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Summer 2017 / Volume 18, Issue 3







Utah Fire and Rescue Academy Magazine







Visit us online at









Your Department’s Field Operations Guide Lessons Taught & Lessons Learned Legal Issues in the Fire Service


Basic Vehicle Door Removal


Wildfires and Drones The Aviation Revolution


8 Traits Every Great Fire Chief Has


Learning from Our Past Mistakes




Fall 2017 Semester


Spring 2017 Class #74


Avoiding a Confined Space Tragedy, Part I


Duchesne firefighter practices “wall breach” technique during the RIT/Firefighter Survival course at the Duchesne Regional Fire School in May 2017. The wall breaching skills teach firefighters ways to self rescue in the event of an entrapment situation. photograph by Russell Young


North Tooele Fire District



Editor Kaitlyn Hedges


Design Phil Ah You

Published by Utah Valley University



Building Codes

Managing Editor Lori Marshall Y







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Message from UFRA

SUMMER 2017, Volume 18 Issue 3 To Subscribe: To subscribe to the UFRA Straight Tip magazine, or make changes to your current subscription, call 1-888-5487816 or visit magazine.html. The UFRA Straight Tip is free of charge to all firefighter and emergency service personnel throughout the state of Utah. UFRA Customer Service Local (801) 863-7700 Toll free 1-888-548-7816 UFRA Straight Tip (ISSN 1932-2356) is published quarterly by Utah Valley University and the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy and distributed throughout the state of Utah. Reproduction without written permission from the publisher is strictly prohibited. Send inquiries or submissions to: UFRA Straight Tip magazine 3131 Mike Jense Parkway Provo, Utah 84601 Phone 1-888-548-7816 Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in the UFRA Straight Tip are those of the authors and may not be construed as those of the staff or management of the UFRA Straight Tip, Utah Fire & Rescue Academy, or Utah Valley University.

CORRECTION for On the Cover:

The cover photo for the Spring 2017 issue was credited to Dan DeMille. It was actually taken by Russ Young. We apologize for the error.

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Regional Fire Schools: What are they and are they right for your area? by Dave Owens UFRA Training Program Manager

A little over ten years ago, the Utah Fire and Rescue Academy (UFRA) discontinued its annual summer fire school (SFS) and decided instead to conduct several small regional schools across the state. In this article, I will explain the decision to move toward regional fire schools, describe what regional fire schools are, and detail how someone may go about getting one in their area. The decision to discontinue SFS and replace it with small regional schools was influenced by several factors, including (in no particular order) the cost, continual declining attendance, the time of year, and increased volume of classes at UFRA. First is the cost. Though it is hard to nail down the actual cost to deliver an event like this, costs add up. Plus, every organization that sends participants has the added expense of paying someone overtime to replace the attendee. This cost to departments influenced the declining number of people signing up for summer fire school. The declining number of participants was also affected by the time of year. UFRA typically ran SFS during the break between UVU’s summer and fall semesters—a small window when there were relatively no students at the school. Consequently, moving it to another time was not an option available to UFRA. However, it was also just before the Labor Day weekend, and many people who would normally attend were busy spending time with family. Finally, the staff at UFRA become very busy every year at this time with an increased demand for classes when the summer ends and everyone wants to get back to training. The added work load of hosting a major event was becoming too much of a burden and interfered with UFRA’s primary mission. Because of these challenges, we decided that regional deliveries would be a better option for both UFRA and individual fire departments. Regional Fire Schools Now let’s talk about regional schools, their advantages, some requirements, and the process for getting a regional fire school scheduled in your area. A regional school is defined as two or more classes given at the same time. We bring our resources to

your area for a two-day school at a convenient time. And we do not charge any fee for delivering any of these courses. The classes we see delivered in a typical two-day regional fire school are all of the Live Fire Training classes and any of the four-, eight-, or 16-hour classes we provide at our annual winter fire school. The classes are taught by our in-state instructors. The program manager in your area can help you schedule classes and tell you what UFRA can do. Nowhere else in this country provides this kind of training to small communities—especially at no cost. Regional schools have some very distinct advantages over state-wide schools. They make it possible to deliver classes to areas where it simply is not cost effective to do it for individual departments. The Utah State Fire Prevention Board, which has oversight of UFRA, requires a minimum number of students for every class—12 students minimum for populations of 10,000 or more and eight students minimum for populations of less than 10,000. However, even with no fees and the lower student requirement in less populated areas, some departments have trouble getting the required number of students. With regional deliveries, more than one department within a geographical area can combine to attain the required number of students.

If you are interested in having a regional fire school in your area, please contact the training program manager assigned to your county. He will guide you through the process and make sure you understand what UFRA can do to help the firefighters in your community be better and safer when you need them the most. Instructors at regional fire schools teach classes similar to the ones offered at annual winter fire schools. Here, at the Duchesne Regional Fire School in May 2017, firefighters learn about forcible entry tools and techniques during the Forcible Entry course.

There are a few requirements UFRA needs fulfilled to bring a regional school to your area: 1. The area must have a place to lodge and feed the instructors within a reasonable distance. 2. There must be classrooms available for classes. 3. There must be suitable areas for props to be set up and delivered. 4. There must be restroom facilities for the students and instructors. Some classes also require the hosting agency or participants to provide certain resources (e.g., cars for the vehicle extrication class or personal PPE, helmet, gloves, and eye protection). Regional fire schools have been the best thing to happen to the fire departments in Utah. What could be better than free training brought to your own backyard and taught by the best instructors in the state?

photography by Russell Young

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There are technologies that for many in my generation (I know, pretty close to the stone age) seem to be almost impossible, but younger firefighters have grown up with these technologies that seem to be the norm nowadays. As a global society, we are changing at an amazing rate. By many estimates, general knowledge is doubling every 12 to 18 months. If you graduated with an engineering degree a few years ago, going back to college will be in your near future because the students who followed your path in obtaining a degree will have learned new math and computational programs that will make what you learned outdated. Without more schooling, you will find yourself unable to supervise or work. Even photos showing crowds now versus a decade ago show the increase in technology use. What a difference ten years can make in who owns and uses smart phones and other technology! So, what new technology is in the works currently for the fire service, you may ask? Let’s just touch on unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) or drones. UFRA and UVU are currently working toward the use of UAS in the field—a bold move that is certainly cutting edge. All of us would love to have a UAS hovering just above (not necessarily directly above) the fire or emergency scene. Imagine what decisions incident commanders could make if they could see, in real time, what is happening on side C or on the roof. You get the picture, pun intended. NFPA is slated to complete the new UAS standard, NFPA 2400, Standard for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS), in December of 2017 for public review. It applies to all public safety departments, police, fire, EMS, etc. It aims to cover three areas: organizational deployment, professional qualifications, and selection care and maintenance. If you’re thinking about deploying a small UAS, check out the tool kit provided by the International Association of Fire Chiefs (IAFC) at The IAFC states, “While UAS technology provides new and exciting opportunities for operational enhancement, it’s important that fire and emergency service agencies first put together a clear plan that addresses both the benefits and risks.” The IAFC tool kit discusses tactics, policy, and technology and research, along with regulations and operations.

FROM THE STATE FIRE MARSHAL Early 2014 bills and at least one resolution relating to UAS have passed the state legislature. In the 2016 Special Session, added penalties further strengthened existing language as to UAS use in and around wildland fires, where the UAS use interrupted aerial suppression efforts. This past 2017 session, 2nd Substitute Senate Bill 111, Unmanned Aircraft Amendments passed and held key compromises, which better enables law enforcement to do their work but also found support because it specifically addresses privacy concerns. Here is the website if you want to read it: bills/static/SB0111.html. Unmanned aircraft are a very hot topic outside of the United States as well. A joint whitepaper and webinar was put together by the European Emergency Number Association (EENA) (it’s sort of like the use of 9-1-1 in the U.S. but utilizes 1-1-2 in Europe) and Da-Jiang Innovations Science and Technology Co. Ltd. (DJI) out of Shenzhen, China. The report is titled: “The use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) by the emergency services.” You can find the whitepaper and webinar at WKsHdvK3xW4. There will be a great many new innovations coming to us in the next few years, and we in the fire service need to be sure that we keep current—even when we initially don’t think that we may ever be able to afford those innovations. Remember that when thermal imaging cameras first hit the scene, the price tag was over $25,000 and they were large and bulky. Let’s stay positive with regard to SMART firefighting, and let’s be careful out there.

Coy Utah State Fire Marshal Coy D. Porter retired from Provo Fire & Rescue after 30 years of service; he then worked for almost four years as the assistant director of training at UFRA. Porter enjoys his association with the firefighters of Utah in his position as state fire marshal.

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This pocket-sized incident priorities manual simplified several different calls and situations incident commanders can be confronted with. The work of an incident commander can be complex. There are a myriad of problems you may be faced with at any time. Your responsibilities as an incident commander can become even more difficult if that response heavy call comes right in the middle of your deepest sleep—say at three in the morning. Out of this haze you will be required to make assignments, call for additional resources, track personnel, and a long list of memory-dependent duties. Quick access reminders of some incident priorities can be immensely helpful to incident commanders. In 2006, the Salt Lake Valley Fire Training Alliance developed a first-time area Field Operations Guide (FOG) then used by ten Salt Lake Valley fire departments. The 2006 version can be viewed by visiting https://saltlakevalleyfirealliance.files. This pocket-sized incident priorities manual simplified several different calls and situations incident commanders can be confronted with. Some of the incidents the FOG addressed included mayday, RIT operations, trench collapse, wildfire, structure collapse, and bomb threats. The Valley Training Alliance is currently updating and improving this guide. Your fire department would be well served to adopt and use a FOG. If your organization does not have this valuable guide or if it has a version that is outdated, it’s a great project for you as a chief officer to develop or update. The simpler you can make the guide, the better. Keep in mind, at three in the morning we all function on a more basic level than usual. Begin by making a list of the incidents you can envision responding to. Task members of your organization with parts of the FOG and create short bullet point lists on each incident type. If you adopt an already developed FOG, make sure to add elements that are specific to your organization.

Another portion of the FOG should be dedicated to other issues you as the duty chief or your captains may deal with on occasion. What to do and who to call when a member is injured. What to do when a department vehicle is involved in an accident. Who to call if you suspect child or elderly abuse. For this portion of your FOG, use your department’s SOGs, policies, and department cork boards. Nobody can or should be required to remember the many lists, protocols, numbers, and codes that are part of your job as a battalion chief. If your department is like most fire organizations, all of this pertinent information exists, just in too many different places for it to be quickly accessed. With newer technologies, you can now put your FOG into the form of a digital app accessible from any smart phone. Should you decide to develop a FOG app be sure to remove confidential information such as gate and station codes, lest the information become publicly visible. Firefighters are not likely to sit down and study a three- to tenpage policy or guideline. Inversely your members may very well review similar information if formatted into a pocket-sized, tothe-point FOG.

Paul Hewitt began his career as an Orem City reserve firefighter in 1987. After 20 years with the Salt Lake City Fire Department he served as a fire chief in Arizona before his 2011 appointment to fire chief of the Park City Fire District.

