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April - June 2016 / Volume 17, Issue 2

Utah Fire and Rescue Academy Magazine














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FIREFIGHTER MENTAL HEALTH .......................... 15 BATTLE WITH CANCER ....................................... 18 COMMUNITY PREPAREDNESS .......................... 20 DEPARTMENT IN FOCUS ..................................... 22 WILDLAND DEPLOYMENTS ................................. 25

To Subscribe: To subscribe to the UFRA Straight Tip magazine, or make changes to your current subscription, call 1-888-548-7816 or visit The UFRA Straight Tip is free of charge to all firefighter and emergency service personnel throughout the state of Utah. UFRA Customer Service Local (801) 863-7700 Toll free 1-888-548-7816 UFRA Straight Tip (ISSN 1932-2356) is published quarterly by Utah Valley University and the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy and distributed throughout the state of Utah. Reproduction without written permission from the publisher is strictly prohibited. Send inquiries or submissions to: UFRA Straight Tip magazine 3131 Mike Jense Parkway Provo, Utah 84601 Phone 1-888-548-7816 Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in the UFRA Straight Tip are those of the authors and may not be construed as those of the staff or management of the UFRA Straight Tip, Utah Fire & Rescue Academy, or Utah Valley University.

WILDLAND FIRE COMMITTEE.............................. 32

Managing Editor Lori Marshall

Editor Kaitlyn Hedges

Design Phillip Ah You

Published by Utah Valley University

On the Cover: One of the Winter Fire School instructors from the Los Angeles Fire Department instructs students on roof ventilation techniques.

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FROM THE DIRECTOR The Straight Tip (ST) magazine, published quarterly by UFRA, has been recognized for several years as being one of the best magazines published in Utah. It has won the Best of State award twice and constantly gets excellent reviews by Utah customers and peers. I can’t say enough about the staff that works on the ST, which are two people who do the work of six. The ST has always published wonderful human interest stories, has recognized fire departments around the state, and has given the state fire marshal, the president of the State Chiefs Association, and the UFRA director a platform to reach out to Utah firefighters on any subject they deem important. However, it’s time for a change. I often remind UFRA employees, “If you don’t like change, you’re probably working at the wrong place.” It’s time to reformat the ST to make it reflective of what we really are: a training organization. Therefore, in the future, the majority of the articles will target specific customers, from firefighter to chief, from a training perspective. Over the next year there will be more uniformity in the layout of the ST, more training on disciplines/ranks within the fire service, and more subject matter experts writing on-going articles about relevant and contemporary fire service issues. The articles will be laid out in the same order in each issue, making it easier for readers to find what they’re looking for. Here are examples of the on-going positions/ disciplines/subjects that will be addressed: • • • • • • • • •

basic firefighter skills apparatus driver operator: pumper and aerial company officer (making your crew productive and staying out of the BC’s office) battalion chief (making your battalion productive and staying out of the chief ’s office) chief (making everyone productive and staying out of the mayor’s office) fire prevention inspector fire and life safety education fire law technical rescue

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• •

fireground tactics and strategies automobile extrication (I know, discipline of technical rescue) • leadership • human resource management and interpersonal dynamics • firefighter mental health Also, there will not be on-going articles from the state fire marshal, the state chiefs president, and best of all, me. These three articles have taken up to six pages of ST space that will now be dedicated to training articles! Besides, the state fire marshal, state chiefs president, and I all have avenues to get messages out to the firefighters of Utah. Our hope is that the ST will have something for everyone. Let me also assure you of a few things. First, there will still be “feel good” stories in the ST. Second, the articles that are written will equally address the needs of the volunteer and career fire service. Yes, basic firefighter skills, ADO skills, and leadership skills all have similarities whether you’re career or volunteer. Lastly, we’re not trying to reinvent ourselves; we are simply trying to improve an already great publication. I like change. We change our courses due to NFPA updates. We change our certification tests due to changes in courses. And we change the “menu” at winter fire school to keep things interesting. Changing to stay current with our trade and improving our product is healthy. The fire service nationally needs change. The Utah fire service needs to be willing to change. And UFRA needs to change—constantly change—to stay relevant. The change to the ST will be good for you, and us. Stay safe.


Hugh Connor was hired by the Orem Fire Department in 1979 where he worked for 27 years. He served as a firefighter/paramedic, engineer, lieutenant, captain, and battalion chief. Hugh has worked at the Utah Fire and Rescue Academy since 2005.


FROM THE STATE FIRE MARSHAL As of this writing, the state legislature is in full swing. We won’t know the full results for a while, but our staff will make every effort to ensure that you are kept informed. In the spring of 2015, 59 representatives met to discuss issues relating to smoke alarms. The results of their summit were published in August of last year.1 I’ve reviewed their material and wanted to share some of their summary with you in this article. Smoke Alarm Stats We certainly know that smoke alarms are an effective solution in reducing fire deaths. They reduce the chance of dying in a fire by 50%. Two-thirds of people who die in fires in the U.S. are living in a home that either does not have smoke alarms or does not have working alarms. In 2013, 76% of all fire deaths happened in one- and two- family homes, in apartments, or in manufactured housing. Older adults and young children are at a higher risk for home fire deaths than other population subgroups (NFPA, Demographic and other characteristics related to fire deaths, 2010). Inadequate Smoke Alarm Coverage It is thought that about 45 million smoke alarms are sold each year in the United States and that this number is insufficient to provide adequate smoke alarm coverage across the nation. Most homes in the U.S. do not yet have the protection required in recent editions of NFPA 72 (i.e., one on every level, one in every bedroom, and one outside each sleeping

area. Alarms should be interconnected, and new homes should have hard-wired alarms). Smoke alarm failures usually result from missing, disconnected, or dead batteries. Some potential reasons why people do not have working smoke alarms or why they have smoke alarms with disconnected batteries include nuisance alarms, moves (smoke alarms removed when people move), and poor maintenance (smoke alarms are not maintained at times when older adults have lived in the same home for decades). Disconnected or non-working power sources are leading reasons for smoke alarm failures in fires. Smoke Alarm Questions to Consider There is a lot of information we don’t have about smoke alarms in homes. We don’t know the number of homes that have working smoke alarms, the number of working alarms each home has, the type of sensing technology of the alarms, and the location of the smoke alarms. Self-reported survey data overestimates by about half the actual number of homes with working smoke alarms. Why are two-thirds of people dying in fires where smoke alarms are either not present or not working? Are the alarms not present due to ignorance, indifference, or neglect or because they are perceived as a nuisance? What about the one-third of people dying in fires where smoke alarms are present and working—what types of fires are these, and what are the behavioral characteristics of the people who die (e.g., altered states, proximity to fire, disabilities, etc.)? Do we know the difference in smoke alarm coverage and characteristics between those who live in rental properties versus those who own their home? What is an optimum number of alarms per home for those who do not meet or are unable to meet the number specified in the national standard? We have problems with data collection via the National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS): a) quality of information (not all questions being answered or not asking the right questions in the first place) and b) missing information (some questions we need answered are not included, i.e., type of alarm, demographic information, mental impairment as a factor). NFIRS is an important surveillance database that is overdue

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for an overhaul! The group participating in the summit last spring recommended two things: 1) a task group should be established to think about what code choices should look like in NFIRS 6 and 2) advocacy is needed with a funding agency to support an overhaul that will improve the data collection to be more useful in making data-informed decisions about smoke alarm needs.

easily. Another solution would be to educate people on the importance of location when it comes to nuisance alarms (i.e., there should be no smoke alarm 10–20 feet from a cooking source, but if there is, it should be a photoelectric alarm not an ionization alarm to minimize nuisance alarms). You can’t tell alarms apart just by looking at them, so people should be educated about the differences to minimize nuisance alarms.

Some Solutions Our biggest issue is a complacent population. Here are a few ideas of how we can change our tactics to help the public care about smoke alarms:

Battery replacement. Just as people need to be educated about alarm location, people also need to know about battery replacement. Many people believe that just as it is easy to tell an old car from a new car, alarms should be the same way; if it looks okay, it should be okay. We know this to be false and that alarm devices have about a 10-year life span before they need to be replaced. I recently replaced all seven of the detectors in my home, and the new ones have a 10-year battery in them as a back up to the house wiring. So much for our “change your clock, change your battery” motto of the past. . . .

Different messaging with immediate rewards. It’s possible that people don’t feel a fire is an immediate threat to them; therefore, there is no immediate reward involved in having a working smoke alarm. Plus, in the fire prevention world, the many conflicting messages about smoke alarms causes confusion. Confusion together with lack of a palpable threat makes consumers less likely to act and more likely to be skeptical. For this reason, we boil the message down to having at least one working smoke alarm in the home. However, we need new, different messages to influence change. People already believe that smoke alarms work, so telling them how great smoke alarms are will not make them think about alarms in a new way. Messaging about smoke alarms that focuses not only on future benefits but also a reason for the public to care right now would be more compelling. Giving them an immediate reward—something they can feel or have after doing it right—is one way to do this. Standardize alarms or educate about them. Evidence suggests that people removing or disabling alarms accounts for more harm than degradation of alarms and that people remove or disable alarms in large part because of nuisance alarms. People are confused and irritated about what the chirping means. One solution for this is for smoke alarms to have a consistent end of life signal so people can understand the alarms

You get the drift of what the problems are and what can be done. The public has access to alarms, and detection of fires should be easy, but we have a complacent population who don’t think anything will happen to them. Let’s try to get a better message out there and work with our community to make them safer. It was great to see all of you at UFRA Winter Fire School in St. George. It’s always a treat for me to be able to say hello and catch up just a little. Take care and be safe out there.

Coy Utah State Fire Marshal 1 National Smoke Alarm Summit 2015 (August 28, 2015), “Evidence Informing Action: Consensus Priorities to Increase the Use of Smoke Alarms in U.S. Homes,” accessed February 10, 2016,

Coy D. Porter retired from Provo Fire & Rescue after 30 years of service; he then worked for almost four years as the assistant director of training at UFRA. Porter enjoys his association with the firefighters of Utah in his position as state fire marshal.

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Message from Utah State Fire Chiefs Association If you’re a chief officer, I hope you had a chance to attend our recently completed Utah State Fire Chiefs Association Winter Meeting and Leadership Symposium. Due to a death in the family, I was unfortunately unable to attend this year. However, I have spoken with several who attended and received nothing but positive comments. We are constantly striving to bring speakers to the Leadership Symposium that you want to hear from, whether they are from the fire service or the general public. If you happen to hear someone speak who you think would be beneficial for your peers to hear at our symposium, let us know and we will reach out to them. We’ve learned that in order to get good quality speakers, we have to contact them at least a year in advance. Speaking of our Leadership Symposium, let me personally thank Fire Chief Kevin Ward for coordinating the Leadership Symposium for the past several years. He does a great job with securing the speakers and making venue arrangements. Let me also congratulate the Utah Fire and Rescue Academy on another successful winter fire school. I may be biased, but I believe UFRA provides one of the finest training events in the country. The growing number of people that attend each year is a testament to its success. This year the number of attendees reached nearly 700. Director Connor and his staff do an unbelievable job bringing in leaders from our profession to instruct at winter fire school.

On another note, I would be remiss if I did not take a moment to comment on slain Unified Police Department Officer Doug Barney’s funeral. The day of Officer Barney’s funeral, I was home ill. I was saddened to not be able to attend the funeral and pay my respects. As I watched the funeral on television, I was amazed at the tribute that unfolded for Officer Barney. The Unified Police Department and many other departments should be commended for the tribute they gave this fallen officer. I did not personally know Officer Barney, but after listening to his funeral, I was convinced he was the type of person I wish I had known. When the funeral procession started, I was stunned at the support the public showed. There were people all along the procession route standing with their hands over their hearts and holding American flags. Nearly every overpass and onramp was crowded with the public. Right along with the public, firefighters with fire apparatus stood at attention and police officers stood saluting as the procession went by. I found myself enthralled with the coverage of the tribute given to this HERO who had given his all in the service of his fellow man. It was tremendous to see the outpouring of love and support for our brothers and sisters in law enforcement. I am proud to be a part of the public safety community and be of service to the citizens we serve. Be safe out there!

