Materials Technician programs.

Winter 2018 | 15


In Extremis Leadership: Leading When Lives Are on the Line Leaders in dangerous scenarios were relied upon to demonstrate three major characteristics: competence, trust, and loyalty. In his book In Extremis Leadership,1 Colonel Thomas Kolditz, head of the Department of Behavior Sciences and Leadership at the US Military Academy at West Point, draws upon experiences from the battlefield, SWAT operations, and firefighting to share concepts of leadership in life and death situations. The book focuses on in extremis leadership, which is leadership where the leaders are required to routinely and willingly place themselves in dangerous situations and lead others through 16 | UFRA Straight Tip

“high stakes” events. In extremis leadership means giving purpose, direction, and motivation to people where one’s leadership is going to influence whether they survive or not. This type of situation is not a matter of simply succeeding or failing or hurt pride; it is a matter of life or death. In extremis leaders are will-

ing to share the same or more risk than their followers, as they are joining them in dangerous environments. Relating this to the fire service, we see the value of company officers that demonstrate strong in extremis leadership on the fireground in being able to lead and control their crew and having confidence in completing the assignment given. In particular, there is a fine line between effective motivational methods in these dangerous situations. The “screaming drill sergeantâ€? types are not effective leaders in dangerous conditions, as that type of leadership can cause followers to be “amped upâ€? and potentially emotionally unstable. In contrast, the type of leader that can give calm, level-headed, passionate direction makes for a more effective in extremis leader. Col. Kolditz’s research shows that leaders in dangerous scenarios were relied upon to demonstrate three major characteristics: competence, trust, and loyalty (in that order). Competence is the building block for the leader-follower relationship in in extremis leadership. Competence, not necessarily rank, will command respect in dangerous scenarios. Competency is the most important attribute in order to develop trust, the second critical characteristic necessary in high-stress operations. People fear the unknown, and entering a structure on fire is about as unknown as it gets! I know in my career I had company officers that I felt comfortable going into a working fire with because they had a reputation as solid, experienced, and caring fire officers. Because risk is shared by the in extremis leader, followers will trust the leader’s judgment and have confidence in the decisions made. In organizations that have established relationships, such as fire, law enforcement, and military, loyalty can run deep. This loyalty, the final of the three characteristics, is the result of belief in the competence of the leader and the trust between them. In addition to the three characteristics demonstrated in in extremis conditions, here are six key concepts that Col. Kolditz shares about in extremis leadership: đ&#x;”‘ Authentic leaders aren’t afraid to join in the fray. True leaders walk the walk, not just talk the talk. đ&#x;”‘ Make sure the leaders you’re developing are truly competent. Competence is the only authentic basis for trust and loyalty. Are the followers you are developing truly competent? đ&#x;”‘ Teach future leaders to be inherently motivated by conditions, not by inappropriate levels of excitement. The best leaders exhibit their calmest demeanors when the circumstances are the most dangerous. Excitable people get killed. đ&#x;”‘ Roll up your sleeves, and do the dirty work. Prove you’re willing to do anything you ask of your followers. Think about how you are willing to endure hardship and what you expect of your followers. đ&#x;”‘ Learn when to walk away and when to keep going, and don’t be afraid to tell the truth. Don’t be seduced into doing something that doesn’t feel right. Real risk management requires a plan. đ&#x;”‘ Communicate with your people, and teach future leaders in real time. Inspire by telling true stories of

real-world experiences, as recent as possible. See for yourself what is going on in the “front lines.� Company officers are truly those that can set the example as in extremis leaders, instilling confidence to succeed in their followers, sharing the risk with a promise to survive, and demonstrating loyalty that will be reciprocated. _____________________ 1

Kolditz, Thomas A. In Extremis Leadership: leading as if your life depends on it. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 2007.

Kevin Ward is a 40-year fire service veteran, having been the fire chief for Layton City since 2004. Prior to this appointment, Chief Ward progressed through the ranks from firefighter/paramedic to battalion chief with the Chandler Fire Department in Arizona. He holds several NWCG qualifications, such as ICT3 and Structure Protection Specialist, and is an instructor for the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy. Chief Ward has been an instructor for UFRA’s Command Training Center since its inception.



HOW MUCH WATER IS ENOUGH? by Scott Adams, Retired Assistant Chief/District Fire Marshal Park City Fire District and Rob Neale, Vice President, National Fire Service Activities International Code Council

areas that don’t have water infrastructure may require water supplies specifically to support the fire sprinkler system. That’s where the design guidance from NFPA 13 helps.

Fire and building officials are authorized to approve the design and installation of automatic fire sprinkler systems for new and existing buildings. The approval process requires great technical skill and understanding of fire protection goals to ensure the systems will function as they are intended. As the late fire service icon Alan Brunacini has said, sprinklers are the first to “put the wet stuff on the red stuff.”

It is important to understand the NFPA 13 calculations are independent of the fire flow requirements for manual firefighting that are found in Appendix B of the International Fire Code. In fact, according to the Insurance Services Organization (ISO) Guide for the Determination of Required Fire Flow, a building that meets the design criteria of NFPA 13 as described in this article is not required to have any additional water supplies for manual firefighting beyond what is required by NFPA 13.

But how much “wet stuff ” is required to be effective? Operations personnel know well the dilemma of not having enough water to suppress a fire: without enough water, they are putting up a losing fight. Sprinkler designers and code officials must be confident the fire protection water supply is adequate to control a fire while ensuring there is a supply for firefighters to use when they arrive.

Hydraulic Design: A Primer Nearly all sprinkler systems installed today use “hydraulic design” for fire protection. Hydraulic design enables the premises to be protected by a sprinkler system that essentially is customized for the building and contents. The fire protection purpose1 of hydraulic design is to provide the right amount of water at the right spot to control or suppress a fire.

The International Building and International Fire codes that are the basis for nearly all construction codes in the US refer to National Fire Protection Association 13, Installation of Sprinkler Systems, as the standard for design guidance. In addition to its pipe, valve, sprinkler, and alarm component requirements, NFPA 13 sets the water requirements to supply sprinkler systems. For code officials and fire departments fortunate enough to be served by reliable water systems—such as those provided by municipalities or private water purveyors—water supplies may not be an issue. Chicago firefighters, for example, will tell you they have enough water until Lake Michigan runs dry: an ominous but unlikely scenario. However, not all buildings are constructed in cities or suburban areas possessing suitable water resources. Outlying or rural 18 | UFRA Straight Tip

It may seem illogical, but sprinkler systems are designed backwards. Rather than starting at the point where the sprinkler system enters the building and branching out to cover the entire structure, the designer is compelled to find the portion of the occupancy that is hardest to reach and ensure that there is adequate volume and pressure to protect the premises. From this distant area where smaller branch lines (to which the sprinklers are attached) are installed, the system is designed with ever-increasing pipe sizes back to the point where the main controls, alarms, and primary check valves are installed. This point where the system enters the building is called the “base of the riser.” The hydraulic nameplate found on the riser provides a quick reference to the sprinkler system’s water demand, in this case 234.66 GPM.

While there are a variety of hydraulic design methods, the simplest to understand is what is known as the “area/density” method (NFPA 13

provides the detailed guidance). Using a fire’s anticipated heat release rate over a predetermined floor area, the sprinkler designer refers to a NFPA 13 graph that provides the minimum flow needed to control the fire. The design flow rate entered into a sophisticated computer program helps the designer establish sprinkler and pipe sizes needed to deliver the water.

Table 2 Hose Stream and Duration Requirements Occupancy Inside Hose Total Inside Duration Hazard Classes (GPM) and Outside Hose (minutes) (GPM)

Light 0, 50, 100 100 30 The design flow rate, or “density,” is measured Ordinary 0, 50, 100 250 60-90* in tenths to hundredths of gallons per minute Extra 0, 50, 100 500 90-120* (GPM), such as 0.15 to 0.4 GPM. While this number may seem infinitesimally small, it must *Note: The lower duration times apply when the sprinkler system waterflow be multiplied by the protected area (also from is monitored at a constantly attended location. NFPA 13) over which the sprinkler system might be expected to operate. The product of the density times the area essentially is the amount of water needed to Consequently, the NFPA 13 water supply requirements include operate the sprinkler system.2 Table 1 provides some examples. both the system demand described above and “hose stream allowances” for manual firefighting. (Thus, ISO Table 1 recognizes this apSample Area/Density Flow Rates proach as “standalone” (Illustrative Only) protection that meets its fire flow standards.) Flow Rate Area of Total Flow Table 2, extracted from (Density) Application Required NFPA 13, provides the (GPM) (sq. ft.) (GPM) water supply requirements for manual 0.15 * 1500 = 225 firefighting as well as 0.165 * 2000 = 330 the required duration 0.25 * 2500 = 625 the entire water supply 0.285 * 1500 = 427.5 must last. 0.3 * 3025 = 907.5 0.375 * 3800 = 1425 The “Occupancy Haz0.415 * 2500 = 1037.5 ard Classes” are defined in NFPA 13 based on Note: Refer to NFPA 13 for specific design guidance. the amount and type of combustibles that might be found in a building. As the fuel The total flow required applies to what is called the “hydraulic reload and a fire’s potenmote area,” the “design area,” or the “area of application” dependtial heat release rate ing upon local custom. The terms are synonymous. This hydrauincrease, the hazard lic remote area is the location where it is most challenging to class increases from deliver the minimum flow at the desired pressure because of the light to extra. For exinfluences of friction and elevation pressure loss in the system. ample, the hazard in a school classroom (light The eventual flow value that appears on the hydraulic calculahazard) is considered tion report submitted for code official approval will be slightly to be less than that of a higher to account for factors such as different pipe diameters furniture store, which, This 15,000-gallon tank provides the and lengths throughout the entire system. Normally, pipe sizes in turn, is less hazardsprinkler water supply for a rural fireincrease as they become more distant from this remote area.3 ous than a full-scale works retail outlet. spray painting opHose Streams eration with flammable Most sprinkler systems are designed to detect, confine, and conliquids (extra hazard). Continued on next page. trol a fire until the fire services arrive to accomplish suppression. Winter 2018 | 19

Continued from previous page.

riser to control a fire. Table 2 requires an additional 250 GPM for hose streams. Therefore, the total demand (sprinkler system and hose streams) is 677.5 GPM. The values in Table 2’s second column (Inside Hose Streams) can be a little confusing. What, after all, do the values 0, 50, and 100 represent? These are quantities that must be added to the calculations based on the number of what NFPA 13 calls “small hose” outlets connected to the sprinkler system. Generally, these are hose valves with 1 ½-inch hose connected for a fire brigade’s initial fire attack or that the fire service can use during overhaul.4

A waterflow test–as shown here–is one part of ensuring an adequate sprinkler supply is provided.

The table’s next two columns help determine the minimum water supply needed for the sprinkler system. For clarity, let’s first explain the third column (Total Inside and Outside Hose). NFPA 13 requires adequate water supplies for the fire department to achieve eventual fire extinction. For light, ordinary, and extra hazard occupancy classes, those values are 100, 250, and 500 GPM, respectively. This amount must be added to the sprinkler system demand (see Table 1) for the total water supply needed to satisfy NFPA 13. For example, from Table 1, assume a sprinkler system in an ordinary hazard occupancy requires 427.5 GPM at the base of the

If the sprinkler system design does not include any small hose stations, the value “0” is added to the design. If the system has one small hose station, 50 GPM is added to the calculations, and if it has two, 100 GPM is added. Even if more hose stations are installed, the maximum allowance for inside hose is 100 GPM. These values are added to the hydraulic design calculations where the hose stations are installed in the system. In the example above, if the remote area demand is 427.5 GPM and the facility has one hose station, the flow required at the base of the riser now is 477.5 GPM. The total flow of 677.5 GPM is not affected: the 50 GPM for the small hose station is “allocated” to the sprinkler system demand. What About Duration? The right-hand column lists duration in minutes; this is the amount of time the water supply for the sprinkler system, small hose stations (if included), and manual hose streams must last.

Table 3 Needed Water Supplies Based on System Demand (Random Values for Illustration Only) System Hazard Class

Hose Stream Total Demand Allowance Demand Duration Total Supply (GPM) (GPM) (GPM) (minutes) (gallons)

Light 126.7 100 226.7 30 6,801 Light 139.6 100 239.6 30 7,188 Ordinary 254.7 250 504.7 60 30,282 Ordinary 304.9 250 554.9 90 49,941 Extra 327.6 500 827.6 90 74,484 Extra 321.3 500 821.3 120 98,556 Note: These values do not represent any particular design but are for illustrative purposes only.