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Your Department’s Field Operations Guide


Lessons Taught & Lessons Learned: The value of teaching mental wellness There are few things more important than the training firefighters receive. The skills, techniques, and education aren’t simply gee-wiz knowledge; they are what save their life. Firefighters are taught how to stretch hoselines, ventilate structures, search for occupants, and properly put on PPE. But the majority of firefighter learning takes place as a lesson learned from the examples of and conversations with fellow firefighters—in the station, around the kitchen table, and on emergent incidents. These informal lessons represent some of the most important traits a firefighter will develop, such as respect for the service, courage in the face of disaster, and how be to professional. Unfortunately, some of the lessons learned are not as beneficial, such as our tendency to call maydays long after it was needed, our complacency in safety, and the stigmas associated with mental wellness. Asking for help is a natural thing for people. Children ask for help a million times a day, students are encouraged 6 | UFRA Straight Tip

to ask for help all through their young school life, and adults are often successful in their career based on their ability to ask for help and locate assistance. Why then do firefighters refrain from seeking help? Much of it begins and ends with the lessons firefighters are taught and the lessons inevitably learned. Mental wellness has typically been a lesson passively learned in the fire service by watching how others address it—it’s a lesson learned, not taught. In a time in which a firefighter is more likely to take his or her life than lose it in the line of duty, the lessons being learned about firefighter mental wellness need to change. Teach it, don’t just let it be learned. In the same sense that we teach our firefighters how to size-up a structure, advance hoselines, and properly put on PPE, we need to be teaching them how to process stress, recognize warning signs, build mental resiliency, and ask for help. Mental health and wellness isn’t something you’re born with; it’s developed through proper techniques and training.

Mental wellness needs to be a part of every academy, new firefighter orientation, and on-the-job training curriculum. It’s all about the approach. When a fire service instructor approaches a subject with excitement, enthusiasm, and seriousness, students are more likely to take the information to heart. If that same instructor approaches mental health in the fire service with an air of discontent or disdain or in a manner which would suggest weakness, what is said doesn’t matter; the intent behind those words is what is ultimately taught and learned. Approach the topic with the seriousness it deserves. Focus on prevention. Back when the fire service was issued the challenge of reducing civilian fire deaths and injuries, many people looked to better equipment, more staffing, and increased training as the answer, but the biggest impact came in the form of fire prevention. If a fire never had the chance to start, the threat of injury and death were eliminated. Our efforts

Mental wellness has typically been a lesson passively learned in the fire service by watching how others address it–it’s a lesson learned, not taught. to respond to firefighters experiencing mental trauma are noble, but our biggest impacts will be made in our ability to prevent mental trauma from occurring in the first place. We need to be creating cultures in which we’re addressing issues before they become monumental. The seeds of mental illness are plentiful in the fire service; we need to be removing them before they grow. Recognize the value and impact of mentorship. Most lessons learned in the fire service come by observing other firefighters, especially in the manner that our new firefighters watch our veteran firefighters. As long as we have firefighters who continue to stigmatize the impacts, presence, and “weaknesses” associated with mental health, the more the issue will get worse. If, on the other hand, we can get our senior firefighters on board, the mentorship impact will make an incredible impact on our new firefighters. Great starts make for great finishes. New firefighters are incredibly receptive and open to the lessons taught and lessons learned in the fire service when they first begin. As we set up our new firefighters with good training, positive experiences, and a healthy start, we set them up for a successful service career. If, on the other hand, we fail to structure a positive start, we tend to set them up for failure later in their career. Take advantage of the receptiveness of our new firefighters and teach them the mental wellness lessons that will be the foundations they draw from for the rest of their life.

are anything but new. First responder mental health classes are being offered all over the country. Peer support, employee assistance, and organizational counseling programs have gained popularity and effectiveness within the fire service and are relatively easy to implement. The Utah Fire and Rescue Academy currently offers the Firefighter Mental Health Awareness class, which represents a starting point for firefighters and organizational leaders to begin building mental wellness in their organization. Firefighters can also contact UFRA and speak with the mental health and wellness coordinators for advice and direction on educating firefighters. The fire service is made up of lessons taught and lessons learned. The longer we fail to properly teach the value of mental wellness, the more likely firefighters are to passively learn the unhealthy outlooks, stigmas, and mental processes that are currently influencing our service.

Jordon Petersen serves as a captain with the Murray City Fire Department. He received his master’s degree in psychology and is currently completing his dissertation for a doctorate degree in psychology. Jordon’s studies and research revolve around first responder psychology and firefighter wellness. Nick Halmasy is a registered psychotherapist (qualifying) and “retired” firefighter. Nick is the founder of, a free online mental health resource for first responders and their families. Nick writes, consults, and hosts mental wellness talks for first responders and is the clinical director for a peerdriven CISM team in Ontario. He can be reached at Follow him on Facebook and Twitter (@afterthecallMh).

Don’t feel the need to reinvent the wheel. While mental wellness initiatives are relatively new to the fire service, they Summer 2017 | 7


Legal Issues in the Fire Service – Avoiding Law Suits and Terminations

Imagine this scenario: Upon arriving at work one morning, something is obviously wrong. All of the chief officers have been called into work and several other company cars are at the station. To make matters seem even worse, the city attorney is pulling into the station. The administration is reluctant to comment; however, after several inquiries, the crew finds out the department is being sued. Rumors immediately begin to spread as employees speculate why a suit is being brought upon the department. If this happened at your agency, what would be your guess?

Like many of us in the fire service, I receive the Daily Dispatch. I am often shocked by the number of articles on fire departments being sued and firefighters being terminated. As I read the articles, some trends appeared to surface. I decided to begin a year-long project. Every day in 2016 I kept a tally of the nature of suits and why members of the fire department were being terminated. While I realize the results don’t necessarily represent the full scope of an accurate survey, they do reveal some notable concerns. Many careers have been carelessly cut short. Hopefully by studying these topics we can avoid some of these legal issues in the future.

8 | UFRA Straight Tip

This exercise essentially asks where you feel the most liability lies within your agency. The larger question is, how does your perception of what your department might be sued for compare to what departments are actually being sued for across the nation? Upon presenting this scenario in a training session, the top answers included negligence on medical calls, carelessness while driving, sexual harassment, and HIPPA violations. The research I conducted points in a different direction. While negligence and HIPPA are still concerns, two types of suits stick out. First are the whistleblowers. The Whistleblower Act of 1989 is violated if an agency takes any retaliatory action against an employee because of disclosure of information by that worker. Many examples exist within the last year of employees being mistreated, suspended, or even fired for reporting violations within their department. The

second main reason for fire departments being sued is not following rules when taking personnel actions. Departments need to be especially careful to follow all procedures whenever they are hiring, promoting, or firing individuals. Deviating from the policies in these areas opens the department up to significant liability. The next section of my research dealt with why employees are fired. Of course, I am discovering only terminations that are newsworthy. These firings can be some of the most difficult because the agency may be forced to terminate an individual due to the public outcry. These are areas where we need to be especially concerned. Interestingly enough, the main reason why chief officers are terminated differed from the reasons firefighters get fired.

Regarding chief officers, perception is often that sexual harassment is the leading cause of termination. However, my findings demonstrate that improper use of funds is the most common reason by a large margin. There are several examples of improper spending as well as the manipulation of payroll by ranks from battalion chiefs all the way to fire chiefs. These lapses in judgement have been embarrassing for the fire service and have resulted in several terminations. Looking at why firefighters are terminated, one area sticks out that may surprising: social media! Type “fired for Facebook post” in any search engine, and you will have dozens of pages of examples. Simply stated, even on a personal Facebook page (or any other social media venue), an individual could be inadvertently acting as a spokesman for the agency if there is anything that links that individual to the fire department, including listing the department as your place of work or even a picture of you in a fire department shirt. Numerous instances exist of personnel writing political views, racial comments, or posting inappropriate pictures and ending up being fired. Employees often state they have first amendment rights to post whatever they want. This

may be true, but the courts have routinely ruled that this amendment does not protect employees if they speak in a way that causes harm or disruption to the mission of the fire department. I need to mention that the purpose of this article is not to give legal advice, as I do not have any legal training. The goal is to share some ideas to try and avoid legal actions and unnecessary terminations. We need to create a culture in our departments where anybody can bring forward concerns without fear of retaliation. Also, we need to be sure to follow all policies when dealing with personnel actions. Regarding taking steps to avoid terminations, agencies should be especially vigilant and ethical when handling monies. Misuse of funds, especially with purchasing cards and payroll, has resulted in many terminations. And

lastly, be extremely careful with the use of social media. If you do feel the need to post your opinions, make sure there is nothing on your profile or page that links you to the fire department. For more information on legal topics in the fire service, a good resource is Kurt Varone’s website Thanks and good luck!

Jon Harris has been in the fire service 24 years. He currently is serving as a deputy chief with the Murray City Fire Department. He is a graduate of the Executive Fire Officer Program and holds Chief Fire Officer and Certified Emergency Manager designations. He has a bachelor’s degree in psychology and a master’s degree in emergency management.

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Once the front of the door has been forced away from the vehicle, place the spreader between the door and the B-post; spread the door forward, pushing the latch off the Nader pin.

photography by Russell Young

may be to unlock the door and to open it normally. When attempting to access the door hinges and there is no insertion point for the spreader between the front fender and the door, rescue personnel have several options to create an opening. If the front fender is accessible, use hydraulic spreaders to crush the front fender at the highest point of the wheel well. This should create an opening over the hinges of the door that will allow insertion of the spreader tips. A hallagan tool can be used to create an opening between the door and fender if crushing the fender does not achieve the desired results.


BASIC VEHICLE DOOR REMOVAL The moment that a vehicle collision occurs, the need to get the trapped victim(s) disentangled and transported to definitive medical treatment begins. For the best chance of survival, it is imperative that the victim(s) be removed safely, efficiently, and as quick as possible. In order to achieve this goal, emergency response organizations must invest time and resources into developing well-trained extrication/rescue personnel. Rapid developments in vehicle design require continual modification of rescue techniques. The automotive industry constantly develops vehicle features to increase occupant safety. These safety features often create difficulties for rescue personnel during extrication incidents. The addition of strengthened passenger compartments with high-strength steel and occupant protection systems such as side airbags, inflatable side curtains, and pre-tensioners have resulted in changes to the way rescues must be performed. New car technology affects every rescuer and changes the dynamics of each extrication event. Emergency responders must adapt, develop, and practice extrication techniques and skills to meet these challenges. With that said, let’s look at an extrication technique designed to remove the side door(s) of a vehicle resting on its wheels. The most appropriate door removal technique depends on several key factors, such as vehicle type, position of vehicle, extent of structural damage, the rescue tools available, and the skill level of the rescue personnel. Remember, the ďŹ rst step 10 | UFRA Straight Tip

Using the spreader, expand the opening to expose the door hinges and bolts. To save time and increase the speed of the door removal process, make small, quick spreads with the tool and work the spreader tips in toward the hinges. Over spreading or large movements will tear the door and fender metal, waste time, and create sharp edges that can pose a safety risk. Once access to the hinges is complete, force the hinges apart by placing one tip of the spreader against the hinge bolt and the other against the hinge-pin; start with the top hinge and spread until the hinge separates and the top of the door begins to move out and away from the vehicle. Repeat for the bottom hinge. Note: work on one hinge at a time; do not begin between the two hinges. If the purchase points begin to tear, stop and reposition your spreader or cut the hinges with hydraulic shears. Once the front of the door has been forced away from the vehicle, place the spreader between the door and the B-post; spread the door forward, pushing the latch off the Nader pin. Always control the movement of the door, ensuring that it does not come into contact with the victim or with other rescue personnel.