Ron L. Morris retired from the Unified Fire Authority after 27 years of service with the rank of deputy chief to accept an appointment as the Utah state fire marshal. After nearly six years as the state fire marshal, he accepted the position of fire chief for the City of South Salt Lake, where he continues to serve today. Chief Morris has a bachelor’s degree in public emergency services management from Utah Valley University. He can be reached at

decision making; some decisions require immediacy while others definitely don’t. If you have worked on a program for months, the chances of needing an immediate decision or response are not very high. Where is the best place to make a not so urgent decision? Your pillow, take your time. Situations such as this and the angst they may bring almost always fade with time, after your blood pressure drops back to normal. The weakening of your initial negative emotions will better allow you to put together a meaningful and productive response. That is, if a response is needed at all.

Behaving reactively may be defined as acting in response to a situation rather than controlling it. Behaving proactively may be described as controlling a situation by causing something to happen or by preparing for possible future problems. Some situations require fast reactions, while some noncritical decisions can be approached using a more proactive approach. To discover whether you act more proactively or reactively, let’s use a situation that will inevitably happen to you in some form or another during your career. As you read, try to capture your feelings as if you lived through such a scenario. Here it is: You have worked several months on a particular program and/or process for the betterment of your fire department. You have sought input from stakeholders and the product is nearly ready for release. You come to work with your coffee in hand, sit at your computer, open your e-mail, and UGH! A member of your department has seemingly gone out of their way to undermine all that you have done. Caffeine-fueled thoughts race through your brain. Has this person not been paying attention? This person is a jerk! Why would this person do this? The mere act of reading the destructive e-mail makes your typing fingers start to twitch. The text for your would-be-reactive e-mail pounds in your brain like a thunderstorm. You have every right to feel betrayed. You have worked long, hard, and patiently at producing a fine product, but at this moment the angel on your right shoulder is puny in comparison to the raging devil on your “wrong” shoulder. What to do, what to do. Now that your blood pressure is up, let’s take a look at a better, more proactive course of action than banging out an angry email, since we all know what that better course of action is. If you don’t have to make a decision right away, don’t. Wisdom is required in knowing the proper timing and sequencing of

Wisdom is required in knowing the proper timing and sequencing of decision making; some decisions require immediacy while others definitely don’t. Now that we have identified some of what would be considered proactive versus reactive behavior, if you are the type of person that would not be offended and would not feel reactive from the presented scenario, congratulations. You are in the minority. Firefighter mentality is naturally mostly reactive. That’s what we do: the alarm goes off and we react. We make decisions fast, we move purposefully, and we throw down! As chief officers, it’s important to understand the value of purposeful, methodical decision making in noncritical situations as much as it is to be capable of making quick, emergent decisions.

Paul Hewitt began his career as an Orem City reserve firefighter in 1987. After 20 years with the Salt Lake City Fire Department he served as a fire chief in Arizona before his 2011 appointment to fire chief of the Park City Fire District.

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Noncritical Decision Making


Understanding Rope Rescue Terrain Types by Captain Steve Crandall, Heavy Rescue Team Coordinator Salt Lake City Fire Department Petzl Technical Institute (Author’s Note: The following article is an excerpt from the iBook RESCUE: Rope-Based Rigging Concepts and is reproduced here with permission.)

The rope rescue environment is extremely diverse, potentially unforgiving, and inherently dangerous. Rope-based rescue techniques and the principles that drive them can be applied to almost any environment. In many ways, the environment dictates the rescue situation and patient circumstances. One common misbelief is that only backcountry teams need to understand various terrain angles. This is not true. Urban teams may face rescues out of highway burrow pits, spillway ramps, construction site excavations, etc. Every team operating at the Technician Level must understand the different terrain types and be prepared to operate safely and efficiently regardless of type/angle. Consequently, an understanding of the different terrain angles and corresponding rescue possibilities is mandatory for all rope rescue technicians. It should be noted that while the terrain angles are neatly divided into specific categories below, this is rarely the case in the real world. Outside of the urban or structural setting, rope rescue terrain is quite varied and can change dramatically even over a short distance. Before rescuers can completely identify the terrain and choose the corresponding rescue technique, they must first identify the Fall Line of the rescue operation. Similar to the Plumb Line, 8 | UFRA Straight Tip

which is the natural vertical line as a result of gravity, the rescue Fall Line travels down the “gravity well” but is influenced by the aspect of the slope angle and the features of the terrain. While the Plumb Line always travels in a straight line, the Fall Line may veer in and out or left and right of the Plumb Line. Once the Fall Line has been established, rescuers can more easily identify the terrain type(s) that the Rescue Package will traverse. For ease of communication among team members and to facilitate greater consistency in rigging, terrain can be divided into four broad categories based on slope angle. Further, most climbers and hikers are familiar with the Yosemite Decimal System (YDS) which uses a numbering system for terrain angle and features. This too has been included in the following descriptions. Flat Terrain (0°-15°) and Low Angle Terrain/Rescues (15°-40°) YDS Class 2-3. Flat/Low Angle Rescues and evacuations are generally considered nontechnical in nature. Four to six rescuer Litter Carries, Caterpillar Passes, etc., make up the majority of these evacuations. Patients are secured into

Low Angle Terrain Carryout

the litter by simple lashing or Spider Straps and usually do not require foot loops or stirrups, pelvic restraint, or chest harnesses. Rescuers do not tie into the litter because the majority of the weight of the Rescue Package is transferred to the ground via the rescuer’s feet or perhaps a litter wheel. Rescue personnel may occasionally use webbing as a shoulder carry strap for comfort. Depending on the Low Angle Terrain’s surface and footing, a single, unloaded Belay Line or a 9-meter piece of webbing may be attached to the head of the litter to act as a limited dynamic or running belay. During long rescue operations or extended carryouts, rescuer fatigue may become an issue unless litter positions and/or rescue personnel are rotated. Steep Angle Terrain/Rescues (40°-60°) YDS Class 3-4. All rescues that take place on terrain greater than 40° should be considered Technical Rescues. The two most common Steep Angle evacuations are the Line Assisted Rescue and the Steep Angle Litter Rescue. In the Line

Steep Angle Terrain

The chart is a simple comparison between Non-Technical Evacuations and Technical Rescues. It outlines some of the general differences between the environmental terrain types and the corresponding rope rescue rigging requirements.

Assisted Rescue, the patient is ambulatory and can assist to some degree in his or her own rescue. Either a single rescuer can rappel down, access, and rig the patient, then continue down with the patient (Rescuer-Based); or the rescuer can be lowered down, access and rig the patient, then be raised or lowered by the topside team (Team-Based). In the case of a Steep Angle Litter Rescue, the patient is packaged securely into the litter by lashing, foot loops or stirrups, pelvic restraint, and a chest harness. The litter is usually lowered or raised parallel to the Fall Line with the rescue litter bearers connected directly to the litter and/or system. In certain situations, as the angle increases, the litter can also be rigged to travel perpendicular to the Fall Line if medically indicated. Even though a portion of the weight of the Rescue Package is transferred to the ground via the rescuers’ feet, a two-rope system is used (Working Line/Independent Belay Line or Two-Tensioned System). It should be noted that extreme forces could possibly be generated during any Steep Angle rescue operation mishap due to the fact that the patient, the litter, and two, three, or even four rescuers could all shock load the system at one time during a Working Line failure. As always, the anchors and rigging must be absolutely Bombproof.

High Angle Terrain/Rescues (60°-90°) YDS Class 5. High Angle Rescues require that the entire weight of the Rescue Package is taken and controlled by the rope rescue system. These rescues include Rescuer and Team-Based Pick-Offs,

High Angle Terrain

High Angle Litter Operations, Tower/ Ground-up rescues, Offset Systems as well as Highline operations. Regardless of the type of operation, all High Angle Rescues require the most redundant rope system possible. Both the patient and the rescuer(s) must be securely attached to the rescue system with at least two points of connection.

This usually includes a Working Line and Belay for Pickoffs and complete litter rigging and patient packaging with Working and Belay Lines or a Two-Tensioned System for Litter Operations. While in many ways the actual movement of the Rescue Package in High Angle Terrain is relatively simple for any competent team, this last terrain type brings with it a new challenge; edge negotiation. Edge negotiations are traditionally the most difficult and demanding part of any High Angle operation. They hold a great possibility for shock loading the system and have the potential to cause high levels of anxiety in the patients. It is no wonder why this part of the operation is usually the crux and is often referred to as “edge trauma.” It is relatively easy to look at charts and numbers to determine the terrain angle and then choose the corresponding technique, however it must be remembered that the real world is seldom that simple and straightforward. Terrain angle and the Fall Line can change and vary dramatically over the path of the rescue operation. Further, there is a little “gray area” between the different angles and their associated danger moves on a sliding scale based on the environment and the rigging techniques used by the team. While there are many differences between backcountry or wilderness rescue and urban or structural rescue, many similarities do exist. When it comes to the principles of rope-based rescue, it makes little difference if the Steep Angle Terrain is located three miles off of the trail on a mountainside glacier or immediately off of a major paved highway down into a deep median or burrow pit. The Rescue Package must still be moved to safety. The rescuers must still be competent and the team must still be safe and efficient. The specific rigging techniques may change, but the principles remain the same regardless of the operational environment or terrain angle the Rescue Package traverses. April - June 2016 | 9


Are You a Craftsman of Your Trade? When one looks at a skillfully designed carving or exquisite wood finish carpentry, one can’t help but wonder what went into the training, preparation, and dedication to achieve such fine work. Even though the image of a “craftsman” is of someone skillfully using their hands to design and create (Merriam-Webster), it is the same commitment to excellence one must have to be viewed as a leader in the fire service. Let’s break down some of those craftsman characteristics: Desire to Train Take that extra effort to ensure that you master the manipulative skills of hose evolutions, ladders, ventilation, tool operation, forcible entry, ropes/knots, and search techniques. In first starting a career, one often finds themselves in an apprentice position. This position is that learning phase in which one has to soak up the Red Hats of Courage Statue knowledge from those that have that skill mastery. There is an ancient Chinese proverb that says, “When the student is ready, the teacher will appear.” Seek out those that can be a mentor and that can guide you in your development. Study the latest trends in fire tactics, such as VEIS (Vent Enter Isolate Search) and ventilation-limited fire attack. Read the latest National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) reports. Subscribe to, the Daily Dispatch, and other professional journals (digital and print).

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Author Malcolm Gladwell in his book Outliers says that it takes roughly ten thousand hours of practice to achieve true mastery in a field. Gladwell studied the lives of many successful people in various occupations to come to that conclusion. Utilizing those ten thousand hours towards being a master craftsman means not only doing things right but doing the right thing. Many of the manipulative skills are perishable and need frequent refresher for you to be at the top of your game and to be a master craftsman. Desire to Prepare Oneself Commit to reading some type of personal development, leadership, or industry relevant material, such as Young Men and Fire, The Esperanza Fire, or Last Man Down. Read every day for an hour, and you will end up having read a book a week. If one were to read 50 books a year over a four-year period, that would translate to 200 books. This would qualify you to be a top expert of knowledge in your field. Become a lifelong learner. The importance of also obtaining formal education to enhance your craftsman designation cannot be overstated. The availability of online degree programs (such as UVU offers) in concert with a firefighter work schedule (48/96) offers a terrific opportunity for degree seekers. There are abundant opportunities to attend workshops and conferences in the fire service,

locally, regionally, and nationally. Don’t rely on someone to send you there. Sometimes sacrifices are necessary to obtain those extra certifications and qualifications that help one to be looked upon as a master craftsman. Desire to Dedicate Personal dedication leads one to take the steps necessary to achieve a master level of excellence. William Elson, one of our firefighter paramedics dedicated to becoming a master craftsman, shared the story of Jiro Ono. Jiro is considered to be one of the top sushi masters in the world. In the movie Jiro Dreams of Sushi, the 85 year old tells us, “Once you decide on your occupation, you must immerse yourself in your work. You have to fall in love with your work. You must dedicate your life to mastering your skill.” Now that’s coming from a guy who dedicated his life to sushi. How about dedicating your life to a career that involves responding to people’s worst day of their life; a career where people count on you to be a master craftsman to save their life or that of a loved one?