20 | UFRA Straight Tip

For a light hazard system, the value is 30 minutes; for ordinary and extra hazard classes, it ranges from 60 to 120 minutes. Note that ordinary and extra hazard have a range of values. The lower number in each case may be used if the fire sprinkler system is monitored in such a way that waterflow is detected and reported right away to the responding fire services. The theory here is that if the fire service is notified early in a fire, less water will be needed to suppress it. The Complete Design Sprinkler systems connected to municipal services often don’t take duration into consideration. The public water service often is designed to accommodate large fire flows and domestic demand for many hours. However, in those circumstances where the sprinkler system is connected to its own independent supply—such as an elevated tank or ground-level pond—duration becomes an important factor. Using the example of the ordinary hazard system requiring 677.5 GPM, that value would be multiplied by 60 or 90 minutes to determine the total supply: 40,650 gallons if the system is electronically supervised and 60,975 gallons if not. The sprinkler designer now knows the tank, pond, or reservoir size needed to satisfy the NFPA 13 water supply demands. Table 3 provides some random samples of needed water supplies. Summary Fire sprinkler systems required by the International Building and International Fire codes, and designed in accordance with NFPA 13, have an enviable record of fire protection. Some NFPA statistics report they effectively control fires more than 91.7% of the time. In addition to proper installation and maintenance, professional design that ensures an adequate and reliable water supply for the system and hose streams is necessary to sustain this high degree of reliability. Fire and building code officials should remember to verify these flow values when approving automatic sprinkler protection. –––––––––––––––––––––––––

Other benefits include cost savings in materials and labor, less water demand, and smaller distribution pipe that imposes less structural load. Pre-1970s “pipe schedule” design systems were considered to be over-engineered for the hazards they protected.


The actual design process is more complicated and relies on experienced judgment. The simplified examples are for illustration only.


Depending upon the application and property being protected, this statement is not always true, but is included here for explanation.


There is a lot of fire protection controversy over the value of these small hose stations, but for now they remain in NFPA 13.


REGIONAL FIRE SCHOOLS Uintah Regional School in Vernal March 9 - 10, 2018 Classes Include:

• Spouses Class (Friday Night) • Extrication • Forcible Entry • Flashover • Live Fire Certification • Wildland Refresher • Extrication

Duchesne Regional School March 16- 17, 2018 Classes Include:

• Extrication • Flashover • Rapid Intervention • Live Fire Certification

Sanpete Regional School May 4- 5, 2018 Classes Include:

• Driving Simulator (EADS) • Flashover • Forcible Entry • Live Fire Certification ALL CLASSES SUBJECT TO CHANGE

See for more information. Winter 2018 | 21


JUNCTION FIRE DEPARTMENT by Matt Christensen, Tri-County Fire Warden, Forestry, Fire & State Lands Central Area

Junction fire department's new building.

When I started as Piute County fire warden in 2006, the Junction Fire Department was almost nonexistent. Yes, they had a truck and a few guys, and yes, if there was a fire, people would respond—the siren would sound and your typical small town “bucket brigade” would get the job done. As far as a fire organization, it was inadequate to say the least. The ISO rating for the town at that time was a ten.

In 2009, Fire Chief Greg Pearson started a training program and began recruiting for the department. We started a Wildland I class, and UFRA put on a Firefighter I and II class. Greg’s leadership pulled people in from Junction, most of which are Greg’s immediate family; in fact, you could call it the Pearson FD rather than Junction FD and you wouldn’t be that far off. Members of the department include Greg Pearson (chief), Justin Pearson (assistant chief), Cody Pearson, Jeremy Pearson, Jaimie Pearson, Taunya Pearson, Dennis Garman, Mandy Jensen, Robert Thomas, Nick Whittaker, Collette Whittaker, and the late Don Ipson. Six of the members are Fire I and II certified and Wildland certified. Junction FD responds to about six calls a year, including structure and wildland fires, hazmat incidents, and extrications. They respond to all of Piute County and parts of Garfield County, and they will help anywhere else when requested to do so. ln the wildland arena, if I need their help they are always there, and I know when I request them that I am getting folks that are well trained and that care about what they do and who they do it for. They are not afraid to work hard and hike into fires. I know that if I call them, they have my back. This last summer we used their station as a command post for the Choke Cherry Fire. They were hospitable to say the least.

Some members of the Junction Fire Department.

22 | UFRA Straight Tip

Main St

100 W

200 W

300 W

200 N

200 N

Junction Fire Department 153

Center St

Center St

100 S

Under Chief Pearson’s leadership, Junction Fire Department’s ISO rating has gone from a ten to a six. The old fire department was in a two-bay building that didn’t lock: you stuck your arm through a hole to open the door. Oftentimes, equipment was missing from the truck because Junction residents would borrow equipment and not always return it. Now, Junction FD has a new building from funds acquired from the Community Impact Board.


Main St

The old fire department two-bay building that didn’t lock.

photography by Taunya Pearson

They have also added four trucks to their lineup. One truck they purchased from funds made from wildland fires, and three trucks were acquired through the state’s Federal Excess Personal Property (FEPP) program. When funding becomes available, they plan to build a better water tender out of an old FEPP semi-truck and turn the tender they have now into a tactical tender. This will give them one Type One Engine, two Type Six Engines, one Type Two Water Tender, and one Type Three Tactical Water Tender.

Main St

100 W

200 W

300 W 100 S

Junction FD has come a long way in the last eight years. I look forward to many more years working with Chief Pearson and his department.

MY WAY TO REMEMBER by Kaitlyn Peterson, UFRA Staff, Training Department

We say we will never forget, but somewhere along the way we have started to forget the courage, strength, and ultimately the sacrifice of those first responders on 9/11. We may post on social media or share a picture, but for me that isn’t enough. That isn’t giving the day and people the credit they deserve. This year, to truly remember 9/11 and honor the first responders of that day, I decided to carry out a 9/11 memorial stair climb to set aside time to reflect on that day and to get a small taste of what those firefighters had to battle. I ran 110 flights of stairs—corresponding to the 110 stories in the World Trade Center—in honor of the 343 fallen firefighters, whose names I carried in my pocket.

I did not have to battle smoke, flames, rubble, hoses, and all of the turnout gear. I did not have to communicate with fellow firefighters or work to rescue people. But the 30 minutes it took me to reach that 110th flight really put the challenges they faced into perspective. I wanted to stop many times. By the halfway point, my legs hurt from climbing, and it took all of my energy to go up the next flight of stairs. What kept me going was knowing that those firefighters chose to continue despite the conditions. They did everything they could, no matter the sacrifice.

fallen firefighters. I made it; we made it. How brave and strong those firefighters were, knowing the challenges that laid ahead. This challenge really opened my eyes to the mental and physical challenges our heroes must endure and prepare for. The sacrifices and bravery of these responders and heroes everywhere are awe-inspiring and are sacrifices that we must never forget.

UFRA had hung a flag from the tower I was using for the stair climb, and every time I passed it, the flag reminded me why I started. When I got to that flag for the last time, I felt compelled to stop and hold up the names in my pocket of the Winter 2018 | 23


AVOIDING A CONFINED SPACE TRAGEDY, PART III As discussed in Part I and Part II of this article, confined spaces can be hazardous, but there are regulations, procedures, and guidelines in place to keep rescuers safe. Part III will cover the basic hazards associated with a confined space and the personnel positions that must be implemented in a confined space, as per the regulation, to avoid tragedy. Confined Space Hazards The most common problem facing entrants in a confined space is a hazardous atmosphere. According to the US Department of Labor, “Asphyxiation is the leading cause of death in confined spaces.” This is due to not wearing respiratory protection or not recognizing the atmospheric hazard. An atmosphere is considered hazardous if any of the following are present: • A flammable gas, vapor, or mist in excess of 10% of its lower explosive limit (LEL). • Airborne combustible dust at a concentration that is approximated when the dust obscures vision at a distance of five feet or less. • Oxygen concentration less than 19.5% or greater than 23.5%. (Interestingly, NFPA 350 sets oxygen limits from 19.5–22%, and OSHA sets them from 19.5–23.5%. OSHA levels carry the weight of law and should be followed.) • Atmospheric concentration of any substance for which a permissible exposure limit (PEL) of that substance is exceeded. • Any other atmospheric condition that is immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH). The environment outside of a confined space must not be ignored. This area must also be monitored for any atmospheric hazards that may be presented by adjacent spaces, exhausted ventilation air, or any other unknown source that may pose a threat to entrants or other workers in the area. Positions in a Confined Space Entry Per NFPA and OSHA regulations, there are three primary positions that must be accounted for in a confined space entry: the entrant, the attendant, and the entry supervisor. Duties of the Entrant: • Know the hazards that may be faced inside the space. • Know the signs and symptoms of exposure. • Understand how to use all of the required equipment for the entry.

24 | UFRA Straight Tip

• Communicate with the attendant any unsafe conditions inside the space. • Exit the space quickly and without question when requested to do so. Duties of the Attendant: • Know the hazards that may be faced inside or outside the space. • Know the signs and symptoms of exposure. • Remain outside the space at all times unless relieved. • Account for each entrant by name and prevent unauthorized entry. • Communicate with the entrant any unsafe conditions inside or outside the space and order an evacuation if necessary. • Perform initial and periodic monitoring of the atmosphere in the space. • Perform initial and/or continuous ventilation of the space. • Summon the Rescue Team or outside emergency services. • Perform non-entry rescue of the entrant should it become necessary. • Perform no other duties that interfere with these primary duties. Duties of the Entry Supervisor: • Know the hazards that may be inside the space and verify isolation. • Know the signs and symptoms of exposure. • (May) perform initial and periodic monitoring of the atmosphere in the space. • Verify the availability of the Rescue Team or outside emergency services. • Assist with non-entry rescue of the entrant should it become necessary. • Terminate the entry when complete or with any unacceptable conditions. • Endorse the permit when entry conditions have proven acceptable. • Conduct a pre-entry briefing with all those involved in the entry. Some of these positions can be combined; however, a minimum of two people is required for a normal entry. The only prohibited combination is that the attendant cannot be the entrant. Other confined space position-specific duties can be staffed

Figure 1. Lockout/tagout device on an electrical circuit.

Figure 2. Salt Lake City Fire Department Confined Space Training Prop.

if necessary but are not mandatory and are detailed in NFPA 350. These other positions include standby worker, gas tester, ventilation specialist, isolation specialist, rescue entrant, rescue attendant, and rescue supervisor.

tester must be able to evaluate the results of the readings so that good safety decisions can be made, protective actions can be taken, and ventilation options implemented.

Isolation, Ventilation, and Monitoring Three critical processes MUST be performed during any rescue: isolation, ventilation, and monitoring. Every known hazard needs to be eliminated prior to entry. The process of eliminating hazards within and around the space is the process of isolation. Types of hazards to eliminate are mechanical, electrical, physical, chemical, atmospheric (the most common), biological, and psychological. The entry supervisor is tasked with verifying isolation, but if an isolation specialist, one of the optional positions, is present, that specialist should understand completely and comply with the applicable lockout/tagout/tryout isolation program developed by the employer or rescue team and is authorized to operate, install, and apply the applicable energy control devices or other isolation equipment, materials, and procedures (see figure 1). A hazardous atmosphere must first be identified PRIOR to any entry. When a hazardous atmosphere is encountered, it must be eliminated or controlled with ventilation. Space ventilation is used for three main purposes: to provide adequate breathing air, to control extreme temperatures, or to remove or control atmospheric hazards. There are many methods of controlling an atmosphere; however, ventilation is by far the easiest and most common. Vapor stratification due to vapor density in vaults and tanks is common, especially where there is little to no natural or engineered ventilation. Good practices for ventilation can eliminate this common problem. Every space, prior to entry, must have the atmosphere tested. Typically, the attendant performs the initial and periodic or the continuous monitoring of a confined space. During operations that may require more expertise or that are of significant complexity where the attendant would be “distracted” by these duties, a gas tester position may be implemented. The gas tester should be familiar with and qualified by the employer or rescue team to select, calibrate, test, adjust, and use the appropriate monitor for the atmosphere expected. Most important, the gas

The bottom line is that a confined space rescue is a technically complex skill that cannot be ignored in the cycle of annual fire and rescue training. Many departments have access to a confined space training prop. Figure 2 shows a prop used by Salt Lake City Fire. UVU and UFRA also have a prop that is available to any department team that would like to train. Every responder, regardless of being on a Technical Rescue Team, should understand the principles and processes detailed in part I, II, and III of this article. You never know who will be on scene first. Training officers and company officers should review this information and verify that their crews will respond per these basic guidelines. It’s a timely and critical opportunity for a confined space refresher. _______________________ US Dept. of Labor, 2017, Summary of OSHA Permit-Required Confined Space Rule. Retrieved from confined/prcsgen.asp.

Andy Byrnes, EFO, MEd, retired after 21 years at the Orem Fire Department as a special operations battalion chief. He was also a sworn law enforcement officer for 18 years and paramedic for 16 years. He is currently an associate professor at Utah Valley University’s (UVU) Emergency Services Department in Provo, Utah. Andy is the director of the Firefighter Recruit Candidate Academy Program at UVU. Andy is a graduate of the National Fire Academy’s Executive Fire Officer Program. He holds an associate’s degree in fire science, a bachelor’s degree in public emergency services management, and a master’s degree in instructional technology from Utah State University.

