www.wfm.co.in Volume 4 | Issue 6 | ` 150 July - August 2018
EFFICIENT CURTAINWALLS Characters, Types & Performance Testing
Sustainability through Intelligent Faรงade
Biomimicry Inspired Faรงades & Computational Design
Face to Face
Padma Shri Ar. C. N. Raghavendran MD, C. R. Narayana Rao (Consultants) Pvt. Ltd.
Simply Beautiful. Inside And Out.
For more than a decade, Corian® Exteriors by DuPont has inspired architects around the globe. The unparalleled design flexibility of Corian® makes modern, high-profile designs easily attainable. From commercial to residential properties, find your inspiration in the trusted and proven performance of Corian® Exteriors. corian.com/exteriorcladding
Corian® used for the exterior cladding of futuristic OVO Wroclaw Centre (Wroclaw, Poland). Design by Gottesman-Szmelcman Architecture. Photo by Kamil Czaja, all rights reserved. Copyright © 2018 DuPont. All rights reserved. Corian® is a registered trademark of E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company or its affiliates.
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GIESSE S.p.A - India Branch Office Dâ€?362, MIDC, TTC Industrial Area,Â Kukshet Village, Juinagar, Navi Mumbai - 400705 - INDIA Tel: 0091 22 27612146 / 64 l email@example.com
Volume 4 I Issue 6 July - August 2018 PUBLISHED BY F & F Media and Publications C-55, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase - 1, New Delhi-110 020 T: +91-11-40623356
Ventilated Stone Cladding System Discussing its advantages over conventional dry cladding
Sustainable Indoor Environment through Effective Façade & Fenestration Technologies & Design On façade designs for reducing the capital and operative costs
Sustainability through Intelligent Façade Using AI for better comfort & energy efficiency
Intelligent Building Envelopes Use of AI to provide dynamic heating, cooling & lighting
Demand Controlled Ventilation: A ‘Must Have’ for a Healthy Indoor Climate DCV as an effective solution for healthy indoor air quality
Role of Façades in Energy Conservation & Operational Cost Reduction CAD for reducing operating costs of a building
Potshangbam July firstname.lastname@example.org
Biomimicry Inspired Façades & Computational Design Solving architectural design challenges by emulating nature
DESIGN & CONCEPT BY Prashant Kumar
Usage of Glass Façade in Commercial Spaces On multiple benefits of glass walls in commercial buildings
MARKETING & OPERATIONS Kapil Girotra email@example.com +91 9560925255
Cover Story: Efficient Curtainwalls
Face to Face Interview: Ar. C.N. Raghavendran, MD, C. R. Narayana Rao (Consultants) Pvt. Ltd., Chennai
Industry Speaks Interview: Pragun Jindal Khaitan, MD, Jindal Aluminium Ltd.
Project Watch • Zephyr, Bhawdhan, Pune - PMA Madhushala • Script, Indiranagar, Bengaluru - Studio Form Techniques Pvt. Ltd. • Life Style, Kolhapur - Sunil Patil and Associates
CO-FOUNDERS Syed Ahad Ahmed Amit Malhotra TECHNICAL PANEL Mahesh Arumugam Director Meinhardt Façade Consultants KR Suresh Regional Director xis Façade Consulting A EDITORIAL enu Rajaram R firstname.lastname@example.org +91 9312864830
SUBSCRIPTION & CIRCULATION Lipi Sahai email@example.com +91 9871151112 Mukesh Kumar firstname.lastname@example.org +91 9560088995 RNI: DELENG/2014/57870
Cover Courtesy: Sandeep Shikre & Associate Pvt. Ltd.
DISCLAIMER: With regret we wish to say that publishers cannot be held responsible or liable for error or omission contained in this publication. The opinions and views contained in this publication are not necessarily those of the publishers. Readers are advised to seek expert advice before acting on any information contained in this publication which are very generic in nature. The Magazine does not accept responsibility for the accuracy of claims made by advertisers. The ownership of trademarks is acknowledged. No part of this publication or any part of the contents thereof may be reproduced in any form or context without the permission of publishers in writing. WRITE TO THE EDITOR Please address your suggestions to: The Editor, Window & Façade Magazine, C55, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase – 1, New Delhi, 110020 or email email@example.com. Please provide your full name and address, stating clearly if you do not wish us to print them. Alternatively log on to www. wfm.co.in and air your views. The opinions expressed in this section are of particular individuals and are in no way a reflection of the publisher’s views. “Printed and Published by Amit Malhotra on behalf of M/s F & F Media and Publications Printed and published at Thomson Press India Ltd., B-315, Okhla Industrial Area Phase 1, New Delhi. Name of the Editor-Ms. Renu Rajaram”
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This edition marks our 4th birthday and is a milestone for our magazine. It’s been a pretty wild ride fuelled mainly by dreams and inspirations and we could not have done any of it without amazing members like you! Purely in terms of age, these are still early days. However, we have displayed maturity throughout and have, over the years, presented to you a wide range of information-packed content to help you better your business. We, too, have been learning on our way, trying to keep up with the fast-paced developments in the sector as they throw up new challenges every day. A personal note to our readers and contributors who helped us to grow, inspire and achieve this milestone. We thank each one of our advertisers for their confidence in us and we are very proud of the long-term relationships that we have built with all of them. The cover story of this special edition is on a very significant subject. Curtainwalls are one of the most prominent features in modern buildings and a favourite topic of discussion among the industry front-runners. Technology is constantly evolving, changing the way architects and designers think about facades, especially curtainwall systems. We spoke to many industry leaders about latest technologies used in their curtainwall projects and the quality control measures taken to assure safety and security. We have presented their insights on the subjects in the cover story. Some of the articles in this edition are about the interesting progress in ‘intelligent façade’ research. We can use novel materials and other technologies to make intelligent façade systems so much more efficient if we use them smartly. Other articles in this edition touch upon the topics like the effect of the facades on the indoor environment, energy conservation and operational cost reduction. Another interesting article is on bio-mimicry inspired facades. Apart from these hidden treasures in this edition, we present two intriguing interviews: eminent architect Padma Shri C.N. Raghavendran of C. R. Narayana Rao Consultants talking about his five decades of environmentally-friendly architecture practice, and Pragun Jindal Khaitan, Managing Director, Jindal Aluminium briefs on his company’s major milestones, products, production facilities, and prestigious architectural projects. So dive in, engage, indulge and share your thoughts with us. We look forward to hearing from you. We will constantly strive to beat our own high standards and continue to bring you reliable content that is easily understood, to help you grow your business.
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Ventilated Stone Cladding System
tone cladding of buildings has always been part of the architectural design for thousands of years. Its aesthetics and a sense of permanence have made it a popular material amongst builders and architects. Stone cladding systems have vastly improved over the years with the advances in technology and improved building systems. Conventionally, dry cladding systems consist of a process of fixing stone slabs with stainless steel brackets anchored to the wall or to an MS subframe. The
joints between the stone slabs are closed with a sealant. In this
Laio ventilated system, designed by AUM for a villa project known as Infinity House in Khandala
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system, the gap created between the wall and the stone cladding has no ventilation. The sealant used in this system also eventually deteriorates, causing ingress of water, which could affect the MS framework causing corrosion and eventually weakening the system. A ventilated stone cladding system has several advantages over conventional dry cladding systems. In broad terms, a ventilated facade is composed of three parts: an interior surface, insulating layer and an exterior surface. The interior surface, which is located directly onto the exterior wall of the building, has the primary purpose of supporting the exterior surface of the facade. It is also the surface that the insulating layer will adhere to. Meanwhile, the exterior surface is what is commonly referred to as the â€˜finishâ€™. The combined effect of this structure is to leave a small cavity just a few centimeters wide which forms an air pocket between the
Vertical profile Bracket Anchor fastner Nut bolt
Laio cladding systems
Brackets 1500 mm spacing
Horizontal runners 900 mm spacing
Vertical profile 1500 mm spacing
Laio cladding systems
interior and exterior surfaces, which allows the free movement of air, and this is the key to how a ventilated facade works. During the winter months, the cavity in the ventilated facade between the cladding and the exterior wall of the building causes lower dispersion of the interior heat, and as such, it acts as a ‘separator’ between the outside and the exterior wall of the building.
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On the other hand, in summer this cavity allows the air to be constantly recycled, thereby preventing the heat from condensing and becoming ‘concentrated’: warm air escapes through the top of the cladding, which means that it is replaced by cooler air, and so any increase in exterior heat will not affect the inside of the building. In addition to thermal insulation, ventilated dry cladding systems
also provide an excellent acoustic sound insulation, reducing external sound to almost 20 percent. GA design has used a ventilated dry cladding system for marble known as Liao ventilated system by AUM Enterprises in one of their projects. The Liao ventilated system uses horizontal sections of aluminium supported on an aluminium subframe bracketed to the wall to support the stone slabs. The Liao system recommends the use of Hilti steel anchor fasteners. Since the system is in aluminium, it eliminates the problem of corrosion which would be common in case of metal dry cladding systems. The system is lightweight and easy to install. Also, since it is a ventilated system, it allows the hot air which gets trapped between the stones and the wall to circulate, creating an efficient insulator. The system also does not use sealants which also tend to disintegrate after a long period of time. Before installing the system, care has to be taken that the surface is properly treated for waterproofing and there are no areas where water could accumulate. The vertical sections are fixed at a maximum distance of 1.5m. These are fixed with fasteners, which could be RCC or brick fasteners or chemical fasteners depending on the weight of the stone. The horizontal sections are fixed to the vertical sections with nuts and bolts. The stone slabs are then fixed to the horizontal profile by inserting the groove of the stone in the vertical flap of the horizontal profile. Successive stones are then placed starting from the lowermost level. The vertical grooves between the stones must always be kept open with a spacing of 2-15mm and the horizontal grooves should be about 6-12mm. The thickness of the stone could vary from 20mm to 40mm depending upon the strength of the stone.
Infinity House, Khandala
he designers have used a ventilated system known as Laio ventilated system, designed by AUM for a villa project known as Infinity House in Khandala. This GA project being located in Khandala, the architects were looking for a system which would be able to face the rigours of the extreme weather conditions faced here. During the rainy season, there is heavy rainfall and a lot of moisture content in the air. Summers are very hot too. Since the system is in aluminium, the problem of corrosion was taken care of. The system also does not use any sealants which otherwise tends to give maintenance issues. The system provides thermal
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QUICK FACTS: Project: Infinity House Location: Khandala, Maharashtra Client: Undisclosed Architect: Rajan Goregaoker Commencement Date: January 2014 Completion Date: December 2017 ACP/Glass/Concrete: ALUMEC - Glass Consultants: Structural: Integrated Building Services Façade: AUM (Marble Cladding) Information Credit: AUM Enterprises, www. aumenterprises.net
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insulation. The stone, being of a strong nature, was fixed in 20mm thickness and therefore we did not have to procure the marble separately, even if the thickness would have been more. All these factors supported the use of the system, and even today, after several years, the marble fixing appears flawless and is in excellent condition.
Partner and Principal Architect, GA design
ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Rajan Goregaoker was graduated from Sir J J College of Architecture in 1990. With extensive experience in residential, commercial buildings and township projects as well as interiors of luxury homes and offices in and around Mumbai, Goregaoker is recognised as one of Mumbai’s leading architects. Associated with some of the region’s most prominent builders and industrialists in the field of architecture and design, Goregaoker brings together the design expertise of both architecture and interior design projects successfully. Responsible for steering the firm’s overall strategic objectives, he has collaborated with multi-disciplinary design teams on projects across varied scales for over 20 years. With a profound attention to details and a focus on simplistic yet elegant and artistic solutions to complex briefs, his technical expertise and pragmatic design approach, is the reason behind the success of some of the landmark buildings in Mumbai.
Through Effective Facade & Fenestration Technologies & Design
façade is a term used to define the exterior face of the building, usually the decorative one, that faces the street or the main entrance, and which is supposed to protect the interior spaces from the exterior elements such as dust, temperature, rain, wind, etc. However, with the newer buildings increasing in height and assuming a form of a tall tower, all sides of the buildings assume equal importance. Façade is probably one of the most important, and yet, understated aspects of building construction. Most people
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associate façade with aesthetics and an unnecessary cost to the project, which could be easily curtailed – and usually it does so. However, a correctly designed façade is an element that would not only increase the value of the building but also could pay for itself over a period of time. More than a century ago, buildings were designed with a solid stone façade. The idea behind this perennial cladding material was its higher strength, longevity, ease of maintenance and its durability; not to mention the ability of the natural stone to facilitate decorative carving. Even today, façades constructed with
natural stones would probably outlive the life of the building without the need for painting and much maintenance. The fundamental philosophy behind the façade selection has not changed much in all these years. However, the prohibitive cost of these natural materials has indeed forced people to start using cheaper man-made alternatives. There came an era where the cost of the building had to be reduced substantially to meet the financial feasibility of projects, and the first casualty was the façade. Lime plastered exterior, trowelled over brick walls became a norm, which later changed to cement
Green Talk plaster due to easy of availability. With the introduction of tighter development control rules and regulations, the building elevation started getting dictated more by its regulation than the artistic value of their front face; and the façade became just another face to enclose the interior. Today, times have changed once again. End users of building are becoming more demanding and are choosing better looking buildings over others. Developers and designers are therefore forced to spend money, once again, on building façades in order to attract new customers. Development in modern technology has enabled production of superior products
such as high performance glass and glazing, Aluminum Composite Panels (ACP) and High Density Fiber Boards (HDF). Natural manufactured materials such as steel, bronze and zinc are getting introduced into building façade these days. Ceramic tiles are being used in façade due to their high dimensional tolerances and a large variety of colours and textures. Digital printing technology has facilitated screen printing on any material and Computer Numeric Controlled (CNC) machines are facilitating accurately machined perforated façades too. Therefore, options in façade design are limited only to the limit of thought. While designers are designing
The façade of Garware Club House is clad in a blend of aluminium composite panels, glass and uPVC louvers
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the façades to be aesthetically attractive, and the ones that will protect the interiors from the exterior elements, very few people realise that an intelligently designed façade would probably pay for itself in a short period of time. While most designers are using their creativity to design the façade keeping aesthetics in mind, one of the most critical aspects of the façade, i.e. to reduce the capital and operative costs of the building, are often overlooked. A rise of temperature in the interior of buildings space is a combination of the effect of radiation due to direct sunlight, temperature differential between the inside and the outside of the building and the rise of the temperature due to heating of the exterior surface. In a tropical environment, the effect of the radiation due to direct sunlight has the most amount of impact on the rise of interior temperature. Science has allowed us to understand factors such as sun path, solar factor, radiation, conduction, etc. and we are now accurately able to predict the effect of the solar radiation and temperature differential on the interior of a building. Glass coated with high performance coatings and double glazed units with air/intent gas barriers effectively reduce the rise of temperature in the interiors of the building due to the solar radiation, thereby not only keeping the interior cooler but also reducing the cost and operations of air-conditioning systems. In large installations, the savings itself achieved with this reduction could easily pay for the cost of the façade. While, it is not always possible for developers to spend large money on the building façade, a better understanding of science and its application could allow designers to design creative sunshades that would function almost as well as high performance coated glass façades.
Auditorium, Symbiosis University of Applied Sciences Indore, Madhya Pradesh
Auditorium Complex for Symbiosis University of Applied Sciences
he project was won by us through a design competition for a 750-seater auditorium at one of India’s leading and fastest growing educational institutes. The project is located in somewhat of a barren territory along the upcoming Super Corridor region of Indore. The project site has excellent foreground and background landscape and has a direct visual from the super corridor. The local architecture in the upcoming area appears to be simplistic to suit functional design and to minimise project cost. Our project in hand is a 750-seater auditorium for the Symbiosis University of Applied Sciences (SUAS), whose mandate was to create a distinct and interesting
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design in the campus that would identify it as a landmark structure in the country. Our approach to the façade design was as follows. An auditorium has inward spaces which do not usually need any external light. Therefore, while designing this building, rather than create a simplistic black box as traditionally seen in most auditoriums, we created a series of curves emulating the petals of a locally available flower “Palash”, where the roof structure extended to the floor and where the spaces between the roof formed the petals of this flower. The petals were clad in double glazed units to achieve the required sound and heat insulation whereas the roof was fabricated in 7-layered
QUICK FACTS: Project: Auditorium Complex for Symbiosis University of Applied Sciences Location: Indore, MP Client: Symbiosis University of Applied Sciences Architect: Shashi Prabhu & Associates Other Consultants: KPM Engineering Materials used for façade & fenestration: Acoustic Standing Seam Metal Roofing & Unitized Curtainwall Systems Status: (Completed or Ongoing) - Ongoing Commencement Date: March 2017 Completion Date: December 2018 insulated standing seam metal to achieve the required sound and heat insulation to the airconditioned auditorium. We hope that this structure will certainly create a unique identity in Indore and a design statement for this institution.
Garware Club House Marine Drive, Mumbai
arware Club House is a member’s only private club which has been in existence since 1974. This club house is located on a 12-acre prime property in South Mumbai, three quarters of which is occupied by the world renowned Wankhede Stadium. In 2006, the club took up an initiative of demolishing the old club structure and constructing a modern club house in its place, measuring almost 200,000 sq ft. The site is situated in one of the largest art deco regions in the country i.e. the Marine Drive precinct of Mumbai and while designing the façade, it was only appropriate that a hint of the art deco language be present somewhere if not in entirety. Since the building was located in the interiors of Marine drive and not in the direct visual of the art deco region, we designed the façade with a twist - modernism coupled with the bold and repetitive strokes of art deco language. The façade of the building is clad in blend of aluminium composite panels, glass and uPVC louvers which are intentionally designed to make the building look lighter and sleeker due to limited available foreground. The bold concentric rings fabricated in Garware Club House
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ACP are aesthetically set within uPVC louvered background gives it a hint of the art deco language. These louvers creatively hide the plumbing and ventilation services from the front of the building. An ornamental staircase winding within a glass enclosure on the lower corner of the main entrance beautifully balances the heavy metal mass above and provides the necessary ventilation for the toilet shafts. This contemporary designed structure places beautifully as a foreground to the modern mass of Wankhede Stadium, which was recently renovated by us as part of the complex. The roof canopy not only hides the structural support for the guided rail system for façade maintenance but also acts as a wind barrier for the roof top tennis court. A large glass canopy covering the main entrance of the building is designed to functionally segregate the club members from their banquet users.
QUICK FACTS: Project: Garware Club House Location: Churchgate, Mumbai Client: Garware Club House Architecture: Amol Prabhu, Atul Prabhu, Atul Kawtikwar Status: Completed Commencement date: 2006 Completion date: 2017
AR. AMOL PRABHU
Partner, Shashi Prabhu & Associates (SPA)
ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Ar. Amol Prabhu joined Shashi Prabhu & Associates (SPA) as one of the partners of the firm in 2005. He brings over 22 years of experience in managing projects using structured and scientific approach especially essential for managing mission critical & time-sensitive projects. At Shashi Prabhu & Associates, Amol has also been actively involved in reorganising the company structure and setting up standardisation platforms in design, management and financials to expand the firm into a professional entity. He is capable of providing broad spectrum of services right from architecture, interior design, engineering and project management consulting services.
Celebrates 10 Years in India
parna Venster, a part of Aparna Enterprises, celebrated its completion of 10 years with the announcement of expansion plans to bolster their operations across South India and DelhiNCR. In addition, the company is diversifying into the aluminium segment with new products rolling out soon. The company has recently started fabricating aluminium windows and doors, supplying to limited clients. Launched in 2008, Aparna Venster provides premium quality uPVC doors and windows across the country. Over the years, Aparna Venster has grown exponentially to become one of the top uPVC door and window brands in the country. The company has its own stateof-the-art extrusion facility where they manufacture their own uPVC profiles. The facility was built using German technology that enables superior precision and technology in every inch of their product making the profiles strong and durable. Elaborating on the expansion plans of the company, Ashwin Reddy, Managing Director of Aparna Enterprises, said, “The consistent support and encouragement of all our customers has helped us attain the success that we see today. Continuing our belief to fill the gap of high quality products, we plan to build new fabrication units in NCR region of Delhi and key metros of South India. Additionally, we will be foraying into the aluminium segment to expand our portfolio and offer more options across segments.” About the success of the
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Aparna Venster provides premium quality uPVC doors and windows across the country
company, Aparna Reddy, Director, Aparna Enterprises, said, “We have been providing premium quality uPVC doors and windows for over a decade now and installed over 1.2 million uPVC windows across the country. This success is a testament to the superior brand quality. Our endeavour will be to constantly manufacture finest products
across segments to help build beautiful living spaces.” The company customises uPVC doors and windows for all needs and purposes and has been successful in manufacturing laminated profiles for doors and windows. The current fabrication units of Aparna Venster are located in Telangana and Karnataka.
Aparna Reddy (Director, Aparna Enterprises) and Ashwin Reddy (Managing Director of Aparna Enterprises) elaborating on the expansion plans of the company
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f late sustainability has become an assurgent part of our life. It is like acerbic penicillin, must to taste in order to get over long-term pain. By this word we understand the protection of the ecosystem through protection of its resources. Sustainability can be broadly perceived in two categories: economic and social. The economic sustainability of building depends on two aspects. Firstly, the investment at par of maximising durability and reusability and secondly through solutions with low energy consumption, easy to clean, operate and maintain at low running costs. The social facia of sustainability is all about comfort, well-being and safety of the occupants. THE DESIGNING OF INTELLIGENT FAÇADES Façades are one of the most crucial entities of a building composition.
Green Talk Eventually it is prime key towards energy consumption and comfort. Intelligent design system, if adopted can easily lead to low energy or sustainable façade and hence building. Broadly three strategies can be adopted in order to obtain intelligent façades. The strategies are as noted below: 1. Dependence on active system and element performance 2. Implementation of intelligent passive design studies 3. Passive design strategies with early integration of active elements The concept of the "intelligent building" has emerged only since recent three decades. The term intelligent building was employed as early as the 1980s. Since then several definitions for the term have surfaced. Wigginton and Harris (2002) stated thirty-four definitions of "intelligent buildings" and thirteen definitions of "intelligent skin/ façade". According to Wigginton
and Harris, the definitions can be combined into one; where intelligent façade is defined as “A façade incorporating variable technology, which would amend itself to provide comfort conditions inside the building whatever the external environmental conditions, might be, in any particular building location”. They saw following functions as the subject of manipulation in order to obtain an intelligent façade: 1. The maximisation of daylight (e.g. full-height glazing/atria) 2. Protection (e.g. louvres/blinds) 3. Insulation (e.g. night-time shutters) 4. Ventilation (e.g. automatic dampers) 5. The collection of heat (e.g. solar collectors) 6. The rejection of heat (e.g. overhangs) 7. The attenuation of sound (e.g. acoustic dampers) 8. The generation of electricity (e.g. photovoltaics)
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Green Talk SPRING / FALL Building Section
Fresh Air Within Optimal Temperature, Humidity & Quality Thresholds
The Double Wall Allows Fresh Outdoor Air Into The Building
Fresh Air Flows Through The Workspace Collecting Heat From Equipment & Occupants As It Moves Towards The Solar Chimney Creating A Cooling Effect & Improving Comfort Levels
Warm Air Is Drawn Into The Chimney And Rises Pulling Cool Fresh Air Into The Building
Passive mode double skin façade
9. The exploitation of pressure differentials (e.g. ventilation chimneys)
weather and air pollution. A further advantage of the double façade is
CLASSIFICATIONS OF INTELLIGENT FAÇADES Intelligent façades are classified into following types: 1. Single Skin Façades a. Perforated façades Perforated walls, panels and screens have been used for centuries as a way to control the level of light entering a building or to offer privacy to the occupants. Though the functions of perforations have remained largely the same, but the materials and methods of manufacture have altered considerably with time. b. Elemental façades In order to obtain solar control, infrared-reflecting coatings are applied to the glazing. The idea keeps temperature as well as glare under control.
the solar shading it affords in the summer. As the solar radiation is emitted into the intermediate cavity, a natural stack effect prevails which causes the heat to dissipate. Computer simulation and tests have shown that natural air circulation can remove up to 25 per cent of the heat resulting from solar radiation in the cavity. As the temperature of the air increases it rises upwards. Natural ventilation of offices by fresh air is much more acceptable to the building users and it has the additional benefits of reducing investments in air handling systems and also reducing energy consumption. A double skin façade also reduces heat loses for the reduced speed of air-flow and the increase in
Light colored roofing material reflects heat High performance mechanical systems
Lab casework FSC certified wood Maximize daylighting with glazed interior partitions
Perimeter lights dim at daylight Occupancy sensors control lighting Ventilated double skinned glass curtainwall decreases cooling loads Automated interior shading system decreases artificial lighting demand
Energy efficient bio safety cabinets and other lab equipment Concrete structure contains high recycled content and regionally extracted materials
Air change rates vary based on occupancy confirmation to maintain high indoor air quality and minimize energy use and cooling tower water use
Well-insulated walls and roof reduces air conditioning energy use
Communicating stairs between floors encourage physical activity and a healthy work place
Low flow fixtures achieve overall 40% water saving Increased ventilation rates
2. Double Skin Façades The term double skin façade refers to an arrangement with an envelope structured upfront an actual building façade. Often, solar control devices are placed in the cavity between these two skins, which protects them from the influences of
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Bicycle storage & shower facility
High efficiency chillers & enhanced refridgeration management
Elevation of a building with double skin façade
Zip car parking - car sharing program
Stormwater harvesting for terrace planting irrigation
Green Talk A
Box-type window: - Generates natural ventilation: - lot air between the two sheets rises and evacuates air rom the interior spaces - Allowa interior wincows to be manually operable
Box cony: - The exterior glass screer of the Type B window is pushed outwards to provide space for a balcony - Interior window recessed
Exter or glass screen: Combines caracteristics of Type A window with an iccnic facade pattern
Bended glass panels as a transition between Type B and Type C window A
The term double skin façade refers to an arrangements with an envelope structured upfront an actual building façade
temperature of the air in cavity lowers rate of heat transfer on the glass surface. This has the effect of maintaining higher surface temperatures on the inside of the glass, which in turn means that the space close to the window can be utilised to enhance thermal comfort conditions. a. Box windows The box window is probably the oldest form of a two layered façade. Box windows consist of a frame with inward-opening casements. The single glazed external skin
consists of openings that allow the ingress of fresh air and the egress of vitiated air, thus serving to ventilate both the intermediate space and the internal rooms. The cavity between the two façade layers is divided horizontally along the constructional axes, or on a room-for-room basis. Vertically the divisions occur either between stories or between individual window elements. Continuous divisions help to avoid the transmission of sounds and smells from bay to bay and from room to room. Box type windows
OUTER LAYER INNER LAYER Double glazing thermal protection manual opening
Single glazing heat-strengthed safety glass
Air has natural Stack effect
SHADING DEVICE Active system during hot weather
Box window - double skin façade
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are commonly used in situations where there are high external noise levels and where special requirements are made in respect of the sound insulation between adjoining rooms. Each box window element requires its own air intake and extracts openings, which have to be considered when designing the outer façade. b. Corridor façade The corridor façade is a doubleskinned façade in which the façade cavity is separated storey by storey with bulkheads. Air exchange in the façade cavity is either vertically at a floor level, horizontally at the corners of the building, or both vertically and horizontally. If the double skinned façade is ventilated horizontally it is often designed so as to be able to control the pressures in the façade cavity. In this way, the façade flaps can be opened or closed depending on the desired pressure conditions (over-or under-pressure), wind direction and speed. This allows specific pressure conditions to be set up in the building and the ventilation drive energy demand to be minimised. Façade corridors can transmit unwanted odours and sounds between rooms.
Air exchange in the façade cavity is either vertically at a floor level, horizontally at the corners of the building
c. Building high double skin façade In this system, the intermediate space between the inner and outer layers is adjoined vertically and horizontally by a number of rooms. In extreme cases, the space may extend around the entire building without intermediate divisions. The ventilation of the intermediate space occurs via large openings near the ground floor and the roof. During the heating period, the façade space can be closed at the top and bottom to exploit the conservatory effect and optimise solar energy gains. Building high double skin façades are especially suitable where external noise levels are very high, since the type of construction does not necessarily requires openings distributed over its height. As a rule, the rooms behind building high double skin façades have to be mechanically ventilated, and the façade can be used as joint air duct for this purpose. d. Building high controllable double skin façades The building high controllable double skin façade is very similar multi-storey ventilated double
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façade. Indeed its cavity is not partitioned either horizontally or vertically and therefore forms one large volume. Metal floors are installed at the level of each storey in order to allow access to it, essentially for reason of cleaning and maintenance. The difference between this type of façade and the building high double skin façade lies in the fact that outdoor façade is composed exclusively of pivoting louvers rather than a traditional monolithic façade equipped (or not) with openings. This outside façade is not airtight even when the louvers have all been put in closed position, which justifies its separate classification. 3. Combined Façades This type of façade is a combination of single and double skinned façades. a. Baffle panel A baffle panel is an additional panel that is fixed a short distance in front of a window in a perforated or an elemental façade. It is means of minimising the disadvantages of single skinned façade with respect to sound insulation and ventilation. Baffle
Director, Synergy Property Development Services Pvt Ltd.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR: An architect with masters degree in Urban Design, Jayant Vaitha has over 30 years of experience in design and architecture of several largescale projects in India and abroad. As one of the Founder Directors of Synergy, he heads the design practice of Synergy and has been instrumental in large scale design projects of Synergy in India, Middle East and Africa. Prior to Synergy, his has done landmark projects such as Burj-Al-Arab in Dubai and Churchill Place in Canary Warf in London.
Green Talk panels also provide protection to solar screening. They are simple to incorporate and offer reliable protection against weather and intruders during night cooling. Baffle panels restrict the user’s view out only to a limited extent. The effective cross-section for Baffle panel facade
ventilation may be considerably reduced if the gap between the baffle panel and the façade is too small. b. Alternating façade Alternating façade is a combination of single and double skinned façades with the advantages of both. In each room there is at least one element of each type. Depending on the outside and inside climate conditions, ventilation can be provided through the single or double skinned façade to ensure comfortable conditions in the room almost any time of year. If the surface area of single skinned façade is small it can be also fitted with internal solar screening. CONCLUSION Fossil fuels have reached its yield point and energy conservation has become a prime criterion towards sustenance of humanity. Of all the energy consumers, building technology seems to be the one standing the foremost in que and indeed its envelope becomes the catalyst. We must look towards intelligent façade as a key towards growth.
AABHAS K MALDAHIYAR
Senior Architect, Synergy Property Development Services Pvt Ltd.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR: An architecture graduate with flair for literature and journalism, Aabhas has overseen largescale architectural projects. He has two published novels & five research papers to his name. He also has a credit of editing a few articles in The Master Architect Series (published by Images Publishing). Prior to Synergy, his works include a remarkable urban design project ‘Namami Gange’ under the Government of India’s ‘Clean Ganga’ initiative. Building Physics with Urban Design at BIM platform are his major strength.
The corridor facade
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Intelligent Building Envelopes B
uilding envelopes function as an environmental filter that forms a skin around the framed structure of the building and manipulates the influence of the outdoors on the indoor environment. However, they do not necessarily form a part of the load-bearing structure itself [Glass 2002]. From an engineer’s context, the term intelligent building envelope has become a common denominator for a type of built form that uses artificial intelligence to provide the indoor environment with dynamic heating, cooling, lighting, and ventilation, aiming to procure an optimal balance between occupant comfort and energy efficiency. However, a building envelope focuses more on behaving as an environmental filter, optimising the building performance instead of incorporating intellectual skills of a living being to be called as an “Intelligent Building Envelope”. Objectives of Intelligent Building Envelope Given its characteristic processes of perception, reasoning and action, three main objectives are considered to be particularly relevant for an intelligent building envelope to fulfill in its interaction with the environment: 1. Ability to handle variation 2. Ability to handle conflict 3. Ability to handle occupant behaviour
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Adaptive solar façade – solar tracking on the building envelope
Handling Environmental Variations A building envelope will be defined as intelligent only when it assimilates self-adaptability which is imperative to cope with new and varying situations in its environment. The factors that influence the environmental handling properties of an envelope include: • Outdoor climate and site conditions ● Indoor elements contained within the shell of the envelope ● The behaviour of building inhabitants and building use
Within this environment, an intelligent building envelope is responsible to provide a competent response to regular variations, unanticipated events, and changes in priorities and performance criteria. In addition, the envelope is accountable for changes in its own performance due to, for example, the aging of equipment, the accumulation of dust and the breakdown of components. In order to provide this response, an intelligent building envelope needs to be designed with a flexibility that allows it to implement various strategies and to adjust
Intelligent Façades its physical layout accordingly. In designing the envelope, however, it is not possible to anticipate every situation that may arise, create an exhaustive list of requirements, and determine the morphology of the building envelope accordingly. In order to be able to respond to a wide range of real-time situations, therefore, an intelligent building envelope ideally is able to manage its own strategies and layout as the need for adaptation arises. Handling Conflicts In a dynamic and intricate environment, the tasks required of a building envelope are sometimes conflictive; trade-offs need to be made according to an appropriate set of priorities. Simultaneously, there may exist several manners in which to handle a particular task, each of them pursuing the same objective, though with different side effects. An intelligent building envelope ideally is able to anticipate the effect of a chosen action that will have on all of the tasks it needs to perform, and include this in its consideration of multiple, conflictive performance criteria in search of an optimal solution. Governing a complex set of priorities and performance criteria is required for an intelligent building envelope to be flexible in its strategies and morphology. A flexible layout will provide the building envelope with more manners in which it could perform a certain task and increase its chances of finding the most favourable solution to a given set of problems. Multiple chains of perception, reasoning and action make it possible for the envelope to adapt strategies as required by the situation at hand. The Behaviour of the Inhabitants The building occupant forms a particular point of focus on the variable and conflictive
requirements an intelligent building envelope needs to handle. Ideally, an intelligent building envelope is able to adapt to user needs, preferences and behaviour, and the effects of their presence. Careful consideration regarding the nature and extent of control given to the building occupant needs to be made because while the right type of control increases the occupant comfort and satisfaction, other types may cause stress and dissatisfaction. According to Burger, the occupants’ perceived ability to significantly alter events results in the perceived level of control that appears to have determined the response. The occupant control in this context can be distinguished between three different types of control as per Averill : • Decisional control is related to the availability of choice in the physical environment by giving the building occupant the
opportunity to make various adjustments. These can include the availability of thermostats and Venetian blinds. In several studies, it has been reported to increase the occupant comfort and satisfaction, even when the adaptive action is not taken. • Cognitive control is related to the occupant’s perception of control, or the awareness that their preferences determine outcomes in the indoor environment. While this type of control is reported to contribute to user satisfaction, there are a great number of uncertainties, particularly with regard to the specific conditions that influence cognitive control. In a study performed, it was attempted to separate the availability of choice (decisional control) from the experience of preferred environmental conditions (cognitive control). It is hypothesised that a building
Kuggen, an office building in Sweden, makes use of green building technology on four different levels: adaptive ventilation, adaptive lighting, interactive heating and cooling systems, and effective daylighting
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Intelligent Façades occupant may feel in control by obtaining conditions that they prefer without having had the opportunity to choose those conditions. • Behavioural control concerns those conditions where the building occupant needs to make adjustments by their selves in order to avert a threatening event, such as the avoidance of glare and overheating. This type of control may induce frustration if the occupant constantly feels the need to override the control system, and may, in addition, cause the occupant to feel fear of failure or making wrong decisions. Intelligent Building EnvelopeFad or Future? The most common question that arises with respect to intelligent building envelopes and has been an area of research is whether the objectives are implemented in real life scenario and to what extent. It is also under scrutiny as to whether the adjective mainly refers to the intelligent design
Building envelope with motorised building shades
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and maintenance of the building envelope by humans, or can the actual envelope’s behaviour be qualified as intelligent. To find the answers to these queries, a lot of different design criteria can be taken into account. Among the most important ones are indoor comfort requirements such as thermal conditions, lighting and noise, costs, architectural issues such as scale and proportion, and energy use for operating the building. Many studies can be observed which include a limited selection of these optimisation criteria. Out of the many variables, a lot of them are difficult to quantify, and it has not been possible to make a numerical model that includes them all. Tradeoffs are most often required to be made between conflicting criteria such as cost and comfort. Most often the decision-maker makes priorities in order to reach a solution. Some of the features that helped to incorporate high levels of occupant satisfaction are as mentioned below: ● Shallower plan forms and depths of space (workstations typically 6 m or less from a window); ● Thermal mass (provided the acoustics are satisfactory) ● Stable and comfortable thermal conditions ● Freedom from distracting noise ● Air infiltration under control ● Operable windows close to the users ● Views out ● Effective controls with clear, usable interfaces Hence, it can be concluded that till date no global optimum façade configuration has been developed that could be applied universally to all buildings. Every building has a unique set of users and it is set in a unique context which are to be analysed and appropriate façades ought to be designed.
Project Engineer, LEED Consultant, GEM Certified Professional, Design2Occupancy Services LLP, Jaipur
ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Sai Balaji is a mechanical engineer by profession. He is currently employed as a project engineer at Design2Occupancy Services LLP, Jaipur. His expertise lies in the field of LEED certifications and he has been associated with more than five projects. He also has experience in building energy simulation and daylight simulation. He is passionate about the recent developments in the green building field and related topics like building envelope, HVAC-R equipment, building construction materials, etc.
Demand Controlled Ventilation: A ‘Must Have’ for a Healthy Indoor Climate
ach day, the indoor air in a building is polluted by a number of sources: the occupants (breathing, sweating), their activities (cooking, showering, heating, smoking, etc.) and also by the building itself and its furnishing (radon, volatile organic compounds, paint, glue, varnish, detergents, etc.). With an increasing trend towards airtight construction, this can cause problems with humidity, CO2 and various other substances staying inside the home as adequate ventilation is not considered. This is why we must regularly and properly ventilate our buildings, using demand controlled ventilation. As a matter of fact, excessive insulation and inadequate ventilation create a dead and stale air which accumulates mites, molds, viruses, bacteria, as well as moisture and harmful chemicals. It has been proven that breathing
larger amounts of these pollutants for even the shortest period will affect our health in the long-term. This may cause health problems (irritation of eyes, nose and throat, headache and sickness, among other issues) as well as comfort problems (smell, condensation, moisture). Ventilation Humans do need about 20 m³ of fresh air to feel well. Fresh air, full of oxygen, that gives us energy, improves concentration and avoids sleepiness. In the past, ventilation was not an issue, as most of the old buildings had their own ‘natural’ ventilation through cracks in the construction. Today, our houses and other buildings are constructed as airtight as possible and architects and builders need to include elements, guaranteeing the indoor air quality is not poor. Many people still believe that opening windows from time to
Natural ventilation systems are based on the constant supply of fresh air through self-regulating vents
time is sufficient. However, the effect of opening windows is only temporary and ventilation through open windows is uncontrollable, and therefore, wasting energy. In addition, they lead to other problems, such as noise, the risk of burglary, the intrusion of insects, etc. Many buildings are also
Humans do need about 20 m³ of fresh air to feel well. Fresh air, full of oxygen, gives us energy, improves concentration and avoids sleepiness.
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Special Feature equipped with air-conditioning systems. People or building operation and maintenance companies are, however, setting these air-conditioners with energy savings, which means they are just recirculating already cooled air, without combining it with fresh outside air. As a consequence, the pollutants concentrate inside the room. A controlled ventilation, 24 hours a day, is the only effective and secure solution to obtain a good indoor air quality and a healthy indoor climate. The A, B, C(+), D of Ventilation In general, there are four different ways of ventilating, all of them based on the same three principles: the supply of fresh air in the dry rooms, such as living room, bed room; the drive of air through the dwelling via halls by means of louvres in the doors; and the extraction of filthy air in the wet areas, e.g. toilet, kitchen, bathroom. These ventilation systems are classified by the way the air is supplied and extracted.
The central extraction unit of the C+ demand-controlled ventilation system automatically adapts the ventilation flow of any connected room to the indoor air quality measured
in dwellings. Why? The answer is simple: the ventilators of the system are constantly using electricity. The system cannot be stopped and is therefore less interesting than a demand-controlled ventilation system C+ or D.
A: Natural supply and extraction The most easy and cheap way of ventilating, which does not always respect the standard and cannot be called â€˜controlledâ€™ ventilation at all. The circulation of air happens in a natural way based on the differences in pressure. The air enters the dwelling through adjustable openings in windows, walls or the roof.
C: Natural supply and mechanical extraction This is a system, which can be easily integrated in new builds and renovation. The installer only has to integrate a minimum of ducts and apart from the regular maintenance of the extraction louvres and the self-regulating window vents, no further maintenance is needed.
B: Mechanical supply and natural extraction Using ventilation system B, the fresh air supply happens mechanically and the air is circulated throughout the dwelling via integrated ventilation channels. The mechanical supply of air results in a so-called chimney effect, resulting in the automatic extraction of air in a natural way. This kind of ventilation is however barely used
C+: Natural supply and demandcontrolled extraction The difference between C and C+ is the demand-controlled extraction, using modulating extraction louvres. The ventilation level is adapted based on the way of living. As the ventilation level is never higher than really needed, energy consumption can be minimised. This kind of systems use a central extraction unit, combined with
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The owner can be made aware of the indoor air quality 24/7 through an app and look how his ventilation system ensures the best indoor air quality at any time, in any room
extraction louvres in the various wet rooms. Ventilation system C+ combines the constant supply of fresh air through self-regulating vents and the transit via door grilles with the extraction on-demand of polluted air in the wet as well as dry rooms. A central extraction unit with a powerful motor is equipped with control modules that can ensure proper ventilation of any connected room at all times. As polluted air (with an excessive amount of CO2) also has a negative effect on the quality of sleep during the night, it is important that it is not only extracted in the wet rooms, but also in bedrooms. And that is why it is important to adapt the ventilation level to the needs of the residents in an intelligent way, based on measuring CO2, humidity- and / or VOC-levels through dynamic sensors. The principle is simple: to guarantee an optimal air quality in the house, without having to deal with excessive energy costs, demand-controlled ventilation is recommended. That means that there will be ventilated more in
C+ demand-controlled ventilation: Polluted air is extracted on-demand in as well wet as dry rooms
those rooms were residents are more present. When they are watching television, the extraction level is raised in the living room. When they go to sleep, the extraction in the living room is decreasing and more polluted air is extracted in the sleeping rooms. As a matter of fact, the ventilation system follows the habits and presence of the residents. D: Mechanical supply and mechanical extraction. System D is based on the mechanical supply and extraction of air by means of ventilators. Both the supply and extraction
Demand-controlled ventilation keeps the ventilation rates to a minimum and only increases ventilation when and where necessary
can be controlled, but you need to have a double duct net: one for the supply in the dry rooms and one for the extraction in the wet rooms. In most cases, systems with heat recovery are used. The supplied air is then heated using the warmth of the extracted air. This system has its advantages in some cases, but is also more expensive as you need to have more ducts and you have to take into account the maintenance and change of filters on a regular basis in order to prevent health problems. Special focus on demand controlled ventilation (DCV) Demand controlled ventilation (DCV) allows air to be circulated according to a buildingâ€™s use and occupancy. DCV uses sensors to monitor and measure ambient conditions and feed real-time data back to a controller, which adjusts the fan speed modulating the ventilation rate to match the use and occupancy of the building. In this case, ventilation rates are kept to a minimum when nobody is in the building or in a specific room. The ventilation is increased when people are entering a specific area of the building. This results in a good air quality in every room of the building and reduces energy consumption in a significant way.