“We all have dreams. But in order to make dreams come into reality, it takes an awful lot of determination, dedication, self discipline, and effort.” --Jesse Owens

Congratulations, Fire Officer Designation Recipients! The Utah Commission on the Fire Officer Designation Program is proud to recognize the following individuals who earned the Supervising Fire Officer Designation: • • • • •

Kevin Ward is a 37-year fire service veteran, having been the fire chief for Layton City since 2004. Prior to this appointment, Chief Ward progressed through the ranks from firefighter/paramedic to battalion chief with the Chandler Fire Department in Arizona. He holds several NWCG qualifications, such as ICT3 and Structure Protection Specialist, and is an instructor for the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy. Chief Ward has been an instructor for UFRA’s Command Training Center since its inception.

Benjamin L. Nielson, Clinton City Fire Department J. Jordan Petersen, Murray City Fire Department Kristopher Maxfield, West Jordan Fire Department Greg M. Orloski, Cedar City Fire Department Craig R. Humphreys, Logan City Fire Department

These individuals have set themselves apart by demonstrating achievements in the Utah Fire Officer Designation Program’s (UFODP) four categories: training, certification, education, and experience. The UFODP uses these categories to quantify and recognize company officers’ achievement. The program provides a coherent and attainable guide to career advancement. The idea behind the UFODP is that a person’s ability to perform well as an officer depends on more than a test; capability is built by years of varied learning and growing experiences. New firefighters can use the UFODP to map out a path for career advancement, and fire departments can use the UFODP to help define promotional qualifications. More information about the program can be found at http:// April - June 2016 | 11


The average age of agricultural tractors is over 25 years, with some of the oldest models being the most popular. The NIOSH estimates that more than half of the tractors in use lack roll-over protection structures (ROPS) and safety belts.

BACK AT THE RANCH: TRACTOR EXTRICATION Spring has arrived in Utah and agriculture operations are starting up. This is the prime time for farm-related injuries, entrapments, and fatalities. Agriculture ranks among the most hazardous industries, placing farmers at very high risk for fatal and nonfatal injuries. This article examines the common hazards of working around and operating a tractor, entrapment points, and methods used to extricate a person that has become trapped or injured. Common Tractor Hazards Tractors are one of the most common pieces of agriculture equipment. There are approximately 4.61 million tractors in use on farms and ranches across the United States. The average age of agricultural tractors is over 25 years, with some of the oldest models being the most popular. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) estimates that more than half of the tractors in use today lack roll-over protection structures (ROPS) and safety belts. Tractor accidents are the leading cause of farm injuries and fatalities. Tractor overturns

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frequently result in fatalities and account for 60% of all tractor-related deaths (NIOSH). Each year, on average, over 130 American farm workers are crushed to death as tractors overturn during operation. At best, entrapment and serious injury are likely to be encountered. Victims of tractor overturns usually suffer crushing injuries to the head, chest, and pelvic areas.

Tractor Entrapments The center of gravity (the theoretical point on the tractor at which all of the weight is concentrated) of many tractors is approximately 2–3 feet in front of the rear axle. This generally applies 30% of the tractor’s weight on the front axle and 70% on the rear. Attached equipment, counter weights, and loader equipment can change the center of gravity. The center of gravity directly affects the stability of the tractor and is a major factor in tractor overturns. Lifting and moving an overturned tractor requires responders to estimate the location of the center of gravity. The majority (85%) of all tractor overturns are side rollovers; rear overturns account for 14%, and front overturns make up the final 1%. During a side rollover, the operator can jump or is thrown clear of the tractor. A rear overturn, however, happens in approximately 1.5 seconds, which is faster than a driver can react; this leads to an increase in crush, entrapment, and fatal injuries. Rear

Preplanning for farm-related emergencies should include contact numbers for local tractor dealers and service personnel; they have the equipment and knowledge to assist with farm equipment entrapments.

overturns account for over half of all tractorrelated fatalities.

b. In soft ground, it may be possible to dig under the victim enough Tractor to remove the Extrication Methods victim from the Pre-planning for tractor tractor. Cauextrication is a key factor tion must be to a successful rescue. employed when This allows resources to using this techbe identified and ready nique because when needed. Standard digging can operating procedures cause the tracshould be in place for tor to settle on heavy rescue response, the victim. medical care, ground or Whatever methair transport of victim(s), Attached equipment, counter weights, and loader equipment can change od used, rescuthe center of gravity. and mutual aid requests. ers must always place cribbing as they lift to ensure that the tractor cannot fall back onto the victim or responders. 6. Once the victim is removed from the entanglement, rapid transport to the nearest appropriate facility is the next step in the rescue process. In many rural While rescue techniques differ for each incident involving a tracareas, air transport is the quickest and best means tor, there are basic steps that must be followed for every incident: to transport the victim; however, weather and other factors can cause delays or make air transport 1. The first arriving unit must initiate the incident impossible. Incident command must have a backup command system (ICS), set up command, and give plan in the event the intended transport option initial assignments. If needed, incident command becomes impractical. can be transferred to another qualified person as they arrive on scene. A complete scene size-up/ Preplanning, rapid response, competent and trained personnel, assessment must be completed and safety zones appropriate equipment, and transport to a definitive care facility around the incident established. provide the best possible chance of survival for victims of a trac2. To stabilize the tractor, first shut down the engine (if tor entanglement. running); if the engine is already off, then perform steps to disable the engine from restarting. The Stay safe‌ Chief Young engine can be disabled by shutting off and removing the key, removing the coil wire (gasoline engine), or disrupting the fuel supply (diesel engine). 3. Stabilize the tractor from unwanted movement Russell Young is a battalion chief and using a combination of jacks, chains, lifting bags, assistant training officer for the Orem struts, winch lines, and wood cribbing. Fire Department, where he is respon4. Contain and stop fluid leaks such as fuel, oil, antisible for extrication and ambulance freeze, and chemicals to prevent victim and rescuer driving operations. He is the chief of contact. At a minimum, a fully charged fire extinthe Duchesne Fire Department and guisher (charged 1 3/4� hose line preferred) must be has been a paramedic for over 19 deployed due to the possibility of fire. years. Young has a B.S. in emergency 5. Next, remove the victim from under the tractor by services management, is currently completing his MBA, one of two methods: has over 23 years of experience in fire and emergency a. Lifting the tractor off the victim (preferred) medical service, and is an instructor and certification can be accomplished by using wreckers, winch tester for UFRA. trucks, other tractors, jacks, or lifting bags.

Pre-planning for tractor extrication is a key factor to a successful rescue.

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New Custom Engine for Hyrum City Hyrum City has taken delivery of a 2015 Rosenbauer 3,500 Commander custom engine. The truck will offer fire protection for the cities of Hyrum, Nibley, and Millville in southern Cache County as well as mutual aid for surrounding communities. The apparatus seats six personnel and is equipped with the CT body, 750 gallons of water, coffin boxes, a Waterous 1,500 GPM pump with an addition of a 4� LDH discharge from the pump, and many other features.

photo courtesy of Ross Equipment (Pierce Manufacturing).

Richfield Fire Department recently added a new apparatus to their arsenal. The department purchased a new Pierce Impal Rescue Pumper from Ross Equipment. The apparatus can hold 1,000 gallons of water and has a 1500 GPM PUC pump, a pump and roll 6KW generator with a cord reel, an electric front bumper turret and deck gun, and 12-scene LED lights. 14 | UFRA Straight Tip

photography by Shane Maughan

This truck upgrade has enabled Hyrum City to retire their 1975 American LaFrance/Ford chassis and to mount rescue equipment on the new truck. The new truck has much more versatility, allowing more services from a single vehicle. Hyrum City has saved for years to fund the truck. We thank the city and its management for buying the tools we need to do the job. We extend thanks also to Kent Graham, who assisted us throughout our purchase and design process.

New Pumper for Richfield The pumper will cover 785 square miles, including Annabella, Central Valley, Glenwood, Koosharem, Richfield, Sigurd, and Fishlake Resort. These areas have an approximate population of 11,785 plus Fishlake Resort Area. The new truck will be first responder for fire, extrication, and other emergency needs.

The Fire Chief’s Role in Firefighter Mental Health Fire Chiefs play two critical roles in identifying and correcting firefighter mental-health issues: one at the macro level and one at the micro level. by Linda F. Willing

business of others, and especially the chief of the department, to intervene?

chief to make a comment directly to a firefighter about his or her personal life.

As a fire chief, should you say or do anything in response to these circumstances? Should anyone? And if someone does take action, exactly what should that person do?

Sometimes necessary intervention is undermined for the opposite reason: firefighters at all levels in the organization are too close, too much like family. These close relationships may provide an opportunity for someone in need to seek advice or counsel. Or they may allow coworkers to make excuses for a colleague and to cover for that person instead of confronting the problem.

But there are many people who do have access to this information about even the newest firefighter on the job. Company officers, training officers, direct supervisors and coworkers who work side-by-side with their crews will always notice key behavioral changes if they are paying attention.

Firefighters sometimes hesitate to get involved when a colleague might be having problems related to behavioral health, because they don’t want to intrude. They respect professional and personal boundaries. All firefighters have problems now and then, right? Why should it be the

There are some limitations on what fire chiefs can do. Except on the smallest, most close-knit departments, it is unlikely that chiefs would even have knowledge of small behavioral changes with one individual. Even if they had such knowledge, it could be awkward for the department

A battalion chief has become short-tempered and erratic in his decision making. A company officer is rumored to be going through a bad divorce and drinking heavily when off duty. A firefighter who was involved in a particularly bad medical call has been calling in sick a lot since then.

Pattern detection The first and hardest question when considering any kind of intervention related to behavioral health is whether that intervention is appropriate. Just because a firefighter gets into an argument with a coworker does not mean he is having continued on next page

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Company officers, training officers, direct supervisors and coworkers who work side-by-side with their crews will always notice key behavioral changes if they are paying attention.

mental health problems. The death of a loved one is always painful but can be manageable if someone has good support systems in place.

might approach the person privately and say, “You seemed affected by that last medical call we went on. It got to me too. Want to talk about it?”

Patterns are important. If someone gets into an argument with a member of the service community, maybe that firefighter is just having a bad day. If that same firefighter gets into confrontations repeatedly with the public, it’s likely something else is going on.

It is important to remember that in nearly every instance, when a person who is having difficulties is asked this question, he or she will initially respond with denial. “No, I’m OK,” is the expected response.

The same is true for other indicators. Come to work hung over one day last year, and you get to talk about the great bachelor party you attended the night before. Come to work hung over every shift and everyone on the crew should be concerned. Once the decision has been made to say something, what do you say? The best strategy is to keep it simple, express clear observations but make no assumptions. The goal is to reach out, create an opening and start the conversation. For example, if a firefighter seems disturbed and withdrawn following a bad medical call involving a child, an officer or coworker

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This response does not mean that everything is OK. Maybe the trouble is fleeting and will resolve on its own. Or maybe the firefighter is not ready to talk about it. In either case, the person initiating the conversation can respond empathetically without being pushy, such as by saying, “I know I always think of my own kids when I see a child hurt like that.” The purpose of this brief conversation is not to ensure that the firefighter seeks help, but rather to make it safe for that firefighter to seek help if he or she makes the decision to do so. And if that happens, the person initiating this conversation will be seen as an ally and a potential resource.

Difficult conversations These brief conversations may seem simple but can be very difficult to initiate. Many resources exist to help individuals plan for these encounters. One classic 15-year study was published as the book “Difficult Conversations: How to Discuss What Matters Most” by Douglas Stone, Bruce Patton and Shelia Heen. Many additional resources exist online through such organizations as the American Psychological Association and the Association for Psychological Science. Of course there are times when a stronger intervention is necessary. Examples would be when someone comes to work under the influence of alcohol, a physical confrontation occurs in the station or a firefighter threatens suicide. Departments must have clear protocols for what happens in these situations and all members must be educated in what to do as well as the expectation that they will act. Fire chiefs play a key role when it comes to first response for workplace behavioral health issues. Although they might not be the one to intervene at all levels, they do have particular responsibility for knowing their senior staff members and speaking up to problems among these ranks. Battalion chiefs, assistant chiefs and deputy chiefs often lack the support framework that comes with working on a regular crew. They may feel isolated. Taking care of one another must be an ethic and expectation that reaches up as well as down within the organization. Chiefs must invest in creating a culture where asking for help is OK. Firefighters are so attuned to being the ones to provide help that asking for help may be very difficult for them. In some organizations, asking for help in any way is perceived as weakness and thus avoided. Fire chiefs must be leaders in changing this cultural norm. Chiefs’ role in change Change comes in several ways. First, all chiefs must lead by example—taking care of themselves, asking for help and becoming better listeners. Then they must invest time and money in creating skills and resources that support positive behavioral

health. These resources may come in many forms: expanded employee assistance programs, contracts with mental health professionals that specifically serve first responders, creation of peer support teams, or links to community services related to family welfare, substance abuse and suicide. Training must be part of this approach. Most people are not naturally good at having the so-called difficult conversation, but communication is a skill set that can be learned and improved. Special attention should be given to the roles and expectations of first-line supervisors when designing this training. Peer support teams A number of resources exist to help firefighters deal with personal and organizational issues related to behavioral health. For several years, the National Fallen Firefighters Foundation has offered programs such as Taking Care of our Own and Stress First Aid to help firefighters deal not only with major trauma such as line of duty death, but also routine stressors that can lead to larger problems down the line. The International Association of Fire Chiefs recently sponsored a free webinar focused on firefighter behavioral health. Some fire departments have found value in Man Therapy, a humorous but still substantial approach to how men specifically deal with stress. All department members must be informed of resources available to them and how those resources can be accessed. Confidentiality is critical if firefighters are going to trust any system related to behavioral health. Peer support teams can be a great addition to a fire department, but again, the key to success is how such teams are created and sustained. Who will be the members? Should members be recruited or just included as random volunteers? What kind of training will be provided and how will training be sustained in the long run? There are many ways to create such teams. A few years back I heard a story from a

consultant who works with departments to set up peer support teams. He had worked with a department of around 400 members to establish its first peer support network. Not surprisingly, members were initially hesitant to step up to become involved. So they had an election. They asked every department member to confidentially submit the name of a person on the department they would trust to talk to if they had a personal problem. The votes were counted and the 12 highest vote getters were informed, “Congratulations! You have been nominated by your coworkers to be on the peer support team.” The department required the nominees to attend the training (for which they were all paid overtime), but they had no obligation past that point to actually join the team. However, at the end of the three-day training, 11 of the 12 did decide to join and were welcomed by their peers. When it comes to facing the challenges of workplace behavioral health, fire chiefs must take a leadership role on both a large scale—working to change the culture—and a small scale—working to change themselves. The commitment displayed by chiefs will determine the direction any fire department will go when it comes to managing issues of behavioral health. And they could very well save lives through this commitment. Linda F. Willing worked for more than 20 years in the emergency services, including 18 as a career firefighter and fire officer. She is the author of “On the Line: Women Firefighters Tell Their Stories.” Linda is also an adjunct instructor and curriculum advisor for the National Fire Academy Executive Fire Officer Program.

This article was reprinted from Fire Chief magazine and can be accessed at

April - June 2016 | 17

TRAVIS PETERSON SHARES HIS FIGHT WITH CANCER Cancer is a friend to no one, sweeping into homes unannounced and uninvited, and sometimes, in the ultimate act of betrayal, it is the very thing a person loves the most that opens the door. Meet Travis Peterson, assistant chief of the Cache County Fire District and son of Logan Fire Chief Jeff Peterson. At 35 years old, he said he was “on a gravy train on biscuit wheels.” Professionally speaking, he said life is grand at work, where he thrives on his ability to serve the public. He is loved and respected by firefighters throughout Northern Utah who call him “brother.”

Cache County Assistant Chief Travis Peterson shows the equipment that he wears while fighting fires.

Peterson is one of a growing number of firefighters to be diagnosed with cancer, and it is the second time his family has faced the deadly disease. His father-in-law, Steven McBride, was diagnosed with leukemia and passed away Aug. 18 last year. The two men were diagnosed within a week of each other, a definite double-whammy, Peterson said.

Peterson’s face lights up when he shares how happy he is with his family life as well. He is a man who cherishes his family—his wife, Angie, and his daughter, Lydia. He was in Hawaii with them last week, basking in the sun, feet in the sand, making memories for them to hold onto.

“Someone asked me if I would change anything and the answer is a resounding ‘no,’” he said. “The joy and the feeling of helping others—I would rather live a life fulfilled than live a life trudging along waiting for the next day, and I have always been willing to cash it in early.”

Meanwhile, cancer continues to grow throughout his lungs and his lymph nodes.

Breaking old habits According to the Firefighter Cancer Support Network, there are numerous studies that show firefighters have a greater rate of cancer than the general population, related to repeated exposure to cancer-causing toxins while on the job. Logan Fire Marshal Craig Humphreys said in recent years society has become very consumer driven, so home fires emit more hydrocarbons. “They burn hotter, faster, and they are more toxic,” he said.

Peterson was diagnosed with cancer during the Christmas season in 2014, a few months after he started to notice tingling, numbness and loss of fine motor skills in his right hand when he carried weight on his shoulders, particularly on fire calls when he put on all of his gear. “I brushed it off like any fireman would,” Peterson said. He may not have gone looking for answers, but the answers found him during a routine physical. A little click in that right shoulder and a suspected tear in his rotator cuff led him to X-ray and the discovery of a painless tumor behind his collarbone and in front of the shoulder blade. It would take some time for the lab results to come back, but Peterson said he knew right then. “There are very few things that cause painless lumps,” he said. In early 2015, the news was confirmed—the tumor was sarcoma, a rare form of cancer that develops within the soft tissues of the body.

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For years, firefighters have protected themselves by wearing personal protective equipment, or “turnouts,” but as time goes on, it is becoming increasingly evident that even that effort has been unknowingly mired in complacency. Fernando Rivero visited the Peterson home early last week. As a Salt Lake City firefighter and director of Utah’s Firefighter Cancer Support Network, he is part of a growing effort to educate firefighters about the dangers they face. “Years ago, dirty turnouts were a badge of honor,” Rivero said during a visit to the Peterson home. “They might get washed once or twice in a career—the hoods, never.”

The very material that was intended to protect firefighters is contributing to the exposure, he said. The fibers expand when they are heated, allowing toxins to pass through the fabric and be absorbed into the skin. And, he said, some of the carcinogens remain trapped in the turnouts, leading to hundreds of unintended consequences. After a fire, firefighters get back into their engines to return to the station, leaving a trail of cancer-causing residue everywhere they go—in the engines, in the station. If they are volunteers, they often hang up their gear and go right back to work. Full-time firefighters might jump in the engine (they have to be prepared to respond to a fire while they are out) and make a trip to the grocery store to buy food for the station, food that is then transported back inside a vehicle laced with contaminates, Rivero said. “It is complacency—and breaking old habits,” he said. “Our traditions are what’s hurting us.” As awareness grows, Peterson, Humphreys and Rivero all say they are making an effort to be more thoughtful of the toxins they have been exposed to. They wipe down equipment and surfaces that were exposed. Turnouts and other gear are washed more often, and firefighters are encouraged to shower immediately, washing away the toxins from head to toe. Seeking solutions During the past year, Peterson became well-versed in firefighter cancers. His tumor was surgically removed, followed by radiation therapy. He didn’t want to live in the dark, so he spent a lot of time researching firefighter cancers. He wanted to know exactly what his options were and what benchmarks he could expect along the way. “We took the time to educate ourselves, to have the hard conversations, so we could execute a plan,” Peterson said. “It’s a very cold approach, but it works for us.” On Jan. 4, Peterson and his wife learned the cancer returned, inside both lungs and two lymph nodes. The hardest part of his journey so far has been sharing this news with Lydia, he said. “When this whole thing started, I knew what my statistical chances were,” he said. “If it got to the point that the cancer was in my lungs, I knew the outlook was really grim.” And indeed, the news is grim: Any treatment he receives will merely treat his symptoms, but not the cancer itself. However, after much thought and prayer, the Petersons have chosen quality over quantity. “If I could spend a portion of that time with my feet in the sand and the sun on my face, I’ll take it—then I’ll come home and grind it out,” he said.

In the meantime, he agreed to share his story because he wants his firefighter family to understand just how important it is to be mindful of the toxin exposures that come with a firefighting career. “We need to not be afraid to talk about cancer, and we need to find solutions,” he said. While some firefighters launder their turnouts at home, Peterson said it really requires a heavy duty machine to fully extract all of the carcinogens from the gear. However, those machines are “uber expensive.”

We need to not be afraid to talk about cancer, and we need to find solutions. - Travis Peterson All three Logan fire stations have a machine, Peterson said. However, the cost is prohibitive for smaller fire departments. There is help available in the form of federal grant money, but there is one glaring requirement to obtaining that funding: starting the conversation about why it’s needed. “We have to start talking about it,” Peterson said. “That starts at the local level and until that dialogue starts, nothing will ever change.” Rivero added, “If we can’t protect our guys, why are we even here?” The Peterson family has been surrounded by the support of friends, neighbors and the firefighter community, especially since finding out about the cancer’s spread earlier this month. Peterson has been open about his cancer experience on his Facebook page. “I am just so grateful for everything and everyone, I have spent my life helping others and to be on the receiving end is very humbling,” he wrote on his page Jan. 7, just after the news. “Thank you all for your love, support and prayers.” This article was originally published with the title “‘Like any fireman:’ Firefighting community deals with high rate of cancer” on January 16, 2016, in The Herald Journal. It can be accessed at source=facebook&utm_campaign=user-share. Reprinted with permission from The Herald Journal and Travis Peterson.

April - June 2016 | 19


Unified Fire Authority firefighters discuss Ready, Set, Go! principles with summer program participants.

Have you noticed a hazardous fuel reduction project in a neighboring jurisdiction and wondered how you could assist with completing a similar project for a community in your response area? You may be aware that the U.S. Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management construct fuel breaks on lands they manage, but what’s available for counties, municipalities, or small rural communities? The State of Utah Division of Forestry, Fire and State Lands (FFSL) has been assisting local governments and communities at risk of wildfire for more than a decade through the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) Program. There are a number of programs/resources available, but what is the best way to begin? When I started as a new WUI coordinator for the northern Utah area, I found the many available programs somewhat confusing. I knew it was my duty to assist with the development of Community Wildfire Protection Plans, but how did that tie in with Ready, Set, Go! or Firewise Communities USA? To complicate things further, I heard 20 | UFRA Straight Tip

about the new initiative for Fire-Adapted Communities. I began to feel very overwhelmed with all the options available! However, the mission became clear once I stopped looking at them as separate programs and visualized them as building blocks to reach the ultimate objective: establishing FireAdapted Communities. 1. Communities At Risk (CARs) is a list that was developed cooperatively at the local and state level to assist land management agencies and other stakeholders in determining the scope of the WUI challenge and to monitor progress in mitigating the hazards in these areas. The list includes the community name and categories of risk (fire occurrence, fuel hazard, values protected, and protection capabilities). The categories of risk are given a numeric value for no risk, moderate risk, high risk, and extreme risk. The CARs list can be found on our website at

WILDLAND FIRE 1. Communities At Risk

2. Communities Wildfire Protection Plans 5. Fire - Adapted Communities

4. Firewise Communities USA 2. Community Wildfire Protection Plans (CWPPs) empower communities to organize, plan, and take action on issues impacting community safety. This includes enhancing wildfire resistance and community protection, recognizing the risks of WUI fires, and identifying objectives and strategies to reduce the risks to homes and businesses in the community. It’s common to have objectives such as implement Ready, Set, Go!, construct a fuel break, get GPS points for water sources, or become a part of Firewise Communities USA. The goal of CWPPs is to help the community create a plan for WUI communities in your response area to ultimately become Fire-Adapted Communities. 3. Ready, Set, Go! is a national program sponsored by the International Association of Fire Chiefs. The goal is for local fire departments to deliver messages of being READY with wildfire preparedness, to be SET with situational awareness when fire threatens, and to GO by evacuating early when a fire starts. This is a critical education/outreach opportunity since homeowners have a profound respect and appreciation for their local firefighters. This program has been largely successful with getting community engagement around the country. It may also be used as a tool to find community members that will be instrumental in developing a CWPP, especially if there have been struggles in the past. Membership is completely free and will give you access to dozens of valuable outreach materials that can be customized for your department. Sign up and start the success at 4. Firewise Communities USA is a national program managed by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). This program is designed to recognize communities that have obtained a community wildfire risk assessment, completed a

3. Ready, Set, Go! CWPP (forming a board or committee), conducted an annual Firewise Day, and invested a minimum of $2 per capita in local Firewise actions. Firewise Communities USA is a tremendous accomplishment to achieve, but it also is paramount in continuing education on the latest preparedness research and materials. Check out for more information. 5. Fire-Adapted Communities is the concept that communities are knowledgeable and engaged participants in fortifying infrastructures and landscapes that reduce the need for extensive protection actions and enable the community to safely accept fire as part of the surrounding landscape. It is reached by building a foundation using the above programs. More information can be found at Have you adopted any of the programs above, and would you like to do more to influence community preparedness for the state of Utah? The Utah Living with Fire organization is always looking for motivated members. The purpose of Utah Living with Fire is to provide homeowners living in WUI areas information regarding fuel reduction and structural modifications and access to recommendations developed by their peers and firefighting experts. To learn more about how to get involved, visit the website at In the state of Utah, there are 643 listed Communities At Risk, 169 Community Wildfire Protection Plans, 42 Ready, Set, Go! members, 14 Firewise Communities USA, and ø Fire-Adapted Communities. If you would like support in your community with any of the initiatives detailed above, FFSL is here to assist. Please contact me at April - June 2016 | 21



In the mid-1860s, LDS pioneers settled the Bear Lake Valley, an area rich in fish, game, and opportunity, and soon the little community located along the shores of Bear Lake, also known as “The Caribbean of the Rockies,� became the town of Garden City. Garden City and the turquoise blue waters of Bear Lake has long attracted large numbers of tourists and recreationists. With large seasonal fluctuations in the population, and the ever-increasing number of structures and property values, the need for a fire protection district was a high priority. In 1976 this need was finally met, and the Garden City Fire District was officially organized by a resolution of the Rich County Commissioners. The fire district initially had a small handful of strictly volunteer firefighters with an outdated engine and an old pickup truck converted into a brush truck. As time went on, more equipment was acquired, including a 55' ladder truck, and in 2002 a new Freightliner FL 80 1500-gallon pumper engine was purchased. Additionally a 2004 f-350 truck was donated to the department and was built into a rescue/squad truck with a 300-gallon tank and CAFS. In 2015, two more apparatus were added to the fleet:

a 1000-gallon 5-ton 6x6 wildland engine and a 32' rapid rescue boat with twin 250 HP engines, 3D side finder sonar, radar for search and rescue operations, and BLS medical equipment with AED. Emergency services in Garden City is split between the fire district and the county EMS association. A county ambulance is housed at the fire station, and a close partnership between fire and EMS ensures an effective and a rapid response to all local emergencies. Many of the fire department personnel are both fire and EMS volunteers, ensuring the best care possible to our citizens and visitors. The Garden City Fire District currently has 24 active personnel, including 6 AEMTs and 6 EMT basics. We are organized with a fire chief, assistant chief, 3 captains, 2 lieutenants, and 17 firefighters. All personnel are paid on call except for the chief, who is a full-time employee. Of the personnel, 8 are state certified at Firefighter II, 10 at Firefighter I, 20 wildland firefighters, 2 engine bosses, and 17 certified in hazmat operations. There are also personnel state certified to technician level in high- and low-angle rescue, trench collapse, and structural collapse. There are also personnel certified in ADO Pumper and Instructor I.

Garden City will experience a population swing of around 1,000-1,500 in the winter to more than 30,000 for four months of the year during the summer weekends.

Marine 40, purchased in 2015, will provide fire and rescue capabilities on Bear Lake for many years to come.

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photography by Mike Wahlberg

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The Garden City Fire District covers an area of approximately 200 square miles and an additional 200 square miles of automatic and mutual aid with the Laketown Fire District. It is bordered on the north by Idaho, on the east by Bear Lake, on the south by Laketown Fire District, and on the west by Cache County. As a note of special interest, because Garden City Fire District takes in much of Bear Lake, there is a great potential for water emergencies. In the past, this was a weak point with the department, but after recognizing the need and benefit to all who use


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Garden City Fire District responds to an average of 250 calls per year between fire, rescue, and other call-outs. The calls consist of the standard structure and wildland responses and can involve the more unique calls, such as a cougar under a house or four wheelers through the ice. The challenges that the department faces are many. Oftentimes there is no hydrant service to some of the more remote structures, so water shuttling and management are crucial. The extreme cold of winter and snow-packed steep roads in the residential communities make freezing equipment and access tough, and in the summer the sheer volume of tourists and the increase in callouts creates a difficult situation because the man power doesn't increase with the population influx. Garden City will experience a population swing of around 1,000-1,500 in the winter to more than 30,000 for four months of the year during the summer weekends.

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Crews working to contain a cabin fire on Sweetwater Hill, April 2014.

the lake, a rapid response recue/fire boat was purchased in May of 2015, and a water rescue training program was implemented. The very first day the boat was placed in service, it was used to rescue four individuals who were the victims of a severe windstorm and had their boat sink out from under them. By summer’s end, three more rescues were accomplished and the boat and crews trained to handle these emergencies have become an essential part of the public safety plan for Bear Lake. Garden City is proud of the men and women of Garden City Fire and all of the endless dedication and training that these fine individuals give to their community!

Part of the tired but happy Garden City crew. Left to right: Deven Watkins, Jared Wahlberg, Jayson Ward, Scott Dotson, Sam Casillas, Geoff Taylor, and Brandon Weatherston.

Ladder 40 doing a demonstration for fire safety week at North Rich Elementary School.

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Salt Lake Valley Fire Alliance

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2016 Utah Fire Symposium

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May 17 – 21

Keynote Speaker


May 17, 18

Battalion Chief Anthony Kastros:

Mastering Fireground Command

May 19

Keynote Speaker Battalion Chief Anthony Kastros

May 20, 21

H.O.T. Classes

Anthony Kastros is a 28-year veteran of the fire service and battalion chief with the Sacramento (CA) Metro Fire District. He is the founder of and He is author of the Fire Engineering book and video Mastering the Fire Service Assessment Center, and was the FDIC 2013 keynote speaker. Chief Kastros teaches fireground command, tactics, and leadership for fire departments and public agencies throughout the United States. He spent four seasons on a Type 1 incident management team, and 10 years as a FEMA USAR Task Force manager, deploying to New York on 9/11.









Website and Registration


s mentioned in Part 1 of this special feature in our the January issue of the Straight Tip, the summer of 2015 was a record-breaking wildfire season. In order to aid nearby states imperiled by wildfires, several Utah fire departments deployed personnel to assist in fighting those fires. Part 2 of this special feature continues with descriptions from more of the departments who sent personnel to those fires. These departments report on their experiences and impart advice that may help other departments participating in similar deployments in the future. We thank the department members who were willing to take the time to share their experiences.

If you have questions regarding wildland fire deployments, contact your local state or county fire wardens. They are the most accurate source of information about the requirements in becoming deployable and the necessary agreements and understandings that need to be completed before your department can participate.

photograph by Zach Larsen

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Utah County Fire by Andrew Watson and Andrew Siebach

The 2015 fire season was an adventurous one for Utah County Fire. Throughout the season, the handcrew and engines responded to multiple incidents in Idaho, Oregon, Washington, California, Nevada, and Utah. Each incident provided unique opportunities for experience, training, and service. These opportunities ranged from differing fuel types, drought conditions on fires, and differing incident complexity and management styles. Here are just two examples of our deployments last year. The handcrew’s first assignment was to the Washington Fire on the HumboldtToiyabe National Forest near Mt. Diablo, California. At the time of deployment, the fire had transitioned to a type 2 26 | UFRA Straight Tip

command team. The Incident Command Post (ICP) for the incident was set up in Gardnerville, NV. When the crew arrived at ICP, they were informed that the fire was an additional hour drive away and that the majority of resources were operating from a spike camp. (Spike camps may be well supplied, but it is a good practice to leave the incident base well stocked if you know you’re not going to be back to ICP for a while.) During the 11-day assignment, the crew worked on three different divisions and performed a variety of tasks, including direct and indirect attack, burnouts, holding, and mop-up. The varying tasks helped to make the time pass quickly and keep crew morale high. By the end of the assignment, Mother Nature had

arrived to lend a hand by bringing precipitation. The crew was released from the incident and arrived home to reset for the next assignment. One of the fire assignments from the engine program was with the Northern Utah Strike Team. Utah County, Park City, Unified Fire, and Layton fire departments met in Layton and started the three-week assignment, via caravan, to Washington state. The strike team was shuffled from one part of the state to another multiple times, ultimately working on four different incidents with varying complexity and containment objectives. Fire assignments included holding, patrol, mop-up, staging, and initial attack. Throughout the assignment, the strike

Crew Picture on the Rapid Fire, Idaho photograph by Zach Larsen

team was able to adapt to mechanical, logistical, and other issues, which presented many opportunities for learning and team building. Working with these departments and individuals for an extended period of time provided great experience for several trainees to work on their respective task books. Perhaps the biggest advantage from this assignment was working with departments and firefighters in ways that would not happen when responding as a single engine. This season each assignment differed greatly. The first deployment tends to be a litmus test for the resources as leadership sees, first hand, if all aspects of fire fighting were adequately covered during pre-season training. Succeeding

Mop-up on Divs Golf Washington Fire

assignments continue to provide perspective to the rookie as well as the more experienced crew member. Individuals can see if pre-season physical and mental preparations were sufficient for the tasks now faced. Each 14-day assignment presents firefighters with the challenges of cumulative fatigue, equipment issues, personnel interactions, and stressful situations. From the first to the final assignment, the 2015 fire season presented new challenges and opportunities to each of us.

Rocky Fire: Burnout during initial attack of Rocky Fire, California photograph by Zach Larsen

Ultimately the biggest test of a successful year is returning home safely.

April - June 2016 | 27

Juab Fire District by Gilbert Peay

Deployment Summary The opportunity came for Juab Fire District to take a structure engine to Washington to assist with structure protection. We were assigned to the Omak Okanogan Complex Type I Team. It’s always a great opportunity for us to participate first hand and assist on a large fire in a team setting and with a daily assignment from Incident Command. In some ways, our assignments could seem mundane or routine, like babysitting a small structure or assisting with putting out hot spots that might arise. Positives • The repetition on a daily basis of the operations and requirements, i.e., the paperwork, the briefings, the supply, and camp setting, is a neat opportunity to finish off tasks in your task book. • Completing my task book was one of my motivators, since so many of the tasks are difficult to complete without a multi-day experience like this one. • Observing the workings of a large complex and the briefings they give us to be ready for our tasks. • You become very familiar with your incident action plan. Negatives • Adjusting your expectations to align with the reality of your assignment can sometimes be challenging. • Being away from home is always difficult, and it’s hard to stay motivated when you feel like your assignment is not important, but really the smallest tasks do have to be done.

Recommendations for Other Departments • Go with a crew you have already worked with and observed. With familiarity comes trust, and you already have an expectation of their work ethic. • If you are asked to accept a two-week assignment, understand that your first day of the two weeks doesn’t start until you arrive on scene and begin your first day of work on the fire. Plan for longer time for travel. A two-week assignment is more like 18 days away from home and work. If you are assigned to staging, you could be staged for a week before you are even deployed, so that would add additional time. • Be sure your gear is broken in and ready—boots cause blisters if you take a new pair! As volunteers, our equipment doesn’t get used as often as full-time fighters’ equipment. • Be prepared by taking as many classes in advance as you can. Know your job and have as many skills to offer as possible, so that when that assignment comes to you, you are able to provide the support they need. Be sure your Red Card states your qualifications and levels of proficiency. • Paperwork is everything on a large fire like this!! • In an engine boss role, like I had, be prepared to step up and really be a leader. The assignments you receive are important and need to be completed— your leadership counts to see the job gets done.

Juab Fire District by Grover Allred

The Juab Fire District has been working as part of an out-of-area wildland team to assist others as needed. Last year was the first year that we were able to go out of area. As an engine boss, I took a Type 3 to the state of Washington as part of the Utah South Task Force Team. While in Washington we worked on 13 different fires throughout the western side of the state. We also took a Type 6 to California, Nevada, and Idaho, where we worked on Type 1 and 2 fires. Throughout the 2015 fire season, I was out on the fire line for about 90 days. I enjoyed the time spent working and getting to know our brothers and sisters within the fire

28 | UFRA Straight Tip

service in these areas. I would like to give a special thanks to all those that I have been honored to work with in the Department of Natural Resources fire service in Washington. It has also been a sad year, with the loss of some of our fellow wildland firefighters; they will be greatly missed. From Juab Fire District and myself, our thanks, love, and care goes out to these firefighters that have fallen and to their families, friends, and coworkers.

Levan Fire Department by Ryan Stewart

Levan and Rocky Ridge fire departments formed a joint crew that was deployed to the FEMA Mobilization Center at the Fairchild Air Force Base in Spokane, Washington. Upon arrival at the air force base, we were dispatched to the Okanogan Complex Fire. Our assignment was structure protection for the residents of Disautel and Jim Creek, Washington. The tasks we performed included assistance in cutting in a fire line around all structures, removing combustible debris, holding the fire to the dozer lines, and assisting local law enforcement in evacuating any threatened structures.

While in Washington, we learned alternative methods of structure triage. We plan to incorporate these methods into our training going forward. The long days were grueling, but the work we did was very rewarding. Though we had to spend some time away from our families, we were able to help others return to their homes where they could be safe with their own families.

Each day it was necessary that we were prepared to be flexible. Though we may have been assigned one task in the morning, our assignment was likely to have changed multiple times before we ended the day. We were all able to return home safely by having LCESs (lookouts, communication, escape routes, and safety zones) in place and utilizing our 10 and 18s (standard firefighting orders and watch out situations). April - June 2016 | 29

Unified Fire Authority by Riley Pilgrim

Medic Engine 103 supports a burnout operation at Camp Williams.

Deployment Summary This past summer, Unified Fire Authority (UFA) had the opportunity to send out various resources to support wildland fire management across the country. The season started in June with deployments throughout the western United States and ended in late October with overhead personnel and paramedics in Idaho. Salt Lake 1, the UFA Type II IA crew, also made a historic trip to Alaska, a first for the program. We also sent several paramedics and overhead supervision to Alaska at the beginning of July. By the end of the summer, UFA had responded to over a hundred fires in one of the busiest seasons experienced by neighboring states. Unified Fire Authority currently fills national orders for a Type 4 engine, single resource EMTs and paramedics, miscellaneous overhead including task force and strike team leaders, division supervisors, Type 3 incident commanders, medical unit leaders, and several planning and logistical positions. Department members deploy on their own as single resources or as assigned positions on both local and national incident management teams. UFA sent several individuals to shadow multiple Type 2 incident management teams in Idaho for training opportunities to enhance the Salt Lake Regional All Hazards Type III Team. This team was recently deployed to the flash flood and search efforts in Hildale, Utah, using skills learned over the summer. They also had the privilege to send a structure engine task force to the North Star Fire in the state of Washington. This task force was comprised of structural firefighters and chiefs to support the structural protection efforts during one of the most catastrophic 30 | UFRA Straight Tip

UFA Camp Williams Crew participating in blackhawk wildfire response training.

photograph by Riley Pilgrim

fire seasons experienced in the Northwest. This provided an opportunity for frontline firefighters and leadership to get firsthand experience in urban interface tactics. These skills have proven valuable, as they were also put to use on several local fires in Cottonwood Heights, Camp Williams, and Millcreek, Parley’s, Butterfield, and Big Cottonwood canyons. UFA has also placed a significant amount of effort in wildland fire mitigation. During 2015 several large-scale fuel breaks were put in place around at-risk communities after identifying these areas by completing Community Wildfire Protection Plans (CWPPs) with agency partners. For all the efforts put forth during this past summer, UFA was recognized by the International Association of Fire Chiefs (IAFC) Ready, Set, Go! Program (RSG) for their efforts in community education on wildfire prevention and preparedness. UFA was recently highlighted in the 2016 IAFC RSG Calendar. UFA also received the State of Utah Cooperator of the Year Award for efforts in both wildfire suppression support and wildfire mitigation in high-risk areas. Positives • Sending out department members allows for training opportunities that are otherwise difficult to obtain. This summer UFA completed over 40 task books in various wildland and incident command system positions during the 2015 season. • UFA line paramedics have been instrumental in making fire line medical protocol changes, which has been a tremendous benefit to the wildland fire community. Most recently the introduction and use of the insertion rescue bag (IRB) has led to a more effective and efficient response to critically injured firefighters. This bag allows critical ALS, C-Spine, and sling equipment to be delivered by long line via helicopter directly to the patient. • These deployments have exposed firefighters to a variety of wildland fire tactics, which have proven to be valuable upon retuning to the home unit. The knowledge that has been gained by this exposure has increased firefighter safety and led to more efficient strategy and tactics when responding to wildland fire. • The ability to network on these fires has provided additional training opportunities for department

personnel, allowing them to begin training in other areas of the incident command system besides operations. UFA is currently sending out firefighters in planning, logistics, finance, and command staff positions. This training has allowed for real-world experience outside the classroom and has proven beneficial when responding to incidents in UFA’s response area. Recommendations for Other Departments • Ensure all deploying fire personnel understand the provisions in the cooperative agreements and the State of Utah Fire Department Manual. The manual provides the rules and policies departments are reimbursed by. Understanding basic incident business management is also important (S-260). • When deploying, make sure that personnel all have red cards in hand and that they also have all agreements, resource orders, and any other agency documentation that may be required when checking into an incident. • When deploying with an engine, make sure at least one crewmember has purchasing capabilities. Self-sufficiency is often requested, and it allows for the crew to take care of problems or any associated issues that may require purchasing at higher dollar amounts. • Often the allotted billing rates will cover the cost of the deployed firefighter plus some of the expense it takes to maintain the required service level of your home unit. In some circumstances the department may have to absorb some of the cost when deploying personnel. Again, it is important to refer to the State of Utah Fire Department Manual and your local warden for billing guidance when negotiating your agreements. UFA has learned many valuable lessons through deployments in various wildland fire positions over the last several years. They have gained networking and training opportunities that are often difficult to obtain at home. The 2015 fire season proved to be no exception. These lessons learned have developed the program over the last three decades and set it up for future success.

UFA firefighter conducts firing operation to secure fireline.

photograph by Riley Pilgrim

April - June 2016 | 31

Utah Department of Natural Resources

Utah Division of Foresty, Fire & S


At the annual Spring Fire Warden’s Meeting in May of 2007, Tracy Dunford, state fire management officer of the Division of Forestry, Fire and State Lands (FFSL), directed me, Shane Freeman, as assistant fire management officer of the division, to develop a State Training Committee. When I began my job at the state office in June 2006, two of the duties assigned to me were division training officer and administering the Incident Qualification System (IQS) for division employees and fire department personnel statewide.

Utah Department of Natural Resources

Utah Division of Foresty, Fire & S

Development of the Committee It took numerous meetings and discussions for the State Training Committee to gain traction, vision, and a clear understanding of objectives, goals, and mission. The committee at first was comprised of only division employees. After two years, the committee realized that to truly serve not just the division but also the fire departments, the committee needed representation from both volunteer and career fire departments. The committee is currently represented by the division’s state office, a county fire warden from each of the six geographic area offices, a member of the Utah Fire and Rescue Academy, and representatives from volunteer and career fire departments. The committee realized that to function properly, they would need to meet at least quarterly and have a number of documents for reference, consistency, and guidance. The committee voted and adopted the name State of Utah Wildland Fire Certification and Training Committee (SUWFCTC). The division’s Fire Management Officer Group oversees the committee, and visitors are welcome at the quarterly meetings. After numerous meetings, the committee has adopted and developed several documents to operate under. Some of these documents are Bylaws, Position Task Book Guideline, Position Task Book Checklist and Position Task Book Rejection Letter. These documents can be accessed on the FFSL website http:// Click on Fire at the top of the screen to gain access to these documents.

Position Task Books At each quarterly meeting, completed Position Task Books (PTBs) are reviewed. Once a PTB has been initiated, the PTB becomes a legal document. It is the responsibility of the trainee to ensure all information in the PTB is accurate and complete. The committee requires a minimum of three training assignments in a PTB before it will be considered for certification. If the PTB is the FFT1/ICT5 task book, three training assignments must be completed for each position. A minimum of three members of 32 | UFRA Straight Tip

Cover page for the FFT1/ICT5 position task book

the committee evaluate each PTB. The PTB Checklist is filled out by each member evaluating the PTB. The length and complexity of the training assignment is one of the many components evaluated by committee members. Additional training assignments may be required before PTB certification. When the PTB is completed with all information accurate and complete, the PTB is submitted to the respective FFSL area office. The PTB is then reviewed by the area fire management officer for accuracy and completeness before it is submitted to the SUWFCTC for final review and certification. All required and supporting training for a position listed in the Wildland Fire Qualification System Guide PMS 310-1 must be completed for the final certification of a PTB. Utah All Risk PTB evaluations should adhere to the PTB evaluation reference guide located on the division’s website. All Risk PTBs are evaluated by a Division of Emergency Management Committee, and their evaluation and certification process is similar to the SUWFCTC process. It is the responsibility of trainees to ensure that all information in their PTB is accurate and complete.

Utah Fire and Rescue Academy is pleased to sponsor

NFA Leadership II for Fire & EMS: Strategies for Personal Success (F0804)

May 6-7, 2016 in American Fork, UT This two-day course provides the company officer (CO) with the basic leadership skills and tools needed to perform effectively in the fire service environment. The course addresses ethics, use and abuse of power at the CO level, creativity in the fire service environment, and management of the multiple roles of the CO. Please contact UFRA Program Manager Raleigh Bunch at for more information.

RCA Graduation Fall 2015 | Class #71

On December 16, 2015, Class #71 of the Utah Valley University Emergency Services Recruit Candidate Academy (RCA) held its graduation ceremony. During the program, CAPS Dean David A. McEntire, Ph.D., Emergency Services Department Chair Gary Noll, M.Ed., and RCA Course Coordinator Andy Byrnes, M.Ed., spoke to the parents, friends, and family of the class. Candidates Justin Batty, Jackie Berg, and Joshua Woodward were awarded the Charles J. DeJournett Recruit Excellence Award & Instructor Recommendation. Chief Karl Steadman was awarded the Outstanding Instructor Award. Candidates Koy Ash,

RCA Graduation Class #71 (left to right) Top row: JR Hall, Justin Batty, Joshua Woodward, Leland Slaughter Middle row: Steven Wright, Zachary Erickson, Stalone Kelsch, Mark DeKorver, Koy Ash, Brandon Van Mondfrans, Kevin Willy, Kelby Lytle, Kayden Carter, Christian Canseco, Devin Bryant, Brandon Babcock, Mitchell Cowden Bottom row: Jordan Guccione, Dutch Hall, Tucker Howe, Michael Pickett, Taran Ganung, Emily Peterson, Nick Houston, Jackie Berg, Matthew Peel, Cabe Jensen, Landon Griffiths Justin Batty, Zachary Erickson, Taran Ganung, Landon Griffiths, Tucker Howe, Kelby Lytle, and Matthew Peel earned the Physical Training Excellence Award. Justin Batty was the class officer, and he also received the Outstanding Student Award, based on a vote by his peers. RCA Coordinator Andy Byrnes was the lead instructor for the semester, and Captain Charles DeJournett was the assistant lead instructor. April - June 2016 | 33

Thank You, Fire School Vendors! On behalf of the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy, THANK YOU, VENDORS, for your dedication, excellent service, and continued support!! It truly is a pleasure working with you and your colleagues, and we look forward to seeing you again next year! Mark your calendars—next year’s expo falls on January 20 & 21, 2017.