Special techniques may be required when forcing entry on the side sliding doors (manual and powered) found on minivans. Normal operating sliding side doors open out at the rear edge when you pull on the handle. Rescuers should copy this action when forcing a van’s side door. Make an insertion point between the rear of the sliding door and the van body using a hallagan bar or by crushing the door with the hydraulic spreaders. Once an insertion point is created, force the door out away from the vehicle body, place the spreaders at the front of the door between the B-post and the sliding door, and force the door to the rear, allowing it to follow its natural track. If the door does not slide open easily then the track mechanisms are out of alignment and the door cannot be moved rearward. Rescuers must force the door from the tracks or cut through the pivot arms of the door in order to complete removal. Consider that if the vehicle door is inaccessible or too damaged to force open, don’t waste time trying to remove it; front or rear roof flaps and total roof removal may be the safest, most efficient way to rapidly access the trapped victim. Always practice, train, and consider plan B. Stay safe . . . Chief Young Russell Young is a battalion chief and assistant training officer for the Orem Fire Department, where he is responsible for extrication and ambulance driving operations. He is the chief of the Duchesne Fire Department and has been a paramedic for over 22 years. Young has a BS in emergency services management, is currently completing his MBA, has over 25 years of experience in fire and emergency medical service, and is an instructor and certification tester for UFRA.

Force the door from the tracks or cut through the pivot arms of the door to complete removal.

Using the spreader, expand the opening to expose the door hinges and bolts.

A hallagan tool can be used to create an insertion point for the spreader.

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by Jason Curry and Shayne Ward, State of Utah Division of Forestry

Introducing drones to the complexity of a wildfire mayof Forestry seem like State of Utah Division a headache, but their inclusion could greatly reduce risk to the people on the ground and in the sky.

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It is amazing to think that a conversation in 2013 about drones and wildfires would have been considered a niche topic among fire professionals. While still in its infancy, the idea of having drones in the airspace around a wildfire is quickly gaining traction. When talking about UAS (unmanned aircraft systems), a recurring theme comes up: potential. Drones have the potential to increase efficiency and reduce risk to firefighters. Drones have the potential to be a game changer. They also have the potential to be used recklessly and dangerously. Unfortunately, this emerging technology is not limited to the professionals. The private and commercial UAS market is soaring in sales and interest. The FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) is predicting about seven

million drone sales to the public sector by 2020.1 Long story short, drones are here to stay. They come with many positives, a couple negatives, and an intriguing future. Reducing Risk and Exposure What is the number one objective of any wildfire incident management team? Firefighter and public safety. Introducing drones to the complexity of a wildfire may seem like a headache, but their inclusion could greatly reduce risk to the people on the ground and in the sky. Several agencies, including the National Park Service (NPS), U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and Bureau of Land Management (BLM), have seen the potential benefits and real-world applications as they have

photography by Kari Greer, U.S. Forest Service


Wildfires and Drones The Aviation Revolution

conducted tests during active incidents last season. Having a drone and capable pilot on an incident could elicit many benefits. Drones can • detect new wildfires early on, • document fire scenes to aid in investigations, • provide accurate location of wildfires and/or emerging events within an incident, • seek and exploit natural and artificial fire breaks, • identify roads that can be used to get resources in and out, • locate water sources, • recon landscape for safer fire line construction, • locate potential Heli spots, • facilitate communications when crews are in radio dead zones, • fly the fire perimeter for accurate acreage assessment, • identify hotspots using thermal imaging, and • provide real-time information on crew locations. While these types of actions could be carried out by ground personnel, the exposure, risk, and cost are increasingly being passed to traditional fire aviation crews. There are many benefits to using drones over helicopters or fixed winger aircraft. Besides removing the pilot from the cockpit, drones are • cheaper to manage, maintain, and require less support; • used for more mundane activities, reducing the competition for vital resources; • much more cost effective; • lightweight, enabling individuals at the crew level to deploy them for use; and • fixed with many different components (camera, thermal optics, etc.) for relatively low cost. Adding to the Complexity Drones are becoming cheaper and more technologically advanced as the lucrative market continues to revolutionize the aviation world—meaning UAS are more accessible to the masses. Anyone has the ability to march on down to a big box store, purchase a drone, and fly it within an hour. The ease of access to this type of

equipment was previously only reserved for pilots who had years of schooling and discipline. There is a large gap of knowledge and skill from the common consumer to an FAA-recognized pilot.

A real-world example of this was the Saddle Fire, which took place last June on the Dixie National Forest. The fuel type and terrain made it difficult for traditional ground resources to go direct on the fire. This deferred a lot of the suppression responsibility to aerial resources. With an air show in effect and an active fire spewing thick black smoke, the local commu-

Utah is a great example but not the exception. In 2016 alone, 41 unauthorized drone intrusions were reported in 12 different states. Twenty-two resulted in the grounding of aerial operations. This trend is growing significantly, as only 25 intrusions were reported in 2015.2

nity was captivated—some residents more so than others. On June 17th, a drone was spotted flying within the TFR (temporary flight restriction) airspace near firefighting aircraft. This is a mistake no educated pilot would have made. Fire aircraft fly low and fast, well within the operating parameters of the common drone. As a safety precaution, when an unaccounted aircraft enters a protected airspace, procedure directs all aircraft be grounded until the threat has passed. This has many implications: • Any air tanker must divert back to base. If they have a load of retardant on board, they are often forced to jettison it off target. • Helicopters are not allowed to do bucket drops. This deals a great blow

to fire suppression abilities, allowing fires to grow in acreage and intensity. Firefighters on the ground lose their air support, which lowers their situational awareness and puts them at greater risk of advancing flames.

The Future of Drones in Wildfire With this surge in technology and ability, many organizations are trying to catch up as well as capitalize. Some are racing to regulate the drone market with rules and licensing. Others are gearing up for the potential it brings in the private sector. This aviation revolution is widespread and all affecting. Developing Drone Policy in the Fire Service As with any new technology, new policy has to be developed and training programs have to be created. Privacy is also a major concern with the public and with media able to GRAMA (Government Records Access and Management Act) Continued on next page.

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photography by Kari Greer, U.S. Forest Service

Continued from previous page.

any recordings fire managers have; it is key to remember that drone footage gives a perspective of a scene not previously available. As policy is developed, all the safety, training, privacy, and best practices should be in play. Since August 2016, the FAA has declared that government users must either be licensed under Part 107 (Remote Pilot Certification) or apply for a Certificate of Authorization (COA) each time they fly. The Remote Pilot Certification is a challenging test, but it can be done with a few weeks of study and some practice. In addition, all drones over .05 pounds must be registered. If departments are considering or currently have a drone program, ensure policy addresses those points. There are several commercial outfits willing to teach drone flying, FAA law, and all the other things necessary to pass the exam.

wildfires, and there is a detailed flowchart.3 The protocol seems complex, but the bottom line is to get aviation notified as soon as possible and then alert dispatch. Even if there are no aviation resources on the fire, dispatch and the IC (incident commander) still need to be notified so the threat can be communicated to any incoming aircraft and law enforcement. A SAFECOM should also be initiated. If a person is encountered operating a drone over your fire scene, a simple and clear request should be made for them to stop. If they fail to comply, any further action should be taken by law enforcement.

One training and policy example is the BLM. BLM employees are permitted by policy to fly drones on BLM land if they have completed and passed a week-long bureau-sponsored certification course. They have a large oversight committee and have already have trained dozens of their employees nationwide.

Industries Capitalizing With the creation of rules and standards, private companies have been presented with many new opportunities. For example, the media is using the training and certifications to build up a fleet of pilots capable of boosting their filming abilities. Now, when a media group shows up to an incident, they are bringing a little more pull. To make it more interesting, certain provisions exist that allow for reputable news outlets to gain waivers from the FAA granting permission into wildfire airspace. As it stands now, the IC has final say in granting permission for any aircraft to enter the scene.

Reporting Drone Intrusions on Wildfires There is a defined protocol for reporting and responding to drone intrusions on

While the media is trying to get drones in, other companies are developing technologies to keep drones out. Sev-

14 | UFRA Straight Tip

eral federal and state agencies are in the midst of identifying new ways to locate, intercept, and seize control of foreign drones to steer them away from wildfire airspace. While the technology is still young, initial tests have proven to work beyond expectations. In the near future, incident commanders will be in charge of engines, crews, and drone deterrent systems, making unauthorized drone intrusions a thing of the past. Many fire professionals may be skeptical about the inclusion of drones. It makes sense considering the recent bad publicity, but after reading this article, there should be some excitement for the potential role they could play in a wildfire. Drones will boost suppression and support capacity, lower costs, and reduce risk and exposure to firefighters. They may add to the complexity of already difficult scenarios, but as time continues, solutions will come and drones will be just as familiar as helicopters. Get used to the faint buzzing noise above your head; it’s not going away anytime soon _____________________________ 1 2

3 memos/eb-m-16-006a.pdf


Every Great Fire Chief Has Great leaders share certain characteristics; to improve your leadership abilities, develop these traits Name a fire chief living or dead who had an impact on you. What made that fire chief an influencer? What character traits, personality qualities did they possess? Many great leaders share certain character and personality traits. They also share certain behaviors that make them successful leaders. Here's a look at eight things those top leaders do and why they are important for fire chiefs to possess. 1. Communicate Share your vision with others. Clearly explain what you are about and what are your core beliefs. Each of our core beliefs may differ, but for the most part they are similar. 2. Delegate Effectively getting work done with others allows others to expand their capabilities. Delegation is a learned skill. Developing trust in those you delegate specific tasks to will require patience. Leaders must become good at delegating. 3. Resolve conflict Become good at dealing with conflict situations. This is the biggest part of a leader's tasks and a cornerstone of working effectively with people. The reality is that conflict is going to happen. People think things should be done in different ways.

16 | UFRA Straight Tip

4. Accept responsibility When you accept a leadership position, there is an accompanying level of responsibility that comes with it. Are you prepared for that responsibility of leadership? First, when you are promoted you must accept the responsibility of leadership and not make excuses. You can't blame others for your inability to be effective or successful. The more you accept the responsibility, the more control you will have over situations and yourself. When you accept responsibility, you demonstrate true leadership. A leader can make excuses or choose to make progress. Instead of complaining about a situation, explain the circumstances that created it and present possible solutions. Leaders are expected to deal with many situations over which they have no control. Don't become angry or frustrated over situations you have no control over, as it will detract from your ability to present possible solutions. 5. Make timely decisions Leaders are expected to provide direction and actionable assignments to a given situation based upon experience and expertise. Leaders should not procrastinate. Putting off decisions will not make the situation better, and in many cases will make it worse.

There is no guarantee of success when making decisions. Trust your instinct when confronting situations that require a proactive decision. Often, decisions do not have to be made in an expeditious manner. Take your time, take a deep breath and explore the situation to gain as many facts as possible. 6. Address behavior When dealing with people problems, focus on the behavior. Problems on the job are solved when they are fact based instead of personality based. Leaders are more successful at addressing situations in a winwin circumstance if they deal with the action rather than with the attitude. A leader will never win the bad-attitude debate with another person. 7. Engage the team Involve team members in decision-making when the opportunity presents itself. This is a great motivational tool leaders can and should use. The smartest person in the room is not always the leader. Involving others gives the leader the tools to make the best decisions for the department and community. 8. Know your biases Beliefs impact your ability to make the correct decision. As a leader you should be aware of how your beliefs may skew your decisions. Our personnel want a leader to make decisions. Most importantly our personnel expect the leader to make the right decision given the set of facts that are presented.

Chief John M. Buckman III is Fire Chief 's editorial advisor. He served 35 years as fire chief for the German Township (Ind.) Volunteer Fire Department. He has served nine years as director of firefighter training for the Indiana State Fire Marshal Office. He is a past president of the International Association of Fire Chiefs and a co-founder of the IAFC Volunteer and Combination Officers Section. In 1996, Fire Chief Magazine named Chief Buckman Volunteer Fire Chief of the Year. He is a co-author of the Lesson Learned from Fire-Rescue Leaders and is the editor of the Chief Officers Desk Reference. Chief Buckman is a member of the Fire Chief/FireRescue1 Editorial Advisory Board.You can reach Chief Buckman at

Tyson Mason Memorial by Donna Cotterell

In memory of Tyson Lee Mason, an emergency responder tragically killed earlier this year, a memorial plaque was created by artist Sarah Gardner. Sarah is a UVU paramedic graduate of Class #34. Tyson was killed returning home from a Life Flight shift on January 22, 2017. In addition to working as a Life Flight paramedic, Tyson also worked for the Ogden and Salt Lake City fire departments. Tyson graduated from the Firefighter Recruit Candidate Academy at UVU, Class #38, in the Summer of 2006. He is survived by his wife, Haileigh, and son, Lukas Sean Mason.

Gary Noll, chair of the Emergency Services Department at Utah Valley University, recognizes artist Sarah Gardner for the memorial plaque she created for Tyson Mason. They are standing with the memorial plaque in front of Tyson Mason’s Class #38 plaque at UVU Emergency Services in Provo.

Originally published by FireRescue1 and Fire Chief at on June 9, 2015. Reprinted with permission from Chief John M. Buckman III and Fire Chief/FireRescue1.

Summer 2017 | 17


photos courtesy of Layton City Fire Department

munication errors.” An excerpt reads, “The morning after four of his firefighters perished in the smoke and flames of a burning warehouse, Seattle Fire Chief Claude Harris offered a grieving city some comfort in this assessment: The tragedy at the Mary Pang Food Products warehouse could not have been prevented. All the department’s safety procedures had been followed on the night of Jan. 5.” “Everything went as it was supposed to,” he said.

Learning from Our Past Mistakes At winter fire school, Chief Paul Sullivan and I had the privilege of sharing our new class, “Habits of Highly Effective Incident Commanders.” We started with a historical perspective of past “command” experiences in the fire service and how, hopefully, we can learn from the past. The phrase “those who don’t know or remember history are doomed to repeat it” was reportedly coined in some fashion or another by many people, from political theorist Edmund Burke to British statesman Winston Churchill. To “know” or “remember” history is one thing. To actually learn from history is another. Learning from Past Events While researching some past fire events, I found an article from the 1995 Seattle Times regarding the Pang Warehouse fire. This fire resulted in the deaths of four firefighters and was viewed as an example of “poor preparation (pre-planning) and com18 | UFRA Straight Tip

I’m not so sure I would agree with that statement. To the Seattle Fire Department’s credit, they did conduct an in-depth post-incident analysis of this tragedy and made some effective changes and, I believe, learned from this fire event.

Working in the Phoenix Valley fire service in March of 2001, I was able to witness firsthand another fire department’s response to a tragic line-of-duty death. The Southwest Supermarket fire, which claimed the life of Firefighter Brett Tarver, became the focus of improvements throughout the fire service in the Phoenix area. At Brett’s funeral, Chief Alan Brunacini stated that “whatever resources necessary would be focused on learning from this tragedy.” He further went on to say, “We messed up… a firefighter died and we aren’t going to let that happen again.” What followed was a process called “The Recovery.” This involved an intense review of procedures and participation in rapid intervention/mayday simulation drills, air management, and ultimately, policy changes. My department in Layton has taken a similar attitude. Suffering our own line-of-duty death in March of 2000, Battalion Chief Jared Sholly (current fire chief of Riverdale City) was tasked with developing a comprehensive review of Kendall Bryant’s death several years ago. Chief Sholly was directed to review all aspects of what occurred that tragic night, from command procedures and accountability, to strategy and tactics. Having early-on “raw” fire video and all radio traffic, Chief Sholly developed a presentation that has been shared in several western states. We, too,

To “know” or “remember” history is one thing. To actually learn from history is another. have attempted to honor Kendall’s memory by “dissecting” the incident and learning from it and sharing what we have learned within our department and with the rest of the fire service to avoid a similar tragedy. By all means, it was painful to resurrect the incident. However, the results gained were worth the process.

“Fire departments should provide the Incident Commander with a Command Aide.”

Unfortunately, many times the same issues and mistakes show up in the reports again and again. As Dr. Richard Gasaway,1 retired fire chief and one of the nation’s leading authorities on human factors and situational awareness, has said, “We haven’t found or invented new ways to kill firefighters.” Learning from Every Incident The National Wildfire Coordinating Group’s Incident Response Pocket Guide2 offers a simple, standard format to follow for a review of an incident: 1. What was planned? 2. What actually happened? 3. Why did it happen? 4. What can we do next time? (correct weaknesses/sustain strengths) We need to learn from every incident, not just ones ending in tragedy. Let’s put the egos aside and take an in-depth look at what we can do more efficiently, effectively, and safely.

Memorial for Kendall O. Bryant at Layton Fire Station 51. Kendall was killed March 31, 2000, while on a house fire searching for a reported person trapped.

We owe that to our personnel and the people we have sworn to protect!

Learning from Reports National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) reports offer the fire service an excellent opportunity to learn from others’ mistakes and experiences.


Here are some summaries of what can be learned from several reports I reviewed regarding incident command: • “Ensure that the Incident Commander be clearly identified as the only individual responsible for the overall coordination and direction of all activities at an incident.” • “Ensure that the Incident Commander maintains the role of director and does not become involved as a laborer.” • “Ensure that Incident Command always maintains close accountability for all personnel at the fire scene.” • “Ensure that the Incident Command conducts a complete size-up of the incident before initiating firefighting efforts, and continually evaluates the risk versus gain during operations at an incident.” • “The Incident Commander should ensure that the strategy and tactics match the conditions encountered during initial operations and throughout the incident.”

_____________________ 2, Situational Awareness Matters. Incident Response Pocket Guide, PMS461/NFES 001077 (2014), National Wildfire Coordinating Group, Boise, ID.

Kevin Ward is a 37-year fire service veteran, having been the fire chief for Layton City since 2004. Prior to this appointment, Chief Ward progressed through the ranks from firefighter/paramedic to battalion chief with the Chandler Fire Department in Arizona. He holds several NWCG qualifications, such as ICT3 and Structure Protection Specialist, and is an instructor for the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy. Chief Ward has been an instructor for UFRA’s Command Training Center since its inception.

Summer 2017 | 19


AVOIDING A CONFINED SPACE TRAGEDY, PART I Most of the fatalities (60%) were actually the rescuer, not the original victim. Workers are dying in confined spaces in numbers that are unacceptable. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) concluded that asphyxiation was the leading cause of death (45%) due to a lack of proper respiratory protection, a failure to wear it, or not recognizing the problem in the first place. The average worker who died in a confined space was a white male (98%), 35 years of age, and in the private sector (oil and gas industry) and the death occurred inside a tank. The worker who received on-the-job training accounted for 41% of deaths while a worker who received no training at all accounted for only 34% of deaths. This tells us that common sense saved more workers than training. However, workers who took a full Confined Space course involving classroom and practical skills accounted for only 6% of deaths (NIOSH, 1986). Most of the fatalities (60%) were actually the rescuer, not the original victim. Of these would-be rescuers, only 10% were certified emergency responders. Coworkers accounted for 90% of the rescuer fatalities. This is due to multiple “rescuers” succumbing to the space and piling up on top of the original victim. A quarter of all fatal incidents involved multiple victims (NIOSH, 1994). The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has promulgated regulations to halt these senseless deaths and provide workers with some protections. Regulations are written to comply with more complex and confusing federal laws. Federal agencies, such as OSHA, interpret the law and promulgate regulations based on “administrative interpretations” of the law that carry the weight of the law but are easier to understand. The final rule on general industry permit-required confined spaces was published on January 14, 1993: 29CFR 1910.146 Permit Required Confined Spaces. Exempted from this regulation are agriculture (29CFR 1928), mining (MSHA), construction (29CFR 1926 - Trench), maritime (29CFR 1915), and telecommunications (29CFR 1910.268). 20 | UFRA Straight Tip

The most impactful related regulation is 29CFR 1910.134 Respiratory Protection. Since the #1 killer of entrants and rescuers is a hazardous atmosphere, this standard is extremely important to follow. Any time a worker is exposed to an IDLH (immediately dangerous to life or health) situation or unknown atmosphere, they must wear self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) or a supplied-air respirator (SAR) with an escape bottle. Below the IDLH and above the permissible exposure limit (PEL), an air purifying respirator (APR) or a powered air purifying respirator (PAPR) may be worn. Below the PEL, no respiratory protection is required. One of the most common IDLH environments requiring an SCBA is an environment with low oxygen content. Also, significantly, 1910.134 requires that at least one person and two, if needed (g)(3), be outside of an IDLH atmosphere equipped with SCBA and immediately available to any worker who enters an IDLH environment and that a retrieval system be in place for that worker. In underground street conduits, methane and hydrogen sulfide, both flammable and toxic gasses, typically accumulate. Knowing this, it’s tragic to continue to read about confined space fatalities. The fire service learned and adapted to the OSHA standard and trained to respond to these back in the 1990s. Have we forgotten? It’s disturbing to know that firefighters are still making senseless entries into these spaces to attempt rescues without initial monitoring or SCBA. In January 2017 such an event occurred in Florida. Residents complained about a sewage back-up in the neighborhood. A worker from a subcontractor to the city entered a space without respiratory protection or metering the space and was not heard from, so the second worker entered to find out the first worker’s status and was not heard from. A third worker entered the space in a rescue attempt and was also overcome. A local firefighter arrived and entered the space without SCBA and immediately collapsed. Officers from the sheriff ’s department rescued the firefighter and performed CPR until he could Firefighters work to retrieve the bodies of the victims. Photo Courtesy of Miami Herald©

It’s disturbing to know that firefighters are still making senseless entries into these spaces to attempt rescues without initial monitoring or SCBA.

documents are 2017 editions. I suggest reading them if you’re not familiar or if it’s been a while since you have. Be safe. Andy Byrnes, EFO, MEd, retired after 21 years at the Orem Fire Department as a special operations battalion chief. He was also a sworn law enforcement officer for 18 years and paramedic for 16 years. He is currently an associate professor at Utah Valley University’s (UVU) Emergency Services Department in Provo, Utah. Andy is the director of the Firefighter Recruit Candidate Academy Program at UVU. Andy is a graduate of the National Fire Academy’s Executive Fire Officer Program. He holds an associate’s degree in fire science, a bachelor’s degree in public emergency services management, and a master’s degree in instructional technology from Utah State University.

be transported unresponsive and not breathing. He ultimately survived. Three deputies were also transported complaining of nausea and dizziness. In 2002, this subcontractor had been cited by OSHA for not performing atmospheric testing; not implementing a confined space entry program; not completing a confined space entry permit; not having a rescue plan or rescue equipment on site; and not having a rescue service available in a timely manner (Rabin & Goodhue, 2017). Some lessons are harder to learn than others. If you or your crew are not familiar with the dangers of a confined space, look forward to Part II of this article in the next Straight Tip. In the meantime, there are two professional consensus documents pertaining to confined space entry and emergency response used by industry as referenced by the regulations. Specifically, NFPA 350 Guide for Safe Confined Space Entry and Work supplements and provides additional guidance for NFPA 1670 Standard on Operations and Training for Technical Search and Rescue Incidents, Chapter 7, which contains the procedures for Confined Space Search and Rescue. Both


NIOSH (January, 1986). Preventing occupational fatalities in confined spaces. NIOSH Publication 86–110. niosh/docs/86-110/. NIOSH (January, 1994). Worker deaths in confined spaces. A summary of NIOSH surveillance and investigative findings. NIOSH Publication 94–103. Rabin, C. & Goodhue, D. (January, 2017). “Three men descend to their death, overcome by poisonous gas under the ground.” Miami Herald.

Climbing the Ladder

Provo Fire Department

The following promotions were given at Provo Fire Department: Jeremy Headman—Deputy Chief Jeff Wise—Battalion Chief Sam Armstrong—Fire Captain Jason Branson—Fire Captain Nathan Broadbent—Fire Engineer Scott Anderson—Fire Engineer Group photo, left to right: Scott Anderson, Nathan Broadbent, Sam Armstrong, Jason Branson, Jeff Wise, Jeremy Headman

Summer 2017 | 21


NORTH TOOELE FIRE by Cassandra Ray and Michelle Davis



The North Tooele Fire District (NTFD) was established on October 6, 1987, as a special service district providing fire protection and first responder services to the unincorporated areas of the northern parts of Tooele County. In 2014, the district changed its governance and became a local district known as the North Tooele Fire District. It also changed from having an appointed board to an elected board. NTFD covers 1,700 square miles, including the communities of Stansbury Park,

Lake Point, Erda, and Pine Canyon and the rural canyons and desert areas outside of the cities of Tooele, Grantsville, Stockton, Rush Valley, and Terra and approximately 70 miles of Interstate-80. The fire district started out as an allvolunteer agency but has since expanded its service and now runs as a combination department running 48/96 shifts with three full-time platoons. Current staffing consists of 33 active members, including a full-time fire chief, a full-time assistant fire chief, a part-time administrative assistant, a part-time fire marshal, three full-time captains, four lieutenants, nine part-time firefighters, and 17 volunteer firefighters, including a volunteer public information officer. The NTFD averages 900 calls per year with an average of 80% being EMS calls for service.

The NTFD currently provides fire suppression, EMS first responder, hazmat response, and wildland suppression for a large rural and mountain area in the west desert. The fire district has had some very serious calls on I-80 with mass casualty incidents including two in the past year that involved multiple semi-trailers and smaller vehicles and that had the freeway shut down for several hours. These incidents required the fire district to handle EMS, fire, and hazmat response at the same time. On the brighter side, we have a blast every year participating in the community Polar Plunge on New Year’s Day in Stansbury Park, and in the summer we love to cook hot dogs for the kids on their last day of school!

Back row, left to right: FF/PM Greg Hicken, FF/EMT Brett Ontiveros, FF/EMT Jeremy Sutherland, Cpt. Jason Brown, Asst. Chief Cassandra Ray, and Lt. Todd Gillis; Front row, left to right: FF/AEMT JoAnne LeClaire, Lt. Colleen Carr, Cpt. Kirk Arnold, and FF/AEMT Tonya Christoffersen.

22 | UFRA Straight Tip


n g Dr

Keltch Ln

Lighthouse Ln

Delancey St

Village Blvd




North Tooele County Fire District


Dory Ln



y gla

ss D r

Village Blvd

Village Blvd

Village Blvd

Command: Interlochen Ln IC601 & Staff Dodge 1500 Ram 4x4 Chevrolet Suburban

Lourdes Ln

Gravel Access Rd

Auxiliary: Aux61 & Aux62 Ford F550 “Road Warrior” medical rescue/freeway response apparatus with 250-gallon water Ford F550 Hazmat response apparatus Teryx side by side for off-road response/rescue, donated by Kawasaki & Plaza Cycle

Calais Ln

Brienne Way

Bates Canyon Rd

Ardennes Way

Rescue: RE61, RE62, RE63 Ford F350 medical rescue Chevrolet Suburban medical rescue Horseshoe Dr

One of the biggest changes that we have made in the growth of our fire district was the move to a 24/7 full-time staffed station this past March. The growth of the community and the ever-increasing number of calls precipitated the need for augmented staffing and a new program. This year we will celebrate our 30th anniversary. We are excited about the changes that have come about in the last 30 years, and we look forward to the opportunities that this new direction will provide for our fire district and the communities that we serve throughout the years to come.


Derby Ln


Mu lb er ry


Stallion Way

Regatta Ln


Ponderosa Ln


Bleeker St

Lakeside Dr

W in do

Spring St B

eB lag Vil




s ay


Bates Canyon Rd

Bates Canyon Rd

Trailers: MAKO SCBA Cascade compressor trailer HazMat response trailer HazMat Mobile Decon trailer

photography by Chief Randy Willden

NTFD Stats: Stations: 1 Staffed Station—Stansbury Park #61 (HQ) 3 Non-Staffed Stations: Lake Point #62 Erda #63 Pine Canyon #64 Property donated for a fifth station in East Erda for a new building to be built in the next 5–10 years

APPARATUS: Engines: E61, E62, E63, E64 & Reserve Pierce Pumper Type 1 Structure Engine Ford Pumper Type 1 Structure Engine Brush Trucks: BR61, BR62, BR63, BR64 Dodge 4500 4x4 Type 6 Engine Water Tender: TE63 Freightliner Tanker 3000 gallon The Annual Polar Plunge at Stansbury Lake. Back row, left to right: FF/AEMT Kris Cope, FF/AEMT Eric Willden, FF/EMT Jeremy Sutherland, FF/PIO Ryan Willden, and FF Taylor Houghton; Front row, left to right: Cpt. Kirk Arnold, FF/AEMT Justin French, Cpt. Kory Jones, and FF/AEMT JoAnne LeClaire.

Summer 2017 | 23


BUILDING CODES: A CRITICAL PUBLIC SAFETY COMPONENT by Scott Adams, Assistant Chief/District Fire Marshal Park City Fire District and Rob Neale, Vice President, National Fire Service Activities International Code Council

Shortly after last December’s Ghost Ship fire in Oakland, California, there was an intense—but brief—public interest in the role of building codes to promote public safety. For those in the “code business,” this is a common pattern: a tragic event that garners national attention is in the headlines for a few weeks, and people are aghast that something so heinous could occur in modern America. Sometimes, these events lead to important changes in the building and fire codes. The 2003 Rhode Island Station Night Club fire lowered the threshold for sprinklers in public entertainment spaces. Two Las Vegas hotel fires in the 1980s led to the requirements for sprinklers in high-rise buildings. But what happens when the “smoke settles” and the urgency of the incident in the news cycle has passed? Who takes on the role of preventing these events from reoccurring or, if they do reoccur, minimizing their consequences? Who, for example, remembers the fire at Home Depot that was controlled by three sprinklers and did not even make the local news? 24 | UFRA Straight Tip

Codes’ Purpose Building construction and maintenance codes are created with the specific purpose of providing a “reasonable level of safety, health and general public welfare.” While adopted by a nationwide process, the local code official is responsible for the application and interpretation of the codes. The predominant building and fire safety codes used in the U.S. are published by the International Code Council (ICC), a U.S.-based, member-driven organization that has more than 63,000 members representing more than 22,000 jurisdictions in business, industry, development, and the design community. The ICC is an outgrowth of three “legacy” code organizations (International Conference of Building Officials, Southern Standard Building Code Congress International, and Building Officials and Code Administrators) that used to produce regional construction codes.

Building codes create the requirements for occupant safety, including items such as the fire-resistive stair enclosure (right) that provides a protected means of egress.

The 15 International Code Council codes are fully integrated to work seamlessly with one another: building, mechanical, fuel, gas, plumbing, existing buildings, energy, etc. A technical requirement for an item in the building code is copied in the fire, mechanical, or plumbing codes for easy reference. The ICC has an International Code Correlation Committee to ensure coordination and avoid conflict between and among the codes. Building construction and maintenance codes are developed through a

During construction, the building and fire code officials should visit the site regularly to ensure essential structural and fire protection components are installed as required.

public, open, and transparent process that includes all interest groups. Owners, designers, product manufacturers, associations, code officials, and any other interested parties are encouraged to participate in the process to ensure all interests are considered. The fire service is well represented on the ICC technical committees. Fire service professionals sit on the International Fire Code Committee, the Fire Code Action Committee, and several International Building Code committees pertaining to fire protection and exiting. There also are four fire code regional work groups where fire officials process code change proposals before they go to a final vote. How Codes Achieve Health, Safety, and General Welfare The ICC codes are called “model” codes: they provide a comprehensive “off-the-shelf ” approach to building construction and maintenance that a jurisdiction can adopt without having to develop its own set of building regulations. The codes establish construction requirements. The published codes also include other documents, called “standards,” that describe how to achieve the requirements. For example, the building or fire code may require the installation of an automatic fire sprinkler system, and a National Fire Protection Association standard describes how to install it. When a jurisdiction adopts building construction safety codes, they establish the minimum level of risk in the built environment that elected officials are willing to accept. All codes are developed to protect property rights and ensure due process for

enforcement. Depending upon the state, the model codes may be amended to enable them to satisfy state or local conditions. This may result in the adopted code being more or less restrictive than the model code. Codes are intended to provide the following: • Structural strength: the ability of the building to resist gravity and environmental forces such as wind, rain, snow, flooding, or earthquake. • Means of egress: the ability to provide and maintain a clear, unobstructed, and well-marked exit path that leads building occupants to safety from threats. • Sanitation, light, and ventilation: to ensure healthful and safe conditions through personal and public hygiene facilities, adequate natural or artificial illumination, and natural or artificial ventilation to support indoor air quality. • Energy conservation: to encourage responsible energy conservation through insulation, fenestration, and efficient equipment operations and maintenance. • Fire safety and resistance: to require fire resistant rated construction, fire detection, and protection systems and equipment, maintenance of heat-producing equipment, and regulation and control of hazardous materials and equipment. The International Building Code1 requires the owner or the owner’s authorized agent to obtain a permit from the code official to “construct, enlarge, alter, repair, move, demolish, or change the occupancy of a building or structure, or to erect, install, enlarge, alter, repair, remove, convert or replace any electrical, gas, Continued on next page.

Summer 2017 | 25

Continued from previous page.

mechanical or plumbing system.” The purpose of these permits is to ensure the work is done or installed in accordance with current safety standards. When a new building is proposed, the building code official assigns it to a code “use and occupancy” category that describes its intended use: educational facility, place of public assembly, factory and industrial, institution, storage, etc. These categories are derived from the fire and life safety requirements for those uses. Once a certificate of occupancy is issued, changes in the use and occupancy must be approved by the building code official. The ICC publishes the International Property Maintenance Code that enables jurisdictions adopting it to require minimum safety maintenance on buildings and structures. The International Fire Code enables the fire code official to issue permits for a variety of hazardous conditions, including the safety of special events by limiting the number of attendees, controlling open flames, and for large venues, providing adequately trained crowd managers to assist in evacuation. A fire code permit essentially authorizes the permittee to operate a hazard as long as it is accomplished in a code-compliant manner.