Area Sales Manager - India, RENSON
ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Makarand Kendre represents Renson as the area sales manager for India. Renson is a Belgium-based family business that is increasingly widening its horizons internationally. Also in India, Renson is intensifying its ambition to be a global player in the fields of ventilation, sun protection and outdoor concepts and that is how Makarand got involved in the Renson family for over three years now. For this dynamic trendsetter in ventilation, sun protection and outdoor solutions, devising healthy and comfortable living and working environment underpin everything they do. For more information on the company, visit www.renson.eu
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Role of Façades in
Energy Conservation & Operational Cost Reduction
Fig.1: Jainam House by ESSTEAM, Surat, Gujarat
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uildings are the largest energy consumer in the prevalent construction industry practices in our context. That makes it offer a unique boundless opportunity to protect the environment and conserve energy in a sustainable way. The combined crises of energy source depletion and significant climate change are generating a sense of urgency and fundamental changes in many industries including the construction industry. The heating and air-conditioning load and lighting load can be reduced through many means; notable among them is the proper design and selection of building envelope components. The façade is one of the most important contributors to the energy expenses and the vital comfort parameters of any building. It also is one of the essential considerations in the design, engineering, and operation of the buildings. The parameters affecting building envelope energy performances may be designed variables (e.g., configuration of the exterior wall) or design given inputs imposed by the context of the project (e.g., the outdoor temperature of the site). Building envelopes differentiate the building’s inner environment to the outer environment. They have a dominant impact on a building’s energy balance and can, therefore, play a large role in making the change towards sustainable, energy-neutral buildings. Façades not only shape the appearance of the building, they have also
Special Feature potential to redirect and filter daylight, provide natural ventilation, manage heat transfer, enhance productivity of occupants, create visual and physical connections between inside and outside, and most importantly, reducing operating costs of a building.
The solar radiation is the main source of heat gain in the building. The result of some research shows the importance of faรงade in preventing solar radiation reaching into the building. The study showed that the application of overhangs would reduce the electricity
Fig.2: Jainam House - Daylight results without exterior fins
Fig.3: Jainam House - Daylight result with exterior fins
Fig.4: Hills Nursery School by ESSTEAM, Surat, India
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consumption by up to 5 per cent on the high-level floor since lower floors would be in shadows of surrounding buildings. The thermal insulating the envelope and the partitions would be effective in reducing the yearly space cooling load by up to 38 per cent. Faรงade designing for Jainam House has been done by taking the advantage of computer technology. From solar illuminance study, faรงade was analysed under various true conditions as per its geological location and climatic conditions. The optimum variant is implemented in the project which has been shown in Fig.1. The illuminance results have been shown in Figs.2 & 3, which prove to lower down the surplus solar light ingress resulting in lowering heat gain to a great extent and not to forget making it aesthetically unique and appealing too. There are several studies investigating building skin, building envelope and building faรงades
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Special Feature where they have used different terms to label the exterior elements of a building. Powler and Kelbaugh (1990) defined a "Building Envelope" to be any surface that separates the thermally conditioned interior of a building from its environment. According to this definition, building envelope includes roofs, exterior walls, and floors, ceiling slabs and foundation walls and each plays an immense role in building sustainability and how buildings respond to different requirements. Exterior wall and roof consist of four elements, namely structural elements, exterior finish and exterior colour, exterior or interior insulation. High-performance window system with good thermal and optical properties is important in determining thermal comfort and illumination levels. In recent years, significant advances have been made in glazing materials including low emissivity (low-e) coatings, insulating glass units, aerogels cavity fills and thermally break frames. Thermal properties can be measured by U-value, K-value, SHGC, optical properties can be evaluated by visual transmittance (Tv). The primary objective of the façade designing should minimise the energy use while simultaneously enhancing the comfort and well-being of the building’s occupants, and the second is to identify some of the practical considerations related to the successful design and implementation of advanced
façade solutions on the projects. Installing high-quality fenestration and shading features such as landscaping (trees, hedgerows), overhangs or fins, light shelves, and blinds can save heating and cooling energy as well as save on electrical lighting if designed properly. Shading features should be installed atleast on east, west, and south facing façade. The façade design decisions can be achieved through the process of understanding the problem, identifying potential design measures, setting up models, running annual cooling load analysis, and making design decisions. The amount of energy lost through the envelope is influenced by both design and materials. Design considerations affect the placement of windows and doors, the size and location of which can be optimised to reduce energy usage. Decisions regarding the appropriate material also play a vital role in determining the energy performance. Therefore, energy-efficient building envelope design measures can be generally separated into two groups, namely architectural design measures and material design measures.
1. Architectural Design Measures: ● Optimise building form to minimise heat gains through the surface ● Orient building towards north-south exposures to take advantage of north-south daylighting ● Turn long façades toward the prevailing breezes to enhance natural ventilation ● Employ solar shading devices to block direct solar radiation ● Use innovative wall type, e.g. double skin wall ● Proper design of window area and size (window to wall ratio) ● Install light shelves to penetrate daylight deep into the building 2. Material Design Measures: ● Insulate the exterior wall and roof ● Use high-performance concrete for its thermal mass ● Use reflective exterior wall/roof finishes to reduce solar heat gain ● Incorporate windows with low-e or reflective coating ● Incorporate windows with tinted or multiple layers of glazing ● Incorporate windows with the thermally improved frame.
Fig.5: KGK Diamond Factory by ESSTEAM, Surat
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Special Feature To maintain a comfortable indoor climate, fixed and operable shading systems are used in northern Europe to limit solar heat gain, and operable windows are implemented to allow for natural ventilation. European buildings typically have a narrow floor plate which enhances the effectiveness of natural ventilation and daylighting and reduces the need for cooling and electrical lighting. The prevalence of narrow floorplates among European office buildings can be explained by a combination of factors: working condition standards, economics, and cultural expectations in terms of access to daylight and operable windows. Natural ventilation enables the elimination of expensive ventilation and cooling systems. In fact, air-conditioning is used very selectively – typical office spaces in northern Europe are not air-conditioned, with the exception of the conference and other meeting rooms which are often subject to higher internal loads and thus more likely to need mechanical cooling. In contrast, typical U.S. office buildings, especially those constructed in the last three decades of the 20th century, have sealed envelopes and rely on mechanical heating and cooling to maintain uniform interior temperature conditions. The Energy Conservation Building Code of India (ECBC), Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE), American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), and the Department of Energy (DOE) have begun programmes that seek to incrementally reduce building energy use to net-zero over the next 15 to 20 years. World Green Building Council (WGBC) is working with their 73 Green Building Councils in the World (Indian Green Building Council (IGBC), United States of Green Building Council (USGBC), etc. to reduce the energy demand.
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Effective façade strategies can range from simple passive solutions with low or moderate window-to-wall ratio and fixed exterior shading to highly complex design solutions with automated shading and ventilation elements, which can further improve performance but require additional operation and maintenance. The incorporation of these strategies provides the opportunity to minimise the need for electric lighting, cooling, and heating energy and enhance occupant well-being and productivity. Simple design strategies (proper building massing and orientation, moderate window-to-wall ratio, high-performance glazing, fixed exterior shading, etc.) are relatively healthy design solutions and have a generally predictable impact on energy use, so these should be pursued whenever possible. “THE MOST INTELLIGENT FAÇADE IS AS PASSIVE AS POSSIBLE.” Integration of façade systems with the building systems provides an opportunity to maximise the performance benefits and cost savings. For example, a high-performance façade can allow for a reduction in peak cooling loads and thus provide the opportunity to implement a smaller HVAC system and/or a low-energy alternative, which can translate into increased energy savings, reduced initial costs, and HVAC system operation and maintenance savings. The next generation of façades consists of multifunctional and highly adaptive systems, where the façade between the interior and exterior environment could change its functions, features or behaviour over time in response to transient performance requirements and boundary conditions, with the aim of improving the overall building performance.
Green Building & Energy Engineer, ESSTEAM
ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Hardik Gupta is a green building and energy engineer working for ESSTEAM, Surat. He has done his graduation in mechanical engineering from Gujarat Technological University, Gujarat. He is an Indian Green Building Council accredited professional (IGBC AP). His area of expertise includes Green Building Certification (LEED, IGBC, GRIHA, etc.), energy and daylight simulation, HVAC commissioning, and testing, adjusting and balancing (TAB). He is also involved in reviews and quality assurance for projects including green homes, factories, new buildings, interiors under rating systems like IGBC and GRIHA.
Biomimicry Inspired Façades Computational Design
ave you ever wondered how trees grow into harmonious proportions and structural equilibrium, how a cactus grows in the desert even after the scarcity of water or how birds construct their structurally stable and beautiful hanging nests? Answers to all these questions are hidden in nature. Nature has divine secrets pertaining to its biological and natural processes which follow some algorithmic rules that secretly pre-exists in this universe. Nature has always inspired mankind through these whimsical secrets. In history, many humans took advantages of these natural secrets to inspire themselves to solve human problems. Earliest examples include Greek philosophers who studied design of organisms to attain balance and proportion in classical art and Leonardo da Vinci who was inspired by flying birds to invent flying machines. This imitation of nature eventually got recognised by scientists and the term ‘Biomimicry’ was coined in 1982. In 1997, Janine Benyus made biomimicry popular through her
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book ‘Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature’. Following this, Janine Benyus and Bryony Schwan cofounded the Biomimicry Institute in 2005 and defined biomimicry as a novel discipline involving studies pertaining to nature’s best ideas and then exploring them to design and solve human problems. Biomimicry was explored in architecture even before the term
was coined and it was used to solve architectural design challenges by emulating natural and biological processes of nature. Some early architectural examples that investigated biomimicry include building of crystal palace in 1851 by Joseph Paxton who imitated biological structure of large water lilies for lightweight structural design of this building, Eiffel tower which is structurally inspired by
Figure 1: Underside structure of water lily and Crystal Palace building in London
Tech Talk studies pertaining to loadbearing process of a human thighbone, and Eastgate centre in Harare which was designed after studying natural ventilation process inside a termite mound to make a building free of air conditioning. Eventually, these architectural interventions of biomimicry tickled down into designing facades for the buildings too. Facades are a vital component of our built environment. It is an envelope that interacts with outer environmental conditions to protect inner habitable spaces within the building. Therefore, biomimicry provided an opportunity to design facades in an informed fashion by using these ideas to minimise energy utilisation of a building conspicuously. According to a research on integrated facades by K H Kim and Alberto Torres from the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, biological processes from nature, such as photosynthesis, hydrophobic effect and photocatalysis inspired the design of photovoltaic façade, selfcleansing façade, and pollutant removal facades, respectively. With the advent of computational design and its tools in architecture, systems based on natural algorithms became feasible to be replicated for design solutions. Computational design of facades involves modelling conceptual façade elements and their assembly system into digital environments with predefined parameters that follow an algorithm or formula. Architects and designers achieve this by using visual scripting tools such as Grasshopper 3D and dynamo. These computational tools allow to follow a parametric design approach for generating various design options. These design iterations are generated by altering pre-defined parameters to achieve an optimum solution based on design goals. Eventually,
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these solutions are evaluated for their performance in contextual, environmental and climatic conditions of the site where façade needs to perform for its building inhabitants. Thus, the computational approach results in an informed façade system that responds to the energy efficiency of a building holistically. Recent examples of facades inspired from biomimicry and conceived with help of computational tools include Beijing National Stadium’s façade inspired by a bird’s nest for lighter structure and façade of esplanade theatre in Singapore which mimicked biological skin structure of a Durian fruit to provide optimised shade and light to the building. Façade Proposal for UK’S Pavilion Milan Expo 2015 A facade system, proposed by Studio Parametric Curiosity, inspired by biomimicry was developed at University of Nottingham, England for a competition to design UK’s Pavilion for Milan Expo 2015. It was developed in collaboration with Mexican architect Farid Hernandez Eljure and distinguished faculty of architecture department - Dr. John Chilton, Dr. Paolo Beccarelli and Dr. Chantelle Niblock. This project was awarded by Benoy
Architects, London for its design and innovation. The pavilion was designed as an interactive space to enhance visitors experience along with a diagrid façade system inspired by anatomy and pollen gathering capability of a pinecone’s moving scales (Fig. 2). Façade Design Concept and Development Considering the climate of Milan and design requirements, a biomimetic façade system inspired by pinecone’s responsive ability to its surrounding environment. Pine cone scales sit on an organic diagrid structure and they open and close for air, moisture and pollens. This process was mimicked to conceptualise and develop an efficient façade system for this project. This façade opens or closes to optimise the need for light and ventilation in each space to reduce energy demands. Fig.3 shows the concept sketch in which central axis of pinecone is thought of as an external skin of pavilion, whereas fabric panels are thought of as the scales of a pine cone. When these fabric panels move forward lighting, shading and ventilation can be altered for the pavilion space. The tensile fabric was chosen to achieve a lightweight structure. Using computational tools, this design concept was modelled in the physical and digital environment and buildings envelope was populated with
Figure 2: Anatomical diagrid of Pinecone and airflow diagram around its scales for pollen gathering
Figure 3: Conceptual sketch of façade modules and assembly based on a study of Pinecone by the author
Figure 4: Physical model for testing façade concept
Figure 5: Computational design process for façade design using Grasshopper 3D
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these rhombic panels. For this design, Grasshopper 3D was used to script and achieve this design. It provided a swift design option to visualise façade system used for this design (Figs. 4 and 5). Following this façade model development, it was tested for it shadow performance using computer analysis systems to study advantages of this moving façade system. Both shadow patterns were studied for an average hot day in Milan when façade panels were completely open letting in air and light and when they blocked air and light after being closed (Fig. 6). It was found that mimicking pinecone scales and moving these panels based on sun’s movement provided this façade to keep building cooler passively with little air conditioning needed for human comfort as compared to traditional mechanical cooling needs. Finally, a detailed façade assembly was designed for further engineering considerations and a final building design was obtained. (Figs. 7 & 8). Overall, this project was an attempt to design a biomimetic façade system using computational design tools to achieve an efficient performing façade. This manifests the transformations in façade design industry today. In current design realm, architects can explore nature inspired designs swiftly through computational design to test the feasibility of their ideas and solve challenges posed towards them to create efficient façade systems. Computational design tools cater to limitations that architects used to face while exploring a novel concept related to algorithms and generative design. It is evident how modern technology is changing the pedagogy of design rapidly. As architects, we have a key responsibility to know, learn and integrate such innovative approaches in our architectural design process for a better built environment.
Figure 6: Shadow analysis with open and closed façade modules
PVC Mesh Tensile Fabric Moving Steel Pipes to Anchor Tensile Fabric for Opening and Closing
10MM Thck Glass Handrail First Floor Concrete Slab Steel Connection Between FaÇade and Floor System Reinforcement Mesh for Concrete Corrogated Metal Sheet Structural Steel Beams Acoustical Ceiling Panels Concrete Wall
Structural Steel Lattice to Hold Fabric Panels
Figure 7: Sectional model of detailed façade assembly and its connection to main structure
Figure 8: Final proposal of UK Pavilion with pinecone inspired façade
AR. GAURAV GOEL
Founder, Studio Parametric Curiosity
ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Ar. Gaurav Goel holds a master's degree in architecture from University of Nottingham, and master's diploma in parametric design from Spain. He is a gold medallist in B. Arch from Amity University. Goel founded Parametric Curiosity in 2016, an architecture studio and a social media blog for sharing digital explorations in the field of parametric design. Besides, he has attended many international workshops such as Summer School with Architectural Association - London and Master in Parametric Design at ControlMad Spain to learn nuances of algorithmic design processes. Goel’s research interests lie in form finding, temporary and permanent pavilion installations, form optimisation, digital fabrication with CNC and 3D printing, architectural façades and other geometrical explorations using computational tools such as Rhinoceros and Grasshopper 3D. The studio's latest projects includes a hotel in Lansdowne, a holiday home in Uttrakhand and residences in Delhi. WFM | JULY - AUG 2018
Citybond’s FR-ACP Agniguard The Most Trusted Choice for Fire Safety
CPs are used extensively in India. While the majority of the ACP market in India is filled with 3mm ACP, there has been no fire retardant version of the same. Thus, Citybond brings an affordable premium quality FRACP, Agniguard, in the Indian architectural market taking the much needed step towards creating fire safe spaces in our country. Citybond’s Agniguard is a very high grade FR product with a mineral filled core and halogen free chemical which reduces the intensity and spread of fire with low smoke emission and a nontoxic smoke facilitates safer escape routes and facilitate to better firefighting approach. Due to its fire resistant core (FR Core), it meets the higher requirements of fire classifications while offering the proven product properties of the ACP family, such as flatness, form-ability, resistance to wear and simple processing.
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The superb properties of this material boost one’s inspiration and offer architecture a wide range of solutions while meeting fire performance requirements of today’s building standards. Agniguard is also available in most of the current finishes and most custom colours. Citybond’s FR- ACP Agniguard is a green material, as there is no harmful burning. It meets the highest requirements of the fire regulations and is, therefore, the ideal material for all areas where fire protection plays an important role– be it for high-rise or industrial buildings, public buildings, shopping malls, hospitals or hotels. After years of hard work and persistence, Citybond, the brand under the flagship of Unistone Panels Pvt. Ltd, has established itself as trustworthy and a sound player in manufacturing and exporting of Aluminium Composite Panels (ACPs) certified with ISO 9001:2008 certifications for complying with the International
Quality Standards and performing the Quality Management System. Founded by two dynamic enthusiasts Lalit Mittal and Mohit Mittal, with a vision of changing the landscape of the country for the better, their efforts and hard work succeeded in the progress and sustainability of Citybond contributing to the overall growth of ACP industry and raising the new standards of quality and service. Citybond develops ACP products on a large global scale. Their range of ACP sheets is tested in a welldefined Quality Process System of International Standards. They are diligently supported by teams of skilled technicians, managers, and executives. Their advanced production facilities are highly equipped with latest machines and they use modern technologies to carry out seamless production. During the last few years, Citybond has established itself as the most preferred brand and has spread its networks throughout India having dealers/distributors and own offices cum warehouses.
For more details, contact: Corporate Office 71/6f, Rama Road, Block C, Najafgarh Road Industrial Area, New Delhi – 110015 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Phone: +918815150000 Website: www.citybond.in
Usage of Glass Façade in Commercial spaces
eal Estate has witnessed significant transformations in the last few years, be it, demand and supply or incorporation of new technology or usage of new materials in construction. However, with a shift in a developer mindset now growing towards the idea of promoting sustainability and green building concepts. The industry is looking for an opportunity to become more involved through
construction technologies that are being developed to pave the way for long-term practices in sustainable construction. One of the many such technologies is the use of high-performance glass or glass façades. In the recent years, usage of such high-performance glass or glass façades has become increasingly popular especially in commercial spaces. Perfect for today’s modern day workplaces, developers are using glass to bring out efficiency
and enhance the aesthetics of the structure. Glass walls in offices are a rising trend and are frequently adopted by commercial developers as they offer multiple benefits to an organisation. Apart from being aesthetically pleasing, glass walls provide better visibility from the interiors of the office, without any obstruction. It allows light to pass during the daytime and prevents extreme heat from entering the building. This makes the office look brighter and
Mindspace, Airoli West – usage of high-performance glass for façades has become increasingly popular
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Glass façades are cost-effective, durable and are easy to modify in the future without any significant structural reformations
provides a pleasant environment for the employees. Glass façades also provide unobstructed views and help to make it an interactive building envelope. It is cost-effective and durable as they are easy to modify in the future without any significant structural reformations. Additionally, it helps in effectively barring noise and promoting a sound and calm working environment. Glass façades have offered architects and designers with endless possibilities and innovative designs. Most glasses used in office spaces are highperformance glasses which have visual properties such as U-value, internal and external reflection, solar factor, etc. This helps in reducing the entry of heat, which further reduces the consumption of power in the building. Use of glass façades in today's day and age is considered a more efficient option. The prices of the opaque conventional walls are higher in comparison to the modern day glass walls. There are various types of architectural glasses, below are a few examples: • The exterior façade of the highperformance solar controlled glass is used for more light, and
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there is less heat transmission due to optical properties like U-value and the solar factor • Back painted or frosted glasses are aesthetically pleasing in terms of colour shading with no visibility • The insulated glasses can be
double glazed, i.e., two glasses with an air gap or triple glazed three glasses with an individual air gap. Such glasses are widely used in combination, to get desired energy efficiency in power saving and also noise reduction; making the interiors of apartments or offices comfortable • Laminated glasses are safety glasses, in the event of breakage; the broken pieces stick at the location preventing injuries, as two glasses are joined together by a film • Lastly, tempered glasses provide strength to glasses against impact and natural forces. Privacy is a huge concern in workplaces and one of the biggest issues with glass façades. It is vital to have adequate privacy to perform one’s functions efficiently and productively. With time it has become necessary for architects
Use of low-e glass for energy efficiency at K Raheja Corp's commercial properties
SHABBIR KANCHWALA Mindspace, Airoli West - Another view of the project
and designers to come up with solutions to this issue. Some of the measures that are adopted to overcome this problem include the use of blinds, fins and sun breakers. Based on the application of usage of glass, the appropriate type of glass to be used in a structure is carefully selected keeping in mind specific factors like applicable load, usage and location of the structure. The design requirements and calculations of the structure also play an important role in determining which type of glass has to be used. The flat glasses are largely utilised as float glasses in facades, while the warm bent glasses are used in exterior railing and façades where a substantial amount of bending is required. The usage of cold bent glasses is limited. Tempered glasses can be used to increase the safety of glass buildings. To further enhance it, the use of laminated glasses is suggested. Solar controlled, single LOWE and double LOWE are recommended to improve the efficiency. However, the point of view on appearance is subjective; it depends on what combination
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of shades of glasses one selects; for instance, currently, neutral and green colours are trending. Looking at the current scenario, there is an availability of chromic glasses, which can change their tint from clear to dark shade in four steps and one can select basis requirements. If we look at photochromic coating, the transition happens due to solar light, which is not controllable. However, an electrochromic coating can be controlled by the user with the help of electricity, while the thermochromic glazing changes owing to gain in temperature or heat. In the Indian market, usage of glass is growing with prominent supplier companies manufacturing performance glass to suit Indian climatic conditions and emerging trends. Architects have become more demanding in getting the required look and aesthetics for modern day structures. The option of unconventional shapes and dimensions only goes further to complement it. Glass has been used extensively, and overall this trend will be a big hit in the coming years in the commercial space.