A big SHOUT OUT goes to Kent Graham from Graham Fire, Jay Henry from EAR Dynamics, and Mark Hales from Ross Equipment for sponsoring the AM and PM student break as well as Brad Harrell and his crew from CargoGlide for sponsoring the Chiefs Officer Luncheon. We acknowledge and sincerely appreciate your contributions in making this the best expo around!! You guys rock!!

UTAH FIRE & RESCUE ACADEMY 2016 EXPO List of Vendors UFRA Certification

Paul Davis Restoration of Utah

Utah Disaster Kleenup

Utah Valley University Academics (RCA)

Advanced Traffic Products, Inc.

Motorola Solutions, Inc.

Apparatus & Vehicle Vendors Toyne, Inc.


TPL Crawford

UFRA Online Program

Ward Diesel Filter Systems

Federal Signal

Ross Equipment Co.

Utah Firefighters Association

Holmatro Company

Kussmaul Electronics


Utah Occupational Safety and Health (UOSH)

Akron Brass Company

Apparatus Equipment & Services

Boise Mobile Equipment

Jones & Bartlett Learning

Weibrenner Shoe Company / Thorogood

L.N. Curtis & Sons

Columbia Southern University

Task Force Tips


EAR Dynamics


Utah Division of Forestry, Fire & State Lands (FEPP)

IFSTA / Fire Protection Publications


Fire Dex

Utah Vehicle Lighting

Weidner Fire

Ice Rescue Systems

Foam Pro Fire Research OnSpot Automatic Tire Chairs Performance Advantage Company

Professional Sales and Service Waterous Company Apparatus Equipment & Services Young Automotive Group


Graham Fire Apparatus/Rosenbauer

Fire and Fuel Apparel

Fire Trucks Unlimited

Utah Safety Council

Bauer Compressors

To inquire about exhibiting, please contact Jolene Chamberlain at 34 | UFRA Straight Tip







UFRA -2 016-


On behalf of the staff at UFRA, we would like to thank everyone who made Winter Fire School 2016 a successful experience. Our mission statement at UFRA is to train, validate, and support the Utah fire service at the highest quality level possible. I believe we accomplished that goal again this year. We had close to 700 participants from over 150 departments and agencies, including students from Alaska, Wyoming, Arizona, and Colorado. The staff at UFRA will continue to introduce new classes, instructors, and formats to each winter fire school based on your comments and recommendations, and 2016 was no exception. This year we added a second Emergency Apparatus Driving Simulator that allowed us to double our student participation. Some of the new classes we added this year included Surface and Ice Rescue Operations, Law Enforcement and First Response Tactical Casualty Care, Expanded Extrication, and Getting the Most out of Your SCBA. We used a couple of different formats this year to allow more participants the hands-on experience. We increased our extrication class from a four-hour to an eight-hour class with four stations, giving students the opportunity to cover scene size up, scene control, vehicle stabilization, new car design challenges, and proper patient management. This year we had 80 classes, which were instructed by a cadre of instructors from all over the country. Most of our out-ofstate instructors who teach throughout the year continually tell us this is one of their favorite schools to attend and instruct because of the support of staff and the caliber of firefighters attending. As in the previous years, we could not be as successful without the help of the St. George Fire Department and the surrounding fire departments; I would like to extend a special thanks to all of you. We are already planning Winter Fire School 2017, with a goal to continually improve and keep our instructor cadre experienced and relevant. We at UFRA are looking forward to next year and hope to continue the tradition of excellence that you have come to expect. Thank you for a job well done, and we hope the information and training you gained will bring you back again next year. The dates for Winter Fire School 2017 are January 20th and 21st.

April - June 2016 | 35


Vernon Decker “Red” Partridge 1928–2015 Vernon Decker “Red” Partridge, beloved husband, father, grandfather, and great-grandfather, passed away November 16, 2015. Red was truly a light to all he met, even during his final days. Red was born in Los Angeles, California, on September 12, 1928, but he was raised in Goshen, Utah, until he was 16 years old, when the family moved to Orem, Utah. He graduated from Lincoln High School. Red married Donna Rae Hurst on June 14, 1950. He served as a volunteer policeman for Orem. He later owned a service station and volunteered as a fireman. In 1964, he was elected chief of the volunteer fire department. The next year, he would become one of the original four “regulars” of the fire department, beginning a 27-year career as captain. During this time he also worked as a flooring installation technician for numerous companies, including Utah Valley Builders Supply. Red loved the outdoors. He loved taking his family camping, hunting, and fishing. Many of his camping friends and their families became extended family. David Smart Johnson 1948–2015 David Smart Johnson, age 67, passed away on July 28, 2015, from organ failure due to multiple medical conditions that he bravely endured. He leaves behind his loving and devoted wife, Shauna Lyn Davis, five children and their spouses, and eight grandchildren. In 1973, David

36 | UFRA Straight Tip

followed in his father’s footsteps to become a volunteer fireman for Springville City and joined the Utah State Firemen’s Association. He was an active member of the Utah State Firemen’s Association for the rest of his life. David eventually settled his family in Holden, Utah, where he served in many capacities for church and community, including his favorite duty as a volunteer firefighter. He served the Holden Volunteer Fire Department in several capacities, including several years as fire chief and training officer. He also represented Holden Town on the Millard County Fire District. His only son, Paul, shared David’s passion for firefighting and currently serves as a volunteer with the Holden Fire Department. David will be remembered for his kind heart, endless patience, warm smile, and dedication to serving others. Brant Kelly Adams 1951–2016 Brant Kelly Adams, age 64, passed away Tuesday, January 19, 2016. He was born July 24, 1951, in Cedar City, Utah, to Brant Keat and Elva Wright Adams. He married Wendy May Adams September 3, 1976, in St. George, Utah. Kelly was raised in Washington, Utah, and had seven siblings, two brothers and five sisters. He learned at an early age to work hard. His parents owned a farm and there were cows to milk and many other duties to attend to. Kelly loved hunting and spending many camping trips up in the mountains with his dad, brothers, and sons. He was a gun enthusiast and loved to discuss the quality and differences of guns. He’d let you know the ones he preferred, and he was well

known in the shooting community for his knowledge of guns. Kelly also loved motorcycles, and over the past few years he has taken several trips to Driggs, Idaho, to visit his daughter and son-in-law. Kelly attended the Washington County schools. He graduated in 1969 from Dixie High and then attended Dixie College. Later he joined the U.S. Army, where he served in the Military Police. He also learned to be a paratrooper. Kelly was trained and received an EMT Certificate, which served him well when he joined the Utah National Guard and became a medic. He served over 20 years in the army and guard. He also spent over 20 years as a volunteer fireman. Kelly’s main profession was a glazier. Kelly was a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and served in various church callings over the years. Gary S. Welsh 1952–2016 Gary S. Welsh passed away with family and friends at his side on February 1, 2016, after a courageous 20-month battle with intimal sarcoma. Gary loved to live life to the fullest. He served in the navy (’72–’75) and as a firefighter, paramedic, and captain for Salt Lake City and Unified Fire Authority (’77–’11). He loved the outdoors, visiting his neighbors, and serving in the temple. But most of all, he loved his wife, children, and grandsons. Jay Bybee Campbell 1933–2016 Jay Bybee Campbell, age 82, passed away Saturday, January 23, 2016. He was born

on November 5, 1933, in Tropic, Utah, to Charles Delbert and Sarah Delores Bybee Campbell. Bybee grew up in Tropic and beautiful Zion National Park. He learned the importance of family, strong work ethics, good values, faith in God, respect for others, love of country, and the joy of serving others. Bybee graduated from Hurricane High School, where he met his sweetheart, Clidene McEntire. They were married February 21, 1952. Bybee and Clidene raised seven children.

Bybee served in the army branch of the military, serving at Fort Bliss, Texas, and Fort Carson, Colorado. He was in a guided missile battalion. Bybee owned and operated a service station business for 25 years. He sold cars at Newby Buick for 33 years. He loved to help his customers find the car of their dreams. Bybee loved his family. He was an excellent provider. He enjoyed taking his family on vacations all over the United States, and he loved to take his family fishing and camping at Kolob, his piece of heaven on earth.

Bybee was a volunteer fireman for St. George for 25 years. Bybee was also an active member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. He served in many capacities of the church, including elder’s quorum president, young men’s leader, first assistant to the high priest quorum, ward missionary, and in the Sunday school presidency. He loved to serve others. He was Christ-like and an excellent example to everyone.

Prohibited Items on Exam Day by Lori Howes

“old school” methods of slips of paper tucked into sleeves and writing on the palm of the hand. It is a never ending battle! A search on YouTube of “how to cheat on an exam” yields 1,410,000 results. I am not trying to provide you with ideas on how to cheat; I am merely trying to help you understand why the following items will not be allowed during certification exams:

While recently attending an accreditation conference, I had the opportunity to discuss with other certification authorities from around the country the challenges they are facing with testing. One topic repeatedly brought up was candidates cheating on exams and the resources at their disposal. Cell phones, smart phones, smart watches, and not to mention the

• cell phones • smart phones • digital watches • smart watches • smart glasses • hand-held computers/tablets • PDAs (personal digital assistants) • any other electronic, recording, listening, or photographic device

baseball caps—must be removed or may be worn with brim/bill to back

Are you scratching your heads over the baseball caps? Let me explain. Several testing centers all over the country have already prohibited wearing any kind of hat because students were found to be writing notes on the inside of the bill/ brim. Colleges and universities around the nation have already implemented this policy a few years ago. While we have not had cheating incidents involving the list of items above, we want to be proactive in prohibiting them before we do. Should you have any questions, comments, or concerns I welcome your feedback. Contact me at the Certification Office at 801-863-7752 or by email at

April - June 2016 | 37


Moab Valley Fire Protection District Commissioner William H. “Izzy” Nelson is retiring after more than 46 years of involvement with the fire department, including nearly three decades as commissioner.

“We’re one of the top volunteer fire departments in the state,” Nelson said, noting that the department has received multiple commendations and awards, including recognition for being Utah’s outstanding volunteer fire department back in 1979. “Also, in the 1980s, we were the first volunteer fire department in Utah to have state-certified firefighters.”

On December 9th, Nelson informed Moab Valley Fire Department employees of his decision to resign effective December 31, 2015.

“There’s been a lot of changes over the years,” Nelson added. “Today’s technology is far superior to what we had back then.”

“It has been an honor to serve the district both as a fireman and as a commissioner,” Nelson told those present at the December 9th Moab Valley Fire Protection District meeting. Nelson said afterward that he and his wife, Lois, are looking forward to spending more time camping, fishing, reading, and visiting family members. Nelson first became a volunteer firefighter with the Moab Valley Fire Department back in 1968, and then he became a district commissioner in January of 1986.

“Our firefighters are better trained and better qualified,” he added, stating that the volunteer firefighters have always been the “heart and soul” of the department and that they are what has made it so successful over the years. Nelson said that while he will miss the fire department’s employees and volunteers, he’s confident that he’s leaving things in good hands. (Excerpt taken from The Times-Independent article “Longtime fire commissioner

Izzy Nelson retires” [January 2016] by Jeff Richards. Read more at http://moabtimes. com/pages/full_story/push?articleLongtime+fire+commissioner+Izzy+ Nelson+retires%20&id=27034361& instance=secondary_four_leftcolumn #ixzz3x9LErp48.) Tracy Dunford began his long and distinguished career with the Utah Division of Forestry, Fire & State Lands at the Lone Peak Conservation Center (LPCC) in 1984. While at LPCC, Tracy was instrumental in creating and leading the former Flame-In-Go inmate wildland firefighter program. Tracy became the first superintendent of the Flame-In-Go Hotshots in 1990. After leaving LPCC in 2000, he served as the state fire management officer for nearly a decade and was widely recognized as Utah’s top wildland fire professional. He was a Type 2 incident commander (IC) within the national wildland fire incident command system (’13–’15), one of a very

Climbing the Ladder South Salt Lake Fire Dept Promotions The following individuals have been promoted to engineer in the South Salt Lake Fire Department: Brian Garn Joe Anderson Kody Thompson 38 | UFRA Straight Tip

Mark Bross Rob Hixson Steve Wanlass

Brian Garn

Joe Anderson

few T2 ICs in the Great Basin and one of the highest IC levels ever attained by an FFSL firefighter. After 31 years with FFSL, Tracy concluded his career as the division’s deputy director, where he has been instrumental in implementing the Governor’s Catastrophic Wildfire Reduction Strategy as well as the development of the new comprehensive, statewide wildland fire policy that is now before the Utah legislature. Tracy was widely known and respected within the wildland fire community, and he will be missed at FFSL and on the fire line. We wish him and his wife, Janet, all the very best in their new home on the Oregon coast! Steve Rutter began his career with the Utah Division of Forestry, Fire & State Lands in 1998 and retired January 15, 2016, after a long and fulfilling firefighting career. He served as the first and only Type 1 burn boss with the state

Kody Thompson

of Utah. As a T1 burn boss, Steve had the opportunity to supervise and manage multiple T1 burns, which include aerial ignition sources. Yes, Steve used a large helicopter to light hills and mountains on fire. All of the T1 fires he worked on helped to reduce the risk of other large fires and improve habitat for wildlife. Steve took great pride in ensuring that the objectives were met and that everyone was safe. He saved the state and the counties he worked in millions of dollars by using proper tactics at appropriate times. He enjoyed meeting new people and training local volunteer firefighters about wildland fire. Steve was easy to talk to and always willing to take the time to explain why something was done or needed to be done. He was always very patient when he was teaching new firefighters and listened to their concerns. On January 15, 2016, the Salt Lake City Fire Department celebrated the career of Assistant Chief Gary McCarty, who retired after nearly 29 years of service. A reception was held in his honor at the Public Safety Building, allowing current

Mark Bross

Rob Hixson

and former members of the department as well as city officials the opportunity to wish McCarty well. McCarty was hired by Salt Lake City Fire on July 13, 1987, and since then served in many capacities, including paramedic, training adjunct, station captain, fire marshal, and battalion chief. During the past 29 years, McCarty said one of the biggest changes within the department is exceptional improvement with the way firefighters respond to medical emergencies. He said he will always remember working with his good friends on the crews and all the good times he had.

Steve Wanlass April - June 2016 | 39

Climbing the Ladder Tooele Army Depot Fire Department Promotions Tooele Army Depot Fire Department (TEAD FD) has announced the assistant fire chief promotions went to (left to right) Steve Griffith, Brad Tippetts, and James Tarpley. With a great deal of experience between them, these three assistant chiefs are looking to take the TEAD FD into the future with AC Griffith over special operations and assisting the fire chief with emergency management. AC Tippetts is over operations at station two and has oversight with training. AC Tarpley is over operations at station one and has oversight with fire prevention. Tooele Army Depot has also appointed (left to right) Captain Anthony Parker to take over department training and Captain James McClure to be the new fire inspector. Both captains are looking forward to furthering their knowledge within the department, with base operations, and with outside agencies. With nearly 35 years of experience between the two of them, they are excited for new opportunities to further their careers. Tooele Army Depot is pleased to announce the promotions of (left to right) Arnoldo Velasco, Joseph Marks, and Ryan Jewell to the position of captain. Velasco is a shift captain at station two, Marks is a shift captain at station one, and Jewell is the special operations captain for the department. All three new captions are eager to step up and continue the captains’ tradition of running a crew, mentoring, training, and making sure everyone goes home safely. 40 | UFRA Straight Tip

Ogden FD Promotions Jesse Speth has been promoted to the position of fire captain. He began his career with Ogden Fire in 2000 as a reservist and started as a full-time firefighter in 2002. Jesse served the department as a paramedic for seven years and more recently as a driver/engineer until being promoted to captain on January 2, 2016. He has proven himself as a paramedic and as a driver/engineer and will do a great job as a captain for the department. Mike Slater has been promoted to the position of battalion chief. He began his career with Ogden Fire in 1997 as a reservist and started as a full-time firefighter in 1999. Mike has risen through the ranks, spending time as a paramedic, captain, station one officer, and now as a battalion chief as of his promotion on January 2, 2016. He brings excellent decision-making skills, leadership, and commitment to this new position.

A Sincere Thank You The Utah Fire and Rescue Academy along with the members of the Utah Fire Service Certification Council and the certification staff would like to offer a special thank you to Chief Rod Hammer of Cache County Fire District for his dedicated service on the Certification Council. Rod resigned from the Certification Council in January after being appointed to the Fire Prevention Board. Rod served four years on the council and during that time acted as a great advocate for the firefighters. He ensured that each decision made by the council was fair, appropriate, and according to policy. Thank you, Rod, for a job well done.

April - June 2016 | 41


Now is the time to begin working on your emergency services degree or finish the degree you have been working on.

ESFF 1360 Recruit Candidate Acad Internship ESFF 1370 Fund Apparatus Operation ESFF 1380 Fire Apparatus Skill ESFF 281R Emergency Services Internship

Why Should I Earn a College Degree?


• • •

Personal improvement Preparation for promotion Expand career opportunities

What Degrees are Offered? Certificates • Firefighter Recruit Candidate • Paramedic • Aviation Fire Officer

Associate of Science Emergency Services Associate of Applied Science Emergency Services • Fire Officer • Emergency Care • Wildland Fire Management • Aviation Fire Officer Bachelor of Science Emergency Services Administration • Emergency Care • Emergency Management (offered 100% online)

How Do I Enroll? • •

Apply for admissions by going to: If you have attended another college or university, request an official transcript be sent to: UVU Admissions Office 800 West University Parkway MS 106 Orem, Utah 84058-5999

What Will It Cost?

• For official UVU tuition/fee amounts go to: • Some courses have “course fees” in addition to tuition.

For more information regarding admissions and registration, call 801-863-7798 or 888-548-7816 to schedule a phone or office appointment with an Emergency Services Administration Academic Advisor.

42 | UFRA Straight Tip

ESFF 1000 Introduction to Emergency Services ESFF 1120 FES Safety and Survival ESFO FACE-TO-FACE CLASS ESFO 2100 Fire Officer I Supervisor Leader ESEC FACE-TO-FACE CLASSES ESEC 1140 Emergency Medical Tech Basic ESEC 4110 Paramedic IV ESEC 4120 Paramedic Clinical Concepts ESMG ONLINE CLASSES ESMG 310G Introduction to Homeland Security ESMG 3200 Health Safety Program Management ESMG 3250 Managing Emergency Medical Services ESMG 3600 Psychology of Emergency Services ESMG 4150 Humanitarian Relief ESMG 4200 Disaster Response and the Public ESMG 445G Human Factors Emergency Management ESMG 4500 Customer Service and Marketing for ES ESMG 4650 Emergency Services Capstone ESMG 481R Emergency Services Internship ESMG 489R Special Topics in Emergency Services ESMG 491R Topics in Cardiology and Medical Trends ESMG 492R Topics in Trauma and Pharmacology ESMG 493R Topics in Medical Litigation ESWF FACE-TO-FACE CLASSES ESWF 1410 Wildland Firefighter Intern I ESWF 1420 Wildland Firefighter Intern II ESWF 2430 Wildland Firefighter Intern III


ESFF 1000 Introduction to Emergency Services ESFF 1360 Recruit Candidate Acad Internship ESFF 250A Firefighter RCA I ESFF 250B Firefighter RCA II ESFF 281R Emergency Services Internship ESFF ONLINE CLASSES ESFF 1000 Introduction to Emergency Services ESFF 2100 the Desire to Serve ESFF 1120 FES Safety and Survival ESFO Face-to-Face Classes ESFO 2030 Fire Inspector I ESFO 2100 Fire Officer I Supervisor Leader ESFO 211A Fire Service Instructor I ESFO ONLINE CLASSES ESFO 1100 Fire Behavior and Combustion ESFO 1110 Fire Prevention ESFO 2050 Fire Protection Detect Systems ESFO 2080 Build Construct Fire Services ESEC FACE-TO-FACE CLASSES ESEC 1140 Emergency Medical Tech Basic ESEC 3060 Emergency Medical Tech Advanced ESEC 3110 Paramedic I ESEC 3120 Paramedic I Lab ESEC 3130 Paramedic II ESEC 3140 Paramedic III ESEC 4150 Critical Care Emergency Medical Transport RECRUIT CANDIDATE ACADEMY (RCA) By application only. For more information visit or make an appointment with an academic advisor by calling the Student Center at 801-863-7798. On-the-job internships are available for all RCA graduates. Application deadlines: June 1st for fall semester and October 1st for spring semester.

ESMG ONLINE CLASSES ESMG 310G Introduction to Homeland Security ESMG 3150 Public Program Administration ESMG 3200 Health Safety Program Management ESMG 3250 Managing Emergency Medical Services ESMG 3300 Master Plan Pub Emerg Services ESMG 3350 Analytical Research Approaches to Public ES ESMG 3600 Psychology of Emergency Services ESMG 4150 Humanitarian Relief ESMG 4200 Disaster Response and the Public ESMG 4400 Legal Considerations for the Emergency Services ESMG 445G Human Factors Emergency Management ESMG 4500 Customer Service and Marketing for ES ESMG 4550 Principals Disaster and Emergency Management ESMG 4600 Public Administration Emergency Management ESMG 4650 Emergency Services Capstone ESMG 481R Emergency Services Internship ESMG 489R Special Topics in Emergency Services ESMG 491R Topics in Cardiology and Medical Trends ESMG 492R Topics in Trauma and Pharmacology ESMG 493R Topics in Medical Litigation ESWF FACE-TO-FACE CLASS ESWF 1400 Wildland Firefighting Fundamentals ESAF ONLINE CLASSES ESAF 2110 Aircraft Mass Casualty ESAF 2120 Aircraft Mishaps ESAF 2130 Aviation Terrorism Response ESAF 2140 Airport Ops Emergency Responder PARAMEDIC By application only. For more information visit or call 801-863-7700 or 888-548-7816. Please check for current and updated course listings. Enroll early! Please note that courses are subject to cancellation due to low enrollment.

April - June 2016 | 43

Utah Fire and Rescue Academy is pleased to sponsor

Intermediate ICS & Advanced ICS ICS-300(H-465) for Expanding Incidents

ICS-400(H-467) for Command and General Staff, Complex Incidents and Multi-agency Coordination System, Regional Training Course


Classes will be held in early and late spring 2016. Watch the website listed below for exact dates and locations.


These courses provide training for personnel who require advanced application of the Incident Command System (ICS).

ICS 300*:

This course is for individuals who are expected to perform in a supervisory or tactical level management role at an incident or event.

ICS 400:

This course is directed to senior personnel who are expected to perform in a management capacity at an incident or event.

Register at**: For more information contact: (801) 652-3852 * Prerequisites: Students who wish to attend this training must complete the online or classroom ICS 100 & 200 courses. It is also recommended that students complete the online ICS 700 & 800b courses prior to entering this class. **Each course will require separate registrations and written tests. April - June 2016 | 45

Nonprofit Organization U.S. POSTAGE

Nonprofit Organization U.S. POSTAGE

Utah Valley University

Utah Valley University




. M S 1 9 3 OREM, UT 84058-6703 R E A N D R E800 S C UW. E UNIVERSITY A C A D E M Y PARKWAY,

U N I V E R S I T Y P A R K W AY, O R E M , U T 8 4 0 5 8 - 5 9 9 9




April - June 2016 Volume 17, Issue 2  
April - June 2016 Volume 17, Issue 2  

UFRA Straight Tip (ISSN 1932-2356) is published quarterly by Utah Valley University and the Utah Fire & Rescue Academy (