Winter 2018 | 25

Winter 2018 | 27

Wildland Certification Reminders by Hilary Kline, Certification Office Staff

Required Documentation for Wildland Certification/Recertification photo by Eric Holmes

This past summer, many of Utah’s fire service men and women were called to assist in wildland fires throughout the western US, including in Idaho, Montana, California, Washington, and Oregon. Because most of these deployments are requested on short notice, the UFRA certification team understands the critical need for immediate turnaround on wildland certification and recertification requests, especially during the peak months of May through September. There are a few things that training officers should do each year to ensure their

Certification Recertification Certification request form Recertification request form Pass written/skills exams Refresher course Physical Fitness Test Physical Fitness Test IS-700 course Wildland assignment within 5 yrs Refresher course (if exams scores are 1+ years) firefighters are ready to go when the call to aid comes: • Conduct all required training for wildland firefighters during October– March each year. • Only submit complete forms. Missing information will delay the process. • Alphabetize the names (last, first) on rosters and physical fitness forms. • Aim to have all required paperwork turned in between January and April each year.

All the required forms are located here: Once the complete paperwork has been submitted and the certification office has processed the request, a hard copy of a redcard for each individual will be mailed back to the department. During peak months of April through September, the turnaround on requests is 25 days. For any further information, please contact Hilary Kline at 801-863-7745.

Managing Disciplinary Challenges in the Fire Service February 20–21, 2018 | Park City, Utah Instructor Curt Varone, JD, EFO, is holding a two-day training intended for chiefs and fire officers who may have to investigate misconduct by firefighters, as well as union representatives who may need to advise members during an internal investigation. The program looks at the causes for disciplinary problems and explains proven methods for conducting a fair and impartial investigation.

The course will also review strategic steps that fire service leaders need to consider when addressing disciplinary issues. Due process, Weingarten, Garrity, and firefighter bill of rights laws will be thoroughly covered. The program uses numerous case studies pulled from today’s headlines.

Attendees will learn how to organize and conduct an investigation, interview witnesses and preserve evidence, and find the truth while respecting the honorable service that firefighters provide.

For event details and to register, go to For additional information, please contact Curt Varone at

Attendees will receive a comprehensive manual and course certificate from Fire Service Legal Training Institute, Inc.

INSTRUCTOR Curt Varone has over 40 years of experience in the fire service. He served twenty-nine years with the Providence, Rhode Island, Fire Department, retiring as a deputy assistant chief (shift-commander). He has been a practicing attorney for thirty years licensed in both Rhode Island and Maine. He previously served as the director of the Public Fire Protection Division at the National Fire Protection Association. Curt has written two books, Legal Considerations for Fire and Emergency Services and Fire Officer's Legal Handbook. He is a contributing editor for Firehouse Magazine, writing the Fire Law column, and remains active as a deputy chief with the Exeter (RI) Fire Department. Winter 2018 | 31

Growing Pains, Part II Wasatch County Fire/EMS by Ernie Giles, Wasatch County Fire Chief

My last article provided information about the rapid growth of Wasatch County and the effect the growth has on providing fire service. In this article, I will touch briefly on who the Wasatch County Fire is and what our current staffing and resource capability is. Since many communities throughout Utah are growing faster than expected, many of us face similar challenges. Hopefully the information that I share will help all of us develop the appropriate response capability statewide. Who We Are Wasatch County Fire started out as the Heber Valley Fire Department in 1921 to provide fire protection to the citizens of the Heber Valley. In 1987 the Wasatch County Fire Protection District was organized to provide fire coverage throughout the county to the communities of Heber, Midway, Wallsburg, Charleston, Daniels, Independence, Hideout, and the unincorporated areas of the county. Back then, EMS was managed by Heber Valley Medical Center, but in 2000 Wasatch County created Wasatch County EMS and assumed management of the EMS services. Volunteer EMTs, trained to basic and advanced levels, provide service and have responded to thousands of calls; and the demand on that service continues to grow. 32 | UFRA Straight Tip

Today, Wasatch County Fire and Wasatch County EMS work together by sharing resources in order to improve response. Having fire and EMS work together provides more qualified personnel to operate both as firefighters and as part of medical response teams. Many of the EMS personnel have cross trained to the Firefighter I National Standard, and firefighter personnel have cross trained to be EMS certified. This combined effort of fire/ EMS is a nationally accepted operating model and is practiced in nearly every community across the country. Currently, Wasatch County Fire is made up of 18 full-time employees, including the fire chief, the fire marshal, two battalion chiefs, one wildland warden, several captains and lieutenants, and one administrative assistant, who serves in multiple capacities including the public information officer. The remaining staff consists of 25 volunteers. Our Response Operating Model To provide fire/EMS service, five fire stations are strategically placed throughout the county (see table below). All the fire stations house fire vehicles, equipment, and ambulances. Other specialized vehicles and equipment are housed in the stations

to support different needs. For example, a hazardous materials response unit is housed at the Jordanelle Station, and a heavy rescue vehicle and a ladder truck are housed at the Heber City Station. All the stations have some support vehicles along with some command staff vehicles. Although the stations are all equipped with the necessary types of vehicles and equipment, the stations are not all staffed. The only complete, full-time staffing (24/7) occurs at the Jordanelle Station, where three firefighter/EMTs are housed 24/7 x 365 days per year. The Heber City Station operates with three full-time firefighter/EMTs from 6:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. daily. For calls after 6:00 p.m., volunteers are paged and respond. For calls in all other areas, volunteers are paged and respond from their homes to the Heber Station or the remainder of the cities in the unincorporated areas of the county. Midway and Timber Lakes rely solely on volunteer availability for the first response. Regardless, any on-duty personnel and volunteers are paged for the response. This type of response generally works, yet it cannot be sustained as the demand on services continues to grow. Demand is increasing from the commercial development alone; commercial development along with rapid growth in the population exceed our response capability. Simultaneous 911 calls supported by minimal staffing create some of the toughest challenges possible for our current operating model. Strategic plans include methods to increase the full-time staffing and their response capability as soon as possible to meet the growing need, but we

will need a great deal of support from the community to make those changes. We must be able to reduce response times for any incident and effectively deploy resources within a short period of time in order to increase life safety and reduce property loss. Reducing response times is critical for both medical and firerelated calls. Did you know that when someone suffers a heart attack, the chances of survival increase if a trained medical team arrives at the scene and begins treatment in four minutes or less? A minimum of four to five trained personnel are needed to assist the patient for a good outcome. Ideally, up to eight responders should be on the scene to assist in management of that patient and transportation to the closest hospital. Similarly, if a fire is reported in a modern residential structure, fire growth can exceed the capability of our current response within five minutes or less from the time of report. Therefore, if a well-trained team of three or four firefighters arrive at a reported structure fire with at least two additional back-up teams of three to four each within four to six minutes, then the possibility of saving lives and controlling the fire in the structure increases exponentially. Our goal is to meet or exceed expectations in these types of responses, but to do that we need to move aggressively to make changes that improve the future of our community. With this background about Wasatch County Fire/EMS and our current operating model, the next article will illustrate what needs must be met in order to keep up with the increasing demands of our fast-growing county.