Senior Vice President, K Raheja Corp
ABOUT THE AUTHOR: An evangelist for the ‘green’ cause, Shabbir Kanchwala spearheads the sustainability initiatives for real estate, hotels and malls of K Raheja Corp for the last eleven years. He also takes care of other key functions such as purchase, contract, project coordination and heading the Goa region’s projects. With close to three decades of real estate expertise, Shabbir has led the green transformation which ranges, green buildings for new developments and existing projects with the Bill Clinton Climate Foundation under their Building Energy Retrofit Programme. Shabbir’s continuous commitment to the cause has led K Raheja Corp to be widely renowned for steering the path in the green building sector with a majority of its residential, hotel, mall and commercial projects being LEED and IGBC Green Gold certified.
TURKEY For Dealership Enquiry
Whatsapp : 8447658883
Characters, Types & Performance Testing 70
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urtainwalls are one of the most prominent features in modern buildings. They are placed on the surface of a building, forming a barrier between the interior and exterior of the building structure and acts as a protective shield. Its main purpose is to keep air and water out of the building and is subjected to weathering action like wind, sunshine, frost, etc. In this cover story, experts from the industry, including architects, faรงade consultants, builders, developers and manufacturers of important faรงade components explain the characteristics of an ingenious and well-designed curtainwall, different types of curtainwall systems, the need for performance testings, challenges associated with erecting of curtainwall systems, reason for failures, common faults found in such faรงade systems and solution for the same. CHARACTERS OF A WELL-DESIGNED CURTAINWALL Glass curtainwall systems are extensively used in modern construction. Curtainwall systems are typically designed with extruded aluminium framing members, although the first curtainwalls were made with steel frames. The aluminium frame is typically in-filled with glass, providing an
SLK Green Park, Bengaluru by KGD architecture
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Project Manager-Associate at KGD Architecture
Founder & Principal Architect, SSA Architects
Principal Architect, Anupam De & Associates
Founder & Principal Architect, Neomodernarch
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architecturally pleasing building, offering effective day lighting and reducing solar radiation, says Ar. Balaji Gunasekaran, Project Manager Associate at KGD Architecture. While designing a building, the curtainwall system should be well integrated to suit its functional and habitable requirements, points out Ar. Sandeep Shikre, Founder & Principal Architect, SSA Architects. The curtainwall has to be coordinated with the structural grid of the building whereby every micro aspect, such as vertical and horizontal divisions, size of panels, junction details, termination details at roof top and bottom level, etc. are well addressed. Curtainwall should not be an afterthought, it should be an integral part of the design. Anupam De, Principal Architect, Anupam De & Associates, the primary purpose of a curtainwall (besides the aesthetics) is to create a building envelope, which provides a total barrier to weather conditions. The curtainwall system must carry the required loads and should prevent the collapse or excessive deformation of the structure. It should also be strong, stiff and should withstand variation with temperature and time, adds Ar.Vivek Bhole, Founder & Principal Architect, Neomodernarch. Ar. Abhishek Bij, Partner and Lead Designer, Design Plus Architects too states that all envelopes should be resistant to water penetration, also should control air leakage and resist wind loads, apart from providing the desired aesthetics. A well designed curtainwall caters for minimum heat gain inside in case of tropical climates and minimum heat lost in case of colder climates, says Shabbir Kanchwala, Senior Vice President, K Raheja Corp. Curtainwall systems are best suited for buildings, considering technical, functional and visual aspects, says Rajan Govind, Director, BES Consultants. He adds that a well resolved design (not just for typical areas), properly detailed at all
Island CIty Centre, Mumbai, by SSA Architects
interfaces, is able to implement with good quality and finishes. Structurally robust designs of curtainwalls use a fewer materials, yet offer good structural strength with optimised engineering designs. STRUCTURAL STRENGTH OF CURTAINWALL SYSTEMS The structural performance of curtainwall systems has to be meticulously analysed and designed to fulfil structural code requirements because faรงades are subjected to strong environmental actions, says Dinesh Dubey, Director of Operations, Turner Project Management India Pvt. Ltd. In addition, as a second design step, by applying advanced finite-element analysis schemes and taking into account structural design criteria, an optimal structural design of the glass curtainwall system has to be carried out to achieve cost minimisation; analysis is also needed to fulfill structural integrity and serviceability requirements, he adds. A good curtainwall system does not carry the floor or roof loads of the building, says Dubey. The wind
SAFE FACADES, SAFER WORLD
Thermal cycling and condensation test successfully completed for the first time in India
PERFORMANCE TESTING OF BUILDING FACADE Testing of curtain walls, windows and doors systems for water penetration, air leakage, structural performance and seismic loading
AIR PEREMEABILITY WATER PENETRATION HEVAC ( For Lourves) STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE LATERAL & VERTICAL MOVEMENT TEST
SERVICES Curtain walls Exterior windows & Doors Storefronts & Sloped Glazing Systems Skylight Building Facades Weather Louvres Field or On-site testing Third party witness Consultancy Inspection Services
Partner and Lead Designer, Design Plus Architects
SHABBIR KANCHWALA Senior Vice President, K Raheja Corp.
RAJAN GOVIND Director, BES Consultants
DINESH DUBEY, Director
of Operations, Turner Project Management India Pvt. Ltd.
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and gravity loads of the curtainwall are transferred to the building structure. Glass curtainwall systems are designed with high-efficiency properties, the most important are a high strength-to-self-weight ratio, serviceability requirements, recyclability of the constituent parts as well as transparency and overall aesthetic characteristics. While designing and installing curtainwall systems, three principal considerations have to be taken into account: performance, appearance and economy. Ar. Bhole and Dubey point out that in curtainwall systems, these requirements are closely connected to the form and the position of the supporting metal structure and anchoring system to the building frame. Although these systems are secondary structures of the building, they have to be effectively designed to safely resist the variable actions of wind and thermal loads acting on the building façades. In addition, any other load combination case, such as seismic action, should be meticulously considered to maximise the structural safety and minimise any hazards to humans. Kapil Chikodi, Business Development Head, Glass Wall Systems opines that it is very important to start with the structural calculation of the design and system. “We do a detailed calculation of material to be used, the weight of the material, texture, height and dimension of the building. After analysing all these factors, we come to the conclusion
Business Development Head, Glass Wall Systems
Proposed IT Park, Gurgaon, by Anupam De & Associates
that which profiles can be used in the project. Such calculation ensures that the system is safe to go as a structural component in the building,” he added. According to Ar. De, the structural strength of the curtainwall is key to address its dead weight, wind and seismic forces. While many parameters play a role in structural strength, essentially low-rise buildings are affected by seismic forces largely and tall buildings with the wind. Besides the codal provisions/standards governing the curtainwall design, for tall buildings, it is necessary to do a wind tunnel test to determine the forces on various faces of the building, which helps the façade consultant in addressing increased wind pressure zones by means of inserts in the standard system. A method used to determine forces on façade is by means of a CFD analysis. Adding to this, Kanchwala says, the wind load at all stages of the building should be levelled. It reduces the overall sway of the building, thereby making the structure more secure.
Cover Story means that a building has to be unoccupied during refurbishment. “Stick systems allow on-site adjustment, but the performance of the systems is dependent upon the quality of the installation, which often happens in uncontrolled conditions. In conclusion, stick systems are economical, however, slow to assemble, hence may not suit certain fast track projects. They are generally used for low rise structures, says Ar. Bhole. Scaffolding from outside is required for this system. It is not aesthetically pleasing since the major quality of the work is done at the site. Unitised curtainwalling systems are installed as a series of factoryassembled frames, usually with interlocking mullions and transoms. The glazing panels, spandrels, and seals are applied or prepared in the factory. Unitised systems are used where the movement or deflections in a building are such that a stick system is inappropriate. The benefits are the speed of installation, minimal on-site labour, and lower installation costs. However, these are obviated to an extent by the increased storage and shipping costs, the need for very careful site handling, and the requirement for expensive
Typical sectional details of a curtainwall
TYPES OF CURTAINWALLS There are two basic types of curtainwalling installations: stick and unitised. In either stick or unitised systems, curtainwall provides superior structural strength. The entire fenestration system essentially “locks” together, providing excellent protection against high wind loads and earthquakes, states Ar. Bij. Ar. Gunasekaran from KGD. Stick systems are installed on
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site, component by component. The vertical mullions and horizontal transoms are installed on MS or aluminium brackets which are anchored to the columns/slabs. Here, cut to size glass is fixed on the grid work with pressure plates (the glass is held mechanically). The cover cap snaps fit on the pressure plates for aesthetic look. In the above system, 90 percent of the work can be done at the site, explains Ar. Gunasekaran. This
ABIL Farms, Pune, by SSA Architects
Warehouse: Building 09, Casa Grande Distripark, Satharai Village, Thiruvallur Taluk, Thiruvallur District, Tamil Nadu - 631 2013 Experience Centre: G - 41, MGF Metropolitan Mall, Saket, New Delhi - 110 017.
BBVA Bancomer, Mexico by Turner Project Management India Pvt. Ltd.
lifting equipment on site notes Ar. Bhole. Unitised systems are popular because they eliminate or reduce the need for on-site sealing, therefore making them less reliant on the standard on-site workmanship. They do not require decanting during refurbishment contracts. In conclusion, unitised systems offer the benefits of factory fabrication in a controlled environment and very rapid assembly on site. However, they are generally more expensive than stick systems and require longer lead times. They are mostly used for high-rise structure. The semi-unitised system is a hybrid version of unitised system and stick system which could be mid-range in costing. The system
C21 - Unitised double glazed curtain wall system. Four legged spider fittings at lobby level. A project by Neomodernarch
involves horizontal breaks and is normally recommended for low and mid-rise structures. It is a combination of on-site stick type cladding and off-site prefabricated panels. Both are brought to the site, cut to size as per site measurements and assembled. The execution of this system is a challenge. In this type, if any glass panel is broken, the re-instalment is easier and faster. It could be adjusted even when there is defective construction in the floor to floor height. It is easy to transport more distance since it could be cut to pieces. It needs scaffolding for installation.
CURTAINWALL SYSTEM The decision to use a particular system depends on the design intent of the faรงade and the economics of the project, both in terms of time and cost, point out Ar. Bij and Chikodi. However, stickbuilt is optimal if there is little repetition among components or when there are certain complex faรงades like three dimensional faรงade, also in case of recessed windows with no continuity in faรงade. Unitised is optimal if apart from repetition, time is the primary
REASONS FOR SELECTING STICK/UNITISED/SEMI UNITISED
ADVANTAGES OF UNITISED CURTAINWALL A unitised curtainwall has several advantages. The fully glazed panels being made in controlled factory conditions have better quality. Dependency on the capability of site erection team is greatly reduced. Erection of unitised panels does not require scaffolding and is much faster than the stick system. Panels are erected floor to floor by interlocking male and female mullions, whereas in the stick system, the aluminium grid is first installed, a post which glazing is done on site with pressure plates and caps. Ar. Anupam De, Principal Architect, Anupam De & Associates A project by Glass Wall Systems
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Cover Story essence, says Kanchwala. Dubey adds that the unitised system can be installed in a third of the time of a stick-built system. This system is well suited for cases where there is a large volume of prefabricated unitised panels required, where there are higher field labour costs. Dubey says that it also needs a significant amount of space for installation and storage of material on the site. “Largely, we have graduated to a unitised curtainwall in most projects. Moreover, unitised curtainwalls are seamless and continuous in nature which work better for longevity and has high resistance to water and fire. The system is essential for all high-rise structures above 100 m”, says Ar. Shikre. TYPES OF WEATHERTIGHT & ECO-FRIENDLY SYSTEM FOR CURTAINWALLING There are three basic methods of resisting all weather forces within a curtainwall system: with a frontsealed, fully bedded curtainwall, with a drained and ventilated curtainwall, and with a pressureequalised curtainwall (or rain screen cladding), Ar. Bij explains. Front-sealed systems rely on the exact positioning of the glazing panels and perfect mastic seals or glazing gaskets to provide a totally weathertight exterior shell. They have obvious limitations since their effectiveness is totally dependent upon the quality of the workmanship at the time of installation and the longevity of the gaskets. These weather seals typically won’t last the life of the façade and will require regular maintenance and replacement over time. Some aluminium curtainwall systems are still designed as frontsealed barrier walls. The long-term reliability of such seals is extremely weak and such systems should be avoided, highlights Dubey. Further, for a more aesthetic look, the
DLH Park - semi unitised double glazed curtain wall system. Four legged articulated spider fittings at atrium. A project by Neomodernarch
option of open sealant concept is also widely used with the use of EPDM gaskets forming a barrier in selected aluminium extrusions to prevent water ingress, providing a better look, he adds. The drained and ventilated curtainwall system is a watermanaged system, incorporating drains and weeps from the glazing pocket, but no effort is made to create an air barrier for "zoneglaze" each glass or spandrel unit, and therefore a larger amount of water is forced into the system and must be weeped away, elaborates
Dubey and Ar. Gunasekaran. Also, since no air barrier exists, the pressure differential between the glazing pocket and the interior may be strong enough to force water vertically higher than interior gaskets, resulting in leaks. In a pressure-equalised (PE) systems or rainscreen cladding, an outer rainscreen provides a protective barrier. Protected openings allow air ingress to a compartmentalised central cavity, which facilitates pressure equalisation. The principle of the system is that the air pressure in the
Internal facade of Silvassa Institute Design Development by Design Plus Architects
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Cover Story cavity changes with the external wind pressure, thus eliminating the pressure differential across the external seal which would otherwise draw moisture, explain architects Bij and Gunasekaran. Weep holes in a water-managed system function largely to drain water that enters the glazing pocket while weep holes in a pressure-equalised system function primarily as vents to allow air movement between the exterior and glazing pocket. Weeping of water is only a secondary function. For hole drainage, minimum openings of 8mm to 10mm are recommended, while drainage slots of at least 20mm by 5mm or 25mm by 5mm are the recommended minimum. The drainage can be either through the transoms or mullions. PE rain screen systems provide the highest levels of resistance to air and water infiltration, with water-managed systems the next most reliable, says Dubey. In PE rain screen systems design, the inside face of the glass, the inside face of the glazing pocket and the interconnecting gasket or wet seal act as an airtight barrier. The outside face of the glass, exterior glazing materials and the outer exposed face of aluminium framing function as a rain screen, shedding water away. Between the exterior rain screen and the interior air barrier, a pressure-equalisation chamber is formed in the glazing pocket, which serves to reduce water penetration by eliminating (equalising) the pressure difference across the rain screen that tends to force water into the system. Minor amounts of water that may penetrate the system are weeped harmlessly to the exterior, Dubey explains further. PRINCIPLES USED IN THE DESIGN & PERFORMANCE TESTING OF CURTAINWALLING SYSTEMS According to Govind and
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Kanchwala, performance testing of systems is mainly carried out to verify structural and weather performances of the system. Often curtainwall systems are customised for particular project requirement due to variable requirements, hence the designs are verified within laboratory conditions to test
for various aspects like air, water, structural and seismic. Any curtainwall system needs to be designed for various parameters including, but not limited to, air permeability, water tightness (static/dynamic), wind, impact resistance, seismic, etc. These need to adhere to the
MICRO CLIMATIC STUDIES It is important that the curtainwall addresses the micro climatic response and achieves desired human comfort and safety. This can be achieved through detailed studies listed below: • Wind tunnel analysis –The lateral pressure of wind has a great influence on curtainwall design. This analysis enables us to adequately design extrusion and curtainwall system to sustain the wind pressure, especially, for high-rise buildings. • Seismic studies – Seismic behaviour is studied and seismic tolerance coefficient is derived, which enables to adequately design the expansion joints to sustain the tremors. • Water flow patterns – Water drain channels are provided within the system to prevent the rain water from entering the interior. • Dead load - Additional dead loads imposed on the curtainwall, such as sunshades, must be accounted for in the design of the curtainwall components and anchors. • Thermal and acoustics – A detailed energy simulation study and survey of sound enables to select the double glazed units and the combination of glass with respect to its performance, u-values, shading coefficient, etc. The extrusions are coated with Poly Vinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) for thermal comfort. Details are worked out to ensure adequate acoustics. Thermal loads are induced in a curtainwall system because aluminium has a relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion. This means that over the span of a couple of floors, the curtainwall will expand and contract some distance, relative to its length and the temperature differential. This expansion and contraction are accounted for by cutting horizontal mullions slightly short and allowing a space between the horizontal and vertical mullions. In unitised curtainwall, a gap is left between units, which is sealed from air and water penetration by gaskets. Vertically, anchors carrying wind load only (not dead load) are slotted to account for movement. Incidentally, this slot also accounts for live load deflection and creep in the floor slabs of the building structure. (As told by Ar. Sandeep Shikre, Founder & Principal Architect, SSA Architects, and Ar. Vivek Bhole, Founder & Principal Architect, Neomodernarch)
Curtainwall installtion; Image courtesy: BES Consultants
relevant codes (ASTM/BS, etc.) being used for the same. Besides the general system being tested, the operables (windows) also need to be designed and tested. Based on the inputs received from the wind tunnel or computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, the designed system is erected at a test site and needs to be physically tested for all the parameters for the highest wind condition, articulates Ar. De. Wind patterns: According to Ar. Bij, for any façade design, it is important to understand the
patterns of wind over a building. When the flow of air (wind action) impacts on a building, a pressure is exerted and the airflow changes across the surface of the façade, causing pressure differential. Down draughts are created when the wind strikes a building, resulting in an increase in wind speed near the ground. Vortices are created as air flows along the roof, or is funnelled to the base of the building, which creates high suctions at the edges. Sharp changes in direction, such as parapets and corners, give rise to high local suctions (separation). Wind speed can increase and change direction, particularly at the base of tall buildings. Tunnels and openings through buildings also produce funnelling effects. The principles for wind loading are as per Indian Standard IS:875 (Part-3) which gives wind forces their static and dynamic effects. This needs to be taken into account while designing buildings, structures and components. All building’s designs and structures consider a regional basic wind speed having a mean return period of 50 years, adds Kanchwala.
IFC Tower 4, Elphinston, Mumbai, by Anupam De & Associates
Wetting Patterns & Water Tightness: Building must provide a total barrier to keep out rainwater, points out Ar. Bij. Three factors that cause water leakage are: water, openings and forces. Eliminate any one of them, and there will be no leakage. However, rain is usually accompanied by wind. It is therefore not possible to design buildings that are completely shielded from the effects of water. This is why a dynamic test is carried out when systems are performance tested. There are a number of openings in a façade, including vertical expansion joints, the glass perimeter and gaps in gasket lengths. Water flows down and across a façade under wind action until it hits projections. It then runs down to corner areas – the position The Basic Tests: • Air infiltration test • Water penetration test • Structural load test
Corporate HQ for Mudra Communications, by SSA Architects
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The Additional Tests: • The dynamic water penetration test • The seismic test • The thermal cyclic test
Cover Story of most joints and openings. Joints or openings also occur between different adjacent materials or similar materials when dictated by fabrication or transport or handling needs. Even where joints are required to be sealed, it is difficult to ensure that this is completely effective. There are no design criteria for preventing water tightness, observes Kanchwala. The sections to be used in curtainwalls are selected to ensure there is no water ingress. There is performance testing for various static and dynamic water penetration confirming to ASTM E331 & AS/NZS 4284 for 15 minutes. The water ingress is measured from inside to ascertain KPa. IMPORTANCE OF PERFORMANCE TESTING A timely and well planned façade performance test ensures the safety of the public and occupants of the building by identifying and ensuring the structural and seismic stability. It is necessary to evaluate and validate the design of the façade, also to
identify and point out fabrication errors, and air and water leakage if any. It helps in rectifying all faults before final production, saves cost and time, and at the same time ensures a quality façade. There are also instances of challenges faced when the façade design is very complex and the building is very tall, points out Chikodi. Even when planning a specialised and customised design, it should go for performance testing to determine the behaviour and pattern of the system, adds Chikodi. Ideally, any façade should have performance testing, unless it uses a standard pre tested proprietary system, “However, for tall buildings and large projects, it is a must. We are following this for our projects,” he states. Performance tests are carried out in special laboratories called Performance Monitoring Unit (PMU), whereby wind resistance is tested by inducing artificial wind pressure, the water jets are sprayed to ensure water tightness and the fire is induced to evaluate the fire
Facade test panel; Image courtesy: Anupam De & Associates
resistance, says Ar. Shikre. Dynamic performance tests are carried out to ensure the curtainwalling system performance and figure out the faults and fix with solutions, adds Ar. Gunasekaran. According to Govind, performance testing is recommended for new designs, however, the performance (laboratory based) testing alone will not guarantee defects free or
SOFTWARES USED FOR BUILDING A PERFECT CURTAINWALL With the help of various 3D designs tools and techniques, it is now possible to make any complex designs a reality. These techniques are also helping in better and faster understanding of designs and reduce communication gaps. As there is always room for improvement, reaching a perfect solution is an attempt. The use of the following latest softwares is important as it helps in analysing the various inbuilt details from the study and execution point of view. • REVIT/Building Information Modelling (BIM) - helps in placing the associated services and accessories in the façade and gives more insight and tools for efficient planning, designing and construction. • Rhino - helps architects and façade engineers to visualise and derive an adequate strategy while focusing on algorithm and parameters. It also helps to design curvilinear, multifaceted and flamboyant shapes. • EQuest - helps in energy modelling to identify energy performance • FP façade software - helps to design curtainwalls. • Visual Doe software - helps to generate energy modelling for glass façades in-turn to balance the heat and light transmission into the façades • STAAD Pro - for the structural adequacy • Inventor and Grasshopper - for the complex façade or the algorithm façades • Athena or Softech - curtainwall specific software that is readily available • Design plugins such as weaverbird or Panelling tools within Rhino/Grasshopper
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Cover Story flawless works. The testing is one of many other ways to control the designs and implementation, and there are many other aspects to be considered as a holistic approach. If not properly planned, states Kanchwala, a poorly structured curtainwall can lead to water leakage and deformation of the lower parts of the curtainwall due to inadequate support along with inadequate waterproof and steamtight barriers. It can also cause disturbing, unpleasant sounds. Most commonly experienced performance irregularities often result in complete replacement or expensive restoration/maintenance activities for the systems. Therefore, the performance tests are needed to be established at the design phase of each project separately, adds Ar. Bhole. Ar. Gunasekaran says that at the start of a project, architects should work closely with faĂ§ade consultants and contractors so that the design intent of the faĂ§ade is completely understood. Multiple interactions and coordination meeting provide a smooth ride that the critical elements such as wind loads and seismic loads
Phoenix project by KGD Architecture
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are addressed. A field mock-up is done to finalise not only look and feel, but also the quality of the curtainwall systems. During the construction stage, designers check and review quality at various milestones. The necessary tests are done and certificates are made available for the project, which ensures the glazing performance. Curtainwall systems are sophisticated engineering solution and at the same time is an expensive solution. It is very important to design it with utmost accuracy and adequate skill sets. It definitely has to be in safe hands. If designed in a wrong way, it will be dangerous and hazardous. Of late, unfortunately, due to a cost saving approach, inappropriate curtainwall systems have been executed that have created fire hazards. It is essential that the developers, architects and vendors give utmost importance to ensure that the design and safety meet the codal requirements without any comprise, warns Ar. Shikre. CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH CURTAINWALL SYSTEMS The prime responsibility of
Lulu Hotel by KGD Architecture
construction quality assurance of curtainwalls lies with the fabricators and contractors. The best design will fail if not properly implemented, points out Ar. Gunasekaran. It is important that designers and owners ask for demonstrated proof of QA/QC measures. Curtainwall manufacturer and installer must develop QA/QC manuals to help standardise and streamline the quality control process. These manuals should include checklists of quality control and inspection points to be reviewed for every assembly fabricated and installed. Misalignment of adjacent curtainwall elements can have serious consequences, elaborates Ar. Gunasekaran. Such misalignment is often due to errors in laying out the structural framing systems, but might also result from lack of coordination of building structure tolerances and curtainwall tolerances, or improper layout of imbeds to receive curtainwall anchors. In the case of coordinating construction tolerances, if the construction tolerance for the structural frame is +/- 1 inch over the height of the building and the tolerance for the curtainwall is +/- 1â „4 inch over that same height, it is the curtainwall that will need to be adjusted to
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Cover Story conform to the looser tolerance of the structural framing which needs to be taken care by the site team. Leakage is the biggest concern in any curtainwall, adds Ar. De. Largely these occur due to lapses in execution or due to tampering of the system in interior fit outs. These problems tend to increase in smaller projects where appropriately qualified contractors
are not appointed by some clients. Cleaning and replacement of glass are another challenge if there is no proper BMU (building maintenance unit). Many clients are not willing to incur much cost towards the same, which leads to problems in maintaining façades and addressing defects post-handover, opines Ar. De and Kanchwala.
CHALLENGES IN PRODUCTION AND INSTALLATION OF CURTAINWALL • Compared with traditional manufacturing, a façade panel has a higher degree of customisation, which is reflected by not only different designs for different projects, but also different façade panels even in a project, so fast and flexible production is required as needed. • With the emergence of new materials and new technologies and people’s constant pursuit of different building appearances, façade fabrication becomes bigger in size and increasingly complex in shape, accompanied by increasing difficulties in field installation. In this case, if the delivery sequence and installation process are not well managed, the installation positions of façade panels may be confused, thus causing project delay and the waste of resources. • What we need is an accurate data integration environment incorporating building design, detailed joint design, and field installation together covering a series of management activities, including façade fabrication production, positioning, detection, cost estimation, and risk control. DESIGN PROBLEMS THAT AFFLICT OWNERS, ARCHITECTS AND DEVELOPERS • Lack of awareness: It is often noticed that building materials are not selected on the bases of their constructability. • Lack of data & research: The awareness of the impact of the material on the building performance and its efficiency is very important criteria. Since there is no proper research and database available, architects and developers are abandoned from making informed choices about the efficient building material. • Lack of initiatives: Many times, less importance is given for the selection of material. • Trend driven market: Pursuit for global technologies for advancement many times leads to the direction of unsustainable development. (As told by Ar. Vivek Bhole, Founder & Principal Architect, Neomodernarch)
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Besides the challenges above, there are issues with the operables in terms of suitable hardware for the same. The limited number of hardware suppliers/product range restrict the design solutions. This is further complicated in motorised operable and recent regulatory conditions for fire safety. In general, there is huge room for improvement of quality in curtainwall production, transportation and erection. The industry needs to improve the skill sets, and SOP’s for QA/QC. Often one gives more weightage to completing a project faster, which tends to a compromise on quality. Improper or substitute materials used, resulting faulty façade works and the building degrades quite faster and lose the building value within the very short period. Sometimes, no attention to proper detailing and design is given in advance (pre-construction), and pass to the contractor. In such cases, the site team has to deal with problems. Design simplicity need to be focused, in situations, designers try to push unrealistic or impractical designs without understanding the long-term issues or limitations, says Govind. COMMON FAULTS IN ERECTION TECHNIQUES & ITS SOLUTIONS Quality construction team & quality
MahaNakhon,Thailand by Turner Project Management India Pvt. Ltd.
Cover Story THE MOST COMMON TYPES OF FAILURES IN CURTAINWALL SECTIONS Moisture damage: Damage from water infiltration "glass cancer", are imperfections incorporated in includes premature deterioration of the wall the glass when it is manufactured. NiS remains at structure, finish damage, mold and mildew, high temperatures, after the rest of the glass has and decreased interior air quality. Repairs from cooled. After the NiS cools, the inclusions expand poor water protection are often expensive to fix, in volume and crack the glass. This effect is most but can be easily prevented in initial design and commonly seen in the tempered glass. In order to construction of the curtainwall. stop NiS inclusions from cracking in a curtainwall, Moisture damage can be classified into two the engineer should consider not using tempered distinct parts. The first being water infiltration glass, or perform a heat soak test. while the second is condensation. Water infiltration Thermal cracking of glass is another concern creates the largest potential for moisture damage which the engineer should consider when designing in a building. Sealants are the primary use of a curtainwall. Large temperature differences in the preventing water penetration into a curtainwall; glass cause high stresses within the pane, forcing however, sealants can break apart. Poor adhesion the glass to crack. Thermal cracks are easy to detect can cause the sealant to break away. The thermal because they are perpendicular to the frame and expansion coefficient of aluminium is 2.5 times that usually expand the whole window section, failures of glass, the large relative displacements often cause are more likely to occur when an absorptive coating sealants to break. A perfectly watertight curtainwall is placed on the glass. These coatings are put in place cannot be maintained by sealants alone. Sealants to reduce the cooling load of the building but can are not perfect as they break, pull away or cannot come at a cost to the glass integrity because they be installed correctly. The best way to avoid water absorb solar radiation and keep it stored in the glass. damage is to have redundancy in water protection, The stored energy increases the temperature by incorporating an in-wall drainage system along of the glass and can cause it to expand unevenly, with careful consideration of a proper sealant. creating a crack. The more effective (i.e., more sun Curtainwall sealants are only designed to last 10 to absorbed) the more likely the glass is to crack. If the 15 years; therefore, regular maintenance and upkeep glass support allows some movement, the likeliness of sealants is a must to prevent damage. of a thermal crack occurring decreases slightly. In Condensation occurs when the temperature of the order to properly design for absorptive coatings, an glass or aluminium frame in a curtainwall reaches engineer should consider the stresses which will the dew point temperature of the interior space be induced in the glass by the sun and the coating conditions. Water forms on the surface of the glass and see if the stresses will likely cause the glass to or aluminium and can cause damage to the unit. crack. Also, an engineer can specify the use of heat Basic design against condensation in ensuring the strengthened glass, a stronger form of glass, which Condensation Resistance Factor (CRF) of a given can take higher thermal stresses. Other alternatives curtainwall section meeting the requirement of the such as a reflective, not the absorptive, the coating space, which is based on the expected temperature should be considered, if applicable. and humidity of the space. A great way to prevent Design and installation issues: in this case, condensation in frames of curtainwalls is to use engineers make decisions on curtainwalls without thermally broken aluminium. Thermal breaking is understanding the full consequences or failure where a piece of plastic is incorporated in the frame, scenarios on the curtainwall or construction teams which significantly decreases the heat flow in (or out) do not fully understand how to properly install of a curtainwall. This reduction of heat flow raises the the curtainwall. In order to prevent the failures, a surface temperature of the aluminium, and decreases structural engineer or other design professionals the possibility of condensation on the aluminium. should be fully informed and experienced on Another prevention, which can be incorporated in site. Also, construction teams should have a full the design is limiting the amount of non-thermally- understanding of the importance of proper broken aluminium exposed to the exterior. installation of curtainwalls. These types of failures Glass failure: Glass failure in curtainwalls can be can vary from improper installation of sealant split up into several different categories. Nickel which causes the building to leak, to collapses of Sulphide (NiS) inclusions, thermal cracking, and curtainwall sections. (As told by Dinesh Dubey, Director of Operations, damage from impact are the most common types Turner Project Management India Pvt. Ltd.) of glass damage. NiS inclusions, also known as
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YILMAZ MAKİNE SAN. ve TİC. A.Ş.
Kohinoor Square by SSA Architects
assurance/quality control: The best design will fail if not properly implemented. Experienced project managers, foremen, factory personnel, glaziers, ironworkers, crane operators and similar professionals are needed for a successful project, regardless of the type of curtainwall and installation method. Even with highly qualified contractors and sub-contractors, factory and field quality assurance and quality control are often not sufficiently planned or implemented. Experience shows that the factory and field foremen are some of the most critical members of the contractor’s workforce. The quality control and inspection points: This has to be reviewed for every assembly fabricated and installed. To be effective, each prefabricated assembly should be given an identification number and its own individual QA/QC checklist. Not only will this help with the establishment of reviewable procedures, but it will force the manufacturer and the panel erector to implement and maintain rigorous self-inspection practices. Periodic factory visits by a qualified curtainwall consultant engaged by the owner or architect for any modular curtainwall project and for stick built projects are essential where significant volumes of assembly are performed in the shop. Careless erection techniques: Curtainwall modules are often large, heavy and awkward and require careful planning and implementation of protective
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crating, handling, transportation and erection. It is critical to have experienced curtainwall installers to perform the installation. Attempts to make up lost time for construction delays can result in damage to curtainwall components as crews rush to meet unrealistic production targets. Meeting the target substantial completion date means little if the result is a punch list of damaged items that require months to complete. Shifting and handling of panels without adequate lifting equipment and the improper curing of structural sealant are some other faults, observes Kanchwala. To overcome these, a builder should select the right fabricator through the process of shop drawings. The methodology
for erection and logistics should be kept in mind and there should be correct supervision to avoid any accidents or difficulties during construction. Govind stresses on the importance of pre-construction designs to be realized at an early stage. This greatly reduces site implementation problems. Advanced planning and following proper site sequences is critical. Good management systems and site monitoring with technical knowledge (not just labour management) will solve many problems. With these potential problems, many designers are grappling to execute a well-designed efficient curtail wall. Therefore, it is becoming increasingly necessary to get curtainwall consultants to help identify performance issues and assess the risks that unusual designs might present. The challenges can be straightened out carefully with the assistance of consultants, who are actively engaged in the business of performing forensic evaluations of aging and failed curtainwalls. They are better equipped to access on the merits of past successes and failures while helping to meet owner’s expectations for more uncommon curtainwall designs.
SOME OF THE COMMON FAULTS IN ERECTION TECHNIQUES AND ITS SOLUTIONS: • Fault: Unsealed mullion to glass joint; Solution: To be double checked at the factory before delivering to the site • Fault: Water ponding in curtainwall; Solution: To be tested at the factory and ensure drains are properly provided • Fault: Curtainwall sill flashing not sealed properly; Solution: Contractor must ensure all the flashing sealed with necessary silicon sealant • Fault: Misalignment of mullion; Solution: Periodical check and quality control • Fault: EPDM gaskets cover missing; Solution: Erection team ensures that the gasket is installed (As told by Ar. Balaji Gunasekaran, Project Manager-Associate at KGD Architecture)
Face to Face
CREATING BREAKTHROUGH DESIGNS Ar. C. N. Raghavendran is the Managing Director of C. R. Narayana Rao (CRN) based in Chennai. He has successfully executed a wide variety of trend setting projects for Indian and foreign governments, PSUs, and multinational corporations. Amongst his notable contributions in the field of design and architecture is the introduction of innovative building technologies, as evidenced in his pioneering work in the use of pre-cast & pre-stressed building technologies and adopting an environmentally conscious approach for designing high-performance buildings. The firmâ€™s commitment in practice of green building concepts resulted in him being selected as the Chairman of LEED India. In addition to the Padma Shri award in 2011, Ar. Raghavendran is a recipient of many prestigious awards, including the IIA Design Excellence Award and Architect of the Year Award, Indian Institute of Architects (IIA) 'Hall of Fame' Award, to name a few.
PADMA SHRI AR. C.N. RAGHAVENDRAN
Managing Director, C. R. Narayana Rao (Consultants) Private Limited, Chennai
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Window and FaĂ§ade magazine joined the Padma Shri award winner Ar. C. N. Raghavendran to talk about his his journey of five decades in architecture, his sources of inspiration, his environmentally-conscious approach to design and much more.
Face to Face
hen was the firm CRN started and when did you join the firm?
At about the time when I was born, my father had started an architectural office singlehandedly in the early 40s and during my childhood, my father used to take me with him to the site inspection and also sit in some of the review meetings with clients and contractors. I was quite fascinated to observe that out of
nowhere a building plan emerging on the tracing paper and magically getting built, though I had no clue as to the process that made this happen. I felt thrilled to see the connection between sketching by hand the ideas in the head and the shaping of the building from the plans. I felt that this is the only right path for me and did not look at any other career options. After completion of my graduation from IIT-Kharagpur, I went to the University of Berkeley to do my Masters. After a one year stint in Boston, I returned to join my
fatherâ€™s architectural firm in 1968. The exuberance of youth, idealised worldview on what is wrong and what needs to be done and an over confident selfbelief that it is all within oneâ€™s power and capability to change the world â€“ the above passions are vigorously alive in freshly passed out architecture graduates than any other discipline. The rigid hierarchy of career advancement in most other professions seems to dampen the passion and urge of a young entrant in such disciplines; but luckily, architecture again WFM | JULY - AUG 2018
Face to Face is about a very few disciplines where practitioners can retain and practise their beliefs in a greater degree than most other professions. In the first few months, exposure to the challenges of the professional office would perhaps be very confusing, but at the same time an exciting period in the career of an architect. One realises that five years at school has not prepared one adequately on the professional front, and, a good practice provides a platform that challenges the ability and skills. Here is where a fresh graduate can create the best opportunity for oneself, for starting a lifelong process and it is a process of learning and continuous learning. The design of the buildings may be different or changed over a period of time, but the spirit and process of design only get continuously improved. My early years provided a fairly large and variant mosaic of design portfolios – from group housing, educational, commercial buildings, manufacturing facilities to institutional buildings. The clients varied in widely from one another and so was their organisational approach. These were the humble periods in the post-independence era of Indian economic and social evolution. Clients rarely stuck their neck out for their building projects. It was
Anna Centenary Library, Chennai
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most unlike the current milieu of bold blusters and speculative entrepreneurship that most clients flaunt in globalised India. The young student turned graduate architects can make the best of this disorder through associated learning from colleagues and co-professionals. Those with strong yearning observe and learn and also innovate. Those with a strong foundation on any aspects of the profession could be design management, material science, interiors, construction technology, research, assimilation to associate aspects like sustainability, building physics, structural and engineering aspects, etc. can find their interest to specialise in the said discipline. Tell us about your early practice and projects? The early period till the 80s was the time for my projects for institutional clients like RBI Office and Housing in Chennai, Central Provident Fund Offices and Housing at Trivandrum, a few residential and medical facilities projects besides industrial projects for ITC– Printing and Packaging Division in Chennai, TVS Group, English Electric Co and several automotive related manufacturing facilities. Those were days of learning and coping. Getting to a level of client acceptance and trust of one as a promising
but nevertheless ‘inexperienced’ architect who can be seriously engaged with was challenging. Equally challenging was the lack of authoritative knowledge on construction specifications, practices and building costs. However, help invariably came from seniors and that too from other disciplines like structural engineer, electro-mechanical engineers and quantity surveyors. These experiences made it clear that mastery over the design aspects of architecture needs to be equally matched by a collaborative multi-disciplinary team. Most importantly, the early experience taught the indispensability of adequate effort on the part of the architect to understand the client’s programme or to simplify, what are the expectations of the facility to be designed, both physical and subjective aspirations and how does he or she propose to use the facility and how we as architects can respond. This goes beyond area programmes and bubble diagrams. Equally important was to integrate the site, opportunities and challenges in the design to be comprehensively responsive to definable and indefinable parameters. In these early projects, there were challenges galore – from a tough hilly site in Trivandrum to immensely complicated technicalities of the work at ITC. The public housing projects and the institutional projects had to be executed under stringent governmental protocols, and budget controls where the signed construction contract is sacrosanct and is inflexible. Hence, all design decision making was not a progressively evolving scheme, but one on which all design and detailing decisions, and therefore all specifications with quantification had a limited time-window to be performed. The formalities were enough to overwhelm a fresher unless helped
Face to Face
Arogya Soudha, Office Building at Bengaluru
along with the collaborative and collective wisdom of different disciplines within the design team. This was a period of design freedom but within a framework of self-learnt discipline and work ethics combined with a healthy cooperation and mutual respect with co-design team members. This was an early learning that multi-disciplinary approach was the foundation of good design if effectively implemented. This decade also witnessed two works of the interpretive design of buildings set in historic or cultural heritage backgrounds. The design of Kalakshetra Auditorium and the Pondicherry University buildings were explorations in this direction. The 90s were marked by a string of new era projects. Some of the worth mentioning work of this period are international standard sports infrastructure in Chennai for the South Asian Federation Games and a similar multi-purpose stadium in Cochin. The Spencer Plaza, one of the biggest and the earliest retail mall in 1992 and numerous IT and ITES campuses for Indian IT majors were completed during this time. International
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MNCs as well as government sponsored IT parks in Chennai (TIDEL Park) and Bangalore (Khanija Bhavan) were the other interesting projects. A number of a greenfield car manufacturing facilities for companies like Ford, Hyundai and Toyota set the tone of the work in this decade. During this period, the bar was set higher for the architects in terms of performance criteria. The architects were expected to acquire and demonstrate a much higher working knowledge of other related disciplines while at the same time elevate the architectural design sensibilities. Besides, the IT buildings brought heightened clients’ awareness in areas such as design for sustainability, design for human comfort, health and safety, and incorporation of building management and integration capabilities in building design. It was not just a function of hiring sub-consultants, but the architect had to take the lead inventively and set the benchmark of client expectations and delivery of the design brief. Learning to work with specialist project managers, a transplanted foreign mechanism
and the devising of work plans to overcome some unreasonable restrictive or obstructive practices in the conventional functions of architects were other highlights of this decade. This period also witnessed receiving awards for Design Excellence from Indian Institute of Architects and Architects of the Year Award. The next decade was wonderful with an international award for the ‘Intelligent Building of the Year’ in the US in 2005 for the Ebene Cyber City Campus and the Cyber Tower – an IT campus with a signature IT tower, set in a most attractive site in Mauritius. During this decade, I got deeply involved in the green building movement and also designed more than a dozen buildings that were highly rated. Many projects, including 247 Park in Vikhroli, Infosys campuses in Chennai, Mysore and Jaipur, NIIT IT Campus at Greater Noida, Oracle Campus in Hyderabad and Tata Consultancy IT Campus at Chennai, were completed during this time. In 2011, I received the most coveted Padma Shri Award and also IIT Kharagpur’s Distinguished Alumnus Award in the same year and in 2012 was awarded Architects (IIA) Hall of Fame Award. The four plus decades of architectural professional practice that I have had the good fortune to enjoy does take one through a checkered field of experience and learning as well as many eminently unforgettable events. Could you please talk about a few of your ongoing and completed projects? CRN is uniquely placed having seen and been part of the architectural scenario for over 70 years, of which I have been a part of the process for more than five decades. Across the decades, we have witnessed dynamic changes in the socioeconomic fronts. Architectural thought and philosophy are deeply influenced by the factors that
Face to Face have been driven by the challenges of finding an approach to create an equitable and sustainable built environment. An approach fuelled by thorough enquiry, understanding, and inventiveness has kept CRN among the forerunners in innovation, adaptability, and sustainability in the built environment. Consideration of harmonious design with nature to create a sustainable solution was the focus of CRN’s design in the early 80s, long before sustainability became desirable and later inevitable. CRN has also been in the forefront of the innovative design of buildings at times when typologies of such buildings were not even fully understood or defined. The design of campuses for IT parks, such as TCS at Siruseri, Infosys at Mahindra World City and Jaipur, Oracle at Hyderabad, TIDEL at Chennai and Coimbatore, etc. were some of the early examples of CRN works in the first decade. Currently, CRN is engaged in the design of new campuses for Oracle at Bangalore and Amazon at Hyderabad. Now, the IT work space environment has undergone changes. The scale of buildings for ITs in India has catalysed new complexities in building design, bringing out high performance façade and services as being important factors. This has resulted in an increased collaboration of architects along with sustainability consultants and service consultants. The large foot plates of IT buildings have thrown up the challenge of daylight penetration which resulted in increased vision glass areas in external façade accompanied by problems of reducing solar heat gain. This period has also seen advances in technology to control and reduce solar heat gain, glare and other factors of the façade which negatively impacts indoor human comfort. This has spawned new technology, materials, methods of assessing façade performance, not only in terms of reducing heat gain but also for physical safety including fire. Therefore, a common denominator has emerged in creating a new paradigm
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HCC 247 Park, Vikhroli, Mumbai
BSNL Greams Road, Chennai
Face to Face
Hexaware, Software Building, Chennai
of sustainability as the focus of the architectâ€™s design approach, including experimentation with passive architectural design, which sometimes draws inspiration from traditional and vernacular design that existed in harmony with nature centuries back. Tell us about your environmentconscious approach to design? To us in CRN, climate responsiveness has always been at the core of design at first, long
Ebene Cyber Tower, Mauritius
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before climate change and its consequences became a threat to the planet and human life. The best example is in the design of an auditorium for Kalakshetra in Chennai. This building was designed in the early 80s and did not depend on any mechanical intervention of lighting, ventilation and acoustics. Another one was the design for TIDEL Park in late 90s, the first large building dedicated for IT services. Here, the facility demanded high interventions in
electro-mechanical infrastructure combined with large footplates. This was also prior to the concept of green building emerging in India. Yet, this building had all the features of the sustainable building in its design, including integrated building management system, thermally efficient external skin, high levels of energy efficiency driven by an innovative HVAC system that was far ahead of its time. CRNâ€™s design approach was also reflected in the design of Anna Centenary Library, one of the largest public libraries in south India and Arogya Soudha - health department offices for the Government of Karnataka at Bangalore. In the first case, use of high window wall ratio necessary for daylighting at the library space was suitably merged with the use of bold and architecturally dominant open grid roof overhang. In the second case, the design was to take advantage of the climate of Bangalore where comfortable ambient air temperature prevails for most of the year. Here, we were able to control and maintain optimum thermal and daylighting comforts in spite of limiting the window wall ratio, but enhance thermal and daylighting comfort through well placed courtyards and skylights. In both the cases, passive elements of building design contributed substantially to energy efficiency, thermal comfort, daylighting and
Face to Face
Hyatt Regency Ball Room, Delhi
thus got high scores in the rating system for sustainability. What are the key factors to consider while designing and installing façades and fenestration in any building? There is no standard formula or guidelines. But the architect has to understand the importance of geography, climate, orientation, use, client outlook, window wall ratio, insulation, thermal studies/ performance assessment at the design stage. The architect has to be conscious of daylighting and outdoor views, reduce heat gain, glare & sound and safety. The architect also has to understand that an automatic solution of
high levels of glazing on the façade is not an automatically modern and contemporary solution. Buildings in India need to make a statement that is rooted in the local context, technology and lifestyle. Fenestration and façade also have to factor in life safety factors, particularly fire and seismic. The insulation and reduction in heat gain whether it is opaque or transparent parts of the façade is a consideration that ranks high on the list. Brief on innovative technologies and materials adopted for building façades and fenestrations in some of your projects? Some of the innovative technologies have been used and found both
Hunter Douglas, Manufacturing Facility at SriCity
WFM | JULY - AUG 2018
advantageous and disadvantageous and they are: • Ventilated façade on rain screen principle - we have used it in HCC - 247 Park at Vikhroli, Mumbai and Hexaware Technologies Software Park at Siruseri, Chennai, both using Aluminium Composite Panel FR Grade; using extruded clay tiles in GE manufacturing facility at Pune • Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) in current projects • Multiple glazed thermally broken window panels with high noise reduction coefficient from 92 dB to 35 dB, acoustically tested in an independent lab at Dubai for room windows in ITC Grand Chola, Chennai, a hotel on aircraft landing path - for advanced acoustics and thermal properties • Perforated metal screen as a sandwich panel in DGU - copper mesh sandwiched between two laminated glass panels - in the Ballroom of Hyatt Regency, Delhi • Light shelves as part of façade glazing in current projects • Programmable adaptive solar devices, tracking the sun being used in a platinum rated building • Aluminium screen louvers for solar shading at the Hunter Douglas manufacturing facility at SriCity and at Rane Motors manufacturing facility at Trichy • The expanded metal screen at Chennai Metro Rail Limited’s Office building in Chennai • Honeycomb metal flat panel on Ford IT Building at Chennai and at Spirax Sarco manufacturing facility at Mahindra World City • Perforated aluminium fins at Amazon, Hyderabad • Movable Façade - for a corporate R&D Block • Priva-Lite XL (external use) and Privalite (internal use), both being electronically adjustable
profiling the future in aluminium...
ne button for all your fenestration needs: Bhoruka Extrusions: Established in 1979 and part of USD $8 Billion YKK, Japan with in-house facilities for die manufacturing, extrusion, anodising, powder-coating and dedicated machining centre. Whether you are an architect, designer, specifier or contractor: Bhoruka offers India’s most comprehensive range of aluminium products for varied application through our dedicated 100% made-to-order desk and our collaboration with leading system suppliers like - Airclos, AluK, EFP, Reynaers, Schüco to name a few! Contact email@example.com for more information, or call us at +91-821-4286100. Our teams located at Bengaluru, Chennai, Delhi, Kochi, Mumbai, Mysore and Pune are waiting to hear from you!
Bhoruka Extrusions Pvt Ltd. #1, KRS Road, Metagalli, Mysore - 570016. Karnataka, INDIA. Tel: +91-821-4286100
Face to Face heat gain is assured. Such facades need no manual intervention and hence perform the task of heat gain reduction exactly as per design. This leads to the best optimisation of reducing the cooling load of buildings. Obviously, the cycle of dependency reaches up to the level of reduction in the greenhouse effect. By integrating adjustable light shelves, also synced to solar movement, enable deeper penetration of natural daylight and reduce electrical consumption.
ITC Grand Chola, 7-Star Hotel, Chennai
transparency of the glass in Saint Gobain R&D facility at IIT Research Park, Chennai, which also has electrochromic glass which can change tinge and transparency based on solar incidence • Insulated external cavity walls with over deck insulation at Infosys campus, Jaipur What is an intelligent façade? An intelligent facade is an adaptive system that reacts to different
climatic conditions and adjusts its shape and extent automatically depending on the orientation and outdoor ambient/indoor design conditions. Of late, it’s been used in high performance buildings and is integrated both for control and operation through an integrated building management system which also links to indoor lighting systems to produce a comfortable interior ambience. By programming, the intelligent facade dynamic reduction in solar
INFOSYS Software Campus, Mahindra World City
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How do you choose the apt cladding material for your project? It is up to the designer to evaluate the needs and functions expected of the facade for the type of building under design and define the objectives of facade performance, decide on the level of energy performance and choose materials appropriately. Not all buildings will perform with a ‘one solution fit all’ kind of design. Of course, I am not mentioning about architects’ conceptualisation on the visualisation of the building externally. Gradually, several standards are emerging for defining thermal, visual light transmission, solar heat gain coefficient and glare performances, the most common being the ECBC code and Chapter 11 of NBC 2016. Fire resistant performance is also being made mandatory. Structural aspects of the facade, particularly in wind and seismic conditions are important, the realisation of which is producing increased numbers of facade testing labs. Also, several advance software is available where the solar and daylighting performance of facade can be assessed in advance. Self-cleaning ability and nonstaining performance requiring the least maintenance is another crucial criteria. This is where the perforated screens or metal screens have shortcomings in urban Indian conditions due to dust and smoke. All these factors are important while choosing the facade materials.
Face to Face operation with low energy footprint for materials assuring safety and high thermal, visual and acoustical performance, offering lowest maintenance. Using materials with high strength to weight ratio with sustainable life cycle aspects will be the direction in future. Such a facade can be individually operated, ranging from individual rooms in the case of residential towers and medical facilities, individual zones in the case of offices.
ULCCS, Software Building at Kerala
Is curtain wall system suitable for Indian weather conditions? So long as it meets performance and aesthetic criteria - being lightweight and factory assembled with unified assembly on site, speed of erection, less labour dependency, elimination of elaborate scaffolding systems, structural ability to meet all foreseen dynamic forces and other design criteria, then curtain wall system is suitable.
conceived to deflect wind forces. In terms of the sustainable features of this building, it required no artificial lights during the day time and innovative air-conditioning system contributed to a high level of energy performance. The functions of the entire building were monitored by intelligent management system which also controlled the performance of individual building systems.
CRN has accomplished several projects in the UAE, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Guyana. Could you please tell us about your ongoing projects abroad? I limit myself to speak about a project that got global recognition as â€˜Intelligent Building of the Yearâ€™ awarded by a US-based organisation. This is a project called the Ebene Cyber Tower - an IT signature building located in Ebene Cyber City in Mauritius. Even several years after completion, this iconic building is a showpiece. Mauritius had extreme wind forces and frequent cyclones, not only the building had to be designed with stability under such conditions, but even the facade was designed for the stringent wind conditions. Even the building shape was
What are your views on future facades and fenestration technologies and materials? In future, the focus will be more on adaptiveness and automated
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What is your advice to young aspiring architects? The buildings in the social context will become even more complex and the dichotomies will multiply. Therefore, my advice to young professionals is to question constantly the present way of doing things. The present solution will not answer the future problems. The only route is open mindedness, curiosity, inventiveness and creativity. Inclusivity cannot be overlooked. Exploration and experimenting will be the stimulus for finding new directions. Multidisciplinary knowledge and the ability to collaborate with other professionals will become more common. Young architects should get exposed to the global practices and find relevance in the Indian context.
SPIRAX SARCO, Manufacturing Facility at Mahindra World City
“We Deliver Products which Exceed Customer’s Expectations” PRAGUN JINDAL KHAITAN
Managing Director, Jindal Aluminium Limited
Pragun Jindal Khaitan, the Managing Director of Jindal Aluminium Limited, joined the family business in 2013 after majoring in finance and strategic management from the Wharton School of Business of University of Pennsylvania. He focuses on all the company's business verticals, including aluminium extrusions, aluminium rolling, renewable energy and health care. Under the tutelage of one of the finest experts in the aluminium extrusion industry, Dr. S. R. Jindal, Chairman of Jindal Aluminium, Khaitan honed his skills in administration of large business and has behind him a proven track record. During this tenure, the overall business turnover of the company has shown a marked jump in revenues crossing Rs.2500 crore mark in a short span of time. He keeps abreast with the latest technology in the field and has guided the company for making huge investments towards technology upgradation and capacity expansion. Khaitan has played a vital role in the company’s position as India’s largest player in aluminium extrusion manufacturing. Pragun Jindal Khaitan spoke to Window and Façade magazine about the company’s major milestones, their products and production facilities, latest prestigious architectural projects, and more. Here are the excerpts from the interview.
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JAL Plant â€“ Front view
Please tell us about your company Jindal Aluminium Limited (JAL)? How long have you been in the extrusion business and in the Indian market? Established in 1968 with a humble beginning, and one extrusion press, the company today is a market leader in aluminium extrusions with 11 presses of various sizes with an installed capacity of 1, 20,000 MT per year. JAL is the first extrusion company in the secondary sector. In the year 2012, the company diversified into flat-rolled products with a capacity of 40,000 tonnes per annum. The company is manufacturing aluminium flatrolled products in various alloys. We are also producing circles, roofing sheets, foils, SRC/PP Cap, etc. Today, we are the second largest producers of flat-rolled products in the country.
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To meet our energy requirements, we have also installed 50 MW of wind power projects in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh besides, 30 MW of solar power project in Karnataka which
Press conveyor belt, P6, Plant - 1
is sufficient for our captive use and the extra power is transmitted to the state grid. By using renewable sources (wind and solar), we have reduced our dependence on thermal energy which requires
OFFICE: # 73/3, 2nd Floor, Railway Parallel Road, Kumarapark West, Bengaluru - 560 020 l M: +91 9945563156/856 l E: firstname.lastname@example.org
Industry Speaks fossil fuels like coal and diesel. We continuously strive to deliver to our customers a product which exceeds their expectations at a price which represents value for their money. Tell us briefly about JAL’s journey in the extrusion business over the years, also about your major success stories? The company started with a production capacity of 5,000 tonnes per annum in the year 1967. We achieved production of 12,000 tonnes in 1984 which was highest by any extrusion manufacturer in India at that time. Thereafter, we never looked back and ramped up our capacities constantly and produced 85,490 tonnes last year which is again the highest production of aluminium extrusion by any manufacturer in India. The second largest manufacturer of extrusions after us is way behind and producing around 40,000 tonnes of extrusions yearly. The company will retain its leadership through continuous investment by ramping up its capacity from time to time. It is a matter of pride that today Jindal Aluminium caters to more than
Extrusion Presses at various plants
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25% of total extrusion production in the country. We are also the second largest producer of flatrolled products in the country. Please tell us about the extrusion business for façade and fenestration market? Globally, the major use of extrusion is in building and constructions. Being a large extrusion company, we are not oblivious to this and work closely with our customers in modifying the designs of façade and fenestration which is best suited for their functional needs. We have many customised solutions for our customers and our large die library contains most of the common designs of windows, doors. However, for any special designs, our tool shop is fully equipped to make dies quickly to suit their requirements. Almost 60% of our sales are in the building and construction industry for facades and fenestration. All reputed fabricators of facades of the country are our regular customers. Our products are preferred by all fabricators over other manufacturers due to better quality, on time deliveries and impeccable service.
Where are your products manufactured? Tell us about your manufacturing facilities? We have two extrusions plants and both are in Bengaluru, Tumkur Road. The flat-rolled products plant is also in Bengaluru. Both the plants are situated on Tumkur Road within a distance of 35 km from each other. We have 11 extrusion presses of different capacities, the smallest being 750 tonnes and the largest one is of 4,000 tonnes. With such a wide range of extrusion presses, we can produce an extrusion of diameter as low as 3 mm and as big as 300 mm. Depending on the design, we can deliver maximum width of 450 mm which no other manufacturer in India can supply. Such a wide range of production lines equipped to extrude all sizes and in all kinds of hard alloys, such as 6005, 6082, 6061, 6262, 3003, 3004, 2014, 2024, 7075 is what sets us apart from others. Could you please tell us about a few of your latest prestigious architectural projects? We are associated with most of the developers, builders and architects for their requirements
Industry Speaks and you will find Jindal extrusions in most of the prestigious projects. For the sake of confidentiality and space, we can’t list all the names, but to name a few big ones: Omkar 1873, Mumbai; Godrej BKC, Mumbai; Intel, Bangalore; Goldman Sachs, Bangalore; Amara Raja G2 Hospital, Hyderabad; Embassy One, Bangalore; Bagmane Tech Park, Bangalore; RMZ, Sky View, Oracle, ESIC Hospital at various places; I Gate, Bangalore; AIIMS at Delhi, Chandigarh & Raipur; Indira Canteens in Bengaluru, and and many more. Almost all reputed projects have one thing in common; that is, they use Jindal aluminium extrusions. How do you see the extrusion business evolving in India? The per capita consumption of the extrusions in India is one of the lowest in the world. Wood and steel had been the preferred choice of Indian customers for doors and windows. It was only in early 2000 that Indian customers confronted with many modern designing and coating requirements started realising the quality of aluminium extrusions. The share of aluminium extrusions in B&C started growing rapidly with rising disposable incomes. We can see many aesthetically built structures designed by foreign architects around us which is fuelling the demand further for extrusions in façade and fenestration and with that Indian façade and fenestration sector is also evolving but we have still a long way to go if we compare us with developed countries. What has been your organization’s contribution in bringing about the current revolution in the façade and fenestration sector? JAL has contributed considerably to the façade and fenestration sector by developing new designs with reputed architects, fabricators and builders. We have capacity in developing an intricate and complicated design in shortest possible time. As mentioned above, JAL meets 25% of the country’s requirement of aluminium extrusions. Hence most of the builders and fabricators
Godrej BKC, Mumbai
RMZ Ecoworld, Bengaluru
Night shot of Intel's Sarjapur Ring Road Building 3 (SRR3), a new office building in Bengaluru
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ITC Business Tower, Bengaluru
approach us for developing new dies in a short time. We deliver customised extrusions for faĂ§ade and fenestration. Regularly we keep displaying our customised products for B&C in exhibitions in India and abroad and also educate the customers about benefits of aluminium over other substitutes. What are the advantages of extrusion products from Jindal Aluminium Limited have over its competitors? Our company offers many advantages to the customer over our competitors. We have the widest range, better surface quality; better properties, the dimensional accuracy which are more stringent than what is required normally and of course quick delivery which is faster than customersâ€™ expectations are some of the main strengths of our company. Of course, we do have to compromise a bit on the cost to meet these high-quality standards, but we donâ€™t mind that when our customers are delighted. As a result, we have many customers so loyal, amidst present cut-throat competitive environment, who have kept Jindal as their only source for meeting their requirement continuously for 25-30 years.
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What do you see as the main challenges faced by the extrusion industry? We perceive uPVC products are the main threat to the aluminium industry. This is a well-known fact that uPVC products are not environmentally friendly and has a much shorter life compared to aluminium, but some builders
Capital Tower, Gurugram
prefer the same since it can be assembled at the site in short time. Aluminium Association of India needs to create a public awareness about the environmental hazard of uPVC windows and its low durability. Unfortunately, Aluminium Association of India does not take any step to promote aluminium in India. The only activity AAI does is to pursue with the Government for increasing import duty or for imposing safeguard duty on aluminium metal for the benefit of primary producers. Hence, it is known as Primary Producers Association for Aluminium. Besides, the high price of aluminium due to high import duty is another factor which is driving customers to try some cheaper alternatives. The primary producers out of their greed for more profits keep pressurising the government for increasing the import duty on aluminium. With the result, the prices of aluminium keep going up regularly. From April this year, the price of aluminium metal has gone up by 15%. Import of downstream products including extrusion at a cheaper price from China is another challenge to the extrusion
Vision Towers, Gurugram
industry in India. The government of China gives an incentive of 13% for exporting downstream products which makes Chinese products cheaper than the cost of Indian manufacturers, the government needs to increase the import duty on downstream products in India to stop this unfair dumping. Raw material and downstream products have the same rate of import duty in India which is not
Address One Building, Gurugram
Good Earth Business Bay, Sector 58, Gurugram
so in any other country. The import duty on raw materials should always be minimum and the downstream products should be higher. If this principle is followed, the extrusion industry will flourish in India also. Tell us about your channel expansion strategies in the market. We have more than 125 channel
partners throughout the country in all the major cities who are instrumental in making Jindal profiles available in every nook and corner of the country. Almost 60% of our production is sold through our channel partners. Depending on the demand we keep increasing the channel partners in a particular city. Balance 40% of our sales is to actual users and in exports. Of late, due to increasing demand and advent of demanding customers who prefer to deal directly with the company, our share for actual users is increasing but our channel partners will always remain our major stakeholders. Where do you see your company and the industry in 2020? In the immediate future, we have plans to invest in a large-sized extrusion press which will increase our capacity to 1,60,000 MT per annum. The government has ambitious plans to improve the much needed infrastructure of the country. Metro rail, bullet trains, smart cities, new airports which are being planned throughout the country will boost consumption of aluminium extrusions. To meet this burgeoning demand, we have plans to install a 6,000 tonnes extrusion press by 2020 which will increase our production capacity to 160,000 tonnes per annum. This will be the largest press in India using billets of 16â€? diameter which will produce large-sized extrusions and harder alloys required in aerospace and defence where private investment will boost demand of profiles required for the segment. Considering all this, a large-sized press becomes necessary. Supported by our customers, Jindal Aluminium will keep growing but our motto which is to deliver the best quality products at an economical price to our customers is what will remain close to our hearts, always. WFM | JULY - AUG 2018
Retrofitted Kinetic Brand Façade Script -The Flag Ship Store by Godrej, Bengaluru
memorable through innovations that naturally complement your lifestyle. The Script offers beautiful and intelligent products for people who seek a fluid, intuitive and aesthetic experience within their homes. The Flagship Store Relevant to the contemporary urban lifestyle, this flagship store boasts of carefully crafted and customised architecture, interior and furniture design. The Script store is an amalgamation of design and technology. This union, employed throughout the 14,000 sq ft store creates a distinct niche for the brand’s unique offerings in the urban furnishing market. Creating a bridge between mid-segment and luxury, this everyday premium store is aptly located on the 100 ft road, Indiranagar, Bengaluru.
Script -The Flag Ship Store by Godrej at Bengaluru
ignature projects require multidisciplinary Collaboration to achieve the design and performance intents. As there are no specific references as guidelines to follow; the execution approach is based upon numerous R&D driven trial & error results. Such projects demand immense time and resource investments by all stakeholders
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of the project. The hands-on participation of like-minded collaborators is what is essentially required for a successful delivery of a non-standard project. Inspired by the constantly changing lifestyles, Script - by Godrej, is a movement to augment the ‘Freedom of Living’, through good design. Life should be lived with ease and joy. Hence, the aim is to make daily experiences
The Location Indiranagar 100 ft road is the upcoming high street of Bengaluru. It is also a residential area. This was the main challenge: to create a balance between blending into the residential area and standing out on the commercial street. Previously, a Godrej Interio outlet, this west-facing store also had several challenges with regard to the solar heat dynamics. The natural foliage in front of the store provided some shading. However, it overlapped the façade and signage. The orientation of the store created issues with the visibility of the signage from different directions too.
Project Watch The Iconic Boutique Façade Being the flagship store, the intention was to create an iconic design that provides a dramatic feel at different hours of the day. The store design takes a step further by creating a glass box for visual merchandising. This box with a double height atrium serves as a focal point of the façade. Winch suspension systems were used to hang the merchandise. All these details have developed a dynamic ever-changing façade that in turn becomes a “talk of the town” attraction. Conceptualised by Gensler and detailed by FRDC; the technical design intent given to Studio Form Techniques was that of a façade with louvers with perforated artwork that would open and close in sync. The façade was required to have a “day face” in the open position and a “night face” in the closed position with the script brand logo backlit by dynamic RGB LED lighting. In addition to the visual and kinetic functions, the perforated louvers perform as sunscreens for the west facing façade to shade of the clear glass shop front glazing behind. The entire structural animated modelling was done on solid works. A CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic) study was done to ensure the movements were without any interferences and performed with the prevalent wind loads. The design intent, shop drawings and the prototype of the louvers based upon R & D was done in parallel with many iterations and revisions. Numerous trial and errors were documented and reported as fabrication limitations to the tolerant and supportive Godrej management. Exo-Frame: The existing building showroom façade was dismantled and the outer main frame structural steel was retrofitted. Hilti was
The store design takes a step further by creating a glass box for visual merchandising
consulted on specifying the highperformance anchors required for anchoring on to the old civil RC structure. The engineering report of interface reactions was reviewed by the structural consultant. 28 kinetic louvers, made of 10mm thick aluminium panels
were used. The louvers size varied in height from 2.5 m to 3.4 m with a standardised width of 800 mm. The artwork for the perforation pattern ‘SCRIPT’ logo spread over the entire façade was generated by Gensler. These various diameter holes were water jet cut onto the
28 kinetic louvers, made of 10mm thick aluminium panels – in closed and open position
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Project Watch panels. Each of the 28 louvers had non-repetitive distinct perforation patterns. The panels were then TIG welded, bead blasted and matte black powder coated. Each of the louvers has a specific location; that would complete the logo when the louvers were in closed position. Mecha-Tronics: After an exhaustive iterative R&D process, gears, double ball bearing swivels and timing belts were sourced and applied. The working concept is based on CNC machines that have similar high precision synchro movements. High torque electric actuators were used to drive the pivotal rotation. The linear stroke was converted into rotational movement using an assembly of rack and pinion gears. Each of the actuators was wired to custom-made programmable controllers. These controllers had LASER diodes that were mounted onto the actuator pistons. This gives us real-time feedback as to how much the stroke length is required to open and close the louvers precisely. To control the actuator for synchronous open and closed
The interiors with open and closed louvers
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QUICK FACTS: Project: Script Location: Indiranagar, Bengaluru Client: Godrej Architects: FRDC & GENSLER Structural Consultant: BL Manjunath PMC: CUBEZ Materials used for façade: Aluminium Louvers Façade Area: 110 sq m Alminium Cladding Area: 400 sq m Shop Front Glazing Area: 140 sq m Lamberts LINIT U –Profile Glazing Area: 80 sq m Duration: 14 Months positions of the louvers; a mobile app was developed. The electronic communication between each of the actuators was developed on a patented addressable RF (Radio Frequency) platform. The mobile app GUI to activate the RF controllers is via WiFi /bluetooth. Lamberts U-Profile Glazing: It is noteworthy to mention that a part of the road facing façade which is recessed inside the building; comprises of structural U-profile glass panels. These vertical U-profile glass panels are extra clear, tempered and translucent glass. Generally used for art galleries to diffuse the glare of intense natural light. When used as a double layer, this system provides for thermal insulation as well. Solid Aluminium Cladding: In this project, ACP has not been used at all. There are 380 panels of 2mm thick aluminium CNC cut and bent panels powder coated matte black.
UTTARAN B. RAY
Founder & MD, Studio Form Techniques Pvt. Ltd. www.sft-lab.in
ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Uttaran Baidya Ray is the Managing Director of Bengaluru-based design firm Studio Form Techniques Pvt Ltd. He completed his Bachelor of Architecture from MIT Manipal, Mangalore University in 1998. With an overall 18 years of experience in engineered glass design & turnkey contracting, understanding working with various other composite materials & fabrication methods is not a challenge for him. Ray, with his innovative approach to provide design solutions by integrating emerging technology, has designed a number of remarkable projects. His mission is to be the market leader in the customised architectural products segment and steer the company as a corporate entity that will take “innovation India” to the rest of the world.
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Facade Follows Function Zephyr, Bhawdhan, Pune
Zephyr, Bhawdhan, Pune
une is one of the fastest urbanising cities in India due to a rapid increase in population and migration of people from varied cultural backgrounds. Here, the potential residents vary from a group of individuals to a nuclear family sharing a unit with more rooms in affordable lesser
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carpet area. Financial crunches and property rate hike are the factors governing the market demand, resulting in high-density housing characterised by towers of repetitive units with poor habitable space-quality and light-ventilation problem similar to any other developing city. This results in loss of culture and identity of the area
taking towards common universal language. Nature of the building facades should be the outcome of the architectural design process with respect to region, technology and cost. One cannot think of it separately. It may be stylised by different materials and methods. The building faรงade acts like
Project Watch a mediator between external context and internal environment, providing habitable space with light and ventilation. In addition, it adds life to the urbanscape. We can get inspiration from our traditional buildings with respect to passive façade design to minimise the heat absorption by providing balcony projections and jaali to peripheral passage areas. And to maximise the usage of indirect natural light and ventilation by the positioning of openings with respect to their size and orientation. Zephyr Surrounded by high-rise buildings from three sides, lowrise development would have struggled for light and ventilation. Hence, Zephyr happened to be a 11-storied high-rise building. The building is divided into north and south block. South block is further tilted to create a pocket to catch the south-west wind. As per site situation, the building got oriented on the east-west side. To create a thermal barrier for inside living spaces, all service areas are placed on the east-west façade and are protected and
The east-west façade are protected and bonded by perforated concrete jaali wall which serves as the main façade of the building
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bonded by perforated concrete jaali wall which serves as the main façade of the building. Basic principles considered while designing the façade were climate responsiveness, cost, visual pollution, security, scale and beauty. These jaalis are made on the site by modular concrete blocks having holes in varied sizes. These circular perforations allow wind to pass through but protect the inside space from harsh sunlight. They are arranged in different sizes considering the maximum view at eye level and privacy near toilet windows, by placing blocks accordingly. The perforation also varies with respect to the spaces and its usability to maintain the privacy of the users to create a graphic art. Zephyr Windows Characterisation of the building in an urban context is very important to create an identity of the building. The name Zephyr came from the west wind and the building’s central façade is very well designed
Staggered positioning of windows is to break the notion of the obvious floor
to capture the west wind. Each angular window, knitted together as a free façade, open in the direction for west wind, maintaining privacy from the opposite unit. Their staggered positioning is to break the notion of the obvious floor as if windows are merely opening with no one position inherently preferable. Moreover, the positioning of these windows in unconventional ways makes it seem newer always by giving privacy and security to users
Each angular window, knitted together as a free façade, open in the direction for west wind maintaining privacy from the opposite unit
The rhythmic pattern of jaali and the weaving of the windows
behind, creating excitement, both internally and externally. The rhythmic pattern of jaali and the weaving of the windows add richness to the fabric of our architecture, leaving the building a living body by making it breathe round the year.
QUICK FACTS: Project: Zephyr Location: Bhawdhan, Pune Client: Akash Mehta Architecture Firm: PMA Madhushala Principal Architect: Prasanna Morey Design Team: Prasanna Morey, Divya Jyoti, Darshan Phalak Other Consultant: RCC Designer - Suhas S Joshi Material Used for Façade & Fenestration: Concrete block Built Area: 3,600 sq m Project Timeline: 2011-2015 Photographer: Hemant Patil
Founder & Principal Architect PMA Madhushala, Pune
ABOUT THE AUTHOR: After completing his B.Arch from Amravati University in 1997, Prasanna Morey worked with architectural firms like Chaugule Sant & Associates and Navkar Architects, both are based in Pune. His apprenticeship under Ar. Girish Doshi for twelve years at Navkar Architects transformed him. In 2009, he established Studio Madhushala, with a manner suffused with the inherited stance of fearlessness towards uncertainty which he learned from his guru. The firm experiments with a language divided into lines, planes, and volumes with light, textures, authentic materials with available budget and context extending the idea of impermanence into work. The team strongly believes that architecture is not simply the manipulation of forms, it is also is the creation of space and above all, the construction of a ‘place’ that serves as the foundation for space. In all of his works, light is decisive in forming space which awakens architecture to life. WFM | JULY - AUG 2018
World’s Leading Machinery FOM Supplier to Aluminium & uPVC Industrie: Profile Manufacturing Companies
OMIndia has existed in India since last 15 years, initial 5 years through Hydro Building system and as a subsidiary since last 10 years; this journey helped us to know the market better and to prepare ourselves equipped with the required infrastructure to support customer, which is the USP of FOM. FOMIndustrie is the official machinery supplier to leading system suppliers in Europe, which indicates the quality and the latest technology incorporated in our machines and is an ongoing phenomena in FOMIndustrie. FOMIndia, establishment in year 2009, is associated with world’s leading aluminium and uPvc profile manufacturing companies, as our machines are proven and time tested, with many major fabricators across globe. FOMIndustrie machines can be demonstrated at many of the
leading system companies present in India. FOMIndia is a preferred supplier to referral companies like ALUFIT (has more than 20 machines with CNC
machining and sawing machines installed), KEF (has more than 25 Machines with 10 CNC machines), and UNIGLAZE (with 12 spindle machining centre installed). AIS Asahi and SAPA have our CNC centre, and Thermal Break line GLAZIUM and ALCOB Pune has more than 25 machines installed. FOMIndia has an infrastructure to support customers’ manufacturing challenges and to cooperatively seek solutions. The Technology Centre Network has its headquarters Campus in Bangalore. Factory trained Service engineers, available
For more details, contact: FOM Aluminium Machines Pvt. Ltd. # 96, 3rd Phase, Peenya Industrial Estate, Bangalore 560058, India. Mobile: 9008489134 Tel: 080-42111136/37 Fax: 080-28391775 Website: www.fomindustrie.in
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in Bangalore H.O, and engineers in Mumbai, Pune and Delhi, and also visit of Italian service personnel to Indian operations every two months for support. Our Indian operations are managed by Italian Director stationed in India, which is an added advantage to get timely support from Italy. FOMIndia has well experienced staff to evaluate and advise the right kind of machine selection, considering the utility factor and efficiency of machines to justify the Investment. We have over 1500 machines working successfully in India with over 350 customers. Over 30 CNC machining centres are working in India successfully since 2009, with proper stocking of required spares. Our Technology centre facilities are equipped with our most advanced machines and staffed with process application engineers, spare parts and an area dedicated to service and support. It also encompasses a warehouse of assorted machines ready for prompt delivery and a front office perfectly integrated with the parent company, and the world of FOM. Customers can enjoy free access to these resources, and to our supplier partners, to collaborate in a dynamic atmosphere for solving problems. Choose FOM machinery, FOM will help you to grow your business.
FOM INDUSTRIE, Italy, has been well known for more than Four decades for quality systems for cutting and machining aluminium and uPVC profiles. Its products high technology content and proven reliability has been the keystone of its success. Since 1972, the year of its foundation, FOM has set itself the ambitious target of combining reliability, efficiency and technological innovation. FOM INDIA has more than 1500 machines with its 300+fabricators in India since its inception from 2009.
Our Proud Customer FOM INDUSTRIE congratulates INNOVATORS for choosing HIGH PERFORMING 4 AXIS CNC MACHINING center Model DALI 70.
Founded in 1991 by Mr. R.S Sharma, Innovators is a leading Facade and Fenestration one stop solution provider, committed to the highest quality work product and superior client servicing. Innovators is expert in the design, engineering, fabrication, assembly and erection of custom facade systems. Contact: Tel no: +91 22 28112521, 28100752 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Fom Aluminium Machines Pvt. Ltd . # 96 ,3rd Phase, Peenya Industrial Estate, Bangalore - 560058, India.
Life Style: Urban Life in Rural Background
Life Style, Kolhapur
olhapur is an urban town in the predominately rural area. Citizens are mainly from a rural background, hence like living close to nature. They prefer bungalows to apartments. But the constraint on the horizontal growth of the city due to its geographical location promotes vertical development in terms of apartments. In this project, one can get the feel of a bungalow in the apartment due to large terraces for living areas as well as private domains like bedrooms. Cultural and Climatic Response The apartment is designed in such a way that it compensates the urge for an individual bungalow. The large terrace opening into a large common green zone that creates a transition space between indoor and outdoor. These are very important spaces climatically and culturally. In the Indian context, these semi-open outdoor areas cater to many outdoor activities and also help in controlling indoor environment. Design Concept â€“ FaĂ§ade, Fenestration and Fabrication The project is designed with the vernacular and contemporary style of architecture. The style of architecture creates continuity through the housing with white bands yet each building gets individuality with different colours.
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The apartment is designed in such a way that it compensates the urge for an individual bungalow
The various colours have been used with grey base, again creating a backdrop for the scheme. The white bands are designed in such a way that the band wraps the building and shades the facades and openings. The pergola on the top is a very dynamic feature of the
Green Features • Climate responsive architecture • Ample daylight and cross ventilation for each apartment - common areas naturally ventilated • Double height terraces and landscape as microclimatic modifier • Horizontal white bands at each slab level projecting over openings to protect from solar radiation
All the openings are recessed and well shaded with projected white bands at each slab level - the main feature of façade treatment
project creating shaded terraces and at the same time generating a different pattern on the façade. Full height openings create an effect of freestanding walls, creating very modern yet costeffective architecture considering that this is a developer’s project. The
Each apartment is configured with large shaded openings allowing ample natural light and ventilation
glass railing helps in maintaining the simplicity yet elegance of the project. Overall this project suits the modern lifestyle of people and still keeps the vernacular ethos intact and compensates the urge to own a bungalow. Light and Ventilation Though it is a group housing project, each apartment is designed with large shaded openings allowing ample natural light and ventilation. Each flat has three sides open and hence enjoy the luxury of having minimum two windows on opposite walls in each room which provides cross ventilation throughout the year, maintaining the thermal comfort. All the openings are recessed and well shaded with projected white bands at each slab level -the main feature of façade treatment. This allows only diffused light and avoids harsh solar radiation – again achieving thermal comfort and creating the comfortable indoor environment. Also cutting down the cost of shading devices like chajjas or louvers and gives the WFM | JULY - AUG 2018
The clubhouse is designed towards the nalla with a large amphitheater
building a coherent look. All the common areas like lobbies and staircases are well lit and ventilated reducing the energy demand in the project. Site Development The distance between the two buildings is maintained in such a way that all the apartment achieves privacy and yet all of them have a visual connection with landscape areas between the two buildings. These open spaces between two buildings are designed with soft and hard landscape creating interaction areas for young and adult both. The clubhouse is designed towards the nalla with a large amphitheater, multipurpose hall, playground, lounge, etc. These are common facilities for people and have well-designed landscapes.
QUICK FACTS: Project: Life Style Client: Bhima Builders Location: Kolhapur Architects: Sunil Patil and Associates Interior Designer: Sunil Patil and Associates Landscape Designers: Sunil Patil and Associates Structural Consultants: Dr. A.B. Kulkarni & Associates Civil Contractors: Bhima Builders & Developers Photo Credits: Sanjay Chougule Commencement Date: 2011 Completion Date: 2015 Site Area: 5025.90 sq m Built-Up Area: 7192.19 sq m Cost: 10 crore Project Team: Ar. Sunil Patil, Ar. Anuja Pandit, Er. Sanjay Patil
The distance between the two buildings is maintained in such a way that all the apartment achieves privacy and yet all of them have a visual connection with landscape areas between the two buildings
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AR. SUNIL PATIL
Founder, Sunil Patil & Associates
ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Graduated from Kolhapur, Architect Sunil Patil started his practice in 1994 as Sunil Patil and Associates (SPA) and since then has designed numerous versatile projects including residential and commercial complexes, industrial buildings, institutional blocks, public utility places, etc. SPA is dedicated to environment-friendly sustainable architecture and to bring the client's dreams and aspirations into reality. The firm is known for its innovative use of materials. SPAâ€™s creative designs are complemented by prompt and quality project management. They approach the designs from different perspectives which enable them to innovate, make optimal use of the space by blending together two core necessities of a world-class designs; creativity and modern technology.
Innovation in Design
echnically, it’s just a door or a window but while we dive deep in delivering the perfect one, it is then where our work begins. Our emphasis is to innovate, research and bring in to the world the best of technologies, designs and products under one roof. Not only do we manufacture aluminum fenestration products, unlike many players, we take complete charge over the project, serving even after years. Our clients count on us! Riddhi Siddhi Innovations India Private Limited [RSIIPL] has been the strongest growing company in the fenestration industry in the past few years. Tulsi Ram Modi brought a revolutionary concept and introduced window systems in Rajasthan, his dedication, ingenious thinking mindset and experience of more than two decades have transformed the
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industry and benefitted not only consumers but other businesses too. Company’s explosive growth manifests expansion as ALFEN, a trusted brand known for quality, designs, innovation, catering unique solutions and unmatched services. There are a complete range of aluminum fenestration products that include casement and sliding doors/windows, bifolding doors/windows, moveable glass partitions, retractable roofs, railings, pergolas and much more. ALFEN products are
manufactured focusing on aesthetics and functionality, a combination of European class and innovative tech, guaranteeing great resistance in hard weather conditions, boasting high rated acoustic performance, energy efficiency, maintaining day light and heat insulation, various glazing and colour profiles, offer much to choose your pick from. Nowadays, slim is in, our upcoming design ‘Sleek’ boasts of minimal structure with complete enclosure. This series will be available in various typology, finish and glass options.
For more details, contact: Riddhi Siddhi Innovations (INDIA) Pvt Ltd 214-215, Sunny Mart, New Atish Market, Jaipur-302020, Rajasthan, India Mobile: +91 141 2982182 E-Mail: email@example.com Website: www.alfen.in
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BRIDGING EMERGING Technologies & Enduring Designs Zak World of Façades | 20th July, 2018 | ITC Gardenia, Bengaluru
he 45th edition of Zak World of Façades was held successfully at the ITC Gardenia, Bengaluru on July 20, 2018. This edition was squarely focused on the topic “Bridging emerging technologies and enduring designs for a sustainable future”, which resonates well with growing needs of enhancing knowledge and skills on building envelopes and latest technical solutions. This much awaited one-day event is served as the best comprehensive platform for the construction industry, as it gives the chance to mingle and connect with the industry leaders from India and around the globe providing expert solutions, services and products. Besides, the conference offers a unique opportunity of knowledge sharing and cross learning on subjects
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related to façade and fenestration design and engineering. With over 300 attendees, the action packed conference created a vigorous and dynamic atmosphere where specialists from the industry spoke on varied topics. The conference covered four sessions that intended to give more information on what is feasible and carve the way in terms of innovation, technology and sustainability in façade industry. Noted personalities from the industry - KR Suresh, Regional Director, Axis Façades and Suhel Kachwala, Managing Director, FG Glass, hosted and convened the event on a high spirit. The welcome address was given by Ahad Ahmed, Director, Zak Group. With that, the first session of the conference commenced with an interesting topic on “Facades and
Identities” by Smaran Mallesh, Principal Architect, Cadence Design. The discussion revolved around façades as sculptural fronts to buildings showcasing interiority, façades masquerading as an alternate identity to the buildings
Regional Director, Axis Façades
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Managing Director, FG Glass
and façade identities spawning varied emotions in the building occupants. This was followed by Richard MacDonald, Regional Director, Maffeis Engineering, on “Design Trends in Stadia facades” where he talked about rigid and ﬂexible materials, tensile membrane and cable systems. The next speaker was Prameena Karunairaj, Business Development Manager - Sun Shading Façade, FunderMax India, with an insightful presentation on “Sun Shading – Passive Architectural Solution Using High Pressure Laminates”. In relation to the subject, Karunairaj further explained on signiﬁcance of passive architecture, energy efﬁciency beneﬁts of sun shading using high pressure laminates and social aspects of improving the performance of built spaces.
Regional Director, Maffels Engineering
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Director, Zak Group
After a short tea break, the second session resumed with the same zeal of the engaged audience. Nitin Govila, Managing Director - APAC & MEA, Serge Ferrari, emphasized on “Tensile Membrane Façade - Lightweight + Durable”. He elucidated on the importance of thermal comfort and solar protection, visual comfort and glare control and dynamic façades with day/night effect. Going forward, the next presenter was Mic Patterson, Director Strategic Development, Schueco USA, talking on “Innovations in Façade Technology and Trends”. He highlighted on the technical implementation of parametrically developed constructions and challenges of geometry. With the theme on “The Design Legacy”, Christoph Timm, Associate
Business Development Manager - Sun Shading Façade, FunderMax India
Principal Architect, Cadence Design
Director, Skidmore Owings & Merrill, New York, presented case studies of India - Bangalore T2, Carmichael Road, Mumbai; DLF Tower, Chennai and case studies of USA - NYC Manhattan West N/E Tower; Moynihan Station, NYC; CCLD: Airforce Academy, Colorado. The highlight of the second session was the penal discussion on “Innovations for High Performance Functional Facades”, moderated by KR Suresh, Regional Director, Axis Façades. The discussion further dissected on topics including ‘digital inﬂuence on façade construction’, ‘multi layered envelopes - a way to high performance’, ‘heat island effect and design innovations to minimise the same’, and ‘culminating complexity of design with safety and sustainability features of the façade’. The panelists included
Managing Director - APAC & MEA, Serge Ferrari
uPVC Windows and Doors Manufacturers Association
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Director - Strategic Development, Schueco USA
Giuseppe Morando, Design Head, Space Matrix; Gautam Shetty, Design Head, Baghmane; Akshay Heranjal, Principal Architect, The Purple Ink Studio; Ramyo Dey, General Manager - Planning & Design, Bangalore International Airport; Mahesh Arumugam, Regional Director - South Asia, Meinhardt Façade; and Kamlesh Choudhari, Director, Glass Wall Systems. After the lunch break, AV Antao, Chief Operating Ofﬁcer, Synergy Property Development, illuminated on “Effective Project Management Techniques Pertaining to the Building Envelope”. Concerning the topic, he spoke on the significance of dedicated resource allocation for building envelope works, scheduling and sequencing of
Associate Director, Skidmore Owings & Merrill, New York
building envelope works, constant monitoring of onsite quality control through inspections, building enclosure commissioning and handover documentation, etc. The next presentation on “Kinship of Fire and Façade” by Mahesh Arumugam, Regional Director - South Asia, Meinhardt Façade, raised many questions on the safety aspects. He discussed ‘safety - the importance of ﬁre severance’, ‘secured - the importance of smoke seal’ and ‘suppression - the importance of ﬁre stop’. Up next was Sourabh Kankar, Marketing Manager - India, Gujarat Guardian, on the topic “Future of Glass Façade” with more details on the evolution of glass façade, converting rendering into reality, and solutions from SunGuard.
The penal discussion on “Innovations for High Performance Functional Facades”: The panelists included Giuseppe Morando, Design Head, Space Matrix; Gautam Shetty, Design Head, Baghmane; Akshay Heranjal, Principal Architect, The Purple Ink Studio; Ramyo Dey, General Manager - Planning & Design, Bangalore International Airport; Mahesh Arumugam, Regional Director - South Asia, Meinhardt Façade; Kamlesh Choudhari, Director, Glass Wall Systems
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Chief Operating Ofﬁcer, Synergy Property Development
Malvinder Singh Rooprai, Technical Consultant - APAC, Trosifol, stressed on the subject of “Evolving Laminated Safety Glass”. He gave a thought provoking insight on the inﬂuence of interlayer properties, Indian standard regulations and analysis of glass ﬁns. This was followed by a very topical topic on “Emerging Trends & Technologies for Building Façade” by Jean Paul Hautekeer, Global Marketing Director - High Performance Building, Dow. The last topic of the session was focused on “New Trends of Façade for Residential Projects”, delivered by Kapil Chikodi, Head Business Development, Glass Wall Systems. The fourth session featured a presentation by Ravindra Kumar, Director, Venkataramanan Associates, on “Rigour Skin”, which
Regional Director - South Asia, Meinhardt Façade
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The conference was complemented by a display of newly launched products by many brands
The panel discussion on “Challenges in Façade Execution”, moderated by Antony John, Technical Director, Schueco India. Participants: Sharath Ravindran, Project Director, Atelier D’Arts & Architecture; Senoj Alexander V, Vice President & Head - Design, Karle Infra; Anil Mutalik, Vice President - Projects, Bhartiya City Siva; Senathipathy, Director, Gleeds Hoolooman; Balaji Chandran, Head - Speciality Business, FunderMax India; Eshan Hemrajani, Director, Glass Wall Systems; and Sagar Muthappa, Senior Vice President - Projects, Vaishnavi Group
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Marketing Manager - India, Gujarat Guardian
was quite enlightening and educative. This was followed by a lecture on “Durable Powders for a New Tomorrow” by PV Narsimha Rao, National Sales Head - India Sri Lanka & Bangladesh, Akzo Nobel India. The panel discussion was based on the very contextual topic “Challenges in Façade Execution”, moderated by Antony John, Technical Director, Schueco India. The discussion saw participation of experts like Sharath Ravindran, Project Director, Atelier D’Arts & Architecture; Senoj Alexander V, Vice President & Head - Design, Karle Infra; Anil Mutalik, Vice President - Projects, Bhartiya City; Siva Senathipathy, Director, Gleeds Hoolooman; Balaji Chandran, Head - Speciality Business, FunderMax India; Eshan Hemrajani, Director,
Head - Business Development, Glass Wall Systems
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MALVINDER SINGH ROOPRAI Technical Consultant - APAC, Trosifol
Glass Wall Systems; and Sagar Muthappa, Senior Vice President - Projects, Vaishnavi Group. They brainstormed on various aspects of challenges, such as façade deliveries, understanding and mitigating risk; engineered system façades and how to use them to beneﬁt seamless façade execution; on site logistics and execution challenges; and possible pitfalls and their avoidance. The conference was complemented by a display of newly launched products by many brands, including Mccoy Soudal, Schueco, FG Glass, Dow Corning, Renson, Trosifol, Fundermax, Kinlong, Akzo Nobel India, among others. Besides, these companies gave demonstrations of their latest products and technologies, which stirred a ripple of interest and attention among the delegates and
Director, Venkataramanan Associates
JEAN PAUL HAUTEKEER
Global Marketing Director - High Performance Building, Dow
visitors. Zak World of Façades is an international conference series on the subject of façade design and engineering. The conference now takes place in South Asia (India & Sri Lanka), South East Asia (Singapore & Indonesia), Greater China (Hong Kong), Middle East (United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait), Africa (Kenya) and the United Kingdom. The event was organised by the Zak Trade Fairs and Exhibitions. The sponsors included Schueco, Glass Wall Systems, AkzoNobel, Dow, FG Glass, Fundermax, Kinlong, Mccoy Soudal, Modiguard, Serge Ferrari, Trosifol, Allarch, etc. Window and Façade magazine was the media partner and Fensterbau Frontale was the strategic partner of the exclusive event.
PV NARSIMHA RAO
National Sales Head - India Sri Lanka & Bangladesh, Akzo Nobel India
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ONE DAY NATIONAL WORKSHOP ON National Building Code of India 2016: Glass and Glazing Aspects
Engrossed audience during a presentation
ureau of Indian Standards (BIS), Glazing Society of India (GSI) and IIT Madras jointly conducted a one-day workshop on â€œNational Building Code 2016: Glass and Glazing Aspectsâ€? recently at LS Raheja School of Architecture in Mumbai. The workshop was supported by Glass and Glazing Knowledge Forum including Glazing Society of India, Federation of Safety Glass, All India Glass Manufacturers Federation, Confederation of Construction Products and Services, International Fenestration Forum, Glass Academy and uPVC Windows and Doors Manufacturers Association (UWDMA).
The objective of this workshop was to educate the entire construction value chain on the codes and provisions given in NBC 2016 on the use of glass and glazing systems in Indian buildings and thereby enabling the implementation of the same. The technical theme paper book was released by V Suresh, ViceChairman, NBC Committee of BIS and the first copy was received by Arun Kumar, Scientist D, Civil Engineering Department, BIS in the presence of S Arul Jayachandran, Professor, Civil Engineering Department, IIT Madras; G N Gohul Deepak, Director, Glazing Society of India and other dignitaries.
While delivering the key note address, V Suresh presented about various sections present in NBC 2016 which would be vital for every professional in the construction value chain as a guideline for safe and sustainable construction. In his special address, S Arun Kumar explained about the revisions done in NBC 2016 to cater to the growing needs for standardisation in the glass and glazing industry. The event had three technical sessions addressed by eminent experts from BIS, industry and academia. The eminent experts included S Arun Kumar, R N Dandekar (Convener, Panel for Glass and Glazing of NBC 2016), Prof S Arul Jayachandran, Amor Kool (Member, Panel for Sustainability of NBC 2016), S S Warrick (Member, Panel for Fire Protection of NBC 2016), Antony John (Member, Panel for Glass and Glazing of NBC 2016) and Sharanjit Singh, (Member, Glass, Glassware and Laboratoryware, Technical Committee of BIS). The workshop was well attended by 170+ participants comprising builders, architects, consultants, developers, glass processors, manufacturers, government officials and other professionals.
Release of theme paper for the workshop: Key note address: V Suresh Kumar, Vice-Chairman, NBC Committee of BIS
(Left to Right) Prof S Arul Jayachandran, V Suresh, S Arun Kumar, G N Gohul Deepak
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NCL VEKA upgrades brand, steps up investments
CL VEKA, one of the world’s biggest uPVC window profile extruders, is expanding its presence in India with an additional INR 250 MM investment and upgrading its brand. The company also announced the commissioning of a new 1,50,000 sq ft uPVC extrusion facility in Hyderabad with fully automated mixing and conveying system. VEKA has plans to launch four new showrooms, eyeing foray
into export markets. NCL VEKA, a 50:50 JV, announced this fresh investment will be in machinery, product enhancements, new showrooms and marketing outlay. This investment is in addition to 500 MM into machinery and building of the factory in Hyderabad already invested by the company. "India is a key focus area for us, the growth potential for uPVC windows in this region is expected to far out perform any region in the globe. We are making the required investments in this region to capitalise on this opportunity,” said Andreas Hartleif, CEO of VEKA AG. The new NCL VEKA factory, with capacity for 30 extruders, makes the company the largest player in India. “While, 18 extruders are already
ordered and commissioned, 12 more are expected to be in place over the next year. When the plant is fully operational we will have the capacity to produce over 30,000 tons of profiles, to manufacture over 1.7 million windows annually.” said Ashven Datla, Managing Director of NCL VEKA. The company has been aggressively growing with 30% growth YoY. It clocked a turnover of 163 crore (fiscal 2017-18) and has built strong partnerships with 250 specialist fabricators to serve markets across India. VEKA is a $1.2 billion, one of the world's largest producer of uPVC profiles with manufacturing units in 18 countries, operations in 40 countries and total employees of 5,500. NCL is an INR 1500 crore building materials manufacturer based out of Hyderabad with products ranging from cement, boards, windows, doors, paints & plasters and AAC block.
Renson partners up with OpenMotics
enson, a European manufacturer in ventilation and sun protection, has announced its partnership with OpenMotics, a Belgain-based specialist in building automation. The partnership has opened up several challenging perspectives for both the parties. “We at Renson have known for some time now that healthy and comfortable living goes beyond just those products that we develop for this purpose,” said CEO Paul Renson. He further said, "and
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now, thanks to this partnership, we have a concrete ‘cloud’ solution inhouse.” Pieter De Clerck, CEO of OpenMotics, said, “As far as we are concerned, building automation should be as natural in a house as running water or electricity. I like to compare the ‘cloud’ platform that we offer as a digital ‘market’ for this to the app store to make my point: you only use mobile phones for calling and texting. But it is the app store that allows the smartphone to grow to meet the needs of the users. It is our ambition to be the ‘app store for buildings’ via a platform of our own services that is simultaneously open to external parties, etc.” In the initial contacts two years
ago, both the companies realised that they shared the same vision that focused on the concept that a house must be a true ‘home’ where healthy living is the norm. “We were specifically looking for a strategic partnership with a manufacturer in the construction sector,” added Pieter De Clerck. “The thing about Renson that immediately attracted us is the realisation that is evident there concerning how the industry evolves, and the realisation that you as a manufacturer can strengthen your position by going beyond just the mere offer of ‘construction parts’. For example, by marketing ‘comfortable living’ (or ‘creating healthy spaces’) as a service too. And we can contribute wonderfully to this.”
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CMC enters into exclusive tie-up with Turkey’s porcelain tiles major Kalesinterflex
lassic Marble Company (CMC), a leader in the natural and engineered stone segment, has entered into an exclusive tie-up with global tiles leader Kalesinterflex to market its products in India. Kalesinterflex is one of Turkey’s oldest and world’s most renowned ceramic tiles manufacturers pioneering in the
ultra large sized formats. As part of the exclusive tie-up, CMC will market Kalesinterflex’s flagship products through its distribution channels and vendor networks across the country. The partnering is a strategic move by CMC to offer all kinds of surface materials under one roof while maintaining its market leadership in the marble space. Kalesinterflex is known for offering one of the most flexible, lightweight and manoeuvrable tiles. Available in matt finish, there are over forty different product choices in an assortment of colours. The products are available in the 3000 x 1000mm size, and in 5mm and 3mm thickness options.
Hafele presents Stile Door Hardware
äfele, a German architecture hardware company, has presented a versatile range of Stile Door Hardware that offers an escape from the noise outside the rooms with controllable acoustics. This range, which includes diverse Stile Door Hardware options,
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combines visual sophistication with design flexibility and helps create spaces enhancing the interior architecture. The strength and flexibility of the hardware is what holds it all together and makes the structure sustain. Engineered for strength
The tile has a flexibility radius of 5.5m making it versatile and easy to handle products. Kalesinterflex is an environmentfriendly, innovative material in the construction industry that can be used in a host of contemporary applications including walls and floors, external facades and special applications like elevated floors, separation panels and furniture, among others. Despite being thin, the tile is strong and durable making it easy to handle during installations. It is also fire resistant, inflammable and fire-proof and offers great aesthetics for any kinds of applications. Its smooth surface does not retain dirt and is maintenance free.
and stability, the Stile Door Hardware range comprises door fittings and door solutions that offer coordinated, attractive design options with application versatility. Besides, this door architecture concept, popularly referred to as Stile Doors, enables the rooms to appear larger and interconnected and enhances the ambience of the space, offering a visual treat. These doors help create discreet pockets that are inviting, collaborative and at the same time promote organisational transparency without any hindrance. Stile Doors are a perfect example of effortlessly combined transparency and discretion. These doors embody the latest trends in design, and offer the flexibility of having the right hardware that enables a customised look as the customer desires.
Stonelam® Laminam launches architectural facade skin
tonelam® Laminam, a major manufacturer of versatile surfaces, has launched the architectural façade skin, a revolutionary slab equipped with environmentally friendly features.
With a thickness of 3 and 5mm, these flat and light slabs form an authentic architectural skin designed as a covering material for the façades. This new product is produced using anti-pollution and self-cleaning Hydrotect® treatment. The Hydrotect® technology is applicable for exterior coverings, making slabs self-cleaning, antibacterial and purifying the air. When the light of the UV rays comes into contact with the surface of the outdoor covering and radiates it, active oxygen is generated, which breaks
down all the organic substances and oxidises the nitrogen oxides. It protects the façade from rainwater, which is feasible by its ultrawater resistant characteristics of the treated slabs. The product is resistant to mechanical stresses, chemicals, wear, scratches, deep abrasion, bending, frost, fire, mould, mildew and it is easy to sanitise. The chromatic properties of the slabs are unchanging, designed to stand the test of time in all atmospheric conditions.
and the OSRAM ARCHISHAPE® Linear Wall Washer Mini. "We built something that did not exist before," said Ashok, Head of Sales in OSRAM Lighting Solutions India. "In a 5.7 km stretch of the city comprising 425 heritage monuments, 30 different types of lights were designed in 15 different beam angles and 8 different colour temperatures to restore life to the architecture. Now, the
heritage monuments hypnotise the walking crowd at night and speak aloud about the core and culture of the city.” The success of this project transformed the Jaipur city into an iconic site at night just as it is in the day. With a combination of ancient heritage and culture as well as ultra-modern technology, Jaipur glows with the combination of new and old lifestyles.
OSRAM transforms the city of Jaipur with modern lighting technology
ollowing the success of lighting installation of the renowned Golden Temple, OSRAM Lighting Solutions has extended its lighting concept to another iconic site in India with cutting edge lighting products, making Jaipur as one of the most unique destinations in Asia. For this mega project, the company featured 6613 lights, including the Traxon Nano Linear Allegro, Traxon Washer Allegro, OSRAM ARCHISHAPE® Washer
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SageGlass® to be installed at Mohammed Bin Rashid Library in Dubai
ageGlass®, one of the world’s smartest electrochromic glasses, will be installed in the Mohammed bin Rashid Library, currently under construction in Dubai. It is the largest library and cultural project by Dubai Municipality, in the Arab world. Designed by Architectural Consultancy Group (ACG) and constructed by ASGC, the sevenstorey project will feature the latest technologies. SageGlass will make up 72 percent of the project’s total glass elevation. The product, an innovative solution for controlling daylight and glare, can create a more comfortable interior environment. It can be programmed to tint automatically
to the appropriate level of transparency in response to the sun or can be controlled manually via a smartphone application. With the ability to block heat and glare without the use of blinds or shades, SageGlass preserves views of the outdoors. Architectural façade and glazing specialist JML will install SageGlass at the library. “The Mohammed bin Rashid Library will welcome millions of visitors annually, and people will spend extended periods of time inside the building,” said Sameh Samy, ASGC project director. “SageGlass will tint automatically to achieve the desired amount of shading inside the library, but it can also be manually changed through
the mobile app if more or less shading is needed in a particular area, depending on the activities or presentations planned.” By blocking the sun as needed throughout hot days, SageGlass will contribute to the building’s energy savings, helping the project pursue certifications through green building rating systems such as LEED and Al Safat. SageGlass has previously been recognised in the Middle East region for its sustainability benefits. SageGlass received the prestigious Gaia Award for the most innovative green construction product at The Big 5 International Building and Construction Show in 2016 in Dubai.
Kajaria Ceramics launches its largest Kajaria Eternity World showroom at Karnal
ajaria Ceramics, the manufacturer of ceramic and vitrified tiles, has launched its largest Kajaria Eternity World showroom at Karnal in Haryana. Spread across an area of 6,000 square feet, the showroom houses the entire Kajaria Eternity range (GVT range), showcasing more than 1000 designs from the ‘Eternity’
WFM | JULY - AUG 2018
collection. The showroom was inaugurated by Ashok Kajaria, CMD, Kajaria Ceramics and Rishi Kajaria, JMD, Kajaria Ceramics. Through this showroom, Kajaria aims to engage with customers by providing the finest services and a state-of-theart experience into Kajaria universe. Commenting on the launch, Ashok Kajaria said, “Kajaria Ceramics is committed to expanding its footprint in new markets and at the same time strengthening its presence in existing markets. Kajaria endeavours to provide its customers with an opportunity to experience the products’ look and feel and the new showroom in Karnal is another milestone
in providing our customers world class technology. North India has always been a strong performing market for Kajaria, and our showroom here will offer a complete product experience to our customers.” Adding to this, Rishi Kajaria said, "Our strong network of Kajaria Eternity World showrooms already covers major cities in North India. The inauguration in Karnal further deepens our relationship with consumers.” Kajaria has a strong network of dealers and associates in Northern India and with this new showroom, it further solidifies its presence in the region by taking the Kajaria legacy forward.
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F & F Media and Publications Window & Facade Magazine (WFM) is a technical journal published by F & F Media and Publications.
Published on Sep 1, 2018
F & F Media and Publications Window & Facade Magazine (WFM) is a technical journal published by F & F Media and Publications.