Fire protection systems, such as these fire sprinkler and standpipe risers, are required by codes to protect the public and firefighters.

From an operational firefighter’s perspective, inspections should be viewed not only as “code enforcement” but as an opportunity to become familiar with a property, its hazards, and the mitigating features that are included (e.g., fire walls, fire protection systems, portable fire extinguishers, storage practices) to lessen the likelihood of a catastrophic event. Firefighters who know the buildings in their response districts are less likely to be injured or killed if there is a fire, explosion, haz mat release, or other unwanted event. Summary The Ghost Ship fire was a tragic reminder that as far as we have come in building and fire safety, we still have a long way to go. Most fire departments will not experience an event that kills 36 and has significant social and psychological consequences, but that doesn’t mean we should be neglectful or careless in our duty to protect the public and first responders from these incidents. The adoption, application, and enforcement of building construction and safety codes are just more “tools in the tool box” to make the fire service more effective, efficient, and safe. _____________________

Or, in the case of one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses, the International Residential Code.


Regulatory Inspections Inspections performed by a jurisdiction to verify compliance with one or more of the adopted codes should be viewed as an opportunity to ensure the property is in accordance with the minimum level of risk that elected officials are willing to accept. 26 | UFRA Straight Tip

The Utah Supervising Fire Officer Designation by Steve Lutz

Over the last several years, more than 40 Utah firefighters and officers have successfully completed the process to become Designated Supervising Fire Officers (SFO). The process involves documenting a comprehensive body of career development classes, higher education, certifications, competencies, and experiences based on criteria that were initially developed by the International Association of Fire Chiefs (IAFC) in their Officer Development Handbook and then adapted by the Utah Commission on Fire Officer Designation. The purpose of the program is to recognize fire personnel who have demonstrated a commitment to professionalism by following a defined ongoing pathway of career preparation. Perhaps more importantly, the program gives young firefighters and those preparing for promotion a blueprint to prepare for advancement. While every department has its own unique set of requirements to obtain a promotion, the Utah Supervising Fire Officer Designation addresses a set of core competencies that have universal applicability for any company officer in any department. Over the years, the Commission has simplified the application procedure, but it still requires a fair amount of work to assemble. SFO William Elson says that’s just fine: “It shows effort, it shows commitment. It shows a love of the job that you are going above and beyond to gain something that at this point in time, depending on your department, [may not be] a requirement for promotion.” Several large departments have adopted the SFO model as a tool to best prepare candidates for promotion and give them a clear view of what to do. Many firefighters get trapped on a path that increases their technical expertise in a particular specialty but doesn’t get them ready for the many management aspects faced in a company officer position. The SFO program seeks to balance

technical, general, and management skill acquisition specifically to create a new generation of officers who are better prepared to do the job the day they begin it. Deputy Chief Paul Sullivan of the Weber Fire District had these comments about the program: “First, the District is proud to boast that we had the first firefighter in the State to receive his Supervisory Fire Officer Designation, Captain Chuck Stokes. Already being an officer, he really didn't need this designation for immediate promotion; however he saw this as a way to lead by example and as a step toward further career progression. “Currently we have one other firefighter who has received this, but several others who are working toward it. As a further catalyst though, and as a way to improve education and training in the District, we have decided to adopt the Supervisory Fire Officer Designation as a requirement for company officer beginning in 2019. To further aid in this, we tripled our tuition reimbursement to ensure all our personnel have access to education and this designation. We are proud of our officers and believe we have an excellent cadre, however, due to an ever changing and often more technical environment, we see the need for future officers (I'm speaking of the fire service as a whole here) to have more advanced education and training. The Supervisory Fire Officer designation is a step in that direction.” Once a critical mass of candidates has completed SFO, the Commission intends to follow the IAFC Officers Handbook guidelines to develop the next level, Managing Fire Officer. It will aim to prepare SFOs for battalion chief positions. To learn more and get yourself ready for promotion, go online to Let your journey begin.

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WE ALL HAVE THE DUTY TO PREVENT TRAGEDY - Color Country Interagency Fire If you have spent any amount of time in the fire service, there is no doubt you have heard the saying, “If we could save one life through fire prevention, our investment of time and money is all worth it.” Although fire prevention and education efforts are often difficult to quantify, an incident in Cedar City with measurable results and solid data demonstrates the value of an interagency fire education program in southwest Utah. In February of 2004, a nine-year-old girl was at home with her siblings when a fire ignited inside the residence. She was able to get herself and family members out of the house without suffering personal injury by crawling low through smoke and using lessons learned at Cedar City Fire Department’s Life Safety House. After the fire, her mother made it a priority to notify the fire department and tell them how their fire prevention program saved her children’s lives. Not only has this program seen a real life-saving example unfold on a reactive level, it’s proving to be an effective and proactive tool for the interagency fire community by reducing unwanted fires and other family tragedies on a large scale. For example, all fires caused by juveniles in Iron County—both structural and wildland fires—have plummeted from 18 percent in 1989, to 6 percent in 1998, and currently to .10 of 1 percent starting in 2010. 28 | UFRA Straight Tip

So what exactly makes Cedar City Fire Department’s Life Safety Week curriculum so successful? “A primary component is the interagency partnership approach to life safety,” said Cedar City Fire Chief Mike Phillips. “Not only are we presenting critical safety information to every second grade school in the county (800 students/200 adults) in a week’s time, but we are sitting down to lunch with our interagency partners and breaking down any barriers that might present a challenge in the future. This encourages more interagency training and a unified response to emergency management,” said Phillips. Local, state, and federal partners are also seeing the benefits of participating in this program, as juvenile-caused wildfires on state and federal land have significantly declined over the past 10 years. “Not only are we responding to less juvenile related wildfires on state and federally administered land because of Life Safety Week’s effectiveness, but the benefit of having more partnerships in place at all levels of government greatly benefits our public service capabilities,” said Mike Melton, southwest area fire management officer for Forestry, Fire & State Lands. “A driving force to reducing human caused fires is an effective fire prevention and education plan in our local communities. This is a high priority for all of the local, state, and federal fire managers in the Color Country Interagency Management Area,” said Melton.

“Not only are we presenting critical safety information to every second grade school in the county (800 students/200 adults) in a week’s time, but we are sitting down to lunch with our interagency partners and breaking down any barriers that might present a challenge in the future.” In conclusion, we all have a duty to prevent tragedy and try to keep our youth programs current, meaningful, and more importantly, fun. If we continue to bolster our interagency partnerships, the resulting accomplishments will increase exponentially and will allow us to provide better service to the public, while preventing incidents with catastrophic consequences along the way. This year’s program will teach residential, recreation, and outdoor safety lessons that supplement current Iron County School District learning objectives. Approximately 20 public employees from law enforcement, emergency medical services, emergency dispatch, structural fire, and wildland fire agencies participate in Life Safety Week annually. As the Life Safety Program approaches its 20-year anniversary in 2018, strategic changes to the education material are being made to implement formal evaluations and address today’s community challenges.

Certification Testers of the Year Every year the Certification Office recognizes three certification testers during our annual Certification Tester Seminar. These testers promote professionalism while administering exams, return complete paperwork and orderly test boxes, and are consistently reliable. It is not how often they administer exams but how they administer exams. Please join with us in congratulating the 2017 Certification Testers of the Year! Michael Harris, Washington City Fire Department

Kevin Lloyd, North Davis Fire District

Jeremy Raymond, Uintah Fire District

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HONORING THE NATION’S FALLEN HERE IN UTAH Nestled in the heart of downtown Ogden among the trees and gardens of the city’s municipal building stands a unique and special place for firefighters, their families, and friends. America’s Fallen Firefighter Memorial is a monument built to honor fallen firefighters as far back as the early 1800s from around our great country. The monument features a seven-and-a-half foot tall bronze statue. On the west side of the statue, four black granite walls frame the memorial. The layout and design of the walls and some memorial pieces were brought to life by Dave Bott, owner and operator of Mark H. Bott Company Cemetery Memorials in Ogden. These walls have thousands of names inscribed, as well as artwork etched, on both sides. The memorial project, however, is only half complete. An additional four walls on the east side of the monument have yet to be built and etched with thousands more of the names of the fallen. The other half of the memorial walls will also feature 25 state seals, adding to the state seals already on the completed walls. The memorial ideas were laid out by the memorial’s founders, Rich King and Mike Leatham with the help of Dave Bott, and the ideas were presented to Greg Montgomery, planning manager for Ogden City. After many locations were considered, the memorial’s location was chosen to be historic Downtown Ogden. This location gave the memorial access to the amphitheater next door for a memorial service each year to read the names of the fallen from the previous years. In 2011, the dream began taking shape, as the statue was unveiled at an emotional ceremony on the eve of the 10th anniversary of September 11th. Although there are other monuments around the country that honor fallen firefighters, America’s Fallen Firefighter Memorial is unique in the sense that it is open and available to the public 24/7, 365 days of the year, not requiring certain access to view. The memorial will be the largest of its kind west of the Mississippi River. It honors career, part-time, volunteer, wildland, military, and industrial firefighters who have died in the line of duty. There are about 6,500 names on the walls to date. There will eventually be close to 12,000 names inscribed on the walls.

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The founders of this wall want to stress, however, that despite the uniqueness of this memorial, it was built to complement the national memorial in Emmitsburg, not to take its place or take the place of any other memorial of its kind. The reason for Ogden, Utah, being selected for the site is that it is the midpoint of the west and brings a memorial to the western states to pay homage to the fallen. The construction up to this point has been completed solely by private funds and donations. One of the ways America’s Fallen Firefighter Memorial raises funds is through a motorcycle ride known as the Fire Ride. This is a fundraising ride and rolling procession, which begins at Southtowne HarleyDavidson in Sandy, Utah. The ride heads up 56 miles north and ends up at the memorial for a memorial service and a reading of the names of the fallen from the previous year. Another fundraising effort is through a brick program. The bricks come in two sizes and cost between $100 and $500, depending on the brick’s size. The service at the memorial is always on the Saturday closest to September 11th, Patriot Day. This is a public event, and everyone is invited to attend. Approximately $250,000 has already been funded, and another $300,000 is needed to complete the memorial. For additional questions about how to get involved in supporting the Memorial via the brick fundraiser or the Fire Ride, contact Captain Rich King at or Misha Fitzpatrick at, or please visit

Utah Inspector Guide Available

If you have not had a chance to see the memorial for yourself, come to downtown Ogden and see it on the north side of the Municipal Building on 25th Street and Washington Boulevard. The experience of visiting the memorial is something that no one should miss. Rich King is the president/co-founder of America’s Fallen Firefighter Memorial and Fire Ride. To add to the list of hats Rich wears, he is also the captain of the tactical team in Ogden City, where he has served 20 of his 30 years in the fire service. After spending eight years in the Navy, Rich moved from Virginia to Utah, where just a few years later he met his gorgeous wife, Robin. Twenty-two years of marriage, five children, and nine grandchildren later, Rich is one busy and happy man. Rich is an active member of the community, co-founding the Weber County Honor Guard, which is the busiest guard in the state of Utah. Not only is he a devoted firefighter and husband, he is also a highly talented artist. His artistic work ranges from various graphic logo and patch designs and handdrawn portraits to airbrushing and painting motorcycles. Rich is actively promoting fundraising efforts for America’s Fallen Firefighter Memorial. He resides in Roy, Utah.

The long-awaited Utah version of the International Fire Code Inspector’s Guide has finally come off the press. Featuring dozens of changes that came from the International Code Council (ICC) and from the Utah legislature, the Guide highlights the most commonly needed code sections organized by occupancy type. This design and the compact size of the book make it a handy tool for company inspections or a quick reference for fire marshals and inspectors. Sample inspection forms are included in the book, and an electronic version can be downloaded from the UFRA website,, under Chiefs Resources>Helpful Links>Fire & Emergency Services Resources and Reports>Inspection Report. The guide is free to Utah fire departments and code officials. Each fire department statewide will be issued a free guide for each engine and inspector from UFRA program managers. The Utah Inspector Guide originated when now retired Program Manager Ray Brown brought the concept to UFRA in the early 1990s. The last several cycles of the book have been developed by Scott Adams of Park City FD and Steve Lutz of Wayne County Fire District. Providing guides at no charge is possible because UFRA also publishes the international version of the book for the ICC. Profits from those sales pay for the Utah version. For more information regarding the Utah-specific fire code provisions and other rules and laws, go to https:// Summer 2017 | 31

Maintaining a Healthy Work Life Balance as a Firefighter It may be surprising to learn that firefighting makes the top ten list of jobs that provides a good life/work balance. According to Glassdoor, a jobs and recruiting site, their 2014 report shows that firefighting ranks just under occupations like a group fitness instructor, user experience designer, and corporate communications as one of the jobs that provides the best work/life balance.1

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By contrast, just one year later, firefighting doesn’t even make the top 25 Glassdoor occupations for work/life balance in 2015.2 The discrepancy from one year to the next may have something to do with the fact that firefighting does have a few nice perks like having a flexible schedule and co-workers that feel like fam-

ily. On the flip side, firefighting is a highly stressful occupation. CareerCast ranked firefighting number one as the most stressful occupation in 2015.3 Work Life Balance is Difficult for All Occupations Finding a healthy work life balance is difficult for nearly all occupations. A 2014 study from Randstad showed that employers struggle with offering work life balance and employees struggle with accepting it even when it’s been offered.4 Technology makes it easier for employers to talk shop with employees during off hours, making the dividing line between work and home more than a little murky, especially for 24/7 jobs like firefighting. The same study showed that today’s employees hesitate to take full advantage of vacation days. More than a quarter of vacationers reported feeling guilty for taking their full entitlement of vacation days. Moreover, if they do take them, 42% feel obliged to check in via phone or email while on vacation. Guilt is also a common thread for workers who become ill during work hours. Fortyseven percent of ill workers felt that they needed to continue working either at their workplace or from home. Work Life Balance Is More Difficult for Firefighters The stress that firefighters experience reaches well beyond stressful emergency calls. FireRescue1 lists nine stressors that make it difficult for firefighters to find a healthy balance between home and work.5 They include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Shift work and rotating shifts Sleep deprivation Inadequate training Technical problems with equipment or communication Bad crews Malicious coworkers Inconsistent policies Poor leadership Stressful emergency calls

Benefits of Achieving a Healthy Work Life Balance for Firefighters With the inherent stressors that come with the job of fighting fires, firefighters that successfully achieve a healthy work life balance reap rewards. These rewards pay it forward to alleviate some of the stressors that they face when returning to work. Many people have a hard time relaxing because they haven’t trained their minds and bodies how to unwind. Firefighters that practice relaxation techniques off the job return to their shifts with a lower threshold of tension than their colleagues. They can use those same techniques on the job to stay relaxed or to decompress after a difficult call. Firefighters that actively practice being in a state of calm find that they are recharged and ready to handle the most difficult emergency calls. This translates to increased

job performance and improved decision-making, which are vital skills for firefighters. Firefighters that maintain a healthy work life balance enjoy a sense of personal satisfaction and fewer health problems.6 Firefighters That Succumb to Physical and Emotional Burnout The stress impacts on-the-job decision making and negative personal and social consequences. Work stress that follows the firefighter home is a red flag for impending burnout. 10 Tips for Fighting to Achieve a Healthy Work Life Balance 1. The Rule of 4 was created by writer, Heather YamadaHosley, to help her create balance in her own life.7 It’s a simple philosophy where you keep four concrete, tangible things in your life that make you feel happy, make you feel like yourself, that you are devoting your time and energy to, and that you are actively constructing. This strategy helps break life down so you can focus in on your highest priorities. 2. Schedule “me time” into your schedule and stick to it for that time period. We schedule car repairs, doctor appointments, hair appointments, and home maintenance appointments. Your health and well-being is just as important as scheduling time for other important matters. Don’t get into the habit of cancelling your appointment for “me time.” 3. Carve out some time for exercise. Physical exercise has many health benefits. Find time in your day to get your body moving. When time is short, try to get 10-15 minutes of exercise in on or off the job, several times a day, if longer periods aren’t possible. If motivation is the problem, find another firefighter or workout partner and exercise together. 4. Get a buy-in from your family to support your efforts to find work life balance. Use your firefighting family as a means of support for your family and yourself. Introduce your family to other firefighters and their families so that they can be a part of the process for offering and receiving support, lending a helping hand, and managing life when you need to be out on calls. 5. Practice mindfulness at home. This is today’s term for living in the moment. Whatever you are doing at home, focus only on that for that period of time. If you are eating dinner with your family, enjoy the time it takes to eat and share activities of the day. When you are gardening, sink Continued on next page.

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Continued from previous page.

your hands into the earth and feel the richness of the soil. Find joy and purpose in your activities at home. 6. Learn to say no. Firefighters often have the best intentions when it comes to spending time with their families or taking care of themselves. When an opportunity arises for overtime or an extra class that they’ve been wanting to take, home life gets put on the backburner once again. Consider that there will be future opportunities for overtime and classes where you can better plan for them without impacting plans with the family.

co-workers as a second family.8 Those are advantages that other professions don’t necessarily have. The firefighter that sees the profession as being one of the best work life balance jobs has an easier time finding the balance between work and home. As our lives change and go through various life stages, our work life balance needs a tune-up. Maintaining work life balance is not a one-time exercise, rather a continuous process that needs to be periodically evaluated so that one scale doesn’t become unbalanced from the other somewhere along the way.

Mark W Lamplugh Jr. is a fourth-generation firefighter and former captain with the Lower Chichester (PA) Fire Company. He is the Chief Executive Officer with 360 Wellness Inc. ( and Executive Director of the Frontline Program (www.frontlinerehab. com) at Sprout Health Group. Lamplugh is also nationally recognized in Crisis Stress Intervention through the American Academy of Experts in Traumatic Stress. He has helped hundreds of firefighters, police officers, veterans, EMS personnel, and civilians nationwide find help for addiction, alcoholism, PTSD, and mental health support. He can be reached for comment at

7. Track and manage your time. Wealthy people accumulate wealth by tracking and managing their money. Track your time so that you know what activities are taking up your time at home and at the firehouse. This gives you the chance to evaluate if you are spending your time doing the things that are most important to you. If your work life balance is out of kilter, tracking your time will certainly help you detect changes that you can make to create a better balance. 8. Schedule appointments right after work. You’ll be more likely to wrap up your work duties on time and get out of the firehouse sooner. Schedule recurring activities like exercise classes, educational classes, or hobby workshops. When you have to be somewhere at a certain time, you force yourself to get out and do things that you enjoy away from work. 9. Relax on and off the job. The stress of firefighting is constant, so it helps to practice relaxation techniques at the firehouse and at home. Practice breathing techniques using a smart phone app. Take 10 minutes for some yoga exercise. Taking a few minutes to keep yourself relaxed several times a day can work wonders for reducing anxiety and staying recharged. 10. Unplug while on vacation. The firehouse will run without you. Shut your cell phone off or don’t accept calls from the station when you are away on vacation. Avoid checking your email inbox. Make full use of vacation time to truly get away, spend time with family or friends, and recharge by seeing some new sights or having new experiences. Your family will love being your top priority during your vacation. FireRescue1 points out that the 2014 Glassdoor study revealed that firefighters considered their professions to be among the best work life balance jobs because of having a flexible work salary, receiving a good salary, and they saw value in having their

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Originally published on Frontline Responder Services website and reprinted with permission. _____________________________ 3 4 5 6 7 8 1


Utah Firefighters Graduate from the National Fire Academy Managing Officer Program

Lt. Austin Knight

Captain Leif Nelson

Over the last year and a half, four Utah firefighters have graduated the National Fire Academy’s (NFA’s) Managing Officer Program in Emmitsburg, Maryland. Lieutenant Austin Knight of American Fork Fire/Rescue graduated August 23, 2016, Deputy Fire Marshal Eddie Hales of Lehi Fire Department graduated November 4, 2016, Captain Jonathan Jastram of Murray City Fire Department graduated December 12, 2016, and Captain Leif Nelson of American Fork Fire/Rescue graduated March 24, 2017. Please congratulate these fire officers for their hard work in completing this arduous two-year program when you cross paths with them.

future, community risk reduction, safety leadership, contemporary training issues, and analytical tools for decision making. At the completion of the required courses, participants are required to develop a technical capstone project that directly benefits their community and department; then it is evaluated through a formal process and verified by their fire chief.

The NFA’s Managing Officer Program is a multi-year curriculum that introduces emerging emergency services leaders to personal and professional skills in change management, risk reduction, and adaptive leadership. The program also includes all four elements of professional development: education, training, experience, and continuing education. Participants in the program receive instruction on leadership, shaping the

Captain Jonathan Jastram

“The Managing Officer program is designed to provide company level fire/ emergency medical service officers with a broad prospective of today’s fire/EMS management, leadership and administration. This program provides fire service officers with the expertise they need to develop professionally and to make significant contributions to both their departments and communities,” according to U.S. Fire Administrator Ernest Mitchell Jr.

Deputy Fire Marshal Eddie Hales

Currently there are several fire officers and firefighters from departments throughout Utah that are enrolled or have applied to attend this one-of-a-kind program. The need for highly trained and qualified officers in the fire service

For more information about the program and how to apply, visit https://www.usfa.

is growing, and this program gives those who are current and future officers the ability to enhance their knowledge, skills, and abilities to provide exceptional leadership into the future.

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Congratulations, Fire Officer Designation Recipients! The Utah Commission on the Fire Officer Designation Program is proud to recognize the following individuals who recently earned the Supervising Fire Officer Designation:

Lyndsie M. Hauck, South Salt Lake Fire Department These individuals have set themselves apart by demonstrating achievements in the Utah Fire Officer Designation Program’s (UFODP) four categories: training, certification, education, and experience. The UFODP evaluates a candidate’s experiences in each of these categories to measure a candidate’s capability. The UFODP can be used by new firefighters to map out a path for career advancement and by fire departments to help define promotional qualifications.

Ian Nelson, Morgan County Fire Department and South Salt Lake City Fire Department

Joshua Ray Petersen, South Salt Lake Fire Department

Jeremy B. Loncar, West Wendover Fire Department

It is important to note that this program addresses two audiences of applicants: •

For applicants who are not fire officers, the UFODP is a fire officer development program. Candidates receiving this designation do not need to be fire officers already. In fact, more and more departments are requiring designations from programs such as this in order to apply for the officer rank.

For applicants who are current fire officers, the designation gives an opportunity to be recognized and to compile documentation of all achievements in preparation for further promotion.

More information about the program can be found at:

The next deadline for applications is September 30, 2017. Climbing the Ladder North Tooele Fire District Kory Jones came to North Tooele Fire District on January 30, 2015, as a volunteer firefighter. Kory soon was offered a paid, part-time position, and he was promoted to a full-time captain’s 38 | UFRA Straight Tip

position on March 22, 2017. Kory has been in EMS since 2008 and is currently certified as a Utah paramedic. With many skills to offer, Kory is a welcome member of our fire district.

Climbing the Ladder DARIN MONTGOMERY BATTALION CHIEF Darin Montgomery has worked for the fire department for 21 years full time and nine years part time, for a total of 30 years. He started as a firefighter, was promoted to an engineer, and for the last 15 years has served as a captain. Darin received an AS degree from Salt Lake Community College in business in 1994, and in 1996 received his BS degree from the University of Utah in organizational communications. When he is off duty, Darin enjoys ice hockey (playing on the fire team), snowboarding, boating, traveling, and spending time with his family. MIKE JENSEN – PARAMEDIC Mike Jensen has been with the West Jordan Fire Department for eight and a half years. During that time, he was promoted to engineer and has been driving the fire apparatus for the past three years. Recently, he successfully attended paramedic school, becoming a certified paramedic. He is also dual certified as a hazmat tech and heavy rescue technician. Mike also has his associate’s degree in emergency management and is currently pursuing his bachelor’s degree. In his spare time, Mike enjoys baseball and golf and loves to spend time with his family and watch movies. PAUL ROBERTS – ENGINEER Paul Roberts has been a firefighter with West Jordan for five years. Prior to firefighting, he was going to school, receiving a couple of associate’s degrees, training in combat sports, and serving as West Jordan’s cemetery sexton, as a parks maintenance worker, and as a seasonal laborer. West Jordan is the city he has grown up in and been employed by since 1999 when he was a sophomore in high school. He has been a full-time employee at the fire department for the last 16 years. He enjoys time with his family, physical activity, music, and an occasional dirt bike ride.

West Jordan Promotions JOY STEARNS – CAPTAIN Joy Stearns has been an active member of West Jordan Fire Department for over 15 years. Joy started out as a firefighter and was promoted to the rank of paramedic eight years ago. Throughout her career, Joy has certified as both a heavy rescue and hazardous material technician. She has participated in the Health and Safety Committee and the Peer Support Team and was a medical preceptor evaluating the skills and knowledge of fellow EMTs/paramedics. She recently completed her master’s degree in health promotion and education at the University of Utah. She has taken advantage of various leadership opportunities and courses over the years and looks forward to applying that knowledge in her new position. Joy is honored to be promoted to the position of captain and is looking forward to the adventures it will bring. SCOTT GEHRKE – CAPTAIN Twenty years ago this month, Scott Gehrke began his career with the West Jordan Fire Department as a part-time firefighter. For the past 16 years, he has enjoyed his role as engineer. He is a member of the Hazardous Materials Team. Scott’s education includes an associate’s degree in fire science with a fire officer emphasis along with many other certifications, including Fire Officer I and II, Instructor I and II, Inspector I, and Investigator I. During his off-duty time, Scott enjoys golfing, watching his daughter play basketball, participating in motor sports, being outdoors, and spending time with his amazing kids. He likes spending time with his grandchildren—he thinks they are pretty special—and he enjoys traveling with his wife of 26 years. RYAN OTTLEY – ENGINEER Ryan started with the West Jordan Fire Department in 2013 as a firefighter and had his four-year anniversary with us this month. He has a bachelor’s degree in human movement science. Off duty he likes to bike and spend time in the mountains.

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Chief Jeff Peterson retired from the Logan Fire Department on March 16, 2017, after 34 combined years of service. Chief Peterson began his fire career in 1983 as a firefighter/EMT with the Smithfield Volunteer Fire Department. In 1990 Jeff was hired as the deputy chief for the Cache County Fire District. During this time, he implemented a comprehensive training and certification program for the district’s 230 firefighters participating in the Utah Cer-

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tification System; the program continues today. He directed the Training and Hazardous Materials Divisions, including acting as the chair of the Local Emergency Planning Commission and the wildland program. In 1991 he was elected president of the Cache Valley Association of EMTs, wherein he also functioned as an EMT instructor and course coordinator. When the Utah Fire and Rescue Academy purchased the Flashover Survival Prop, Jeff was one of the original 12 instructors. Over the years, Jeff has taught many classes for the academy, including Hazardous Materials Awareness, Hazardous Materials Operations, Hazardous Materials Technician, Firefighter I, Firefighter II, Managing Company Tactical Operations,

Fire Officer I, Instructor I, and Instructor II. Jeff co-developed the Utah Fire and Emergency Services Instructor I and II training programs that were used for many years in Utah and was a lead instructor in the Command Training Center at the Utah Fire and Rescue Academy. Chief Peterson has served as vice chair of the Utah Certification Council, the Field Representative Outreach Division, and several other committees and councils. Chief Peterson was appointed Logan City fire chief in February of 2001 and again in January 2011. Chief Peterson’s mark on operations, training, and hazardous materials will forever be felt by firefighters in Logan, in Cache County, and throughout the state of Utah.

Hobble Creek Firefighter Invitational Springville Fire Dept September 7, 2017 7:00 am Check In 8:00 am Start 4 Man Scramble Format Traveling Trophy Award Winning Course Lunch, Green Fee, Cart, & Prizes included

$50 per person Hobble Creek Golf Course 94 Hobble Creek Canyon Springville, Ut 801.489.6297 – Call to Sign Up Contact: Springville FD:.....801.491.5600 Ryan..................801.319.3775 Summer 2017 | 41

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ES FACE-TO-FACE & ONLINE CLASS ES 1150 Community Emergency Preparedness Now is the time to begin working on your emergency services degree or finish the degree you have been working on.

Why Should I Earn a College Degree? • • •

Personal improvement Preparation for promotion Expand career opportunities

What Degrees are Offered? Certificates • Firefighter Recruit Candidate • Paramedic • Aviation Fire Officer

Associate of Science Emergency Services Associate of Applied Science Emergency Services • Fire Officer • Emergency Care • Wildland Fire Management • Aviation Fire Officer Bachelor of Science Emergency Services Administration • Emergency Care • Emergency Management (offered 100% online)

How Do I Enroll? • •

Apply for admissions by going to: If you have attended another college or university, request an official transcript be sent to: UVU Admissions Office 800 West University Parkway MS 106 Orem, Utah 84058-5999

What Will It Cost?

• For official UVU tuition/fee amounts go to: • Some courses have “course fees” in addition to tuition.

For more information regarding admissions and registration, call 801-863-7798 or 888-548-7816 to schedule a phone or office appointment with an Emergency Services Administration Academic Advisor.

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ESFF FACE-TO-FACE CLASSES ESFF 1000 Intro to Emergency Services & Ability Testing ESFF 1360 Recruit Candidate Academy Internship ESFF 250A Firefighter RCA I ESFF 250B Firefighter RCA II ESFF 281R Emergency Services Internship ESFF ONLINE CLASSES ESFF 1000 Intro to Emergency Services & Ability Testing ESFF 1120 Principles of Fire & ES Safety & Survival ESFF 2100 The Desire to Serve ESFO ONLINE CLASSES ESFO 2030 Fire Inspector I ESFO 2100 Fire Officer I Supervisor Leader ESFO 211A Fire Service Instructor I ESEC FACE-TO-FACE CLASSES ESEC 114B Emergency Medical Tech Basic – Part II ESEC 114C Emergency Medical Tech Basic – Part III ESEC 3060 Emergency Medical Tech Advanced ESEC 3110 Paramedic I ESEC 3120 Paramedic Lab ESEC 3130 Paramedic II ESEC 3140 Paramedic III ESEC ONLINE CLASS ESEC 114A Emergency Medical Tech Basic – Part I ESMG ONLINE CLASSES ESMG 310G Introduction to Homeland Security ESMG 3150 Public Program Administration ESMG 3200 Health Safety Program Management ESMG 3250 Managing Emergency Medical Services ESMG 3300 Master Planning for Public ES ESMG 3350 Analytical Research Approaches to Public ES ESMG 3600 Psychology of Emergency Services ESMG 4150 Humanitarian Relief and Disaster Relief ESMG 4200 Disaster Response and the Public


ESMG ONLINE CLASSES Continued ESMG 4400 Legal Considerations for the EM ESMG 445G Human Factors Emergency Management ESMG 4500 Customer Service & Marketing for ES ESMG 4550 Principles of Disaster and Emergency Mgmt ESMG 4600 Public Administration Emergency Mgmt ESMG 4650 Emergency Services Capstone ESMG 481R Emergency Services Internship ESMG 489R Special Topics in Emergency Services ESMG 491R Topics in Cardiology and Medical Trends ESMG 492R Topics in Trauma and Pharmacology ESMG 493R Topics in Medical Litigation ESWF FACE-TO-FACE CLASS ESWF 1400 Wildland Firefighting Fundamentals

Please check for current and updated course listings.

On April 26, 2017, Class #74 of the Utah Valley University Emergency Services Recruit Candidate Academy (RCA) held its graduation ceremony. During the program, CAPS Associate Dean Thomas Sturtevant, Ph.D., Emergency Services Department Chair Gary Noll, M.Ed., and RCA Course Coordinator Andy Byrnes, M.Ed., spoke to the parents, friends, and family of the class. Recruit Dean Ekker was selected as the class officer for Class #74. Candidates Ryan Russon and Dean Ekker were awarded the Charles J. DeJournett Recruit Excellence Award & Instructor Recommendation. Captain Chris Trevino was awarded the Outstanding Instructor Award, which was voted on by the class. Candidates Mathew Aston, Tucker Carver, Brandon Fife, Casey Meiner, and Ryan Russon earned the Physical Training Excellence Award. Ryan Russon also received the Outstanding Student Award, which was voted on by his peers. Andy Byrnes, M.Ed., is the RCA course coordinator as well as the lead instructor for the semester, and Firefighter William Mackintosh was the assistant lead instructor.

RECRUIT CANDIDATE ACADEMY (RCA) By application only. For more information visit or make an appointment with an academic advisor by calling the Student Center at 801-863-7798. On-the-job internships are available for all RCA graduates. Application deadlines: June 1st for Fall Semester and October 1st for Spring Semester. PARAMEDIC By application only. For more information visit or call 801-863-7798 or 888-548-7816. Enroll early! Please note that courses are subject to cancellation due to low enrollment.

RCA Graduation

Spring 2017 | Class #74

RCA Graduation Class #74 (left to right): Back row: Scott Milne, Ryan Werner, Schylar Jones, Travis Hutchings, Dean Ekker, Brian Robinson, Kainan MacDonald, Mathew Aston, Daniel Jones, Jerren Staker, Carlos Ruiz Front row: Tucker Carver, Cody Blackett, Ryan Russon, Garrett Arnold, Casey Meiner, Donavan Minutes, Michael Hayes, Brandon Fife

Summer 2017 | 45

Nonprofit Organization U.S. POSTAGE

Nonprofit Organization U.S. POSTAGE

Utah Valley University

Utah Valley University




. MS 193 R E A N D R E800 S C UW. E UNIVERSITY A C A D E M Y PARKWAY, OREM, UT 84058-6703

U N I V E R S I T Y P A R K W AY, O R E M , U T 8 4 0 5 8 - 5 9 9 9




UFRA Straight Tip Summer 2017 - Volume 18, issue 3  

UFRA Straight Tip (ISSN 1932-2356) is published quarterly by Utah Valley University and the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy (

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