Wasatch County Fire/EMS Current Staffing Configuration Stations



Type of Service

Heber City

80 West 100 South Heber City, Utah

3 full-time firefighter/ EMTs; Volunteers respond for overnight coverage

Fire/EMS. Staffed from 6:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. daily and is augmented by volunteers. After hours calls may be delayed if volunteers are not available.


10420 North Jordanelle Blvd. Jordanelle Basin, Utah

3 full-time firefighters/ EMTs

24/7 x 365 days, Fire and EMS respond to all other areas within the county to support initial response. Limited number of firefighters for structure fire initial arrival.


130 East 300 South Wallsburg City, Utah

Volunteer only—coverage improves for overnight response, as volunteers are close to the station

Fire/EMS. Volunteers report to the station and then respond to the scene in the appropriate apparatus. If volunteers are delayed, then response is compromised.


100 West 32 North Midway, Utah

Volunteer only

Fire/EMS. Volunteers report to the station and then respond to the scene in the appropriate apparatus. If volunteers are delayed, then response is compromised.

Timber Lakes

2085 Timber Lakes Drive East Heber, Utah

Volunteer only

Fire/EMS. Volunteers close in the area report to the station and then respond to the scene in the appropriate apparatus. If volunteers are delayed, then response is compromised.

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Fighting Cancer: Mobile Extractor Trailer by Rod Hammer

Before he passed, 36-year-old Assistant Chief Travis Peterson spoke often about his cancer. He said we must start talking about it, make more people aware of it, and more than that, start doing something about it. During the past two years, cancer has taken the lives of two firefighters in the Cache County Fire District. Another firefighter has been treated for skin cancer. We do not have a large staff. In fact, of the six members of our staff, three have had some form of cancer. Like you, we have read the scary articles on the risk of cancer for firefighters. Like you, we secretly hoped it would not happen to us. Unfortunately, it did. Before he passed, 36-year-old Assistant Chief Travis Peterson spoke often about his cancer. He said we must start talking about it, make more people aware of it, and more than that, start doing something about it. 36 | UFRA Straight Tip

The Fire Cancer Support Network is leading the action against cancer in the fire service. They list 11 immediate actions to protect yourself against cancer: 1. Use SCBA from initial attack to the finish of overhaul. 2. Do gross field decon of PPE to remove as much soot and particulates as possible. 3. Use Wet-Nap or baby wipes to remove as much soot as possible from head, neck, jaw, throat, underarms, and hands immediately and while still on the scene. 4. Change your clothes and wash them immediately after a fire. 5. Shower thoroughly after a fire. 6. Clean your PPE, gloves, hood, and helmet immediately after a fire. 7. Do not take contaminated clothes or PPE home or store it in your vehicle. 8. Decon fire apparatus interior after fires. 9. Keep bunker gear out of living and sleeping quarters. 10. Stop using tobacco products. 11. Use sunscreen or sunblock.

As we evaluated our training and response in Cache County, we realized that many of the firefighters from the 11 volunteer stations in the county do not have the proper equipment to thoroughly clean their PPE. Most, including our staff, did not wash their PPE after every fire or training session. Because of this, we put a moratorium on the flashover prop because we did not have a good way to ensure PPE was clean afterwards. As we tried to come up with a solution, Logan City Chief Jeff Peterson suggested a mobile extractor trailer that could be moved from station to station after a fire. This way, each of the 11 volunteer departments in the county would not have to purchase their own extractor. The resource could be shared between all of the departments in the county.

Each of the departments that use the extractor have to provide hot and cold water connections at their station using a common garden hose connector. They also have to wire in a 50-amp electrical outlet to connect power to the trailer.

We approached the Cache County Council and proposed a mobile extractor trailer. They graciously funded the project in the capital budget. We also approached Logan Coach, Sharp Trucking, and Sprint Print, who generously donated money or services to complete the project. We were able to purchase a 7 x 14 tandem axle trailer and install two SpeedQueen washer/ extractors. Water supply for the extractors was connected to a hose system so that we could attach a garden hose from the station to the extractors. Electricity was supplied via a circuit box connected to the washers with a 70’ extension cord capable of carrying a 50-amp load.

While we all still have to do our part to prevent cancer, including following the 11 guidelines listed above, we hope that we are able to help protect our local firefighters with a shared resource. So far, the unit has been well received and put to good use. For additional information or specifications on this trailer, contact Rod Kearl at 435-755-1673.

When the departments need to have their PPE washed, we back the trailer into the station, connect water and power, and set up the drain to either run out into the floor drain of the station or pump it into a sewer drain. PPE is separated so that we can wash the liners in one machine and the shells in the other. We can clean four sets of turnouts every 45 minutes. Once cleaning is done, we move to another department or store the extractor in our training building.

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Successful Changes for the Southeast Regional Fire School by Chuck Tandy, UFRA Program Manager

Keynote speaker: Rod Hammer

The Dutch oven cook-off winner with her first-place prize.

UFRA staff serving lunch.

Two years ago, in October 2015, UFRA held the first annual Southeast Regional Fire School in Moab. The event was held over three days and was well attended. The following year, we repeated the event, this time with the successful addition of a satellite class in Blanding the day before.

highlight the volunteer firefighters from the towns and communities of the region, adding a keynote speaker along with a dinner, and alternating the location between Moab and Blanding.

with UFRA administrators and managers to discuss concerns and ask questions.

After the 2016 event, we sought for ways the school could be improved. UFRA aims to be constantly improving, especially in providing effective, quality training. Thus, in planning for the 2017 Southeast Regional Fire School, I met with Moab, Blanding, and the San Juan County fire chiefs to brainstorm ways the event could be improved. We came up with various ideas that we decided to implement, including adding a community component to

Our 2017 Southeast Regional Fire School took place in Blanding on October 13th and 14th. The event began on Friday evening with a dinner hosted by Blanding Fire Department and a phenomenal keynote address given by Rod Hammer, PhD, on the challenges of rural firefighting in Utah. He was enlightening, uplifting, and motivational—exactly what we were looking for. The second day of the event began early Saturday morning with a fire chief ’s round table, where area fire chiefs had an opportunity to meet

Classes began that day at 0800 at the community park. The classes presented were Live Fire Evolutions, Flashover Survival Training, Vehicle Extrication, and Forcible Entry. The community event portion of the day was headed up by Blanding Fire Department, who had solicited donations from local and statewide businesses to fund the activities. Community members participated in a Dutch oven cook-off judged by participating firefighters. In addition, a local grocer provided a BBQ hamburger and hotdog lunch, and UFRA staff were the chefs and servers. We served approximately 160 meals! Afternoon and evening classes went as planned, culminating at 2200 hours. Overall, participant evaluations and feedback from the chiefs has been favorable. The success of this regional school can be directly attributed to the hours of work and preparation by Blanding Fire Department’s Chief Corey Spillman, Firefighter Todd Moon, and past Chief Craig Stanley. Their efforts combined with the professional and passionate instruction given by the UFRA instructors culminated in the perfect recipe for success.

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UFRA Employee Named as Interim Chair of NFPA Committee Ryan Peterson is the program manager for the new UFRA Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) program. Ryan has been a principal member of the NFPA Technical Committee on Unmanned Aerial Systems since its inception in 2016. He has recently been selected to serve as interim chair of the committee. Ryan is currently developing a tiered UAS program for UFRA. He presented an introductory UAS program at Winter Fire School 2018. He has presented on unmanned aerial systems

Jay Ziolkowski has been promoted to assistant chief at Unified Fire Authority (UFA). Jay has been with UFA since 1993 and over the years has served in a variety of positions within both operations and administration.

Jay is a graduate of the National Fire Academy’s Executive Fire Officer Program and holds a BGS in management from Brigham Young University and two associate degrees related to fire science from Utah Valley University.

Most recently, Jay served as a field battalion chief in the northwest area of UFA. Previous administrative assignments have included management of the EMS Division and the Logistics Division and an assignment as the public information officer.

Jay is most proud of his family and his community outreach. He and his wife, Kristy, have been married for 27 years and have four children and one grandchild. Jay enjoys his associations with members of the Taylorsville Exchange Club and also serves on the board of directors for the Family Support Center.

North Davis Fire District

Mark Weekes Battalion Chief

Ryan has been an FAA-licensed pilot for 21 years. He has 17 years of RC helicopter, airplane, jet, and drone experience.

Unified Fire Authority

Climbing the Ladder

Jay Ziolkowski Assistant Chief

at FDIC and Fire Rescue International. Ryan recently presented a UAS webinar for PennWell Publishing and has been asked to return as a webinar presenter.

David Youngberg Battalion Chief

Allen Hadley Battalion Chief

On September 21st, the North Davis Fire District (NDFD) held a badge pinning ceremony for their three new battalion chiefs: Mark Weekes, David Youngberg, and Allen Hadley. Chief Weekes has over 28 years in the fire service and has been the fire training officer, USAR lead, and a member of the Apparatus Design Team at NDFD. Chief Youngberg has over 22 years in the fire service and has served NDFD as a medical training officer, HAZMAT officer, and USAR team member. Chief Hadley has been instrumental in new recruit training and vehicle, equipment, and facilities maintenance at NDFD. All three of these new chief officers are also instructors and testers for UFRA. They have trained and tested firefighters throughout the state of Utah for many years. Congratulations and good luck to each of them! Winter 2018 | 39

Climbing the Ladder

Hurricane Valley Fire District

The Hurricane Valley Fire District promoted and hired the following personnel to add to their existing six line staff in 2017. We would like to welcome them to their new positions.

Tyler Ames Firefighter/ Paramedic

Nate Anderson Firefighter/ EMT-B

Kristin Ford Firefighter/ Paramedic

William Garrett Firefighter/EMT-B

Joel Kaewekuloa Firefighter EMT-A

Brandon Kuhlmann Firefighter/EMT-B

Merlin Spendlove Battalion Chief

Nick Wright Battalion Chief

Cody Latuda Firefighter/ Paramedic

Gabe Runolfson Firefighter EMT

Dave Munson Firefighter Parmedic

New Hire Blake Mickelson Firefighter EMT-A

The Hurricane Valley Fire District covers five cities in over 500 square miles within Washington County and provides 24-hour paramedic coverage to the many citizens and visitors within our area. Firefighter Nick Mees (not pictured)

New Hire Kohl Furley Battalion Chief






Department Recognition

Garland Fire Department

Congratulations to Garland Fire Department and the firefighters who have worked so hard to achieve state certifications! Special acknowledgement goes to Chief Robert Johnson and the training officers of Garland

Fire Department for their efforts to move the fire service to a higher level of professionalism through certification. All certification levels that Garland Fire Department hold are accredited, which leads

• Wildland Firefighter I—Gold • Fire Officer I—Gold • Firefighter I—Silver

• Firefighter II—Silver • HazMat Awareness—Silver • HazMat Operations—Silver

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to increased professionalism and thus better service to the organization’s community. Garland Fire Department was recognized at the following levels: • Apparatus Driver/Operator Pumper—Participant


Jim Boren of Kaysville Fire Department retired this November. He started in 1975 with North View Fire Department in North Ogden. He then used his GI Bill to get an associate degree in fire science before getting hired on to the Hill Air Force Base Fire Department, where he became battalion chief. While serving as battalion chief, he also served as the assistant fire chief in the 419th Reserves. Jim later joined Kaysville’s

Volunteer Fire Department and has been with them for 24 years. Jim showed his character and dedication as a first responder many times throughout his career. One of these instances took place while driving north on Hwy 89 to see his newborn granddaughter. Sensing a problem in the road ahead, he pulled over to the side of the road and took off at a run. A Flying J tanker had lost his brakes, hit a van in the intersection, and pushed it over into an embankment along with the tanker truck. Jim ran to the van and crawled into it to stabilize the driver and waited until other fire crew came to help get him out. Shortly after they got the van

driver out, the tanker ignited into flames. As a dedicated first responder, Jim stayed for many hours on the scene. There are numerous ways that Jim has served others with no thought to himself or his time. He went to Fire Safety Clown School and became the Fire Safety Clown, going to many schools and teaching kids about fire safety. He has spent many hours giving tours at the fire station and participating in the 4th of July parade. In addition, there are been hundreds of times when Jim has dropped what he was doing to go on a call. He has demonstrated for over 40 years what it means to serve others and be willing to give your all.

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Letter from the New President of the USFCA I wish to express my sincere gratitude and to express how honored I am to serve as the president of the Utah State Fire Chiefs Association (USFCA). I wish to assure you that I, the USFCA executive staff, and Chief Ron Morris of South Salt Lake City Fire Department honorably represent Utah in the Western Fire Chiefs Association, as well as in the International Association of Fire Chiefs. It is our goal to ensure that all fire agencies—rural, urban, volunteer, full time, and any other combinations—are represented legislatively and have fair, non-biased representation for their local needs. I will strive to continue providing quality leadership training annually to all who attend our leadership symposium each January.

Throughout our careers, each of us tend to become complacent and forget the things that are truly important. We often forget where we came from and why we have gotten into the business of firefighting and serving our communities. I once had Chief Noel Padden say to me that “bread and butter basics firefighting operations are what our firefighters are doing every day.” It is our responsibility to lead by example while re-enforcing the values and commitments that we have to our families, those around us, and our communities. The USFCA executive committee understands the complexity and dynamics of the diverse populations that Utah fire departments serve. We are proud and committed to ensure the delivery of quality fire and emergency medical services to those living in the state of Utah.

• B








Respectfully, Chief Becraft USFCA President

Mark Becraft began his 31 years of experience and education in the Utah fire service in 1986 as a member of the Roy City Fire Department, following in the footsteps of his father, Jerry Becraft, a retired 40-year veteran of the fire service. For the past eight years, Mark has been employed by the North Davis Fire District (NDFD) and has served as the deputy chief. He is currently the fire chief for NDFD. Chief Becraft graduated from the Weber State University Paramedic Program, is an IAFC Chief Executive Officer II, and is a Certified Fire Investigator. Through

serving in these areas, he has gained a vast knowledge in areas such as leadership, command and control, fire department resource management, and Title 17-D of the Utah State Statute pertaining to special service districts. Chief Becraft has received many awards from both local and state governments for his service in the fire industry. Several of these awards include the State of Utah Paramedic of the Year award and the Utah State Firemen’s Association Firefighter of the Year award. Chief Becraft is currently serving as the second vice president of the Utah Association of Service District’s board of trustees and has also served as the president of both the Weber County Fire Officers Association and the Davis County Fire Officers Association.


ES FACE-TO-FACE & ONLINE CLASS ES 1150 Community Emergency Preparedness Now is the time to begin working on your emergency services degree or finish the degree you have been working on.

Why Should I Earn a College Degree? • • •

Personal improvement Preparation for promotion Expand career opportunities

What Degrees are Offered? Certificates • Firefighter Recruit Candidate • Paramedic • Aviation Fire Officer

Associate of Science Emergency Services Associate of Applied Science Emergency Services • Fire Officer • Emergency Care • Wildland Fire Management • Aviation Fire Officer Bachelor of Science Emergency Services Administration • Emergency Care • Emergency Management (offered 100% online)

How Do I Enroll? • •

Apply for admissions by going to: If you have attended another college or university, request an official transcript be sent to: UVU Admissions Office 800 West University Parkway MS 106 Orem, Utah 84058-5999

What Will It Cost?

• For official UVU tuition/fee amounts go to: • Some courses have “course fees” in addition to tuition.

For more information regarding admissions and registration, call 801-863-7798 or 888-548-7816 to schedule a phone or office appointment with an Emergency Services Administration Academic Advisor.

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ESFF FACE-TO-FACE CLASSES ESFF 1000 Intro to Emergency Services & Ability Testing ESFF 1360 Recruit Candidate Academy Internship ESFF 250A Firefighter RCA I ESFF 250B Firefighter RCA II ESFF 281R Emergency Services Internship ESFF ONLINE CLASSES ESFF 1000 Intro to Emergency Services & Ability Testing ESFF 1120 Principles of Fire & ES Safety & Survival ESFF 2100 The Desire to Serve ESEC FACE-TO-FACE CLASSES ESEC 114A Emergency Medical Tech Basic – Part I ESEC 114B Emergency Medical Tech Basic – Part II ESEC 114C Emergency Medical Tech Basic – Part III ESEC 3060 Emergency Medical Tech Advanced ESEC 3110 Paramedic I ESEC 3120 Paramedic Lab ESEC 3130 Paramedic II ESEC 3140 Paramedic III ESEC 4110 Paramedic IV ESEC 4120 Paramedic Clinical Concepts ESMG ONLINE CLASSES ESMG 310G Introduction to Homeland Security ESMG 3150 Public Program Administration ESMG 3200 Health Safety Program Management ESMG 3250 Managing Emergency Medical Services ESMG 3300 Master Planning for Public ES ESMG 3600 Psychology of Emergency Services ESMG 4150 Humanitarian Relief and Disaster Relief ESMG 4200 Disaster Response and the Public ESMG 4400 Legal Considerations for the EM ESMG 425G Crisis and Disaster Management


ESMG 445G Human Factors Emergency Management ESMG 4500 Customer Service & Marketing for ES ESMG 4550 Principles of Disaster and Emergency Mgmt ESMG 4600 Public Administration Emergency Mgmt ESMG 4650 Emergency Services Capstone ESMG 481R Emergency Services Internship ESMG 489R Special Topics in Emergency Services ESMG 491R Topics in Cardiology and Medical Trends ESMG 492R Topics in Trauma and Pharmacology ESMG 493R Topics in Medical Litigation ESWF FACE-TO-FACE CLASS ESWF 1400 Wildland Firefighting Fundamentals Please check for current and updated course listings.

RECRUIT CANDIDATE ACADEMY (RCA) By application only. For more information visit or make an appointment with an academic advisor by calling the Student Center at 801-863-7798. On-the-job internships are available for all RCA graduates. Application deadlines: June 1st for Fall Semester and October 1st for Spring Semester. PARAMEDIC By application only. For more information visit or call 801-863-7798 or 888-548-7816. Enroll early! Please note that courses are subject to cancellation due to low enrollment.

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Nonprofit Organization U.S. POSTAGE

Nonprofit Organization U.S. POSTAGE

Utah Valley University

Utah Valley University




. MS 193 R E A N D R E800 S C UW. E UNIVERSITY A C A D E M Y PARKWAY, OREM, UT 84058-6703

U N I V E R S I T Y P A R K W AY, O R E M , U T 8 4 0 5 8 - 5 9 9 9




UFRA Straight Tip Winter 2018  
UFRA Straight Tip Winter 2018  

UFRA Straight Tip (ISSN 1932-2356) is published quarterly by Utah Valley University and the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy (