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Spring 2019 / Volume 20, Issue 2







Utah Fire and Rescue Academy Magazine







Visit us online at





The Annual Employee Evaluation

4 STATE FIRE MARSHAL 6 VOLUNTEER CHIEF’S CORNER Understanding the International Fire Code



Tips for Talking to our Brothers and Sisters in Need: What to Say and Do


2018 Utah Wildfire Season Summary



Physical Fitness – Working to Stay Alive, Part II


Searching Cars and the Fourth Amendment


Forestry, Fire & State Lands



Weber Fire District




Structure Protection Tactics in the Urban Interface




West Jordan Fire Department, Sandy Fire Department, Roosevelt Fire Department

Mission-Driven Culture


Flood Rescue – Preparation to Execution



Fall 2018, Class #77



Editor Kaitlyn Hedges


Design Phil Ah You

Published by Utah Valley University



Image provided by Weber Fire District.

Managing Editor Lori Marshall Y







Visit us online at

SPRING 2019, Volume 20 Issue 2 To Subscribe: To subscribe to the UFRA Straight Tip magazine, or make changes to your current subscription, call 1-888-5487816 or visit magazine.html. The UFRA Straight Tip is free of charge to all firefighter and emergency service personnel throughout the state of Utah. UFRA Customer Service Local (801) 863-7700 Toll free 1-888-548-7816 UFRA Straight Tip (ISSN 1932-2356) is published quarterly by Utah Valley University and the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy and distributed throughout the state of Utah. Reproduction without written permission from the publisher is strictly prohibited. Send inquiries or submissions to: UFRA Straight Tip magazine 3131 Mike Jense Parkway Provo, Utah 84601 Phone 1-888-548-7816 Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in the UFRA Straight Tip are those of the authors and may not be construed as those of the staff or management of the UFRA Straight Tip, Utah Fire & Rescue Academy, or Utah Valley University.

Message from UFRA Greetings from your Fire Academy! I thought it would be a good idea to review 2018 with you and provide you the information we gave to the Fire Prevention Board in our 2018 Annual Report. Did you know that the Utah Fire and Rescue Academy has been embedded within Utah Valley University for over 50 years, providing fire training and certification services to Utah fire departments? UFRA’s training offerings include a variety of course delivery options. We provide 25 core courses free of charge to all fire department employees and volunteers. Classes may be delivered off-site at locations convenient for the requesting department. Additionally, in January 2019, UFRA concluded another successful Winter Fire School. During this annual event, we delivered 92 course offerings to over 800 students in a two-and-a-half day period. When winter fire school or individual classes aren’t feasible, we also offer regional fire schools throughout the year in smaller venues to meet regional needs. Each program manager is authorized to develop schools at the request and based on the needs of the respective fire chiefs and/or training officers. Our courses in mental health, emergency driving, and live fire are still very popular. Additionally, this past year we have re-written our incident command curriculum to address the realities of those who respond to and manage emergencies with limited resources. Our latest Quality Assurance Report shows a 98% approval rating by students for curriculum and a 99% for UFRA instructors.

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UFRA will continue to strive for excellence in all phases of our operation. Classes are no good if they don’t come with a certification—and we do that too! UFRA offers 41 certification levels that prove competence in these fire service disciplines. Unlike most states, initial certification is free of charge for Utah firefighters. All this became possible by support from the State Fire Marshal’s Office, the Utah Fire Prevention Board, the Utah State Legislature, and Utah Valley University. We are dedicated to delivering quality curriculum, credible and knowledgeable instructors, and competent certification testers who validate knowledge, skills, and abilities in all certification levels. As you know, UFRA and its employees take pride in providing exceptional service to our fire service customers. We will continue our commitment to delivering quality courses, instructors, and testers for Utah firefighters. Our top priority will always remain the safety and education of Utah firefighters by enhancing their ability to deliver competent fire services to all Utah communities.

Brad Wardle is the director of UFRA as of August 1, 2017. Brad has 31 years of fire service experience, including over 20 years as chief officer. He served as fire chief for the West Jordan Utah Fire Department and for the City of Mountain View California Fire Department and as the president of the Utah State Fire Chiefs Association. Brad has an AS degree in fire science from UVU and a BS degree in economics and a master of public administration from the University of Utah.

Perhaps one of your least favorite duties as a chief officer is annual employee evaluations. Much of the sentiment you harbor for this task may be partially caused by frustrations you have experienced while giving or receiving an evaluation. After all, giving a meaningful evaluation is no easy task. Annual evaluations remain the standard in the fire service because they have many purposes. Completing employee evaluations with the following purposes in mind—and remembering to work toward helping the employee improve—can make the experience far less of a chore. •

Evaluations should be a record of the employee’s career. Much like an annual physical, an employee evaluation should embody the person’s career. They should be able to be used as a review of the employees’ progress during any phase of their career. This written history also helps in mentoring and coaching firefighters throughout their career.

Evaluations must document both good and less than stellar performance. Some believe that if an employee had a bad incident during the evaluation year and it was taken care of using company policies, the incident should be omitted from an annual evaluation. Again, think of these evaluations as a record of the employee’s career; all positives and negatives over the course of the year should be accounted for in the evaluation. That is

In evaluations, supervisors have the opportunity to set a few attainable goals for the employee, both personal and organizational improvement goals. This may be the most difficult part of an evaluation. Make sure to follow the SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, with a Timeline) goals format. It is imperative to work with employees to find areas of improvement that they are agreeable to working towards; notice I used the word agreeable, not comfortable. Goals should stretch an employee. Giving an employee that is known to be a fitness freak the goal of working out every shift is not an avenue for improvement. Rather, using that employee’s strength to set a goal of taking fitness knowledge to others in your department is a more meaningful goal.

Evaluations give you the opportunity to assist future supervisors in becoming acquainted with newly assigned employees quicker. Those you supervise today may be working for somebody else tomorrow. Keep that in mind as you write your performance review. Try to make statements customized to the employee, like “Tom thrives when given a challenge that aligns with his interests” or “Dawn may get frustrated if given an assignment with little instruction.” At the transfer of an employee, the past and future supervisor should meet to discuss the newly assigned member. Personalized evaluations can work to spark the memory of management/ leadership techniques that may or may not work on a particular individual.

It can be a bit tricky to give meaningful and accurate evaluations that also contribute to the employee’s good attitude at work. To make it a positive experience, proof the document several times before reviewing it with the firefighter. Make certain all statements in the evaluation are framed in a positive, non-threatening way. After all, employee evaluations are meant to help, not hurt, the employee and the organization.

Paul Hewitt began his career as an Orem City reserve firefighter in 1987. After 20 years with the Salt Lake City Fire Department, he served as a fire chief in Arizona before his 2011 appointment to fire chief of the Park City Fire District.

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The Annual Employee Evaluation

not to say that there is a need to rehash the whole event, but a summary statement should be listed.


FROM THE STATE FIRE MARSHAL 2019 Fire Service Legislation By the time you read this article, the 2019 Legislative Session will most likely be over. The Joint Council of Fire Service Organizations (typically called the “Joint Council”) is tracking 30 bills that are specific to the fire service or are related to public safety in general. There are currently five main groups of bills this year: 1) Code-related bills—We are going through the adoption process for the 2018 International Code Council (ICC) codes. That includes fire code, building code, mechanical and plumbing codes, etc. We have always tried to have Utah as current as we can with codes, and sometimes that can be a challenge. 2) Retirement bills—These bills work toward increasing funding; reducing the current 12-month separation prior to re-employment; giving fire departments an option of letting some members retire but keeping them in place for up to eight months while new recruits are trained so as to keep staffing levels consistent; and adding two individuals to the Retirement Membership Council. 3) Ambulance bills—These deal with allowing the Bureau of Emergency Medical Services (BEMS) to designate a NEST provider and may change how dispatch selects certain ambulances for nonemergency transports. 4) Wildland fire bills—These bills include legislation to create a wildland grant restricted account (to help replace financing that has been lost for such grants); define some management issues relating to prescribed burns; give a tax incentive for homeowners who provide proper defensible space around their dwellings; establish a “hold harmless” clause to protect municipalities and sheriffs in the abatement of a “catastrophic public nuisance”; and provide funding for potential workers’ compensation premium increases. 5) Public safety–related bills—These include provisions to deal with distracted driving; mental health protections for first responders; appropriately recording new streets into the dispatch databases; ensuring that volunteer emergency services responders deployed for emergencies have their regular job position protected while they are away; funding for schools to better deal with potential emergencies and mental health issues as well as hardening their buildings; amendments to the disaster recovery fund; and amending current laws relating to crisis response.

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Although I am always hopeful that we have to deal with only a handful of bills each year, you can see that we’re already swamped with bills to track, meetings to attend, and hearings to testify in. And as I’m writing this article, the legislative session hasn’t quite started yet. I know there will be additional bills added to our list as we go along. If you can, it would help all of us if you try to follow what’s happening on the Hill. A regularly updated list of bills can be found on the Joint Council’s website at In addition, I would encourage you to continue to develop your relationships with your local state legislator. Local legislators want to help wherever they can to ensure that all citizens in our state are safe and well protected by a strong and vibrant fire service. They need your insight and input; and those of us who are regularly working on Capitol Hill need your assistance as well. Take care and be safe out there!

Coy Utah State Fire Marshal

Coy D. Porter retired from Provo Fire & Rescue after 30 years of service; he then worked for almost four years as the assistant director of training at UFRA. Porter enjoys his association with the firefighters of Utah in his position as state fire marshal.






UFRA -2 019-

Another Winter Fire School Success by Dave Owens Incident Commander WFS 2019

As I was pondering what I should write in this article, I walked by our new UFRA timeline display in the hallway outside our newly remodeled offices. One of the first items on that timeline states that on May 3–4, 1963, UFRA held its first annual school. That was 56 years ago! Most of you who attended this year’s winter fire school (WFS) weren’t even born then. For the first 35 years, we held annual summer fire schools. Our first winter fire school was held in February 1999. From what I have been told, it was a fairly small event held in one of the hotels in St. George. This year, Winter Fire School was held at the end of January still in St. George. Twenty years later, UFRA’s winter fire school has grown to become one of the best in the country. I am not bragging when I say that, because that is what the out-of-state instructors and the vendors, who attend these kinds of events all over the country, tell us about our school. This is the marquis event for UFRA. We spend the entire year planning and looking to find new ways to make every school just a little bit better than the last one. As the incident commander, I get many accolades for the success of this school, but I always tell whoever compliments me, “It isn’t me that makes this so good. It’s the team that does the work that makes this school what it is.” We have a tremendous team at UFRA. They continuously strive to do all they can to make this event better each and every year. Another thing that makes winter fire school as good as it is, is the instructors from within the state. All the instructors who teach the core classes at winter fire school and throughout the year are as good as any in the country. They take pride in their craft and have a desire to pass their knowledge along to the next generation. As good as our instructors and UFRA team are, there wouldn’t be a winter fire school if it wasn’t supported by the fire service in Utah. Without all of you coming in for the training and the networking opportunities, this school wouldn’t exist. So, in the end, it’s you, the Utah firefighters, who make this school such a success. This year was the best attended school we have ever had. Our final attendance was 733 students. All of us at UFRA want to thank you for your support and professionalism every year. I am proud to be affiliated with the Utah Fire Service. So, thank you for another great winter fire school, and we are looking forward to Winter Fire School 2020. Save the dates—they are January 24 & 25, 2020.

As good as our instructors and UFRA team are, there wouldn’t be a winter fire school if it wasn’t supported by the fire service in Utah.

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Understanding the International Fire Code Every fire chief, whether career, part time, or volunteer, needs a basic understanding of the International Fire Code (IFC). The International Fire Code is a publication of the International Code Council (ICC), which is a member-focused association that develops codes and standards used in the design, construction, and maintenance of structures. The codes and standards that most affect the fire service include, but are not limited to, the building, fire, plumbing, and mechanical codes. Utah adopts these codes either wholly or in part, meaning the state may opt to amend, modify, delete, or accept any portion of these codes. Most municipalities and/or counties also adopt these codes into their local codes. The ICC codes are updated on a three-year code cycle; this allows for changes to the codes as new technologies, construction techniques, or safety issues arise. The current edition is the 2015 IFC, with the 2018 edition to be adopted by the state legislature this year. Every city, county, or district should have a fire code official. This official is generally appointed by their governing body and can be a fire marshal, building official, contracted professional, or fire chief depending on the circumstances of the government entity. If there is no fire code official, the fire chief, by default, generally fulfills the fire code official’s duties. The International Fire Code goes hand in hand with the other three major international codes including the building, mechanical, and plumbing codes. Much of the building code requirements are also found, word for word, in the fire code. The fire code is different than the building code in that a large portion of its focus is on the installation, testing, and maintenance of fire and life safety building features. The IFC is laid out in sections, with each section focusing on specific topics. Some topics can be complex; therefore the IFC references several National Fire Protection Administration (NFPA) standards such as NFPA 10 (Portable Fire Extinguishers), NFPA 13/25 (Fire Sprinkler Systems), and NFPA 72 (Fire Alarms). The NFPA standards help the fire official to know and understand how fire and life safety features are to be designed, installed, and maintained.

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Knowing what parts of the fire code are applicable can seem very complex but are actually based upon the building’s size and use. Most of the fire code requirements are based upon four items: 1. Building Occupancy Classification (what the building is used for): All public buildings are classified based on their use. This classification is usually determined by the building official. There are essentially 10 building occupancy classifications, with sub classifications for most of them: A-Assembly, B-Business, E-Educational, F-Factory, H-Hazardous, I-Institutional, M-Mercantile, R-Residential, S-Storage, and U-Miscellaneous. 2. Building Dimensions: Buildings are arranged in all shapes and sizes. The square footage of every floor, the number of floors above and below the level of discharge, and the height of the building are all used in the requirements matrix. 3. Occupant Load (number of people who can occupy a space): Based upon a building’s dimensions, use, and features, a maximum number of occupants can be determined. A dance hall will usually accommodate more people than a classroom because a classroom has tables and chairs.

Knowing what parts of the fire code are applicable can seem very complex but are actually based upon the building’s size and use. Another invaluable help is the Fire Marshals Association of Utah. This association is comprised of fire marshals, fire officials, fire inspectors, and fire chiefs from throughout Utah. Many of the association members have a great deal of knowledge and experience in dealing with codes and code compliance issues. Most are always willing to help answer questions or give advice. A major focus of the Fire Marshals Association is to ensure statewide consistency in fire code issues and application. This ensures the same level of safety throughout the state and makes building design and construction less confusing for developers. In addition to networking, the association offers regular training opportunities for new or seasoned fire code officials. For information on joining or attending training, go to their website at

4. Special Hazards: Special hazards may present unusual risks. Most are based upon the presence of hazardous materials or processes, unusually shaped buildings, and egress or escape obstructions. Since every city, county, or district needs to comply with the IFC, you may be looking for help in learning more about this code and your responsibilities. Recognizing that new fire officers and chiefs may need some help in understanding and enforcing all aspects of the fire code, the Utah Fire and Rescue Academy offers Inspector I & II training and certification for those tasked with fire code issues. UFRA has also recently developed a Basic Company Officer Inspector training program. This program does not replace the Fire Inspector Certification, which should be a training priority for every fire officer, but is designed to help new officers understand the basics of the fire code and perform basic fire code compliance inspections on existing buildings. Much of the company officer inspections training program is conducted online on your own time and concludes with instructors coming to you and guiding you through some basic fire inspections. Contact your UFRA program manager for more information or to schedule a class in your area.

In addition to receiving training from UFRA and the Fire Marshals Association, the fire code official has the option to hire a fire protection expert to assist in the review of building plans, fire and life safety features, and even final compliance inspection services, reference: IFC 104.7.2 (Technical Assistance). With the complexity of new fire alarms, sprinkler systems, and egress designs, most fire departments use third parties to review construction and installation plans. Fire departments also have the option to bill the developer for the cost of these professional services as part of the construction, remodel, or installation permits. Speak with your city or county building department or city manager about these types of billings. To sum it up, the International Fire Code may seem intimidating to the new fire chief, but with a little effort, over time you will be more comfortable with your new responsibilities. Like most aspects of the fire service, there are many resources for a new fire chief; it’s just a matter of knowing where to find them.

Paul Bedont has served as a volunteer as well as a career firefighter and is currently employed as the fire chief for Price City. He has worked for various private, state, county, and local governments and holds a degree in criminal justice from USU.

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EXTRICATION TOOL BOX Air Chisels Planning, training, and practicing for victim extrication using manual or alternate power source tools (i.e., air tools, battery tools, etc.) is imperative to being an effective first responder. Hand and alternate power source tools are relatively cheap and provide an organization a necessary back-up option for victim removal if and when the hydraulic or other tools fail. The key to success with these tools is knowing what tools and equipment are available in your organization and training with them in a variety of scenarios. When was the last time you used an air chisel in training or during an emergency incident?

A standard air chisel kit can contain several different types of bits with a variety of working ends and shank lengths.

Emergency responders have become less familiar with the abilities and value of air chisels during an extrication incident and what it means to be a proficient operator of one. Most emergency response organizations have hydraulic rescue tools or access to them for emergency incidents; however, there’s a time and a place for air tools, and it is important that responders have a solid understanding of how to use them, particularly tools like the air chisel. Air chisels can be useful in tight spaces. Cutters don’t always fit everywhere rescue workers need to complete a cut or remove materials; an air chisel with a long-shanked bit can easily fit and make quick work in restricted spaces areas. In a tight space or above your head, it is frequently easier to operate an air chisel than to hold a hydraulic cutter. An air chisel can also be useful in conjunction with other tools. An air chisel can be used with cutters, spreaders, and other tools to make access points for other tools and/or complete cuts, such as removing or opening the fender skin to expose door hinges. An air chisel can be used to complete many of the cuts a hydraulic cutter can, which is especially advantageous when the cutter is already in use. An air chisel can be used to remove roof skin, 8 | UFRA Straight Tip

An air chisel can be used to remove roof skin, cut windshield glass, and cut hinge pins and bolts.

cut windshield glass, cut hinge pins and bolts, force trunk locks, remove vehicle seats, etc. There are often times when spreaders and cutters can accomplish a task, but the task may be completed faster with assistance from an air chisel. To be most effective, air chisel operators must be well trained in the use of an air chisel kit. A standard kit can contain several different types of bits with a variety of working ends and shank lengths. Typically, each bit has a specific purpose; however, an experienced, well-trained operator can use one bit for several extrication tactics. For air tools to be useful at an emergency scene, they should be stored as conveniently as possible for quick deployment and use. Since air chisels may have one of two air sources, such as compressors or SCBA cylinders (with properly working and set pressure regulators), have a dedicated SCBA cylinder, regulator, and hose pre-assembled for rapid deployment of remote air chisel operations. If using with a compressor and hose reel, make sure all fittings connect and the air regulator matches the PSI required for the air chisel. As with any tool, there are limitations. The performance of the tool is affected by factors such as the condition of the tool, the cylinder pressure prior to use, the length and quality of the air hose, the condition of the compressor, and the training and experience of the responder. Despite these limitations, a well-trained, experienced responder using a well-maintained air chisel can accomplish a task faster and get much more use out of the tool and air source than someone who isn’t. Routine training with the air chisel will produce quick, effective results. An air chisel can be an effective tool when properly trained responders understand its capabilities and uses. Compared to hydraulic tools, the air chisel is a relatively low-cost, versatile tool that can supplement hydraulic tools and enhance an organization’s rescue tactics during an emergency incident. Stay Safe‌Chief Young

Russell Young is a retired battalion chief and assistant training officer for the Orem Fire Department, where he was responsible for extrication and ambulance driving operations. He is the chief of the Duchesne Fire Department. Russ has been a paramedic for over 22 years. He has a BS in emergency services management, is currently completing his MBA and MPS, has over 25 years of experience in fire and emergency medical service, and is a UFRA training program manager.

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Tips for Talking to

If this is a

our Brothers and

crisis moment

Sisters in Need: What to Say and Do I want to first start off by saying that there are times when no matter what we say or do, our words may fall on deaf ears. There is only one way to help someone, and that is if they seek/accept the help and continue with the needed treatment. In our Firefighter Behavioral Health Alliance workshops, I call this doing an Internal Size-Up. One must listen to others and then look within themselves to see what issues and challenges they are facing, some they might not realize yet others can see so well. It can be very difficult to discuss behavioral health issues with friends and loved ones, especially if you don’t know what to say or do. We must face the facts that most of us in the fire service haven’t had communication training on behavioral health for each other. Below is just a small list of tips to assist you when you see someone struggling with issues such as relationships, depression, stress, anxiety, or other behavioral health issues. 1. Be Proactive, Be Direct: We do this when responding to emergencies. We need to take the same approach when our brothers or sisters appear to be struggling. 2. Direct Questions: Remember these two questions if a member comes to you with suicidal ideations. A) Do you feel like killing yourself now? B) Do you have a plan? A “yes” to either one of these questions means you need to enact 10 | UFRA Straight Tip

your department procedures or protocols if in the firehouse. If outside of the department then they need help immediately. NEVER leave them alone! 3. Compassion: The themes to our workshops are Be Direct and Be Compassionate. Stay in the moment when talking to them. These are the most difficult type of conversations, but always speak from the heart. 4. Discretionary Time: If a member comes to you to talk about a difficult issue they are struggling with and you have never dealt with this type of issue, then let them know but also use discretionary time. Do not make statements just to fill a void. An example might be: “I never realized you were struggling with this issue and I don’t have a lot of knowledge on this problem, but let me find out a little something about this and we will talk later.” (If this is a crisis moment then do not leave the member alone.) 5. Walk the Walk: I cannot tell you the amount of firefighters, officers and EMTs/paramedics who help their brothers or sisters out by either taking them to AA classes, counselors, or even marriage counseling. They sit outside and wait until the appointment is over.

then do not leave the member alone. Taking care of our own goes well beyond the station or fireground. I know it is difficult to have these conversations, but showing compassion, being direct, and speaking truthfully from the heart is a great start to helping those struggling. If you don’t understand what they are saying then ask them to clarify. Summarizing is an excellent way to let others know you are staying in the moment. Don’t ever underestimate their situation because what you might feel is a solvable situation they might believe is a wall they can’t climb. The greatest gift we can do for others who are struggling is to let them know you are there for them just by listening and not judging them. Originally printed in the National Volunteer Fire Council Helpletter © 2016. Reprinted courtesy of the NVFC.

Jeff Dill is a member of the National Volunteer Fire Council’s Health and Safety Work Group, a retired fire captain, and founder of Firefighter Behavioral Health Alliance. He holds a master’s degree in counseling.

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Back to Basics Physical Fitness – Working to Stay Alive, Part II In Part I of this article, we looked at the troubling statistical realities indicating that the majority of firefighters die from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events caused by stress or overexertion. There is a way for us to reverse the leading cause of death among our brothers and sisters. We can improve the quality of our own lives and become a greater support for our communities if we decide today to care—to care about our families, our friends, our departments, and ultimately, ourselves. Taking care of ourselves is not solely about exercise; I tell the recruit candidates in the Firefighter Recruit Candidate Academy at Utah Valley University that it’s just as important to work hard in the kitchen as it is to work hard in the gym. In order to provide a solid foundation to build a stronger and more resilient you, you must take care of your physiological needs by eating right, drinking right, and sleeping right. Consider consuming less fat and processed sugar and more protein, fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and water. You can’t build a house without the lumber.

Figure 1. SCBA push-ups

Figure 2. Straight ladder clean and press

Exercise is fundamental to physical fitness as well. Firefighting requires you to train like an athlete. Available weightlifting and fitness equipment in fire stations vary from department to department. Many responders can use the city/county/local fitness facility on-duty. Acquiring your own complement of workout equipment is also an option. A selection of kettle bells, dumbbells, and specialized gear like a TRX® Tactical Conditioning System or a Brute Force® Sandbag are extremely versatile and provide variety for your workout. The goal of any exercise or piece of equipment is to help you increase cardio fitness, muscular strength, mobility, and flexibility.

If your heart and body can work hard for 10 minutes near your maximum heart rate, your chances of survival in a 10-minute firefight increase dramatically. 18 | UFRA Straight Tip

Figure 3. Tailboard “box” jump

A common excuse for not working out on-duty is that “nobody will go to the gym with me.” So get out there and work out alone. There is nothing at the gym that you can’t replicate in the station. I’ve included some exercises that can be organized into circuits: rotating one exercise per minute, working your way up to at least a 10-minute circuit (10 exercises in 10 minutes). Use a one-minute repeat timer on your phone. If your heart and body can work hard for 10 minutes near your maximum heart rate, your chances of survival in a 10-minute firefight increase dramatically. Try

• •

• Figure 4. Hose pack squat

• •

Figure 5. Battle hose

the circuit for 10 minutes, rest and recover for 3 minutes, then repeat. Here is an example of 10 exercises in no particular order, although it’s best to alternate upper and lower body exercises in the circuit. You can do these exercises alone or as a group in the station—there’s no need for the gym:

Body weight (BW) exercises—burpees, mountain climbers, push-ups, sit-ups, pull-ups, chin-ups, lunges, air squats, etc. SCBA push-up—Start on top of the bottle with a diamond type push-up. Push up on the right with your left hand on the bottle, then push up to the left with your right hand on the bottle, return to the middle of the bottle and repeat (Fig. 1). Straight ladder clean and press—Lay the ladder on the beam, bend over the ladder, and grab two rungs in the middle. Flip the ladder over your head, and press it high. Bring the ladder back to the floor and repeat (Fig 2). Tailboard “box” jump—Jump up with both feet onto the tailboard, stand up, then jump back to the floor. Variation: up-up-down-down stepping instead of jumping, and alternate legs for the step up (Fig. 3). Tower climb or stairs—Climb stairs as dynamically as possible (don’t just walk), hitting every other stair going up and every stair going down. Hose pack squat—Prepare 50' or 100' of hose folded into a horseshoe pack and secure with webbing or duct tape. Place this on your shoulders and squat. Your femur should be parallel with the floor at the bottom of the squat (Fig. 4). Battle hose—Place 50' of hose around an object (a round pole or post if possible), and use these like a battle rope, with arms together and then alternating arms (Fig. 5). Ladder squat thrust—Place a straight ladder against the tire of an apparatus and lay it flat. To begin, hold the tips of the ladder in a squatting position and thrust upwards with full arm extension and onto the tips of your toes, then reset and fire off again. This should be an athletic, full-body, explosive move. Variation: Add weight to the ladder with a sandbag or hose roll (Fig. 6). Tailboard dip—Place your hands on the edge of the tailboard with fingers forward and your back to the tailboard. Dip as deeply as possible, then raise back up to full arm extension (Fig. 7). Bear crawl hose drag—Use a hose roll tied with a short webbing loop. While crawling on hands and feet, drag the hose under your midline as you go, alternating arms with each “step.” Use a straight line or a down-and-back course (Fig. 8).

There are so many exercises and variations. Use your imagination to improve on these or search for ideas from online resources. A few examples of commercial fitness sites include,,, 555fitness. org, and Continued on next page.

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Continued from previous page.

Figure 6. Ladder squat thrust

Figure 7. Tailboard dip

When your fitness level allows, try circuit training in partial or full gear with SCBA. The ability to work under stress while on air is invaluable when required on the fire scene. Working out on air cultivates confidence in your cardio abilities, increases knowledge of your air consumption habits under stress, and improves your overall cardio health and stamina. Exercises compose the bulk of a workout of course, but other essential workout components should not be forgotten. Perform a full-body warm up and stretching before a workout, and take three to five minutes to cool down after vigorous exercise. While stretching, don’t bounce; hold your stretch for at least 20 seconds. Drink water-based liquids before, during, and after your workout. Dehydration can make you feel pretty wasted—not what you want when going back to work. When you feel wasted, you stop working hard, and your level of effort and exertion will decrease the next time you work out. On the other hand, hydration will move the lactic acid from your muscles quicker, which speeds up recovery. If working out is new to you or you’re currently out of shape but have a desire to change your body and mind, make sure you’re cleared by a physician to begin a rigorous workout regime. My final thought for you is this: why do we do 100 sit-ups? For the 96th, 97th, 98th, 99th, and 100th sit-up. The previous 95 were simply preparation for the last five sit-ups; it’s the last five that will cause your body to change—getting bigger, faster, and stronger. We must challenge ourselves to see improvement and change. If we quit early when the workout begins to “suck,” we stop short of where real change occurs. Push through it, work to stay alive, and beat the odds. Best of luck! Andy Byrnes, EFO, MEd, retired after 21 years at the Orem Fire Department as a special operations battalion chief. He currently works as an associate professor for Utah Valley University and as director of the university's Recruit Candidate Academy. 20 | UFRA Straight Tip

Figure 8. Bear crawl hose drag

Today’s burning question: We have a battalion chief who

insists on searching cars at vehicle accidents, for mainly for drugs (legal or illegal). He will literally search it like a police officer would. He never asks the patient or bystanders that may be with the patient for permission before searching. He recently searched a car and the driver/patient was questioning what he was doing to the point a police officer had to intervene. Is this BC violating the patient’s rights and is he breaking the law?

Answer: Most firefighters do not consider themselves to be

“government agents”. We tend to think of ourselves as working directly for the people we serve, and things like the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendment, along with the need for probable cause, only apply to the police, the FBI and folks like that who are looking to charge someone criminally. The reality is we are agents of government, and we are subject to the Fourth Amendment. The founders of our nation understood that people who work for government (whether well-intentioned or not) cannot be allowed to arbitrarily search people’s private areas. We can debate whether in a given instance a search was justified. We can debate whether while treating a patient some form of contraband was visible in plain view. Debating things on a case-by-case basis is one thing. But to routinely conduct a search of a person’s automobile looking for drugs is an example


Searching Cars and the Fourth Amendment

of government abuse at its worst. It is not only illegal, the battalion chief opens himself and the department up to a civil rights lawsuit for violating the 4th Amendment. It is also a violation of the oath that firefighters (those who are sworn) take: to uphold the Constitution and the Laws of the United States and the State of…….. . In that regard many fire departments consider a violation of one’s oath of office to be a disciplinary offense. Originally posted on on December 4, 2018. Reprinted with permission from Curt Varone.

Curt Varone has over 40 years of fire service experience and 30 as a practicing attorney licensed in both Rhode Island and Maine. His background includes 29 years as a career firefighter in Providence (retiring as a Deputy Assistant Chief), as well as volunteer and paid on call experience. He is the author of two books: Legal Considerations for Fire and Emergency Services, (2006, 2nd ed. 2011, 3rd ed. 2014) and Fire Officer's Legal Handbook (2007), and is a contributing editor for Firehouse Magazine writing the Fire Law column.

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WEBER FIRE DISTRICT Weber Fire District (WFD) was created as a special service area in 1982 by the Weber County Commissioners. Prior to its creation, the department was known as the Weber County Fire Department. The District provides emergency fire and medical services to all the unincorporated areas of Weber County and the incorporated cities of Farr West, Hooper, Huntsville, Marriott-Slaterville, and West Haven. The District covers a geographical area of approximately 511 square miles of land area with an estimated population of 44,000. Our service area is diverse, including metro and rural areas, reservoirs, three ski resorts, miles of hiking and biking trails, rivers, industrial centers, and farmland. WFD has grown quickly over the past 37 years, growing from three stations and less than 25 employees to six stations and 88 employees. Today’s staffing: 1 fire chief 1 deputy chief 1 fire marshal 1 deputy fire marshal 1 fire warden 3 battalion chiefs 3 medical lieutenants 12 paramedics 18 captains 18 driver/engineers 27 firefighter/AEMTs 1 administrative services manager 1 office technician 13 part-time paramedic/ AEMT firefighters Weber Fire offers a wide variety of services, including paramedic and AEMT medical response, heavy rescue, hazmat, wildland, fire prevention, and many other services. Our stations are spaced throughout our service area and include: 2 ladder trucks 9 fire engines 7 type 6 wildland engines

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1 type 4 wildland engine 3 water tenders 1 hazmat truck 1 heavy rescue truck 1 paramedic rescue truck 6 ambulances 5 staff trucks 5 utility trucks 2 side by sides 1 fire train Weber Fire District has a Hazmat Specialty Station, Station 61, whose personnel are trained to the Hazmat Technician level. We staff three technicians per day who are capable and ready to respond to both county and regional emergencies. Our technicians are actively involved in training and working groups for the Weber County Hazmat Task Force, Utah Region 1 Hazmat Task Force, and state projects. We also staff two UFRA Hazmat Technician instructors who are also on the curriculum and test review boards for UFRA. Weber Fire District has a Heavy Rescue Specialty station, Station 66. From Station 66 we run a Heavy Rescue that responds throughout the county on calls that include, but are not limited to, structural collapse, trench collapse, highand low-angle rope rescue, vehicle and machinery extrication, and many other calls needing specialized skills. We have six heavy rescue techs, two each shift, that are always on duty. The Fire Prevention Division currently is staffed with a fire marshal, deputy fire marshal, and three on-duty fire investigators. Prevention works with five cities and Weber County on plan reviews, inspections, code enforcement, public education, and fire investigations. We have a current ISO rating of 4/4x/10 depending on distance and available fire flow. One of the challenges in our office is the size of our area and the remote nature

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Weber Fire District has a national wildland fire program. The program consists of 20 firefighters. Weber Fire District has benefited from the wildland fire program by advancing our wildland qualifications and suppression techniques. The Weber County fire warden and three assistant fire wardens are stationed with Weber Fire District. Our Wildland Program includes: 83— Wildland Firefighter I 31— Advanced Wildland Fire Firefighter 15— Incident Commander Type 5 8— Engine Boss 6— Incident Commander Type 4 1— Task Force leader with one trainee 1— Divisions Group Supervisor 4— Firing boss 5— Fallers type II 8— Faller type III 9— Wildland Fire Investigator Weber Fire District is proud to serve our citizens and those that visit and recreate in our service area. We are committed to the highest level of service that we can offer and are continually training and adding services to improve what we offer to the public.

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Weber Fire District takes wildland fire very seriously and is proactive in wildland fire prevention, wildland fire fuel mitigation, and wildland fire suppression. Wildland fire fuel mitigation consists of working with communities that have a high wildland fire threat and risk. Projects consist of home assessments and chipping projects. Our wildland fire prevention message is delivered through annual or regular public meetings.

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In terms of community engagement, WFD teaches the county CERT program and runs a clown program for education in the schools. During Fire Prevention Week, we do one to two open houses for the public to attend and learn fire safety. Our office works with the Home Sprinkler Coalition, the state code committee, and the State Fire Marshal’s Office as well as other local prevention divisions to stay fair and consistent with the Fire Code.

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of homes being built in the upper valley. It becomes a challenge to protect these structures while staying within state law; it’s a constant concern for the wellbeing of our citizens.

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Structure Protection Tactics in the Urban Interface From 1990 to 2010, the number of new homes in the wildlandurban interface in the US grew by 41%, to a staggering 43.4 million1. Adding in the last eight years of a similar percentage of growth means potentially nearly 50 million homes are in various stages of risk within the interface areas. Even if a fire department’s response area doesn’t include interface, with today’s robust automatic and mutual aid, crews need to be prepared to respond to fires in this challenging environment. Protecting structures in the urban interface has many facets, including building triage, fuel reduction, coordination with hand crews, use of dozers, and coordination with air resources. The focus of this article is to cover some basic engine company tactics as they relate to structure protection with regard to building triage decisions. I highly recommend attending the National Wildfire Coordinating Group course S-215 Fire Operations in the Wildland/Urban Interface (available through UFRA) for more comprehensive training. Basic structure triage decisions in the interface can be broken into four categories, which I have listed below with some recommended flagging I have found to be beneficial to engine companies as they are assigned to previously triaged areas.

• Threatened/non-defendable— check and go (red flagging) • Threatened/defendable—prep and go (orange flagging) • Threatened/defendable—prep and defend (green flagging) • Potentially threatened/standalone (green flagging) Having the benefit of triaged structures will aid the company officer in deciding the appropriate engine tactics to be utilized. For the purpose of this article, we will focus on the actions that can be taken on the various designations, particularly those deemed defendable.

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It is important to operate your structure protection lines from a single gated wye to allow the engineer to quickly charge the lines and shut them down in “bump and run” operations. This also provides a meeting place for better personnel accountability in extreme smoke conditions.

Check and Go

Structures determined to be non-defendable may require an engine company officer to maintain situational awareness of the fire and travel routes to make a quick check for occupants needing rescue. Fire progression speed, extensive lack of defensible space, and no safety zone/temporary refuge area (TRA)2 would make any other action impossible.

Prep and Go

If there is time to prepare a structure for defense and there is no safety zone/TRA, engine companies may use Class A foam on the structure prior to leaving. If time permits based on fire progression, some basic preparation tactics may be undertaken. This may include flammable vegetation removal in close proximity (at least 30' or more), ensuring doors/windows are closed, and turning off liquified petroleum gas (LPG) tanks.

Prep and Defend

Structures that are threatened and deemed defendable may require the same type of preparation as above; however, based on the presence of a safety zone/TRA, an engine company may stay to take one of the following actions: ✔ Bump and Run: This tactic utilizes two 150–200' 1 ½" hoselines attached to a single gated wye on the pump panel that can be rapidly deployed around a structure to keep the main body of fire away from the structure. In essence, the goal is to “herd the fire” away. The key to this operation is mobility to move from structure to structure. This is best performed with a couple (or more) engines

fire front. This includes checking roofs, gutters, attic gable vents, porch/deck areas, and any other void spaces.

A hose can be readily reloaded across the bed of the engine to allow for quicker redeployment in “bump and run” operations. Be sure the nozzle is open to allow for ease in reloading.

“leap frogging.” The terrain and fuels must be suitable for a mobile attack. This tactics utilizes a rapid reload of hoselines across the hosebed of the engine and takes practice to be proficient. The reasons for the use of the gated wye is to (1) have a meeting point for those on the hoseline in the event of severe limited visibility, (2) aid in the rapid reload of hose across the top of the engine, and (3) give the engineer the ability to rapidly disconnect hoselines in the event of “cut and run” operations due to being overrun. My strike teams and task forces have successfully used this tactic in subdivisions on several fires. One of the keys was to have the engines properly set up before going into “battle.” Rear mount pumps may require some creativity in setting up hoselines for quick deployment. ✔ Anchor and Hold: This tactic can be used if the structures to be defended have hydrants or another large water source. The tactic calls for the deployment of large streams of water, possibly from a deck gun master stream. The goal is to knock down as much of the fire away from the structure(s) threatened, and it works best in subdivisions in urban neighborhoods with larger streets. Engines committed to this tactic must be positioned sufficiently far from the main fire yet must still be ready to be redeployed in the event of a change of conditions of fire progression. ✔ Fire Front Follow up/Tactical Patrol: This is a followup tactic employed when any of the above have been used first. Once the fire has progressed past the defended structures, it is imperative to check for spot fires and thoroughly inspect structures that may have been hit by the

Safety Keys • Always ensure escape routes and safety zones/ TRAs are identified. • Ensure all personal protective equipment is worn. • Situational awareness is crucial—have physical maps or digital mapping programs available. • Extra travel precautions must be taken when active evacuation of an area is still in place. • Mobility is crucial in case of rapid fire progression. • Back apparatus into areas, whenever possible, for quick escape. • Protect your engine with good placement, utilizing structures to block the fire front if possible. • Maintain good communication with your supervisor and adjoining engines. • Maintain at least 100 gallons of water in your tank for engine protection. • Watch for hazards such as power lines, septic tanks, and hazardous materials. Wildland-urban interface fires will continue to pose the largest catastrophic fire threat in Utah, engaging more municipal fire departments into response. Training and education will continue to be the difference in providing safe and effective assistance. I encourage you to get out and practice these tactics as we head into what is sure to be an eventful fire season! ________________________ “Rapid growth of the US wildland urban interface raises wildfire risk,” Radeloff et al, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, August 2018. 2 Temporary Refuge Area (TRA): a preplanned area where firefighters can immediately take refuge for temporary shelter and relief without a fire shelter in the event egress to a safety zone is compromised. Examples would be the lee side of the structure, interior, large open lawn, or engine cab. Firescope California Document, Wildland Urban Interface Structural Defense, October 2013. 1

Kevin Ward is a 40-year fire service veteran, having been the fire chief for Layton City since 2004. Prior to this appointment, Chief Ward progressed through the ranks from firefighter/paramedic to battalion chief with the Chandler Fire Department in Arizona. He holds several NWCG qualifications, such as ICT3 and Structure Protection Specialist, and is an instructor for the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy. Chief Ward has been an instructor for UFRA’s Command Training Center since its inception.

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MissionDriven Culture by Mark Smith and Don Whittemore

A tsunami of fire closes in on a resort in the California foothills. A battalion chief, scouting as a field observer along with a sheriff ’s deputy, arrives on scene to unfolding catastrophe: people are panicking and attempting to evacuate on the narrow, winding road. The scene is chaotic. In his judgment, the 2,500 people around the resort will die trying to escape the flames. He orders everyone inside and directs management to lock the doors. After the flame front passes, the BC and the deputy order evacuations for those in the fire’s path. Post-event investigations all agree that together the BC and deputy saved thousands of lives. They had no positional or delegated authority to do what they did; nonetheless, it was the right thing to do. Contrast that story with this headline from an incident several years later that sparked community outrage: “‘Handcuffed by policy’: Fire crews watch man die.” In this incident, beachgoers were shocked to see firefighters and police officers do nothing but watch as a man succumbed to the 60-degree water. The fire department had been unable to recertify its firefighters in land-based water rescues due to budget constraints. Since the city would be open to liability if responders entered the water, policy dictated that these onduty responders were required to do nothing. In one situation, responders overrode policy and saved thousands of lives. In the other, they followed policy and a man spent nearly an hour in chilly water before drowning in plain sight of those sworn to save him. The extraordinary actions in the first

In one situation, responders overrode policy and saved thousands of lives. In the other, they followed policy and a man spent nearly an hour in chilly water before drowning in plain sight of those sworn to save him.

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story were the result not of specific policies but of a culture that fosters adaptability and resilience—a mission-driven culture (MDC). A focus on culture, a mission-driven culture—not beefing up current policies—is how we equip responders to take the right action at the right time and for the right reasons. MDC consists of foundational values that seek to optimize the balance of safety, efficiency, and effectiveness to best deliver service to the customer. It places priority on maximizing successful mission accomplishment over process. There are six core values central to a mission-driven culture: service for the common good, high trust state, pursuit of truth, form and function defined by the end state, individual initiative, and continuous improvement. The central purpose of MDC relies on individuals to use judgment rather than solely relying on bureaucratic systems and processes to make decisions. In standard circumstances, the variables are well understood and the results are highly

A mission-driven culture (MDC) has six core values: • • • • • •

Service for the Common Good High Trust State Pursuit of Truth Form & Function Defined by the End State Individual Initiative Continuous Improvement

operators to show individual initiative and professional judgment in interpreting the policies and rules rather than the operators solely being bound by those rules and policy. In ambiguous situations, operators are expected to act within the intent of the organization’s mission, just like the BC at the resort. MDC is extraordinarily disciplined. While policies and rules are authoritative, MDC allows for flexibility without freelancing. Operators are even expected to disobey actual orders when they understand the situation has changed where following those orders would prevent accomplishing mission intent. But the system works because each person is highly accountable for decisions that adapt or supersede a rule. One of MDC’s most powerful organizational effects is that while accountability goes up, liability goes down. External evaluation is left to determine whether the operator’s professional judgment was within acceptable or reasonable limits by people with roughly the same level of training, qualifications, and experience as the decision maker in question.

predictable. In fact, the best course will normally be to use the applicable policy or standard operating procedure. Where MDC becomes most valuable is in more complex cases, which agencies are experiencing more regularly. The complex cases are what drive the need for greater adaptability and speed of the decision cycle; those are the cases where the hierarchal, centralized command and control paradigm fails. That paradigm is just not fast enough before the decision is rendered irrelevant by changing circumstance. Unlike the bureaucratic culture of centralization, which leads to compliance, risk aversion, and a stifled creative, dynamic social process, MDC uses a system of decentralized decision-making, guided by a framework of leader’s intent combined with the authority and expectation to act. Senior leaders communicate the task, purpose, and end state of an assignment and provide the needed resources. The how of getting it done—the planning and the execution—is delegated to operators. The system relies on the

In the case of a bad outcome, if the operator made the decision in good faith trying to meet the intent, the case is underwritten as a learning opportunity for the organization. With fear of liability reduced, leaders can use peer reviews or Facilitated Learning Analysis Teams for minor failures and near misses. These cases can be dealt with through mentoring and training; real discipline is reserved for willful policy violations or for gross negligence. Ultimately, in the modern fire service, many agencies place priority on acquiring “things” as opposed to developing skills such as decision-making, critical thinking, and judgment during chaotic, complex events. We’ve likely spent more money for the helmet and gear that go on a responder’s head than the knowledge that goes in it. As important as it is to protect ourselves physically, leaders must also make the investment of time, energy, and resources into culture. We must work to build a culture that is cohesive, adaptive, and resilient to all the complex challenges we are increasingly facing. The outcome will be a higher level of customer service and mission accomplishment, increased trust within the community, and leaders better prepared for increased responsibility and for the large complex events they will undoubtedly encounter.

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Flood Rescue – Preparation to Execution Almost every fire department has the opportunity for a waterrelated incident—it could be a mountain stream that overflows during spring runoff or a flash flood in a desert caused by an afternoon thunderstorm. Regardless of how, where, or when the water gets there, you must be prepared to respond. The level of training, personnel, and resources you have available will determine how you respond to these water incidents. Let’s take an in-depth look at flood rescue from an operational perspective. According to NFPA 1006 Standard for Technical Rescue Personnel Professional Qualifications, part of technical rescue includes water rescue operations. Many types of water conditions can potentially make up a water rescue incident: • Swift water is “water moving at a rate greater than one (1) knot [1.15 mph (1.85 km/hr)].” • Moving water is water moving at less than one knot. • Static water is water that has no movement. • Whitewater is water comprised of 40-60 percent air. • Turbulent water is water with a very chaotic and disorganized characteristic. • Flood water is water that has exceeded its banks or has overflowed the wastewater disposal systems.1

Floods are unpredictable and are high-risk rescues. To help mitigate risk, you can pre-plan for probable incidents. Emergency managers do a great job in their efforts to pre-plan for these incidents. However, even though these events are potentially pre-planned, you can only plan so much; you don’t know what you don’t know. Often obstacles and hazards present themselves differently during the actual flood incident, so knowing the potential hazards can be helpful. Operational personnel must understand the hazards involved in flood-related calls and how to properly manage these scenes. Hazards may include utilities, such as propane, sewage, natural gas, overhead electrical lines, and underground power lines. Contamination hazards include raw sewage or fecal matter from pets or farm animals. Other hazardous materials include but are not limited to chemicals, pesticides, and insecticides. Automobiles can be hazardous in a flood because they contain battery acid, gas, diesel, engine oils, and radiator fluids.

Forces Exerted by Moving Water The force exerted on an object in water is proportional to the surface area that is exposed to the force. Current Velocity (mph)

Force on Legs (lbf)

Force on Body (lbf)

Swamped Boat (lbf)









Double velocity,










the force

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create a deadly phenomenon known as Delta P or differential pressure-head pressure. We see this phenomenon in a bathtub: when you pull the plug, the water spirals downward into the drain. In a bathtub it is not an issue. Manholes and storm drains are a different story; the resulting Delta P can sweep you off your feet and suck you down the drain, thereby, killing you. Structures are another variable to consider; entering a structure through the door or window may become impossible in flood situations. The only access point may be through the roof into the attic. The standard fire service technique of opening the roof is required. Vertical ventilation is not being created by this method, since it is not fire that is being fought, but water. A large hole may be cut closer to the edge of the structure, thus making an easier ingress and egress. Additionally, we must consider any victims that may be in the structure trying to escape the flood. Let your victims know what you are doing to reduce stress and prevent injury. Vehicles in a flood present several hazards; as stated before, they can leak incredibly noxious fluids. You must also be aware of the characteristics of a vehicle in moving water. A vehicle immersed in moving water typically settles with the engine side upstream; this is where the vehicle’s weight is. Always stay on the upstream side of the vehicle when working around an immersed vehicle. Another inherent risk with a vehicle is that it may create a water hydraulic similar to that of a low head dam. A considerable amount of force is on the vehicle. Water in and of itself is 800 times denser than air. In a flood, the force of the water is like having an 800-pound gorilla sitting on you. If the water is moving, it will exert even more force on you and the vehicle. The bottom line is to be vigilant and stay on your toes because vehicles in water are unstable, and water is powerful (see force graph). With all these hazards present during urban flood rescues, all rescue personnel must wear the proper PPE (personal protective equipment). PPE must include a drysuit that is in operational condition, a PFD (personal floatation device), and any other PPE required to perform a water-related rescue. Urban flood rescue operations often require reaching victims by an extensive amount of travel, which is usually accomplished with motorized and non-motorized watercraft. Remember, once you add a boat to the rescue operation, you have increased the risk factor. This risk can be managed by skilled boat operators and through ongoing training. If you are doing a search on foot, you need to keep other potential hazards in mind. These hazards are known as infrastructure hazards. You need to consider and see where the storm drains are located. Storm drains are usually on the outer sides of the street and are most often present at four-way intersections. Use extreme caution and stay clear of storm drains. Also, you must be aware of manholes; find out their locations. Manholes are typically in the middle of the street towards the crown of the road, but not always. Again, use extreme caution when navigating flooded streets where manholes are present! Both of these infrastructures

Rescue personnel reminders: • Wear the proper PPE in and around water. • Proper scene size-up includes resources, capabilities, and execution. • Proper site survey includes hazard management and mitigation. • Personnel should be trained in Talk, Reach, Throw, Row, Go, and Helicopter operations. • Identify and assess water-related hazards on an ongoing basis. Conditions can change rapidly. In closing, flood incidents can happen anytime and anywhere. The source of the flood may be miles away. Bottom line: be prepared, pre-plan, know the dangers, know your capability, know your resources, ask for mutual aid, and get trained from a professional water operations trainer. When the “real” call comes in, you will be prepared! ______________________ 1 Definitions based on NFPA 1006.

Bo Tibbetts is the full-time owner and water operations instructor at Public Safety Dive Services, a division of Technical Rescue International, which includes swiftwater, ice rescue, flood rescue, subsurface operations, and drowning investigations instruction. He has been providing training services to public safety personnel for nearly 14 years. He specializes in surface ice rescue operations. Mr. Tibbetts has been instrumental in standardizing the ice rescue industry with operational standards and equipment protocols over the last 10 years. He can be reached at

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New Cancer Prevention Section Cancer among firefighters is a significant and growing concern facing today’s fire service. Although the Straight Tip has published articles in the past related to cancer awareness and prevention, the issue is more pervasive than ever. As the International Association of Fire Chiefs Report stated, “We have started to see great strides by departments and responders everywhere in combatting and preventing cancer, but more still needs to be done. The time is NOW to make changes.” To help the firefighters of Utah be more aware of issues and solutions, the Straight Tip will now have a permanent Cancer Prevention feature in each issue. We know that cancer preven-

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If you or your department has any cancer prevention measures to share, please email


JANUARY 24 – 25, 2020


At the Dixie Convention Center and Dixie Technical College St. George, Utah TE



Our Cancer Prevention information this issue comes from the 2018 International Association of Fire Chiefs’ “Lavender Ribbon Report: Best Practices for Preventing Firefighter Cancer.” Don’t just ignore these practices. As Chief James P. Seavey Sr. states in the report, “It is our duty to accept the need to change the safety culture as it relates to occupational cancer. The impact cancer brings to our family, children, friends and colleagues can no longer be ignored.”


Winter Fire School

In past issues, we have discussed protecting ourselves from contaminant exposure (Winter 2018, p. 4); we have presented solutions that some departments are using, such as the Mobile Extractor Trailer (Winter 2018, p. 36); we have talked about taking steps to change your department’s culture, from the perspective of someone who faced cancer (Spring 2017, p. 10); we’ve even published information on cancer screenings in light of research that Utah firefighters may be at a higher risk for cancers (Winter 2017, p. 34). With this new Cancer Prevention feature, we will continue to put forward information and foster a culture of prevention as we work together to save lives.



tion is a multi-faceted problem that can’t be prevented with just “talk,” but we also want to do what we can to promote prevention and equip you with ammunition to protect yourself as much as possible.

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New Fire Prevention Week Program in Escalante Valley by Nick Howell, Color Country Interagency Fire

National Fire Prevention Week has an all-new meaning in recent years for many Southwest Utah schools. Rural fire departments have paved the way for a new education strategy that is being adopted across much of the region and proving to be widely effective for fire departments and interagency fire management agencies alike. This year, Escalante Valley School, located near Beryl Junction (west of Cedar City), hosted agencies from Color Country Interagency Fire and agencies from Iron County Emergency Management to form a new fire prevention beginning. Members of Beryl and Newcastle fire departments, Gold Cross Ambulance, Forestry, Fire & State Lands, and the Bureau of Land Management successfully implemented the second annual Fire Prevention Week in which lessons learned crossed both sides of the firefighting isle. From structure fires to home safety and from wildland fires to outdoor safety, the curious minds of approximately 120 students from preschool to sixth grade were able to scratch their itch by having multiple emergency professionals in their classroom, delivering new safety presentations for most of the day. Several pieces of equipment were on display at the school, so the classes could rotate through a hands-on experience while getting some fresh air after lessons learned. Beryl Fire Department’s Thomas Cluff organized this education event with the objective of bringing interagency partnerships into the local community to help deliver unified messages. “This program was initially started by Beryl Fire Department’s David Bosshardt approximately 10 years ago. The first year, our focus was primarily on the Kindergarten class. Since then, with inspiration from Cedar City’s Life Safety Program held every April, we have enhanced the program to include the entire school,” said Cluff. 32 | UFRA Straight Tip

Zach Kunz (Bureau of Land Management) presents a hands-on activity during group rotations of interagency response equipment.

Lucas Twitchell (Forestry, Fire & State Lands) introduces Rosemary Brinkerhoff (Beryl Fire Dept./Gold Cross Ambulance), Smokey Bear, and interagency speakers Nick Howell and Zach Kunz (Bureau of Land Management) at the education assembly to wrap up the day. Ryan Riddle (Forestry, Fire & State Lands) made Smokey an interactive hit!

Lucas Twitchell (Forestry, Fire & State Lands), Thomas Cluff (Beryl Fire Dept./Gold Cross Ambulance), and Eric Brinkerhoff (Beryl Fire Dept.) talk fire safety in the home with a kindergarten class at Escalante Valley School.

“We also made changes to last year’s offering by introducing interagency speakers to address more questions at an organized assembly to wrap up the day.” While interagency presenters spent the day talking about responsible actions and critical life-safety strategies, Escalante Valley plans to continue their community fire planning investment of unified messages using interagency collaboration. In Southwest Utah, being good neighbors is crucial to the success of community education. We share the common responsibility of joining forces to address and prevent ongoing trends that continue to be emergency challenges and priorities moving forward into 2019.

Lucas Twitchell (Forestry, Fire & State Lands) and Eric Brinkerhoff (Beryl Fire Dept.) educate a third-grade class on preventing accidental fires at home and on wildland fire safety and structure fire prevention strategies when recreating on public lands.

Learning from neighboring fire departments continues to provide dividends for multiple agencies in Southwest Utah. Beryl Fire Department will analyze annual statistics to evaluate the long-term success of the program. The department plans to continue making new program changes annually and is committed to keeping the education messages fun and interactive.

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Climbing the Ladder

Forestry, Fire & State Lands

Danon Hulet has been hired as the Southwest Area manager. He will manage all aspects of forestry and fire programs for Washington, Garfield, Kane, Iron, and Beaver counties. Danon will oversee the Southwest Area staff, forestry and fire projects, and information and education programs. The area office is located in Cedar City.

Engine Program. Shane has worked out of the Division of FFSL State Office since June 2006.

Danon has a bachelor’s degree in natural resources from Southern Utah University and a master’s certificate in urban forestry from Oregon State University. Danon has worked for the Division for 14 years in the Southwest Area. Starting as a seasonal in 2005, he has held fuels technician, fuels coordinator, urban forester, and area forester positions. He was most recently the Southwest Area forester before becoming the Southwest Area manager. Katie Gibble has been hired as the acting Wasatch Front Area manager. She will manage forestry and fire programs for Davis, Morgan, Salt Lake, Tooele, and Utah counties. Katie will oversee the Wasatch Front Area staff, forestry and fire projects, and information and education programs. Katie has a bachelor’s degree in geology from Northern Arizona University in Flagstaff, AZ, and a master’s degree in geoscience from Boise State University, where she researched post-fire erosion and wildfire policy. While in Boise, Katie worked for the Boise Fire Department as the Wildfire Mitigation intern in 2014, 2016, and 2017. She has been the Wasatch Front Area WildlandUrban Interface coordinator for the past year. She will resume that position in six months. Shane Freeman has accepted a one-year career mobility position as the Division of Forestry, Fire & State Lands safety coordinator. The statewide safety coordinator creates and administers a comprehensive safety plan and program to encompass operational situations division staff may encounter; the coordinator also works closely with and seeks continuous improvement with the Utah Division of Risk Management, the Worker’s Compensation Fund, the Utah Safety Council, the American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE), and other safety partners. The previous 12 years, Shane has been the state assistant fire manager officer. Shane started his wildfire career in 1978 as a seasonal firefighter and worked with numerous federal agencies on Type 2 hand crews, on hotshot crews, and on wildland fire engines. In June of 1996, Shane was hired by the Division of FFSL as the Engine Strike Team Leader for the Flame-In-Go inmate wildland fire program. From 2000 to 2005, Shane supervised the Lone Peak 36 | UFRA Straight Tip

Wade Snyder has been hired as the acting assistant fire management officer in a one-year career mobility position. He will assist in the management of statewide programs under the direction of the state fire management officer. Wade is responsible for the division's statewide firefighter qualification training program, is the IQS and ROSS data manager, manages and administers the Fire Management Assistance Grant (FMAG), and may supervise, coordinate, and/or direct the work of others as related to the program(s). He started his wildland career in 1999 in Oregon. He started working for the state of Utah in 2007 running the UFRA t-2ia crew. In 2013 he led the Alta handcrew to certification as the Alta Interagency Hotshots. Wade has been an adjunct instructor at UFRA since 2007. He has an associate degree in wildland fire management from UVU. Thomas Peterson, Sanpete County fire warden, has been awarded by the Division of Forestry, Fire & State Lands for community outreach. The Community Outreach Award calls for ingenuity and support for a community, positive attitude and interaction with the public, creative community partnership, and balancing resource management with community values. Thomas’ outreach and work with the fire departments, firefighters, and local elected officials of Sanpete County have been nothing short of exceptional. All of the proactive effort and dedication positively paid off during the 2018 Hilltop Fire, when the volunteer firefighters, under Thomas’ command, successfully stopped what would have otherwise been a devastating wildfire. As the County Sheriff constantly reminds us, “Sanpete has the BEST fire warden in the state!” This is an endorsement truly worthy of the Division’s 2018 Community Outreach Award! Thomas started his wildfire career in 2002 as a seasonal firefighter and worked with the United States Forest Service on engine crews and a hotshot crew. In May of 2007, Thomas was hired by the Division of FFSL as the Sanpete County fire warden. For 12 years, Thomas has developed and supervised the wildland fire program in Sanpete County. As the state representative for wildland fire in the county, he has protected private and public property by preventing the origin and spread of fire on non-federal forest and rangelands and helped the county, communities, and landowners protect their lands through effective fire prevention and mitigation programs. The Crooked Creek, Coal Hollow, and Hilltop fires were three of the higher profile fires in the state last year, all involving Sanpete County.

The UFRA staff would like to formally say “Thank you for all you have done” to Battalion Chief Ryan Peterson. He is moving on to other challenges. Ryan has been with UFRA since March of 2006. He has been instrumental in creating the Command Training Center (CTC) and the Mobile Command Training Center (MCTC). Ryan has also been a driving force in the Hazardous Materials Program in the state as well as in other technical duties at UFRA like the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Program and keeping Resource Scheduler going year after year.

Farewell and Thank You!


Ryan’s intellect and vision has helped with all of these programs. The Command Training Center became known as one of the best in the country. He became so well versed in CommandSim, the program used in the both command training centers, that he was eventually employed by them and traveled around the country helping promote their product. Ryan was also very active at the state level with hazardous materials and most recently served as the chairperson for the Hazardous Materials Advisory Council. Ryan’s intellect and insight will be missed. We wish him well and say farewell as he moves on to the next chapter in his life.

Bear River Area April 18-20 Tooele County April 26-27 Spring 2019 | 37






new new two–year two–year online online degree degree new two–year online degree now enrolling for 2019 new nowtwo–year enrolling online for Fall Falldegree 2019 now enrolling for Fall 2019 now enrolling for Fall 2019 visit visit visit UVU.EDU/MPS visit UVU.EDU/MPS


Congratulations, Fire Officer Designation Recipients The Utah Commission on Fire Officer Designation and the Utah Fire and Rescue Academy are proud to recognize the following individuals for receiving the Supervising Fire Officer Designation Award:

Jo Hamblin, Syracuse Fire Department

Austin Knight, American Fork Fire Department

Cassandra Ray, North Tooele Fire District

The Fire Officer Designation Program is meant to provide a coherent and attainable guide to career advancement and serves as both a development program for future fire officers and a recognition and promotion preparation program for current fire officers. Information about the program can be found at

Marc Sacco, Uintah City Fire Department

M. Scott Turnbow, Layton City Fire Department

The next deadline for applications is June 30, 2019. Spring 2019 | 39

West Jordan Fire Department

Climbing the Ladder

field recently served as deputy fire chief / chief operations officer for Sandy City Fire Department. He replaces Interim Chief Chris Trevino, who was appointed November 2018.

Deputy Chief Chris Trevino

Fire Chief Derek Maxfield

Chris Trevino was promoted to deputy chief within the West Jordan Fire Department. Chris is one of the instructors in UVU’s Recruit Candidate Academy, and UFRA is happy

to congratulate him on this accomplishment. Derek Maxfield has been chosen to be West Jordan Fire Department’s fire chief. Max-

Maxfield began his career in fire service more than 20 years ago with the Salt Lake County Fire Department. He has spent the past 18 years with the Sandy City Fire Department, where he started as a firefighter/paramedic. He rose through the ranks to engineer, captain, fire marshal, battalion chief, and most recently, chief of operations for the department’s 75 employees.

Maxfield holds a master of public administration from Brigham Young University, a bachelor of arts in speech communication from the University of Utah, and an associate in fire science from Utah Valley State College. He is also a Chief Fire Officer and a certified paramedic.

Sandy Fire Department The following firefighters were hired and/or promoted in the Sandy Fire Department between July and November 2018:

Garrett Arnold–new firefighter

Dallin Kiser–new firefighter

Corey Metcalf– new firefighter

John David Peach—new firefighter

Nicholas Prokopis–new firefighter

Aaron White– promoted to paramedic

Emma Weatherhead–promoted to paramedic

Brooke Egbert–new fire inspector

Jereme Tibbitts–transferred to engineer

Tyson Astin– transferred to engineer

Michael Bullock– promoted to captain

Arthur Collazo– new firefighter, then later promoted to paramedic

40 | UFRA Straight Tip

Carlos Lopez– promoted to paramedic

Roosevelt Fire Department The Roosevelt Fire Department is excited to welcome three new firefighters to their ranks. Cody Fisher, Cody Ellingford, and Michael Oaks have all joined the department as volunteer firefighters. Cody Fisher has been fighting fires since 1998. He worked in West Valley City for over 15 years as a firefighter and paramedic; however, his paramedic duties often eclipsed his firefighting responsibilities, and he found himself missing work as a firefighter. A desire to be closer to home and family brought him back to the Uintah Basin, and he’s looking forward to fighting fires with the Roosevelt Fire Department. Fisher works four jobs

and doesn’t typically have any free time, but when he does, he enjoys spending time with family and relaxing. Cody Ellingford has no previous experience as a firefighter, but he’s been interested since he was young. He joined the Roosevelt Fire Department out of a desire to serve the community and to challenge himself. He works as a heavy equipment operator, and in his free time, he loves to travel. He visits the west coast at least once a year, and when he’s home, he enjoys spending time camping and fishing with his family. Michael Oaks has also never worked as a firefighter, but he

The Roosevelt Fire Department is excited to welcome three new volunteer firefighters. Pictured, from left to right: Cody Ellingford, Cody Fisher, and Michael Oaks.

applied for the position out of a desire to serve his community. Professionally, he works as an applicator for B2 Pest Control. In his downtime, he likes to do “anything that doesn’t involve work.” He particularly enjoys hunting and fishing.

All three firefighters have roots in the Uintah Basin, and the Roosevelt Fire Department is proud to add them to the ranks of volunteer firefighters working in Roosevelt City.


Wayne Houston 1927–2019 It is with a heavy heart that we announce the passing of Chief Wayne Houston on January 16, 2019.

Chief Houston was born October 7, 1927, and raised in Panguitch, Utah. Wayne was the fourth of nine children to Tommy Ray and Emma Haywood Houston. He married his eternal sweetheart, Ramona Faye Hogue Houston, in 1949. In 1952, Wayne joined the Air Force. After an honorable discharge in 1955, Wayne and Ramona moved to Costa Mesa, California. He joined the Costa Mesa Fire Department and also had a horse shoeing business. Wayne and Ramona had two daughters while living in Costa Mesa and later adopted a son. After retiring from the Costa Mesa Fire Department in 1979 at the rank of captain, he moved back to Utah. In 1982, Wayne became the first paid fire chief in St. George, Utah. He served as fire chief for 15 years. The fire department saw many changes under his guidance. The Bloomington area of the city was annexed into the city, and the Bloomington Fire Department became part of the St. George Fire Department. The department expanded and improved in many ways under his command, including with the construction of three new fire stations throughout the city, the purchase of four fire engines, and the first aerial ladder truck, along with other equipment, improved training, and increased staffing for the department. Wayne was a great fire chief, friend, and mentor to all those he came in contact with. He will be deeply missed.

42 | UFRA Straight Tip


Tim L. Rockwood shakes the hand of Roosevelt City Manager Ryan Snow as Rockwood receives an award honoring his 45 years of service with the Roosevelt Fire Department.

Roosevelt City is proud to honor the retirement of one of its longest-standing public servants. Tim L. Rockwood joined the Roosevelt Fire Department in January 1974. He retired from the department in January 2019 after 45 years of service. “Forty-five years is a tremendous thing,” said Roosevelt City Manager Ryan Snow. “Think of the lives that you touch in 45 years of public service. The time, the dedication that you put in over that length of time is incredible. He (Rockwood) truly is a local hero.” Rockwood has served in a variety of positions during his time with the Roosevelt Fire Department and leaves behind an incredible legacy. His son, Lee Rockwood, is the current fire chief. His grandson, Adam Rockwood, is also a firefighter with the department. “That is true dedication, when you have such a love for something that it manifests in your children and grandchildren,” said Snow. “How proud we are to have had him in the department. What a legacy he leaves behind.”

Roy City Fire & Rescue Department would like to acknowledge the retirement of Captain Ron Lathem. Ron has been a full-time firefighter for 33 years, in which time he served as an EMT, a driver engineer, a paramedic (WSU student of the year 1995), a captain, a fire marshal, and a training officer. More important than his accomplishments is that he has been a leader, a coach, and a mentor to so many firefighters. Ron’s legacy is rooted deeply at Roy City Fire & Rescue Department and always will be. Ron’s positive attitude, the culture he helped create, and his ability to connect to people will be greatly missed. Congratulations, Captain Ron Lathem.

If you have any retirement, obituary, promotional, or hiring announcements you would like included in the Straight Tip, please send them to


ES 1150 Community Emergency Preparedness Now is the time to begin working on your emergency services degree or finish the degree you have been working on.

Why Should I Earn a College Degree? • • •

Personal improvement Preparation for promotion Expand career opportunities

What Degrees are Offered? Certificates • Firefighter Recruit Candidate • Paramedic

Associate of Science Emergency Services Associate of Applied Science Emergency Services • Fire Officer • Emergency Care • Wildland Fire Management Bachelor of Science Emergency Services Administration • Emergency Care • Emergency Management (offered 100% online)

How Do I Enroll? • •

Apply for admissions by going to: If you have attended another college or university, request an official transcript be sent to: UVU Admissions Office 800 West University Parkway MS 106 Orem, Utah 84058-5999

What Will It Cost?

• For official UVU tuition/fee amounts go to: • Some courses have “course fees” in addition to tuition.

For more information regarding admissions and registration, call 801-863-7798 or 888-548-7816 to schedule a phone or office appointment with an Emergency Services Administration Academic Advisor.

44 | UFRA Straight Tip

ESFF ONLINE CLASSES ESFF 1000 Introduction to ES & Ability Testing ESFF 1120 Principles of Fire & ES Safety & Survival ESFF 2100 Introduction to Emergency Services Leadership ESEC FACE-TO-FACE CLASSES ESEC 1140 Emergency Medical Technician, Basic ESEC 4110 Paramedic IV ESEC 4120 Paramedic Clinical Concepts ESMG ONLINE CLASSES ESMG 310G Introduction to Homeland Security ESMG 3150 Principles of Management for the ES ESMG 3200 Health and Safety Program Management ESMG 3250 Managing Emergency Medical Services ESMG 3600 Psychology of Emergency Services ESMG 4150 Humanitarian Relief and Disaster Relief ESMG 4200 Disaster Response and the Public ESMG 445G Human Factors in Emergency Management ESMG 4500 Customer Service & Marketing for the ES ESMG 4600 Public Administration for the ES ESMG 4650 Emergency Services Capstone ESMG 481R Emergency Services Internship ESMG 489R Special Topics in Emergency Management ESMG 493R Topics in Medical Litigation ESWF FACE-TO-FACE CLASSES ESWF 1410 Wildland Firefighting Intern I ESWF 1420 Wildland Firefighting Intern II ESWF 2430 Wildland Firefighting Intern III Enroll early! Please note that courses are subject to cancellation due to low enrollment. Please check for current and updated course listings.

DEGREE AT UVU PARAMEDIC By application only. For more information visit or call 801-863-7798 or 888-548-7816. RECRUIT CANDIDATE ACADEMY (RCA)

There is a new job board at

By application only. For more information visit or make an appointment with an academic advisor by calling the Student Center at 801-863-7798.

jobs where Utah fire departments can advertise job openings. New listings will

On-the-job internships are available for all RCA graduates.

be posted as we become aware of them.

Applications will be accepted until the academy is full.

On December 12, 2018, Class #77 of the Utah Valley University Emergency Services Recruit Candidate Academy (RCA) held its graduation ceremony. During the program, CHPS Associate Dean Tom Sturtevant and Emergency Services Department Chair Gary Noll, as well as RCA Course Coordinator Andy Byrnes, spoke to the parents, friends, and family of the graduates. Recruit Brandon Williams was selected as the class officer. Candidate Owen Nuttall was awarded the Charles J. DeJournett Recruit Excellence Award & Instructor Recommendation. He was also awarded the Outstanding Student Award based on a vote by his peers. Firefighter Will Mackintosh was awarded the Outstanding Instructor Award, based on a class vote. Candidate Raziel Rodas earned the Physical Training Excellence Award. Andy Byrnes is the RCA course coordinator. Captain Charlie DeJournett was the lead instructor.

RCA Graduation Fall 2018 | Class #77

RCA Graduation Class #77 (left to right): Back row: David McNamara, Austin Holt, Evan Esquivel, Brandon Williams, Raziel Rodas Front row: Enrique Sanchez Jr., Chase Pettit, Owen Nuttall, Samantha Delli, Mitchell McClure Spring 2019 | 45

Nonprofit Organization U.S. POSTAGE

Nonprofit Organization U.S. POSTAGE

Utah Valley University

Utah Valley University




. MS 193 R E A N D R E800 S C UW. E UNIVERSITY A C A D E M Y PARKWAY, OREM, UT 84058-6703

U N I V E R S I T Y P A R K W AY, O R E M , U T 8 4 0 5 8 - 5 9 9 9




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UFRA Straight Tip Spring 2019 - Volume 20, Issue 2  

UFRA Straight Tip (ISSN 1932-2356) is published quarterly by Utah Valley University and the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy (

UFRA Straight Tip Spring 2019 - Volume 20, Issue 2  

UFRA Straight Tip (ISSN 1932-2356) is published quarterly by Utah Valley University and the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy (