Page 1 Volume 4 | Issue 5 | ` 150 May - June 2018

HARDWARE SOLUTIONS FOR DOORS & WINDOWS Discussing technological advancements, test procedures, safety parameters and more

Fire Safety

Firestops Rise to the Safety Challenge in India’s Tall Buildings

Tech Talk

Acoustic Properties of Glass: Not So Simple

Face to Face

Kumar Ravindra, Design Director, Venkataramanan Associates & Principal Architect, PRAGRUP









Volume 4 I Issue 5 May - June 2018

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PUBLISHED BY F & F Media and Publications C-55, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase - 1, New Delhi-110 020 T: +91-11-40623356 CO-FOUNDERS Syed Ahad Ahmed Amit Malhotra TECHNICAL PANEL Mahesh Arumugam Director Meinhardt Façade Consultants KR Suresh Regional Director  xis Façade Consulting A EDITORIAL  enu Rajaram R +91 9312864830 Potshangbam July DESIGN & CONCEPT BY: Prashant Kumar MARKETING & OPERATIONS Kapil Girotra +91 9560925255 SUBSCRIPTION & CIRCULATION Lipi Sahai +91 9871151112 Mukesh Kumar +91 9560088995 RNI: DELENG/2014/57870


Energy-Efficient and Sustainable Buildings Polyamide thermal break profiles provide thermal insulation for aluminium windows, doors and façades


Firestops Rise to the Safety Challenge in India’s Tall Buildings On passive fire protection solutions in buildings, mitigating the effects of fire, saving lives and property


Double Glazed uPVC Windows: for High Performance & Style Explaining the benefits of double glazed windows


Sun Control & Sun Shading Devices Well-designed shading for sun control, reducing building peak heat gain & cooling requirements, and day lighting


Acoustic Properties of Glass: Not So Simple Need for measuring glass performance against noise: loudness and frequency


Architectural Hardware Industry - Gearing Up For the Winds of Change Discussing technological advancements, test procedures, safety parameters and more


Face to Face Interview with Kumar Ravindra, Design Director, Venkataramanan Associates & Principal Architect, PRAGRUP


Industry Speaks Interview with Robert Höllrigl, Executive Director, R&D at Encraft India Pvt. Ltd. & B. Muralidharan, Chief Executive Officer, Encraft India Pvt. Ltd.


Project Watch • Aero Hive, Hong Kong - Midori Architects • Inderlok Hotel, Dehradun - Spall Associates • Hager Electro India Pvt. Ltd., Pune - Prashant Deshmukh and Associates


Post Event Report • ‘Train the Trainers’ workshop by GSI & IIT-Chennai & CGCRI • Smart Cities India 2018 Expo, New Delhi • Zak World of Facades, Mumbai • Inauguration of UWDMA's Skill-Based Training Centre

Cover Courtesy: Encraft India Pvt. Ltd.

DISCLAIMER: With regret we wish to say that publishers cannot be held responsible or liable for error or omission contained in this publication. The opinions and views contained in this publication are not necessarily those of the publishers. Readers are advised to seek expert advice before acting on any information contained in this publication which are very generic in nature. The Magazine does not accept responsibility for the accuracy of claims made by advertisers. The ownership of trademarks is acknowledged. No part of this publication or any part of the contents thereof may be reproduced in any form or context without the permission of publishers in writing. WRITE TO THE EDITOR Please address your suggestions to: The Editor, Window & Façade Magazine, C55, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase – 1, New Delhi, 110020 or email Please provide your full name and address, stating clearly if you do not wish us to print them. Alternatively log on to and air your views. The opinions expressed in this section are of particular individuals and are in no way a reflection of the publisher’s views. “Printed and Published by Amit Malhotra on behalf of M/s F & F Media and Publications Printed and published at Thomson Press India Ltd., B-315, Okhla Industrial Area Phase 1, New Delhi. Name of the Editor-Ms. Renu Rajaram”


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Hardware is considered a small part of facade and fenestration, but undoubtedly a very important one. With the increased focus on building and renovation over the past decade, there has been a growing demand for hardware that is both fine-looking and functional. Eco-friendliness and technological innovation mark the latest in the door and window hardware. There are a number of architectural hardware brands that can provide userfriendly and comfortable operations. But with so many options, homeowners often get confused while buying hardware. Many publications and industry events have touted the importance of updating hardware and now even many famous designers are marketing their own designer hardware. Customisation requests will become an ever stronger need in the future. The demand for hardware solutions with minimal systems, automation and hidden accessories still characterises the high-end market. But, in the future, we will have a greater diffusion, thanks to the technological development that will make these products more competitive also in terms of price. But one must understand that even the best of hardware fail if the installation procedures and parameters are not followed. This edition’s cover story focuses on all aspects of architectural hardware, including the styles, finishes, quality checks, and tips from the pros on hardware selection. It provides useful information on what to look for while shopping for hardware, such as hardware grades, and quality testing and standards. The cover story deliberates on the future of the architectural hardware industry for facades and fenestrations as well. It discusses a few hurdles faced by companies in this sector and solutions for the same. This edition presents many interesting articles on various topics like passive fire protection solutions such as firestops and polyamide thermal break insulators. It also looks into factors which could help in maintaining sustainable interior environments, focusing on intelligent facades, sun control & shading devices, acoustic properties of glass, etc. A constant product presence in the eye of a reader, in an industry specified magazine such as Window and Façade, will encourage recognition of your products & brands and will continue to form a part of a great architecture. We would like to thank our regular and current advertisers who form a part of great read and product source for specifiers and other industry players. We would also like to extend our gratitude to our editorial contributors and architectural firms for submitting their prestigious projects for us to publish. We look forward to growing from strength to strength with WFM continuing to serve as a useful resource for all our readers.

Renu Rajaram MAY - JUNE 2018 l WFM


Green Talk

Energy-Efficient and Sustainable Buildings


third of the energy consumed worldwide is used to heat up and cool down buildings. This huge figure harbours a major saving potential that in turn lead to amazing development opportunities for the façade industry. Particularly in rapidly growing urban areas, the demand for efficient buildings is on the rise. Saving energy will also be a major mid- and long-term issue in urban areas, as many people expect to have a high standard of living in extremely limited spaces. The energy supply cannot be increased infinitely to guarantee this. The way it is used must meet the highest efficiency criteria. The ever stricter laws and regulations and the increasing importance of international green certification systems also go in this same direction.


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POLYAMIDE THERMAL BREAK INSULATORS While standard aluminum profile sections conduct the outside heat into the inside, a thermally broken aluminum profile section creates a barrier to insulate thermal transfer. With the substantial temperature differences between 35-45°C outside and 20-25°C inside, imagine how much air conditioning energy and cost you are losing by not protecting your building façade with thermal

Polyamide thermal break profiles with polyamide foam

break aluminum windows, doors and façades. Polyamide thermal break profiles provide thermal insulation for aluminum windows, doors and façades and allow added power to improve product quality, reduce costs and meet ever stricter U-value requirements, structural performance and long-term durability standards set by international architects, consultants, and municipal engineers. It reduces the need for air conditioning or heating, saves on energy costs, protects the environment, and helps in achieving a green building concept. Constructed of high-performance polyamide 6.6 with 25 percent glassfiber content, thermal break strips provide greater structural integrity for curtain wall systems than every other alternative thermoplastic available, with expansion/contraction rate equal to that of aluminum.


Without HARMING NATURE Reliable & Durable Variety & Eco Friendly Application on almost any shape

Established in the year 1989, Powdertek offers wood finish powder coating process which is the latest technological breakthrough in metal coating giving the strength and durability of metal and the aesthetics of wood.

Appreciated by architects & designers

can cater upto 20 feet long objects like aluminium sections/ profiles and also rectangular/ flat objects like steel doors and

frame upto 16'x4'

Available in different shades

POWDERTEK A-18/A, Naraina Industrial Area, Phase-1, New Delhi-110028. Phone: 011-41411141, +917770888666, 9811173861 Email:

Green Talk ADVANTAGES Thermal Power: Various depths and geometries to achieve various thermal performance targets.

savings in power required for cooling or heating and keeps paying back in terms of cost saving for the years to follow.

Structural Power: 25 percent glass fiber content to ensure structural stability of aluminum bars.

Lifetime Power: Polyamide never loses efficiency with time, hence keeps performing at the same rate until the lifecycle of the façade. It also enhances and supports all other performance criteria like water tightness, structural stability and acoustic attenuation.

Creative Power: Bi-colour aluminum profiles. Possibility to coat the polyamide in the colour of your window or keep it black. Technical Power: High melting temperature. Possible to powder coat or anodize. Efficiency Power: Makes the building more power efficient by requiring less energy to cool or heat the interior. Environmental Power: By using less air conditioning to keep the building cool, you will be emitting less CO2 into the atmosphere and therefore reducing harm to our environment. Payback Power: It pays back the upgrading cost of your windows in a very short span of time due to the

Acoustic Power: Due to the thermal barrier in your window using polyamide, the external and internal aluminum bars will be apart, which will add acoustic attenuation to your window, greatly enhancing the sound insulation.

SOLUTIONS FOR EVERY CASE: Polyamide Thermal Break Strips for Doors and Windows High-precision, extruded polyamide, insulating profiles improve the thermal performance of aluminum-framed window, door and façade systems. High-performance glazing systems that rely on these polyamide thermal barriers for aluminum separation to lower conductivity, thereby reducing the thermal transmittance, while increasing condensation resistance. Low U-values allow broad expanses of vision glass to meet local energy codes or project specifications and contribute to buildings’ energy efficiency, appearance and long-term durability.

Manufacturing Power: It gives the façade contractor multiple flexibilities like coating before assembly or after, clip-on glass edges gives the advantage of accessibility while silicone application in façades. Maintenance Power: Polyamide does not need any maintenance but a well-designed façade glass replacement becomes very easy with clip-on glass edges.

Advanced thermal break window system

Average thermal break window system

Thermal break system evolution


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Passive house thermal break window system

Green Talk

Passive house thermal break window system

Insulated curtain wall

fiber infill is the best option for any plastics spacers which may soften, crack or distort over the longer use of façades.

Window insulation solutions

Polyamide Curtain Wall Spacers Very simple polyamide profiles but most useful in conventional curtail walls with pressure plates. One can use same aluminium extrusion to accommodate different glass thicknesses on the same project or different projects by using polyamide spacers. Used between the pressure plate and main curtain wall mullions and transoms creating required space for the different glass thicknesses and separating aluminium to aluminium contact, providing energy-efficient façade. Spacers restrict external heat to transfer to the inside of the building giving a better U-value to the façades. Due to the technical properties and strength, polyamide with glass


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Polyamide Glass Edge Profiles for Unitised Façades In the last few years, a new trend has become popular in the region, where the glass edge profiles in unitised curtain wall systems are being replaced from the traditional aluminum extrusion and PVC extrusion parts into polyamide parts made of PA66 GF25. The reason for this is that in unitised curtain walls, the only visible and in fact open to the environment parts, besides the insulated double-glazing, are the glass edge profiles, vertically and horizontally in between the glass panels. In the harsh environment of the region, hot and humid, especially

in summer where the temperatures may reach over 40 degree Celsius in some areas, the heat build-up inside on the glazed façade surface and the inside of the façade mullions can easily reach over 80 degree Celsius. Here the polyamide glass edge profiles play some important roles: As these parts directly link the outer environment to the inner aluminum mullions and transoms, they drastically reduce the Utj (U-Value of the thermal joint), which insulates the energy flow from the outside of the façade to the inside. Whereas these same parts in aluminum would directly conduct the heat through the façade. These glass edge polyamide profiles protect the fragile edges of the glass panels and at the same time hold the EPDM gaskets to ensure the air and water tightness of the façade. Due to the high temperature, the heat resistance of the PA (up to 250 degree Celsius) assures a straight line along the vertical and horizontal glass edges. Whereas these same parts in PVC or other plastics would show a softened wavy line at the edge of the glass, which architects reject due to aesthetics. At the same time, PA66 GF25 offers a better UV stability than alternative plastics such as PVC or ABS. As a part of these profiles are exposed to the direct solar radiation of the environment, the polyamide is the best material for this type of application.

Façades insulation solutions in polyamide

Green Talk

Polyamide pressure plate for curtain wall

Polyamide Pressure Plates for Traditional/Stick System Curtain Walls The recently introduced nonaluminum pressure plate system significantly increases thermal performance compared with most traditional aluminum systems. While most of the time aluminum pressure plates meet customers’ expectations, there are times that the need for greater thermal performance can only be achieved with a nonmetal solution. The polyamide pressure plate is a superior alternative to competitive fiberglass products that require special handling and equipment during fabrication. The combination yields best-in-class thermal performance with U-values as low as 1 W/m2K. Exceeding not only current

codes, the solution also meets or exceeds the most stringent green building codes and standards in the industry today. Because it expands and contracts at a rate similar to aluminum, this solution delivers a long-term durability and watertightness in a properly assembled profile. It also resists heat distortion and withstands most chemicals used in the construction industry. For more information about thermal insulation or acoustic enhancement of window systems, contact: Technoform MEIA, P.O.Box: 212098, Dubai, UAE. Tel: +971 4 321 5615. Fax: +971 4 321 5815. E-mail: middleeast@ Web:

Polyamide pressure plate


Managing Director, Technoform Middle East

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Alex Dantziguian is the Managing Director of Technoform Middle East, based in Dubai. Technoform is the global leader based in Germany with worldwide knowhow on thermal insulation of doors, windows and façades for almost 50 years. With 11 production plants and 15 offices around the world, they represent over 60 percent of the global market in thermal insulation of façade systems. Alex personally has over 25 years of experience in aluminum doors, windows, and building façades starting from the fabrication side of the business to supplying polyamide strips for thermal break aluminum systems. He is responsible for all markets in the ME, India, Africa. He is an affiliate member of the Society of Façade Engineering, part of CIBSE in the UK and a member of the Emirates Green Building Council. MAY - JUNE 2018 l WFM


Accredited by




Sta11da1ds Wo,ldw;ae




Fire Safety

Firestops Rise to the Safety Challenge in India’s Tall Buildings


n a bid to handle the huge influx of people from rural areas, the skyscraper construction boom in India has gone on unabated since the ban on tall buildings was lifted in 2014. While this vertical building growth has seen the rise of curtain wall systems as an inherent and recognisable feature, it is critical these buildings be designed robustly. To meet the challenge, passive fire protection solutions are playing a vital role in these buildings, mitigating the effects of fire, saving lives and


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property. Passive fire protection solutions such as firestops are crucial to prevent the passage of flames and noxious gases from one compartment floor or room to the next. Fires in high-rise buildings can generate large quantities of smoke that tend to spread vertically throughout the building, even if the fire is contained to one room. When the gap/cavity at the perimeter edge between the floor and curtain wall is not properly sealed, flames and smoke can spread vertically to higher

floors, and horizontally from one room to the next. Addressing these gaps/cavities by properly installing firestops maintains the floors’ fire compartmentation of the building. This delay vertical smoke-spread and reduces the risk of smoke-related injury in the upper floors of the building and adjacent rooms. SEALING THE GAP The perimeter barrier firestops seal the gap between the edge of the compartment floor slab and external





Limitless Innovations - ENCRAFT where ideas begin uPVC Doors & Windows Showroom

Fire Safety

CWFS abutting spandrel panel

CWFS with AB acoustic overlay with CVB for enhanced acoustics

curtain wall. Due to project design and site tolerances, this linear gap can be variable, so the firestop system used needs to have a degree of ‘dynamic’ movement capability – compression and recovery – in order to accommodate serviceability movement, and more significant movement under fire load. It’s critical the firestop system does this in combination with the primary functional requirement, which is to maintain continuity of fire resistance between the compartment floor and the external wall. The installed firestop system needs to match the same period of fire resistance as the compartment floor. All firestop systems need to be tested to two criteria – Integrity and


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CWFS with AB acoustic overlay

CWFS abutting fire protected spandrel panel

Insulation (EI). Integrity (E) refers to the ability of the system to prevent the passage of flame, smoke and combustible gases either through and around the material or through joints in an assembly; while Insulation (I) refers to a measure of the increase in conducted heat transferred from the exposed to unexposed surfaces of 180°C rises above ambient. These two criteria are critical in the development of curtain wall perimeter firestop products. The most effective products combine a number of material features – density, thickness, resin content, fibre structure and controlled compression – which together determine the resistance properties.

CWFS abutting glazed spandrel panel

When looking at the Integrity (E) criteria, the material chosen must be impervious to the transfer of flame and gases, easy to install with minimal site management and accommodate all real-world requirements at interfaces, joints and details. In order to meet the fire and smoke stop requirements in all external façade applications, Siderise third party Certifire approved perimeter barrier and firestop systems offer an unrivalled combination of fullyqualified performance, practical installation and service benefits. The principal function of these systems is to maintain continuity of fire resistance by sealing the gap between the compartment floors or walls and external curtain walls horizontally and vertically. These systems can offer tested fire rating options ranging from 30 minutes to five hours and accommodate void widths up to 1200mm. In addition to providing an effective seal against the passage of smoke and fire, the products will also function as an effective acoustic barrier and plenum lining. FIRE SAFE The firestop should be installed under compression and must have test evidence to show that it is capable of accommodating movement of a façade. It is imperative that the installed seal is able to function

Fire Safety effectively with due regard to all designed movement serviceability limits. Curtain walling and cladding façade systems will deflect due to positive and negative wind loads as well as occupational live loads. These criteria are covered by EN 13116:2001. Typically, a project may stipulate that the curtain walling system may have the following allowable deflection limits: Under the declared wind loads the maximum frontal deflection of the curtain walling’s framing members shall not exceed L/200 or 15mm, whichever is less, when measured between the points of support or anchorage to the building’s structure in compliance with EN 13116. (Extract from EN 138300) These factors may inevitably combine to preclude the suitability and therefore, use of certain systems e.g. high-density material slab products. Perimeter barriers must be installed to provide horizontal compartmentation at every floor level. Vertical cavity barriers should be provided as a minimum to fall in line with any compartment wall and more frequently if dictated by the fire strategy of the building. Products should be fitted tightly around all bracketry to restrict the passage of smoke. Where there is potential for gaps, the product must be sealed with a sealant that carries the same fire insulation and integrity rating as the perimeter barrier. All installations should be in accordance with manufacturers’ instructions and where fixing brackets are required these should be fitted and spaced in accordance with a certified fire test report. Products used for fire safety installation should carry an independent third party certification in order to ensure that the product supplied is the same as that tested. The gap between the slab edge and the façade is often a weak point acoustically. Any products used to improve the acoustic performance must not contribute to the fire load

or inhibit the performance of the perimeter barrier. SEAL THE VOIDS As part of the construction of One and Two Island City Center (ICC) towers in Dadar (EAST), Mumbai – reaching 64 floors and 72 floors respectively – the specification of a slab edge perimeter fire barrier will seal the void between the floor slab and the external curtain wall and vertical compartmentation between two different occupants. With both vertical and horizontal fire compartmentation requirements of this fast-track project, the specification of SIDERISE CWFS 120 firestops has provided the façade contractor Alumayer India Pvt Ltd and Alufit (India) Private Ltd with a solution that could maintain a fire and smoke seal in one product preventing the passage of flames and noxious gases passing from one floor to the next and also for vertical compartmentation. For the two residential towers, the façade contractors installed circa 5000 LM of SIDERISE CW-FS 120 firestops including horizontal (floor slab) and vertical compartmentation. With the timeline on the project critical, the use of this dry fix system enabled the work to be completed quickly and efficiently, ready for handover to other subcontractors. Whilst specifying the correct product is vital, the quality of installation is equally important. Contractors installing life-saving measures such as perimeter barriers and firestops must have adequate training on the particular manufacturer’s products and be qualified to install it in the first place. When it comes to saving lives and protecting businesses and property, a well designed and installed system can make the difference. For further information about SIDERISE or for technical advice, visit: or call: 01656 730833


Façade Specification and Compliance Officer, Siderise Insulation Limited, The Middle East and India

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Sreenivas Narayanan (Sreeni) is Façade Specification & Compliance Officer at Siderise Insulation Limited, in charge of the Middle East and India regions. Sreeni has over a decade’s experience in sales, business development and a new market development, the majority of which has been in the field of passive fire protection and working with façade related products. He has been in the Middle East since 2007 and has a keen understanding of the region, its requirements and regulations. He has worked extensively with contractors, architects and developers in UAE and India, assisting and advising them on matters relating to applicable code compliance and completion of projects. On behalf of Siderise, Sreeni has been instrumental in ensuring the successful completion of a number of largescale system tests relating to external façade assemblies. Sreeni is a regular participant at various façade and fire-safety conferences and frequently delivers CPD presentations on the subject to industry associates. MAY - JUNE 2018 l WFM



“We will be the First Company in India to Launch A2 Grade FR ACP”


irgo group’s entry into ACP is a part of our long-term strategy. We are in the business of making aluminium rolls and coils since last 7 years. We are making 1XXX, 3XXX and 8XXX series in our aluminium unit and are supplying aluminium products to many major companies in India. Our foray into ACP, therefore, is a forward integration of our aluminium making capacities. Based on our experience in aluminium as well as in decorative spaces, we are confident that we will be able to contribute to the overall growth of ACP industry and raise the new standards of quality and service. Virgo Group considered Gujarat for the manufacturing facility looking at its geographic position near the sea, making it easy to get the raw material. Also, the government policies and environmental factors are best suitable for raising a plant there. Our overall project is into 52 acres of land that will have advanced production units for laminates & aluminium, as well as ACP. We will be in a capacity to make 25 Lacs Sq. ft of ACP in next three months. Our core USP is the quality of our products and manufacturing facilities with all latest technologies. In many of the foreign countries like Dubai, it is now compulsory to use FR Grade ACP. We are going to make FR Grade ACP since the beginning, which is a very high-grade FR product using Halogen free chemical and having a fire rating of 2.5 hours. Also, we will be the first company in India to launch A2 Grade FR ACP, equipped with European technology, which is highly non-combustible material and generates negligible smoke. We are going to manufacture best quality PVDF coating products with


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higher coil thickness. Our products are equipped with special ‘Anti Fading Technology’ for long life, beauty and durability. As mentioned earlier, our products can be made with FR Grade and most advanced FR A2 grade equipped with European technology. We are also going to have all ranges of products like metallic, solids, timberwooden, sparkle, mirror, glossy etc. The Indian real estate market size is expected to reach USD180 billion

by 2020. The ACP market is already growing with a CAGR of 10-15%. We are therefore very much positive about the growth of ACP market. We are already in discussion with our overseas offices in Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and Dubai for the launch of ACP products in their markets. We are making a product that is of world class quality and can be well accepted by users all over the world. Our products will have global availability and presence. For more details, contact:

D-117, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase-1, New Delhi – 110020 Phone: +91-11-47422222 E-mail: Fax: +91-11-47422299

Fenestration Feature

Double Glazed uPVC Windows:

for High Performance & Style


our window can make up a significant part of your home but if you select the wrong windows you can find problems with your home’s interior conditions. It may become too hot or too cold, too noisy inside or even find problems with condensation and moisture. No house can be complete without windows as they play an important role in allowing natural light indoors. It also enables occupants to enjoy the outside view and also serve to keep the house cross-ventilated which results in the homes seldom feeling stuffy or looking gloomy. Hence windows play an important role in the overall aesthetics

Double glazing uPVC windows have a number of benefits


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and functionality of the building. Homeowners to interior designers and architects are increasingly realising the immense value of windows and are becoming aware of how windows exert a significant influence in the overall look of their home. Therefore, it becomes all the more essential when buying or having a home built on how the selection, designing and positioning of the windows in the home takes precedence as it impacts a home’s energy efficiency. If your budget is tight then upgrading your old window with energy efficient windows can help otherwise installing new energy efficient windows in your

home can reduce your energy costs and save extra money in the future. You do not have to necessarily install a new energy efficient window. If your home is very old and have inefficient windows, it can be more cost effective to replace them than to try and install a new window altogether. One of the ways you can do this is by double glazing your windows. Double glazing is made from two high quality piece of glass sealed together with an air space in between. A double glazed window sits in your window frame just as regular single glazing would, but provides a number of extra benefits.

Fenestration Feature

BENEFITS OF DOUBLE GLAZING UPVC WINDOWS Double glazing uPVC windows have a number of benefits which are specifically designed to reduce heat loss from homes and buildings. The benefits include: Warmer in winter: Windows are the part of the house that are exposed to different weather conditions. The performance of the window changes due to the changing temperature and climatic conditions. This changes the condition of the interiors of the home. We all prefer the interiors of our homes to be at a constant temperature no matter what the weather conditions are outside. Single-glazed windows lose about 50-70% of the heat present at home

Double glazed windows insulate your home against extremes of temperature

while double glazed uPVC windows have the ideal form of insulation because they capture and store a higher percentage of the natural heat from the winter sun. This in fact results in a lower energy bill as less energy is used to heat up or cool down the room. Cooler in summer: Double glazing comprises two panes of glass between which a layer of air is trapped. This insulates your home against extremes of temperature, trapping some of the summer sun’s rays between the glasses. Just as in

winter climatic conditions the heat is trapped in between the glass layers. While in summer, due to the design, it is more difficult for heat or cold to enter or leave the home through the glass and minimising the heat which burns through your windows on hot sunny days. Reduces energy usage: Buildings installed with double glazed uPVC windows need less heating systems for the interiors. Hence you will require less energy and this will in turn help you save on your power bills and equally

Buildings installed with double glazed uPVC windows need less heating or cooling systems for the interiors


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Fenestration Feature

help the environment. Reduces condensation: Due to condensation water vapours can form on the glass which gives rise to mould and mildew. This is especially true in older homes and during rainy season, which can cause the window timber frames to rot and affect your family’s health. Due to the tightly sealed nature of double glazed uPVC windows, excess moisture on your window panes are reduced.

MAHESH CHOUDHARY CEO- uPVC Division, Aparna Enterprises Ltd

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Mahesh Choudhary is the CEO of uPVC Division of Aparna Venster, a flagship company of Aparna Group and one of the leading players within manufacturing & fabrication of building material segment. He is primarily responsible for the business growth of uPVC Division, Doors & Windows. The brand “Venster” is available with well-known products in the market today. Another product of its profile portfolio is ‘’OKOTECH” which has presence across the country.


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Reduces noise: The design of double glazing not only means that it is thermally efficient but the windows are also extremely acoustically efficient. This reduces noise for a calmer, quieter home making the inside of your home much more comfortable. Investing in double glazed uPVC windows makes a great investment especially when you are living by a busy road or beneath a flight path because it can reduce outside noise by up to 60 per cent. Reduces interior fading: Sometimes you can see that certain items in the house fade or lose colour due to prolonged exposure of sun rays on the item. Double glazed uPVC windows reduce the damaging effects of UV light on drapes, carpet and furniture (special glass types required). The interior fading gets reduced by using glass combinations that reduce the transmission of UV radiation. This reduces the need

for thermal drapes in cases where the blocking of exterior view is not desired. Enhances safety and security: It becomes more difficult for intruders to break in through double glazed uPVC windows than a single window pane particularly when you include laminated or toughened glass in the double glazed uPVC window. It is tougher to force them open from the outside as they are sealed tighter than other windows. CONCLUSION According to Ken Research, it is estimated that over the next 1015 years, the share of uPVC is expected to grow over 30% in both new and replacement sales, majorly fuelled by the large, high rise apartment projects in urban cities. Knowledge and awareness on the availability and benefits of improving the performance of the windows have made double glazed uPVC windows the preferred choice of windows among private builders and developers and even home owners. Windows should be chosen on the basis of many factors like the value of the product, performance in different climatic conditions, availability, health and safety factors etc. The most important factor to be considered is the material’s durability and its contribution to the buildings performance.

Double glazed windows are extremely acoustically efficientthe interiors


McCoy Fenestration

Signs Distribution Agreement with

Savio SpA


cCoy Fenestration (also known as McCoy 8m), a leading name in uPVC & aluminium door and window hardware and part of the Delhi-based McCoy Group, announced that it has entered into a Partner Distribution Agreement with Savio SpA, a European leader and foremost specialist in hardware, in Italy on the 5th of June 2018. The agreement was signed at the Savio Plant in Italy by Amit Malhotra, Leader, McCoy Group, and Savio. Under the terms of the agreement, McCoy 8m will employ its sales, marketing and e-commerce expertise to market and distribute the super high-quality aluminium accessories & hardware for doors, windows and curtain wall from Savio in India and SAARC nations. McCoy will start offering a

unique range of door and window handles and accessories plus a wide range of patented and secure Savio products from August 2018. “We are very delighted to be partnering with the iconic McCoy Group for the distribution of our new and exciting hardware product range, and happy that we are set to increase our presence in the global door and window hardware market. The partnership will ensure that Savio will benefit from McCoy's brilliant techno-commercial manpower and the network,” said Alessandro Pressi, International Sales Director, Savio. “McCoy 8M was seeking to partner a brand for high-end door/window and curtain wall hardware to cover a wider range of products and segments and waited for this day for over a year. Finally, let’s make it happen,” said Amit Malhotra, Leader, McCoy Group. McCoy 8M is the flagship hardware brand from McCoy Group. For the past seven years, the brand has sold products for more than 1 million doors and windows. Covering alminium and uPVC markets, it is a wellestablished brand in the door and window hardware business spread across South East Asia. Looking at this new partnership and their expanded business in fenestration hardware, McCoy Group recently moved their warehousing facilities to their new warehouse in Bawal, Haryana with a covered area of 20,000 sq ft, which will also now accommodate Savio. To know more about Savio SpA and McCoy Group, please visit and

For more information on the products, contact: E-mail: Mobile No.: +91 9958895150 Website:


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Shading Systems

Sun Control & Sun Shading Devices


here are many different reasons to want to control the amount of sunlight that is admitted into a building. In warm, sunny climates, the excess solar gain may result in high cooling energy consumption; in cold and temperate climates, winter sun entering south-facing windows can positively contribute to passive solar heating, and in nearly all climates controlling and diffusing natural illumination will improve daylighting. Well-designed sun control and shading devices can dramatically reduce building peak heat gain and cooling requirements and improve the natural lighting quality of building interiors. Depending on the amount and location of fenestration, reductions in annual cooling energy consumption of 5 to 15 percent have been reported. Sun control and shading devices can also improve user’s visual comfort by controlling glare and

reducing contrast ratios. This often leads to increased satisfaction and productivity. Shading devices offer the opportunity of differentiating one building facade from another. This can provide interest and human scale to an otherwise undistinguished design. The use of sun control and shading devices is an important aspect of many energy-efficient building design strategies. In particular, buildings that employ passive solar heating or daylighting often depend on welldesigned sun control and shading devices. During cooling seasons, external window shading is an excellent way to prevent unwanted solar heat gain from entering a conditioned space. Shading can be provided by natural landscaping or by building elements such as awnings, overhangs, and trellises. Some shading devices can also function as reflectors, called light shelves, which bounce natural light for

L type louvers: Vertical sunshade devices used in pneumatic powered vertical louvers

Horizontal elliptical louvers: Elliptical shape louvers are mostly used in the kitchen


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daylighting deep into building interiors. The design of effective shading devices will depend on the solar orientation of a particular building facade. For example, simply fixed overhangs are very effective in shading south-facing windows in the summer when sun angles are high. However, the same horizontal device is ineffective at blocking the low afternoon sun from entering westfacing windows during peak heat gain periods in the summer. Exterior shading devices are particularly effective in conjunction with clear glass facades. However, high-performance glazings are now available that have very low shading coefficients (SC). When specified, these new glass products reduce the need for exterior shading devices. Thus, solar control and shading can be provided by a wide range of building components including:

Elliptical louvers: Cross section of motorised elliptical louvers which can turn direction according to the sun

Shading Systems ● Landscape features such as mature trees or hedgerows ● Exterior elements such as overhangs or vertical fins ● Horizontal reflecting surfaces called light shelves ● Low shading coefficient (SC) glass ● Interior glare control devices such as venetian blinds or adjustable louvers ● Aluminium architectural sun shade, horizontal sun control device, vertical fins Fixed exterior shading devices such as overhangs are generally most practical for small commercial buildings and residential towers. The optimal length of an overhang depends on the size of the window and the relative importance of heating and cooling in the building. To properly design shading devices, it is necessary to understand the position of the sun in the sky during the cooling season. The position of the sun is expressed in terms of altitude and azimuth angles. The altitude angle is the angle of the sun above the horizon, achieving its maximum on a given day at solar noon. The azimuth angle, also known as the bearing angle, is the angle of the sun's projection onto the ground

Elliptical vertical louvers

N 0 W 270


E 90

S 180 Azimuth angle (See for more information)

plane relative to the south. An easily accessed source of information on sun angles and solar path diagrams is Architectural Graphic Standards, 11th Edition, available from John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Publishers. Shading devices can have a dramatic impact on building appearance. This impact can be for the better or for the worse. In the early design process, shading devices were considered and integrated into the design to make the building more attractive and were very well-integrated into the overall architecture of a project. In ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 energy efficient design of new buildings, except low-rise residential buildings (on which the federal equivalent 10 C.F.R. § 435 is based), the degree of window shading is a major consideration. Both the projection factor (PF) for exterior shading and the shading coefficient (SC) of glass must be evaluated when using the alternate component packages envelope design approach. Designing Shading Systems Given the wide variety of buildings and the range of climates in which they can be found, it is difficult to make sweeping generalisations about the design of shading devices. However, the following design recommendations generally hold true: Use fixed overhangs on the southfacing glass to control direct beam

solar radiation. Indirect (diffuse) radiation should be controlled by other measures, such as low-E glazing. To the greatest extent possible, limit the amount of east and west glass since it is harder to shade them than south glass. Consider the use of landscaping to shade east and west exposures. Do not worry about shading northfacing glass in the continental United States latitudes since it receives very little direct solar gain. In the tropics, disregard this rule-of-thumb since the north side of a building will receive more direct solar gain. Also, in the tropics, consider shading the roof even if there are no skylights since the roof is a major source of transmitted solar gain into the building. Remember that shading effects daylighting; consider both simultaneously. For example, a light shelf bounces natural light deep into a room through high windows while shading lower windows. Do not expect interior shading devices such as venetian blinds or vertical louvers to reduce cooling loads since the solar gain has already been admitted into the workspace. However, these interior devices do offer glare control and can contribute to visual acuity and visual comfort in the workplace. It is important to study sun angles. An understanding of sun angles is critical to various aspects of design, including determining basic building

Vertical louvers as for maximum sun control: motorised elliptical louvers

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Shading Systems orientation, selecting shading devices, and placing Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) panels or solar collectors. Carefully consider the durability of shading devices. Over time, operable shading devices can require a considerable amount of maintenance and repair. When relying on landscape

elements for shading, be sure to consider the cost of landscape maintenance and upkeep on lifecycle cost. Shading strategies that work well at one latitude may be completely inappropriate for other sites at different latitudes. Be careful when applying shading ideas from one project to another.


New Cuffe Parade Lodha, Wadala, Mumbai The architect developed contrasting external solar shading and screening solutions for the residential building. We have crafted 6000 plus vertical louvres or fins, each measuring three metres high by 300mm wide, which are fixed across the floor to floor RCC beams. The fins, which comprise two fabricated fins stacked one above the other. Each fin is formed from a 2mm thick aluminium, which has an S shape made up with extrude. The S fin is gently curved to create an ‘aerofoil’ shape. Specially engineered brackets

Specially crafted 6000 plus vertical louvres or fins for shading


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QUICK FACTS: Project: New Cuffe Parade Lodha Location: Wadala, Mumbai Client: Lodha Developers Architect: WOHA, Singapore Other Consultants: BES Materials used for facade & fenestration: Aluminium, MS Commencement Date: February 2, 2018 Completion Date: June 30, 2018

allow each fin to be precisely set at a desired angle of degrees, facing and orientations of S fins are different at a different level. This angle provides effective shading, particularly during the mornings, while allowing plenty of natural daylight to filter through into the building. S fins are proven to significantly reduce solar heat gain during the summer, helping to maintain a comfortably cool environment for people, with less use of air conditioning.

YOGESH BABURAO GILGILE Project Manager, Alcob Windows Solutions

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Yogesh Gilgile is a Facade Project Manager with a mechanical engineering degree and has a long history of working experience in facade industry. He has done more than 30 projects in his career and is a professional in building facade and envelope technology. He has worked on value engineering, curtain wall, ACP cladding and window systems (Schueco, Reynaers, etc.). He is an expert in facade detail design, facade project estimation and costing, green facade design and development, and facade thermal analysis.

Tech Talk

Acoustic Properties of Glass:

Not So Simple A t Arup, working with different specialists creates many opportunities to learn from each other. Sometimes one forgets that engineers who know everything about dark matters as climatic loads in glass or intricacies of structural silicone may not have a clue about the acoustic performance of a window. That’s why these questions keep coming to my desk (remember I’m an incurable generalist in the façade world): What effect does glass thickness have in the acoustics of a double glass unit? Or what matters more in the acoustical performance of insulated glass: the thickness in a monolithic pane, the effect of lamination or the dimension of the cavity? Here you will find some graphical answers to these questions. As usual a number of hidden surprises will come out from the data mining.

Fig. 1: Graphing the pitch (frequency) of a sound


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Let us start by reviewing two concepts that are paramount to measuring glass performance against noise: loudness (in particular sound pressure level, the decibels thing) and frequency (the Hertz, not related to car rental).

LOUDNESS: SOUND INTENSITY, SOUND PRESSURE & SOUND PRESSURE LEVEL From physics to applied acoustics in buildings. No pain, promised. Loudness is an intuitive concept: a loud noise usually has a larger pressure variation and a weak one has a smaller pressure variation. Depending on what we are looking for - the cause, the effect or the perception of noise - we use different variables and units: ● Sound intensity refers to the cause of noise (not of our concern, only of interest for acusticians). It measures energy flow at the

source, so its unit is W/m2. ● Sound pressure refers to the effect of noise as a wave impacting any given surface, that is, noise as energy being transferred through air. Not of our concern either, more for physicists. Its unit is the Pascal or N/m2 (1Pa = 1N/m2). ● Sound pressure level or SPL (here comes the fun) refers to the perception of noise in humans as it can be “read” by our ears. So SPL is what matters to us, poor construction buddies. For ease of numbering, SPL is measured in decibels (dB). A dB is a dimensionless unit used to express logarithmically the ratio of a value (the measured sound pressure) to a reference value (the lower threshold of hearing). Decibels are used since sound pressure level expressed in Pa would be too wide. 0 dB (the lower threshold of audition for humans) equals 0.00002 Pa; whilst 140 dB (the upper human threshold or threshold of pain) equals 200 Pa. This is a range of 140 against 10 million. But logarithms are not “natural” to understand, so some examples will be of help. Sound intensity, sound pressure and sound pressure level are obviously related, but they measure different

Tech Talk things and they should not be confused. The table below ( Table 1), taken from the very useful Sengpiel audio webpage provides some tips for getting it right, at least conceptually: Lessons from the Table 1: ● A raise in sound pressure level (SPL) of 3 dB equals an increase in sound pressure (field quantity) of 1.414 times, and (everything else being equal) it comes as a result of doubling the sound intensity (the source of sound). ● A reduction in sound pressure level measured inside a room of 10 dB equals a reduction in sound pressure of 3.16 times, and it comes as a result of dividing the sound intensity (noise generated on the outside) by ten. A typical opaque façade (not glass) can have a sound reduction index (a reduction of SPL) of around 40 dB. This means that if the SPL measured at the street is 70 dB, inside the façade one would perceive only 30 dB. Up to here, just arithmetic. Now, if the sound reduction index



Deeper pitch

Fig. 2: Graphic representations of a sound wave. (A) Air at equilibrium, in the absence of a sound wave; (B) compressions and rarefactions that constitute a sound wave; (C) transverse representation of the wave, showing amplitude (A) and wavelength (λ).

Higher pitch

Fig. 3: Above: measure of loudness (wave height). The higher the louder. Below: measure of frequency (wave length). Bass sound has long waves, treble has short waves.

Source: Encyclopaedia Britannica

of the façade could be raised from 40 to 43 dB, the perceived noise coming from the street would equal that of reducing the source of noise by half. Even more, if the façade could be acoustically improved so that its sound reduction index raised from 40 to 50 dB (difficult but it can be done), the perceived noise coming from the street would equal that of reducing the source of noise (sound intensity) by ten: ten times less cars in the street, ten times less people celebrating the

Table 1: SPL variation (left column) related to sound pressure (Field quantity) and sound intensity (Energy quantity) Acoustic Volume Voltage Sound Level Change Power Sound Loudness Pressure Intensityes +40 dB 16 100 10000 +30 dB 8 31.6 1000 +20 dB 4 10 100 +10 dB 2.0 = Double 3.16 =√10 10 +6 dB 1.52 times 2.0 = double 4.0 +3 dB 1.23 times 1.414 times = √2 2.0 = Double ±0dB --1.0---1.0---1.0--3 dB 0.816 times 0.707 times 0.5 = Half -6 dB 0.660 times 0.5 = half 0.25 -10dB 0.5 = Half 0.316 0.1 -20 dB 0.25 0.100 0.01 -30 dB 0.125 0.0316 0.001 -40 dB 0.0625 0.0100 0.0001 Log Quantity Physco quantity Field quantity Energy quantity dB change Loudness Amplitude Power multiplier multiplier multiplier

victory of their football team outside. We got the point: sound pressure level measured in dB (sometimes indicated as dB-SPL) is critical for architectural physics - a small variation can make a lot of difference. But loudness (sound expressed as pressure variation) is not the only story. Noise - what we want to avoid inside our buildings - is the mixture of sounds of different “quality”, some are bass, some are treble. Is our façade or our glass pane capable of stopping each of these “noise qualities” in the same percentage? Could an envelope act as a barrier for bass and a filter for treble? What do bass and treble have to do with noise? FREQUENCY OF SOUND Sound is the quickly varying pressure wave travelling through a medium. When sound travels through air, the atmospheric pressure varies periodically (it kind of vibrates). The number of pressure variations per second is called the frequency of sound, and it is measured in Hertz (Hz) which is defined as the number of cycles per second. The higher the frequency, the more high-pitched a sound is perceived. Sounds produced by drums have much lower frequencies than those produced by a whistle. The unit of frequency is the Hertz (Hz). For a sound vibration to be audible to human beings, the object must vibrate between 20 and 20,000 times per second. In other words the

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Tech Talk Table 2: Expected sound pressure levels for different noises and their equivalent sound pressure and sound intensity. Table of sound levels L (Loudness) and corresponding sound pressure and sound intensity Sound Sources Sound Pressure Sound Pressure p Sound Intensity I w/m2 (Noise) Level Lp dB n/m2 = Pa Sound field Sound energy examples with SPL quantity quantity distance Jet aircraft, 50m 140 200 100 away Threshold of pain 130 63.2 10 Threshold of 120 20 1 discomfort Chainsaw, 1 m 110 6.3 0.1 distance Disco, 1 m from 100 2 0.01 speaker Diesel truck, 10 90 0.63 0.001 m away Kerbside of busy 80 0.2 0.0001 road 5 m Vacuum Cleaner, 70 0.063 0.00001 distance 1 m Conversational 60 0.02 0.000001 speech, 1 m Average home 50 0.0063 0.0000001 Quiet library 40 0.002 0.00000001 Quiet bedroom at 30 0.00063 0.000000001 night Background in TV 20 0.0002 0.0000000001 studio Rustling leaves in 10 0.000063 0.00000000001 the distance Threshold of 0 0.00002 0.000000000001 hearing Source: Sengpiel Audio.

Fig. 4: A real sound shown as a combination of different sound pressure levels, one per each of the 24 frequency bands. Column width: 1/3 octave band (24 in total). Column height: SLP at each frequency band, measured in dB.

the diagram above (Fig. 4). The response of the human ear to sound is dependent on the frequency of the sound. The human ear has its peak response around 2,500 to 3,000 Hz and has a relatively low response at low frequencies. Hence, the single sound pressure level obtained by simply adding the contribution from all 1/3 octave bands together will not correlate well with the non-linear frequency response of the human ear. This has led to the concept of weighting scales. The following diagram (Fig. 5) shows the “A-weighting” scale. In the “A-weighting” scale, the sound pressure levels for the lower frequency bands and high frequency bands are reduced by certain amounts before they are being


Sound Pressure Level, dB


audible sound has a frequency of between 20 and 20,000 Hz. High-pitched sounds (treble) have a frequency much greater than bass sounds. The treble frequency ranges between 2,000 and 4,000 Hz while the bass range from 125 to 250 Hz. Bad news: Frequency and loudness are interrelated in the human ear. The range of 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz is called the audible frequency range we know this already. But the sounds we hear are a mixture of various


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frequencies, and we don’t perceive all of them with the same clarity. Let’s see what the implication of this is. The entire audible frequency range can be divided into 8 or 24 frequency bands known as octave bands or 1/3 octave bands respectively for analysis. An octave band is the band of frequencies in which the upper limit of the band is twice the frequency of the lower limit. Any particular sound or noise can be represented as a number of 8 (or 24) sound pressure levels in the frequency bands, as illustrated by

-10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 -45 -50 31.5

1,000 2,000


Frequency, Hz

Fig. 5: Reduction of SPL (in dB) at frequencies below and above 2000 to 3000 Hz to reflect the frequency response of the human ear

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Tech Talk 25mm

Sound Reduction Index dB

combined together to give one single sound pressure level value. This value is designated as dB(A). The dB(A) is often used as it reflects more accurately the frequency response of the human ear. Other, less used weighting scales, are dB(B) and dB(C). The decibel C filter is practically linear over several octaves and is suitable for subjective measurements at very high sound pressure levels. The decibel B filter is between C and A. The three filters are compared below (Table 3). That was enough for theory. Let us now see how all this affects the performance of glass as a real acoustic barrier. The four hand-sketched graphs shown here (Figs. 6,7, 8 & 9) are all taken from the first edition of a great book called “Detailing for Acoustics”, written by Peter Lord and Duncan Templeton. There are three editions by now and I highly recommend buying one if you are an architect interested in acoustic issues applied to buildings.






-39.4 -26.2 -16.1

Frequency, Hz Single Glazing


Fig. 6: Sound reduction (in dB) measured at different frequency bands for glass panes of different thickness Source: Detailing for Acoustics, Peter Lord and Duncan Templeton

value; that is, a frequency for which that glass is less ‘noise absorbent’ than for the others. That value is known as critical frequency. See the graphic above (Fig. 6). A 4 mm-thick glass is rather transparent (poor attenuation measured in dB) for high frequencies at the range of 3500 Hz; 6 mm-thick glass is poor for frequencies around 2000 Hz; and 10 mm-thick glass performs bad at 1300 Hz. The higher the mass the less of a problem critical frequency appears to be: 25 mm-thick glass has no weak point as it can be noted from the graph above (Fig. 6). An insulating glass unit built with two panes of the same thickness experiences the issue of critical frequency: it is said that the two panes vibrate (resonate) together at that frequency, thus reducing the glass overall acoustic performance. For this reason we recommend using different thickness in a double glass unit. A 6-12-4 mm glass will absorb more sound at high


























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6mm Solid




4mm Laminated


Table 3: Noise filtering at different octaves of frequency applying decibel filter scales A, B or C Relative Frequency (Hz) Response (dB) 31.5 63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000 dB(A)

6mm Laminated

45 40

125 250 500 1K 2K

GLASS THICKNESS EFFECT The sound attenuation of any material depends on its mass, stiffness and damping characteristics. With a single glass pane the only effective way to increase its performance is to increase the thickness, because stiffness and damping cannot be changed. The sound transmission loss for a single glass pane, measured over a range of frequencies, varies depending on glass thickness. Thicker glass tends to provide greater sound reduction even though it may actually transmit more sound at specific frequencies. Every glass pane thickness has a weak frequency


4mm Solid 125 250 500 1K 2K 4K

Frequency, Hz Effect of Lamination

Fig. 7: Sound absorption of monolithic (solid) glass compared to laminated glass with the same mass Source: Detailing for Acoustics, Peter Lord and Duncan Templeton

frequencies of 2000 Hz (claxon noise) than a 6-12-6 mm glass, in spite of having less mass. On the other hand, at lower frequencies between 125 and 250 Hz (traffic noise) this is not the case: a 6-12-6 mm glass reduces sound more effectively than a 6-12-4 mm glass. At low frequencies sound attenuation is directly proportional to mass. LAMINATED VS. MONOLITHIC GLASS A laminated glass will attenuate sound transmission more than a monolithic glass of the same mass. See the graph above (Fig. 7). A laminated glass of 2+2 mm reduces sound at high frequencies considerably more than a monolithic glass 4 mm-thick (that’s 8 to 10 dB of additional attenuation). Why? Because the critical frequency effect disappears due to the sound damping provided by polyvinyl butyral (the soft interlayer used to permanently bond the glass panes together dissipates energy by vibration). The same applies to the 3+3 mm laminated against the monolithic 6 mm. In contrast, at low frequencies (traffic noise) the effect of butyral is less pronounced, although it is still positive (about 2 dB increase). AIR CAVITY EFFECT Surprise. A standard double glazed unit does not reduce sound transmission much more than a monolithic glass.

Tech Talk Sound Reduction Index dB

6-200-6 Double Glazing

6-12-6 Double Glazing

6 Single Glazing

125 250 500 1K 2K 4K

Effect of Airspace Width on Double Glazing

Fig. 8: Effect of air space width on the acoustic performance of double glazing Source: Detailing for Acoustics, Peter Lord and Duncan Templeton

What matters is the thickness of the air space between glass panes, but only for really wide cavities. The acoustic attenuation of a 6-126 mm glass is generally superior to that of a monolithic 6mm-thick glass, but only by 2 or 3 dB, and still there may be low frequency bands where the DGU performs worse. Of course if we compare a 6 mm-monolithic with a double glazed 12-6-10 mm, the sound reduction is much better at the double glazed unit. What really matters is the width of the air space, not the small one found at double glazing but the one of a double skin. The ideal cavity width to boost sound attenuation is 200 mm. For widths less than (or greater than) 200 mm the effect is less noticeable (although a wide air space will always perform better than a narrow one). A double glazing with 10 mm air space performs almost like a 20 mm airspace. COMBINED AIR CAVITY & GLASS THICKNESS EFFECT The conclusion comes in the last graph (Fig. 9) a combination of large thickness, different one between the two panes and wide air space distance (even better if we use laminated glass) provides the maximum noise attenuation. We can reach up to 45dB. To achieve this with a conventional

double glazing width (about 2835mm only) we have to employ an acoustic interlayer or a sort of resin between two panes in a laminated glass combined within a DGU. These acoustic interlayers or resins dissipate sound waves much more than two or three PVB interlayers as in a typical laminated glass. Some brands of enhanced acoustical laminated products are: ● Pilkington Optiphon ● Saint Gobain Stadip Silence ● AGC Thermobel Phonibel ● Viracon Saflex SilentGlass What about the effect of using argon or krypton instead of air? In theory, a higher density gas in the space between panes should have a positive effect on acoustical performance. Comparison testing of standard symmetrical insulating units indicates though that common gases as argon have virtually no increased effect on sound attenuation ratings. While some improvement was noted at some frequencies, resonance effects actually became more pronounced. SOME USEFUL VALUES Rw index: The Rw index or sound reduction index (expressed in decibels) measures, in just one number, the acoustic performance of a specific glass unit. The higher the Rw index, the better the level of acoustic insulation offered by that glass composition. The Rw index of ordinary double glazing is around 29 dB whereas a good acoustic interlayer offers an Rw index of around 50 dB. Rw is a single figure rating for the airborne sound insulation of building elements (not just glass). It includes a weighting for the human ear and measures actual sound transmittance. Rw is measured in a laboratory, not on site (the sitemeasured equivalent value has the Egyptian denomination of DnT,W). The Rw value is merely an average simplifying mutual comparison of

50 45

10-200-6 Double Glazing

40 35

10-100-6 Double Glazing

30 25 20

6-12-6 Double Glazing 125 250 500 1K 2K 4K

Effect of Glass Thickness and Air Space on Double Glazing

Fig. 9: Combined effect of glass thickness and air space on the acoustic performance of double glazing Source: Detailing for Acoustics, Peter Lord and Duncan Templeton

various building components. That can be confusing some times. Two glass units can have the same Rw index while one of them performs well at low frequencies and bad at high ones, and the other one performs just the opposite. C and Ctr factors: To slightly avoid this issue, two spectrum adjustment factors - C and Ctr, have been added to modulate the Rw average. For sound waves featuring high frequencies, the factor C is added to the Rw value. For lower frequencies, factor Ctr needs to be added. The acoustic behaviour of a building component is hence defined by three numbers: Rw (C, Ctr). A building component with the values Rw (C, Ctr) = 40 (-1, -4) provides an average insulation performance of 40 dB. For higher pitched sounds, the sound insulation is lessened by 1 dB (39 dB) and for lower pitched sound sources it is lessened by 4 dB (36 dB). Table 4, extracted from Saint Gobain, helps showing how these three numbers apply to different laminated units with acoustic interlayers: C takes into account medium and high frequency noise sources such as TV, music, loud conversations or aircraft noise a short distance away. Ctr takes into account medium and low frequency noise sources such as urban traffic noise or aircraft noise a

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Tech Talk

Fig. 10: SGG Stadip Silence effect as part of a double glazed unit. Other brands perform similarly. By the way, the scale below is not frequency but loudness (it measures dB). Taken from Saint Gobain Stadip Silence brochure.

long distance away. Pink Noise: Expressed in dB(A), this is an assessment of the sound insulating properties of a building material over specified standard frequencies, which represent general activity noise when equal levels of power are applied at each frequency. So, in pink noise each octave carries an equal amount of noise power. Funnily, the name arises from the pink appearance of visible light with this power spectrum. Ra: Ra is the abbreviation for the sound reduction index when the spectrum adaptation term C is applied to the single number

weighted sound reduction index (Rw), using pink noise as a sound source. Ra,tr: Ra,tr is the abbreviation for the sound reduction index when the spectrum adaptation term Ctr is applied to the single number weighted sound reduction index (Rw) using pink noise as a sound source. So far so good. Acoustic performance of glass should now be less of a dark matter for us. But this is not all, remember that detailing to achieve a proper air tightness between glass and frame will always be required. Loose gaskets can severely harm the best glass selection for acoustics. (Source: Façades Confidential)

Table 4: Sound reduction index values for several laminated glass units with acoustic interlayers Sound Insulation Values ( Single-glazed) C Ctr Type Thickness Rw in dB 35 0 -3 SGG STADIP Silence 6.4 6 mm 37 -1 -3 SGG STADIP Silence 8.4 8mm 38 -1 +3 SGG STADIP Silence 10.4 10mm 39 0 -2 SGG STADIP Silence 12.8 13mm 40 -1 -4 SGG STADIP Silence 14.8 15mm 41 0 -3 SGG STADIP Silence 16.8 17mm 42 0 -2 SGG STADIP Silence 20.4 20mm 45 -1 -3 SGG STADIP Silence 25.5 26mm The thickness shown at the right column is the total one. 13 mm means 6 mm + 6 mm + 0.8 mm interlayer. Taken from Saint Gobain Stadip Silence brochure.


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Leader of the Façade Team, Arup - Spain; Associate Director, Arup

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Ignacio Fernández Solla has developed a key role in the introduction of façade consulting as a discipline in Spain, and he is now extending the practice to Latin America. Based on his architectural background, Ignacio has a wide expertise supporting architectural and construction teams in the design, specification and site supervision of façades and roofs. He has participated in various projects in many countries. He is a qualified expert witness in cases dealing with façade defects or claims, having acted as an expert in international cases in front of the ICC (International Civil Court, London). Ignacio has been a visiting lecturer in the School of Architecture of Princeton University and Universidad Europea de Madrid. He is a recognised expert in Europe within the fields of façade design and construction.

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uPVC Doors & Windows – An Important Solution for Sustainability

VIVEKANAND A SANE PVC Business Head, Reliance Industries Ltd.


hat is your take on sustainability and how can right windows help to build sustainable structures? The Indian construction sector is growing leaps and bounds to cater to the demand from residential and commercial activities. With the approach to building sustainable construction, green building concept is growing very fast across the country. Green building refers to a structure that is environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle: from locating the site to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation and demolition. PVC windows earn credit points under energy efficiency, material efficiency, indoor environmental quality

management, maintenance operation as well as waste and toxic reduction. Hence, PVC window is the best suited ‘Green’ product for green building applications. uPVC is a perfectly sustainable building material being 100% recyclable and having lowest embodied energy when compared to other popular building materials like steel and aluminum. uPVC windows help in conserving energy and are long lasting to the tune of life of the building. PVC window is the next generation product for the construction industry in India. Due to the energy-saving potential of this product, it is in use for residential as well as commercial constructions in the US and Europe for last 30+ years. In India, the product has about 12% of the total window market share which is very low against a global average of about 55%. Considering the infrastructure growth, usage of PVC windows and doors appear to be an important solution for the country. What are the key properties of the good fenestration product? The products should possess the following properties, such as: a) Insulation against sound, dust and energy loss b) Environment friendliness – water, air, energy. To produce uPVC

window, you need much less water, air and energy c) Energy conservation d) Aesthetics - comes with more or less with every product you have, adding to sales value e) Support in improving healthier indoor environment What is the biggest challenge faced by window industry today? Lack of quality standards and right knowledge is the biggest challenge. Production of substandard products knowingly or unknowingly is another peril. Unfortunately, we don’t have any norms or standards defining a quality window. Any window should meet a certain norm and should adhere to a certain standard. How do strategies of Reliance help boosting the uPVC window market in India for indigenous or for foreign extruders? Reliance is basically a raw material supplier. We have always taken the right initiatives to upgrade the market and we have been doing it for quite some time now. As of now, the share of uPVC windows is less than 12% of the total fenestration market. But then there is a scope for 90% filling. We see a good business potential, not only for window manufacturers, but the entire value chain. We support the manufacturers in every possible way. We join hands with the product manufacturers and approach the government sector or related agencies in our capacity. For more details on the company and its products, visit:

Meenakshi Bamboos, Hyderabad (Image courtesy, Deceuninck)


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Product Watch

NP Ultra Gives a Clean & Minimalist Design in Line with Architectural Trends


iesse’s NP (Non Plus) Ultra is a fastening system for aluminium windows consisting of a handle with an internal mechanism, providing appealing aesthetics without having to mill the profiles. The NP Ultra handle is applied directly to the profile without the rosette of the window handle. It gives a clean and minimalist design in line with architectural trends. NP Ultra is available in standard and customer-specific designs and can be provided with anti-microbial finishes for hygiene-sensitive areas. It can be installed on all aluminium windows made with standard profiles (Euro groove). The minimalist trend is strongly affecting the world of building. Large openings are required, together with narrow profiles and stylish accessories with low aesthetic impact. When it comes to windows, some prefer large casement window sections or full glazing offering unobstructed views. Others are seeking large sliding panels that feature unobstructed openings and wide open spaces. The hardware installed on the aluminum


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windows and doors must therefore follow these trends. Giesse has developed a hardware system to meet the new market requirements. NP technology minimises machining operations on the profile, making assembly quicker and simpler. With compact dimensions, all handles with Giesse NP Technology are installed without any need to machine the inside of the profile, which means profile sections

can be streamlined and glazing surface areas increased. Giesse recently also launched NP Ultra Key for all applications. This is ideal for public and high-rise buildings. Another launch was NP Ultra for doors, fixed directly on the profile, tested up to 200,000 cycles in conformity with EN1906. To know more,


Sealing and hardware solutions, all in one.

The ideal combination of sealing and hardware systems for high performance windows and doors. Schlegel seal range provides the ultimate high-performance technology in energy-saving sealing for aluminium, PVC and timber framed windows and doors. Giesse innovative hardware range for aluminium windows and doors includes over 8,000 products for all types of opening with a wide variety of applications and more than 100 registered patents. SchlegelGiesse. The unique partner for integrated and exclusive solutions.

GIESSE S.p.A - India Branch Office D�362, MIDC, TTC Industrial Area, Kukshet Village, Juinagar, Navi Mumbai - 400705 - INDIA Tel: 0091 22 27612146 / 64 l

Product Watch

Espagnolette Handle for Casement Windows from Pulse Hardware


ulse hardware introduced a new offset Espagnolette handle for casement windows for their customers. This handle combined with the Espagnolette gear gives a perfect match to multi-point locking needs for windows. The handle is made of high-quality zinc and raw materials. The handle is available in RAL 9016 powder coated colour and can be customised to any colour of choice. The company is also offering this handle in special gold and chrome plated finishes for their retail customers. High quality and durable hardware products for modern uPVC doors and windows have been the key factor for the success of Pulse Hardware in India. With their state-of-the-art manufacturing facility at Sonepat, Haryana now fully operational and production in full swing, they are taking immense care in ensuring that their products represent the latest advances in design, functionality, technology, and durability. Pulse hardware provides a complete range of hardware for uPVC doors and windows. The wide variety in their product range makes it a preferred choice of many builders, architects and fabricators in India. For more details, contact: LGF SYSMAC (India) Pvt. Ltd. 402-403, Tower C, NDM-2 Netaji Subhash Place, New Delhi - 110034, India Phone: +91 11 47348888 Email: Web:,


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Product Watch

Renson Pollux Filters Ensure Supply of Fresh Air


lthough some regions and cities in India suffer from a strongly polluted air, still houses and buildings can be ventilated naturally using Renson Pollux filters. Convinced that natural ventilation through window vents still is in the lead for a healthy and comfortable indoor climate, Renson-ambassador, Edwin Saldanha, tested out this type of filters himself and noticed their efficiency as well as their impact on the indoor air quality. On an average, we spend 85 percent of our time indoors and should be aware of the risks of a bad indoor air quality. Especially when realising indoor air quality is up till 10 times worse than outdoor air quality in a lot of cases. That’s why it is important to provide enough fresh air and get rid of the polluted air indoors, 24/7. “Renson Invisivent (mounted on top of a window frame) or (glazed in) AR75 are two examples of window ventilators that provide a continuous flow of fresh air in a natural way. And even in regions or cities in India with strongly polluted air, natural ventilation can be accomplished using the Renson Pollux filters integrated into these window vents,” said Edwin Saldanha.

confirms. “After a while, the Pollux filters turned black which means the incoming air can easily ‘pass through’ (without any impact on airflow, thanks to its open structure) leaving behind all minuscule dust particles in the filter”. As he monitored the CO2 level in his home for a while now, Edwin Saldanha was convinced of the impact of these Pollux filters. “Thanks to them, I can enjoy enough fresh air entering the house, even in a polluted city like Mumbai”. For more information,

The Pollux filters up to 90 percent of fine dust and pollen out of the incoming air. A permanently electrostatically charged filter makes fine dust and pollen stick to the filter’s fibers. “I did the test myself installing Pollux filters in the AR75 window vents in my own house in Mumbai,” Edwin Saldanha


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Your partner in ventilation, sun protection and outdoor solutions ‘Creating healthy spaces’, that’s at the heart of RENSON®. This dynamic Belgian family business - founded in 1909 - is a worldwide trendsetter in ventilation, sun protection and terrace coverings. RENSON® creates innovative concepts and products for a healthy and comfortable indoor environment in homes and buildings, with minimal energy use and an attractive design. Invisivent® EVO - The most discrete window ventilator ∫ i-Flux technology guarantees maximal comfort and minimal energy loss ∫ Natural supply of fresh air ∫ Discrete installation on top of the window frame ∫ Water- and insect proof ∫ Optional Polux: electrostatic filter for 10PPM particles

Invisivent ® EVO

THM90EVO PB - Self-regulating window ventilator ∫ Thermally-broken flat vent ∫ Ideal for sliding doors. ∫ Installation at the bottom of the window ∫ Water- and insect proof


THL100 V - Vertical sliding vent ∫ Thermally-broken louvred ventilator ∫ Made to measure, installed in a vertical position ∫ Incoming fresh air at the bottom and outgoing humid warm air at the top ∫ Louvres at the outside, slider at the inside THL100 V

Awanish Mishra | Area Sales Manager North India - Mob.: +91 99 10 501 110 - Makarand Kendre | Area Sales Manager India - Mob.: +91 98 22 912 403 -

Product Watch


An Energy-Efficient Space Saving Sliding Hardware


CO SLIDE from Germanybased company SIEGENIA is a sliding hardware with versatile applications. It is tightly sealed, easy to handle and provides versatile design options that offer end users a perfect room comfort. The product combines the easy operation of lift-slide systems with the high compression of parallel slide & tilt elements. The strong sealing system of the hardware creates the best prerequisites for high energy savings to this latter feature. Moreover, the high-performance hardware for windows and doors of all frame materials scores in particular with its appealing designs and the intelligent use of space. It's use as a window leads to tangible space saving in interior rooms, because there is no space lost during ventilation, thanks to the sliding sash. Whereas ECO SLIDE as a door is an attractive alternative option to the familiar sliding door systems. High user-friendliness is also


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created by the quiet, intuitive operation and the integrated SOFT CLOSE function. The latter reduces the speed of the sash while closing and guides it safely into its end position, thus minimising the risk of injury and of damage to the window elements. In addition, it features a standardised night vent for continual ventilation and burglary resistant locking hook. It is easy to assemble and suitable for numerous PVC systems The ingenious design of ECO SLIDE also shows its strengths in production. Fabricators benefit in production from the rational assembly with a small number of components required and the simple adjustment. Moreover, the maintenance expenditure is negligible. Flexible options of use for PVC elements enable SIEGENIA to cooperate with diverse system providers, e.g. with profine. A product platform has been developed for the PremiSlide system

in which the profile and hardware are perfectly coordinated. For more information, visit:

Certainly the easiest way to move sliding doors: PORTAL HS with SOFT CLOSE. ❶ Two innovations for a new sliding feel for heavy lifting Elements and protect against injuries and damage: The SOFT CLOSE guide rail gives the wing with its special roller guide a featherlight handling. Of the SOFT CLOSE damper gently slows down when closing and pulls it closed automatically. ❷ The installation: very easy. The artun: not required! The system adjusts itself and easily tolerances. ❸ Both innovations are completely concealed and ideal for demanding customers who value design and space comfort. Find out more easily at SIEGENIA

Window systems · Door systems · Comfort systems


Gold Plus Launches

Second Float Line in Roorkee


old Plus launched its 2nd float line in Roorkee on 27th April, 2018. The company is now the second largest float glass producer in India. The Unit II, which envisages installation of high-end technology driven float Line with a specially designed furnace for making tinted and reflective float glass, heralds a new beginning for the manufacturing sector in India, especially in the production of glass and allied processed products. This speciallydesigned Gold Plus furnace (Unit II) for the manufacture of float glass is capable of producing 700 tonnes per day (TPD) of superfine quality tinted and reflective float glass. The launch was graced by the presence of Uttarakhand Finance Minister Mr. Prakash Pant and many dealers, distributors and officials from the government. Delivering the keynote address on the occasion, Mr. Subhash Tyagi, the Founder-Chairman of ‘Gold Plus Glass Industry Limited’, shared his experiences with the audience on setting up the company and his journey. On this occasion, the company arranged for a factory visit for all its dealers and distributors, who expressed their awe and admiration for the top-of-the-line machinery and use of advanced technology in the new unit. During his speech, Mr. Tyagi addressed certain issues faced by the industry and requested the minister for their

quick redressal. He asked the minister to ensure that the government looks into the viability of investments in the glass industry of the state so that the enterprises do not die out for the lack of it. Mr. Pant, in his address, congratulated the Gold Plus family for the successful induction of the second float line and gave assurances to look into the issues raised, so that they can be resolved in no time. The event came to a close with Mr. Suresh Tyagi, Managing Director, delivering the note of thanks to the guests in attendance. Mr. Jimmy Tyagi, son of Mr. Subhash Tyagi and Executive Director of Gold Plus Glass Industry Limited, also conveyed gratitude to all guests who were present on the occasion. Gold Plus had announced the firing of the furnace on December 17, 2017. With this line, Gold Plus now produces a product range to cover all kinds of tinted and solar-reflective glass along with the existing clear glass range. With the installation of Unit II, the product range and quality of international-standard glass and processed products will enhance manifold. Gold Plus manufactures float glass, architectural and industrial glass, automotive glass, frosted glass, lacquered glass and special glasses, such as magic glass, acoustic glass, burglary resistant and bullet-resistant glass. For more details on the company and their products, contact: Gold Plus Glass Industry Limited 4th Floor, Kings Mall, Sector 10, Rohini, New Delhi, 110085 Phone: 011-66376000 Website:


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GLASS MANUFACTURING COMPANIES IN INDIA PRODUCING Float Glass : • Clear float • Tinted glass • Mirror • Reflective glass • Frosted glass Automotive Glass : • Windscreens • Door glasses • Backlites

Architectural Glass : • Toughened glass • Bent toughened glass • Acoustic glass • Heat strengthened glass • Ceramic frit glass • Heat soaked glass • PVB laminated glass • Insulation glass • Burglary resistance glass • Bullet resistance glass Industrial Glasses

Glazing Division

TURNKEY SOLUTION The Gold Plus Group has experienced massive growth in the last 30 years. We have grown more than 200% over the last 10 years. Gold Plus Glass Industry Limited is considered by all as one of the leaders in Glass Industry. In the year 2017, Gold Plus group started its turnkey division with a vision to do best Quality & timely Aluminium Facades for a selected few Prestigious Clients & Projects.

Gold Plus Glass Industry Limited 4th Floor , Kings Mall, Sector 10, Rohini, New Delhi, 110085 Ph. - 011-66376000 Web -

Cover Story

Image courtesy: Kinlong Hardware (India) Pvt. Ltd.


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Cover Story

Architectural Hardware Industry Gearing Up For the Winds of Change


he Indian architectural hardware industry is gradually witnessing a new wind of change with the presence of several international and domestic hardware products in the market. The use of latest technologies with different materials and finishes have increased extensively providing better quality, functionality, security, installation, look, etc. In terms of design, there has been a drastic evolution with more minimalist and energy-efficient approach focused. As per the Global Builder Hardware Market Research Report 2018, the market is valued at 40000 million US$ in 2017 and will reach 57600 million US$ by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of 4.7 per cent during 2018-2025. However, challenges abound in the hardware architecture product market. The market is pervaded with fierce competition coupled with lack of information/ awareness on price, authenticity, test, standardisation,

etc., which are still few and far between. Given the huge opportunities present within the challenges, the market is relatively buoyant and positive based on the demand from the growing housing and construction industry. The demand compels to unleash more enhanced new products, and constantly innovating and upgrading the existing products, which gestures a bright prospect of the hardware industry in the country. In an effort to grasp the clearer picture of the current scenario in the architectural hardware industry in India, WFM approached various industry experts and specialists who have been in the industry for considerable years equipped with in-depth knowledge of the industry. They provide a comprehensive analysis on many aspects of the industry, such as technology advancement in hardware products, various test procedures for deciding quality, safety parameters, issues impacting the industry, etc.

MAY - JUNE 2018  l  WFM


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Managing Director, Kelwyn Door Cares India


General Manager, SIEGENIA India Pvt. Ltd

CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF ARCHITECTURAL HARDWARE FOR FACADES & FENESTRATIONS Selection criteria depends upon the types of applications, dimensions and specifications of door along with its height, width, thickness. Focus should be given on the quality, reliability, durability, design and cost effectiveness while manufacturing the hardware, says Sanjam Sayal, Managing Director, Kelwyn Door Cares India. Adding to the comments by Sayal on selection criteria, Navi Ahuja, General Manager, SIEGENIA India Pvt. Ltd. points out that sustainability, compatibility and performance of the hardware are equally important. Hardware is a very important part of the window or door. Mahesh Londhe, Technical Head, VEKA India Pvt. Ltd. puts forward that selection criteria depend on the glass specs and weight of the whole shutter. Hardware items such as friction stays and rollers come in different weight carrying capacities. Londhe suggests customers should ask for test certificates for the products. Aesthetics and functionality are crucial aspects of any product design, in fact, they are interdependent of one another. V.S.Rajan, Managing Director, GEZE India Private Ltd. chips in that some

of the hardware are selected based on aesthetics as per the architect/consultant/ customer choice and some are chosen with more importance on the functions. Mostly, hardware like hinges, door closers and locks are selected based on their functions. Handles are decided in terms of aesthetics. According to Sayed Anwar, Country Manager, SchlegelGiesse, the main criteria to be critically observed are product performance, availability, service (pre and post supply) and price. It is important to check the hardware compatibility with the system before finalising any product, this will help clients to address problems at drawing board itself and can avoid issues in the fabrication and installation stages. The perfect windows and doors can lift a space from ordinary to extraordinary. But choosing the right ones can be a challenge, especially if you are new to the process. Raman Dhiman, General Manager and Head of McCoy Fenestration, McCoy Group of Companies, notes that once you decide the typology (either swing or sliding), then you can go ahead with the selection of best hardware for your doors and windows. The other factors to be considered are security, style, warranty, care and maintenance, water tightness and appearance. Uday Shetty, Director, Archintex is certain that consumers will go for a brand which is solid and consolidated with history and specific knowledge. A company that invests constantly in R&D and has a right balanced automatic

MAHESH LONDHE Technical Head, VEKA India Pvt. Ltd


Managing Director, GEZE India Private Limited


TRILL, Mumbai

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Image courtesy: Archintex

䬀䤀一 䰀伀一䜀 䌀伀一匀吀刀唀䌀吀䤀伀一 䠀䄀刀䐀圀䄀刀䔀 䔀堀倀䔀刀吀

Cover Story


Country Manager, SchlegelGiesse


General Manager, McCoy Fenestration Division

production line, would be the choice always, he adds. Emphasising on the importance of following guidelines during the installation process, Tanuj Sharma, Zonal Head of Central and West India, Kinlong Hardware (India) Pvt. Ltd. opines that hardware are considered a small part in facade and fenestration but undoubtedly a very important one. Most of the architectural hardware available is user-friendly with comfortable operation, however, even the best of hardware fails if the installations and parameters are not followed. There is a science behind all and if the consumers/clients do not follow the guidelines given in the catalogues, accidents are bound to happen. LATEST TECHNOLOGIES IN HARDWARE PRODUCTS Compelled by the demand of the clients, hardware manufacturers are constantly engaged in developing new technologies that can augment the functionality and appearance of windows and doors. Nonetheless, there is no dearth of new products coming onto the market. People are looking for large openings, together with narrow profiles and stylish accessories with low aesthetic impact. When it comes to windows, some are preferring large casement window sections or full glazing, offering unobstructed views. Others are seeking large sliding

UDAY SHETTY Director, Archintex

TANUJ SHARMA, Zonal Head of Central and West India, Kinlong Hardware (I) Pvt. Ltd


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panels that feature unobstructed openings and wide-open spaces. Today people look for a hardware with clean, minimalist and pronounced design in line with architectural trends. The minimalist trend is strongly affecting the world of building. Anwar, exhorts that to be in line with new trends, there is an emergence of a hardware system to meet the new market requirements, which minimises machining operations on the profile, making assembly quicker and simpler. Thanks to the compact dimensions, all handles with the new technologies are installed without any need to machine the inside of the profile, which means profile sections can be streamlined and glazing surface areas increased. In tune with the current scenario, V.S. Rajan of GEZE comments that each and every hardware has evolved with latest technologies. Different models for hinges have arrived in the market and new designer’s handles are introduced in the market. There are different types of locks available with more safety and security features for different type of doors, such as glass, aluminium, steel, wood, etc. Many door closing devices are manufactured with various functions, different types of seals for filling the gaps between frames and doors. Talking of the latest development of the hardware technology, Navi Ahuja, says that there are many advances in

Locking Mechanisms Locking mechanisms are either single point or multi point. Single point locks do not offer any security. They do not help in sound and heat insulation, hence they should be used in smaller size windows or in common areas. Multi point locks have minimum two locking points which are activated by single handle through gears, cams, etc. He further points out that if it is high performance glass/laminated glass/security glass, then it is prudent to use multi point locks. Generally, if the height of the shutter is up to 1000mm, it will have minimum two locking points. If shutter height is 1000 to 1800mm, then there should be having minimum three locking points. All shutters above 1800mm height should have minimum four locking points. Additional locking points can be used if required with the help of corner drives/extensions. (As told by Mahesh Londhe, Technical Head, VEKA India Pvt. Ltd)

Cover Story the hardware development nowadays, like the new Eco Slide System from SIEGENIA. These systems have more water tightness and sound insulation with a weight carrying capacity of 250 kg. The system guarantees security which is much higher than the normal sliding system. Giving a grim picture of the market, Dhiman holds an opinion that latest technologies in hardware have come in the market, such as lift and slide, slide and fold, tilt and slide. Despite that, they are not much popular and strike the right chord with the consumers because of the price issue. These latest technologies are suitable for penthouse bungalows and independent houses. The development of hardware product development is dependent on the types of systems prevalent in the industry. Talking about door/ window hardware, the slimline series, lift and slide, sliding folding and tilt turn windows are the trends, they are fantastic hardware present in the market, Sharma states. For the commercial buildings, Sharma elucidates a transparent facade can only be achieved with cable systems, however, it gets expensive if we use stainless steel cables but with recent development, we can replace the SS cables with Galfan coated MS cables, the prices are even competitive then a prevalent glass fin support system. And replacing the spiders with loop/ glass clamp system will safeguard the glass due to non-hole joints and ease of replacement during breakage. TEST METHODS FOR DECIDING THE QUALITY OF ARCHITECTURAL HARDWARE Most of the hardware are tested for a number of cycle operations, fire rating, corrosion resistance, types of functions and materials, however, test methods vary based on the standards. In India, most of the hardware tests are based on BIS (Indian Standards), EN (European Norms) and ANSI (American Standards), as per V.S.Rajan.


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Parametric Tests for Different Hardware Products According to Sayed Anwar of SchlegelGiesse, there are different parameters for different products as per the guidelines: Rollers: All rollers need to have passed the test of classification in accordance with EN 13126-15:2008 with following minimum requirements: • Durability: Grade 5 (25,000 cycles) • Mass: To be tested with maximum capacity declared • Corrosion resistance: Grade 4 (480 hours in salt spray chamber) Sliding Recessed Handles: They must have overcome following test for 25,000 cycles on sliding wing opening. The test should have been done with following minimum parameters: Sash mass - 50 kg; Work Frequency - 250 cycles/h. Hinges: Reference norm for windows and doors hinges is the EN 1935:2002. Hinges are classified according to the category of use and mass. One should calculate the weight for the sash before recommending this hardware. Hinges of a “medium duty” category of use must have passed the test of classification in accordance with EN 1935:2002 with following minimum requirements. Mass: Grade 5, (test mass up to 100 kg) Category of use: Grade 4 (Severe Duty) Durability: Grade 7 Safety in use: Grade 1 Corrosion Resistance: Grade 4 Hinge Grade: Grade 12 Mass: Grade 6, (test mass up to 120 kg) Category of use: Grade 4 (Severe Duty) Durability: Grade 7 Safety in use: Grade 1 Corrosion Resistance: Grade 4 Hinge Grade: Grade 13 Mass: Grade 7, (test mass up to 160 kg) Category of use: Grade 4 (Severe Duty) Durability: Grade 7 Safety in use: Grade 1 Corrosion Resistance: Hinge Grade:

According to Ahuja, the hardware for doors, windows and facades should be tested for wind load resistance, external fire performance, impact resistance, acoustics, air permeability, durability,

Grade 4 Grade 14

operating force and ventilation. Sayal sheds light on the three levels of quality check that include product design, product manufacturing, system design and execution. It is

Cover Story the role of developers, architects and manufacturers involved in the project to be well aware of the quality as it will help them to pinpoint possible aberrations. Any product needs to be tested on a number of standards, such as AAMA, ASTM, BS, CWCT, EN, etc. Fire rated curtain wall as per EN13643 determines fire resistance for nonload bearing elements. Also, thirdparty certifications from independent agencies are done as per ISO/IEC 17065 which is standard conformity assessment. In short, every product is unique, systematic testing is required, adds Sayal. According to Dhiman, there are three basic tests needs to be done, such as corrosion test, cyclic durability and ease of operation. (see the table below). The hardware are mostly moveable parts following the AAMA, ASTM and AISI standards. According to Sharma, the testing methodology can be divided into two parts: • Chemical Testing: The raw material used and its composition, type of coating, harsh climate conditions, spectrometric tests, etc. • Mechanical Testing: Tensile and yield strength, life cycles, loading capacity (dynamic & static), pull out testing, the behaviour of hardware when it works as a system, etc. Sharma points out that a good hardware company will always produce above mentioned certificates to justify Hardware Type Locks Latches Stays Stays – Non Friction Hinges Rollers Pivots Operators Restrictors Fasteners Handles


Cricket stadium, Ranchi

Image courtesy: Kelwyn Door Cares India

a good quality product. A third party test will surely add extra trust to the same, NABL approved agencies in India under the guidance of International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC) can serve the third parties, likewise China National Accreditation Service for Conformity Assessment (CNAS) in China. KEY SAFETY PARAMETERS FOR HARDWARE SELECTION The architect/designer along with procurement specialist should take important features into consideration and should prioritise accordingly, such as life safety, emergency egress and security. Sayal shares a word of caution that installation of lightweight hardware against heavyweight

Corrosion √ √ √ √

Cyclic Durability √ √ √ √

Ease of Operation √ √ √ √

√ √ √ √ √ √ √

√ √ √ √ √ √ √

√ √ √ √ √ √ √

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doors will result in misalignment of door, difficult operation and security compromises, and higher moisture levels can result in corrosion. According to Londhe, the material of the hardware, load carrying capacity and design are key parameters for safety in hardware. For example, friction hinges are available in child safety design wherein the shutter opens less than 15-degree angle which is ideal for kid’s rooms or schools. Coastal regions should use stainless steel 304 or better grade material to have better corrosion resistance. When it comes to the selection of hardware, use good quality hardware as it ensures security and safety factor. Ahuja raises a point that in the sliding system, one should have an anti-lift device as burglars look for the easiest way to come in and without anti-lift, it will be easily accessible for them. Shetty shows his concern on the load capacity that needs to be gauged with precision. It is necessary to keep in mind that windows are a complex system which is composed of different elements - profiles, gaskets, glass and hardware. Shetty says that it is necessary to analyse the site of installation too, if there is an obstacle during the opening, then limiter arm can be opted. One should know the application types whether it is school or hospital. In case of a school, it is

Cover Story

RGA Tech Park, Bengaluru

important to limit the opening to avoid the fall of a child. One should look for a mechanical testing in accordance with industry standards - its durability, strength, application, etc., says Anwar. He adds that product must be compatible with profile and should be installed as per manufacturer’s guidelines, so that it gives required performance. Involving supplier from the beginning would be a key to successful project execution as they will guide the client to identify the appropriate products and help them to avoid over or under designing.

Image Courtesy, Archintex

VARIOUS TESTING METHODS TO CHECK AIR INFILTRATION & WATER PENETRATION There are testings like wind load - EN 12211 and water penetration - EN 1027. The hardware systems must fulfill all requirements of the relevant certifications scheme. Hardware and fixing systems must be technically comparable. The performance characteristics of the hardware system to be interchanged must be at least equivalent, says Ahuja. Sayal adds that test standards in the industry for metal panels are carried

Image Courtesy, GEZE India

The new European Quarter in Stuttgart Milaneo shopping centre opens its doors using GEZE door technology


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out as per ASTNE283 (air leakage) and ASTM E331 (water penetration). Water penetration testing is performed after the air test. In some cases, air infiltration testing is not specified so the water test is the only test required. In such testing, Dhiman enlightens that pressure chambers are fitted to the interior or exterior face of the building envelope around the test specimen as opposed to being fitted directly to the specimen in the air test. To some extent, every building needs to ‘breathe’ regardless of age or location. You may feel some air coming in around windows, doors, skylights, electrical outlets, walls, floors or the roof. This is air infiltration, and it is the result of air pressure differences between the inside and outside of the building. This can be caused by wind pressure differences between floors in taller buildings or other reasons. Sharma puts forward the following tests: • The ASTM E 783 (standard test method for field measurement of air leakage through installed exterior windows and doors) is a testing standard that describes the procedures to determine air leakage rates of installed windows and doors. • AAMA 502 voluntary specification for field testing of newly installed fenestration products. • AAMA 503 voluntary specification for field testing of newly installed storefronts, curtain walls and sloped glazing systems. STANDARDIZATION (CERTIFICATIONS) FOR BUYING WINDOW AND DOOR HARDWARE American Architectural Manufacturers Association (AAMA), International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) or European Norms (EN) standard are the major standards that can be referred while buying the hardware. There is a difference in a few technical details such as flow rate of water, a number of steps performed during water penetration test and a repeat test for air permeability after wind

Cover Story

load test. However, test methods of all standards can be combined using most stringent requirements of each standard to get the best results, Mahesh Londhe, throws light on the lack of standardisation. Sayal reveals more certifications to look out, such as the National Fenestration Rating Council, National Accreditation and Management Institute and Energy Star. These certifications are important and intended to provide unbiased facts that home owners use to evaluate different window products. Besides, he advises that to look for NFRC, which is the best label source of energy performance information. Shetty explains that actual situation in Europe, it is possible to mark CE hardware for windows and doors if there is a related harmonised standard. This is possible for single axis hinge following EN1935, for the hardware installed on doors on escape routes it is mandatory. It is always possible to test hardware according to EN13126 multipart standard and ask for a declaration about the


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reached grade to the production company. This declaration usually contains information about the mass test, numbers of cycles and test size. Another important standard to refer is the EN1670-Corrosion ResistanceRequirements and test methods to have an indication about the sustainability of selected hardware or finishing according to the behavioural condition of installation.

Windows for high rise buildings: Project - Runwal Greens, Mulund, Mumbai

Image courtesy: Veka India Pvt. Ltd.

KNOW THE TESTING SYSTEMS - ASTM, AISI, AAMA ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials): ASTM certification programme covers products (including materials, processes and services) and personnel for industries that desire an independent third party demonstration of compliance to standards and/or are facing regulatory pressures to prove compliance to standards. AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute): It was created to cater to the iron and steel industries’ need for information, investigation, and a forum where problems can be discussed and solved. It aims at influencing public policy, educating people, and shaping public opinion on the steel industry to sustain its growth. AAMA (American Architectural Manufacturers Association): Lead efforts to address technical and marketing needs of fenestration product manufacturers, suppliers and test labs. It works to improve product, material and component performance standards for the fenestration industry. (Inputs by Tanuj Sharma, Zonal Head - Central & West India, Kinlong Hardware (India) Pvt Ltd)

According to security, the reference is EN1627 that gives a classification according resistance to applied load on tested window and time of manual refraction action before opening the sash. For motors, there are different standards to consider about safety in use -2014/35/CE low voltage directive, 2006/42/CE machinery directive, EMC 2014/30/CE electromagnetic compatibility, 1999/5/CE radio transmission device, RoHS 2002/95/ CE restriction of hazardous substance directive. It must be considered that a window with an actuator is not only a window but also a machine for the European Lex, elucidates Shetty. Anwar shares an interesting insight that hardware supplier should be identified/considered based on their capability and expertise to design and produce good quality products, and should at least possess - certified quality system (according to the requirements of UNI EN ISO 9001:2008) and certified environmental management system (according to the requirements of UNI EN ISO 14001:2004). They should be able to provide a warranty of 10 years on the products and finishes. There are different standards for different products based on their applications like rollers in accordance with EN 13126-15:2008, for windows and doors hinges in EN 1935:2002, arms durability test according to EN 13126-6:2009 (Par. 7.7.1), etc.

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“One Needs to Understand the Product & Its Application” representatives. Once various types of openings are understood and decision are made needed for the project, then they should consult the hardware manufacturer for their technical recommendation. This is like going to a doctor and taking his advice rather than trying to be one without sufficient qualifications or experiences.


Head Representative, Roto Frank Asia Pacific

Latest Technologies in Hardware Products Fenestration is an ever-evolving field, there are numerous products that come and go. In terms of adapting to the newer correct fenestration solutions, we sadly lag behind. We lack in understanding the difference between various types of openings and yet we aspire to have the


n general, there is a lot of apathy towards the topic of ‘hardware’ though it is often acknowledged that it is an extremely important component of the door and window ecosystem. Consumers/ clients have to do away with this apathy and need to understand the functioning of hardware assembly in various window and door applications. Before you select anything, you need to understand the product and its application. So, they need to visit showrooms or exhibitions where they get to experience the touch, feel and functioning of various openings like the tilt and turn, fold and slide, tilt and slide, lift and slide, top hung, side hung, sliding, etc. and also understand the importance of hardware from the manufacturer’s


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Sliding windows from Roto

‘latest’ technologies. We speak of the energy-efficient buildings and still use the sliding windows in them – did someone realise that there is a gap between the sashes in sliding systems that just defeats the purpose of energy-efficiency. Why not use sealed fenestration solutions instead, especially while building energy-efficient buildings. This by far will be the ‘latest’ technology for our market. One can get a correctly sealed fenestration solutions mainly by controlling the windows with good hardware amongst others. Tests & Test Methods The tests and test methods vary depending on the hardware components used in applications. In general, one can get details from

Cover Story

Burglary Resistance Grade 1 (RC1N): Basic protection against physical force, for example - kicking and heaving. Resistance duration - 3 minutes. Burglary Resistance Grade 2 (RC2 / RC2N): Protection against burglary tools, such as screwdrivers, pliers and wedges. Resistance duration - 3 minutes. Burglary Resistance Grade 3 (RC3): Additional protection against tools, such as crowbars. Resistance duration - 5 minutes. Burglary Resistance Grade 4 (RC4): Protection against cutting and hammering tools. Resistance duration - 10 minutes. Burglary Resistance Grade 5 (RC5): Protection against electrical equipment. Resistance duration - 15 minutes. Burglary Resistance Grade 6 (RC6): Protection against large sized electrical equipment. Resistance duration - 20 minutes.

EN 13126 standards. However, the stress has to be on the assembly of the hardware and its usage - the touch and feel as a complete solution. Often, we see window sashes being used to make doors in projects just to cut down on project cost. The hardware for windows and doors are often different – so it is important to also understand the profile solution offered by competing companies. Therefore, hardware should not be checked alone, it has to be seen as a complete solution.

Construction handle - To be used during construction to control site entry and exit. To be replaced with actual handles

Another simple test is to check on the warranty period and the country from which it is issued. A German manufacturer’s 10-year warranty is often given when all components going into that hardware assembly also meet the 10-year clause. Also, these warranties are applicable only if the fabrication of windows and doors is done as per manufacturer’s technical recommendations for that particular project. Key Safety Parameters Various types of openings have hardware limitations depending on the manufacturer who extends the warranties, for example, a sliding door can have a maximum width of 1500 mm. So what if this limit is

New 400 Kg roller for sliding doors from Roto

crossed – well, the manufacturer’s warranty becomes void. Limitations of hardware are given in the technical manual of the manufacturer. If these are crossed, one has then crossed the ‘Laxman Rekha’ of safety also. However, even if it is within hardware limits, it does not mean that you have a safe window. One has to remember that there are many elements playing a role in the making of the window. There could be a fabrication mistake, there can be profile design mistake. So one has to see fenestration as an overall offering. One standard/test that is not widely used/talked about in our market is the burglary tests given in DIN V ENV 1627. These tests are carried out in professional test laboratories on completely fabricated windows/doors. There are certain tools (pliers/screw driver/cowbar, etc.) and the time frame within which the professional burglar is allowed to break in. In case, he fails the fabricators window is certified for that test. Multipoint locking and hardware design play an important role in achieving better results. A Few Hurdles Faced by the Industry The builders should loosen their purses (just a bit) if they want a quality life for their windows and doors in their projects. The architects should open their minds to new and proven options in fenestration solutions. The fabricators still have to learn minute details of window fabrication which will make them world class fabricators. The clients should have sufficient basic knowledge to differentiate between a good and a not so good window. Collectively if we all from the industry should consider ‘sliding’ as a competitor, only then together we will be able to get better fenestration solutions into the projects. Disclaimer - This is his personal opinion and not of the company he works for.

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Cover Story IS THE IMPORTED HARDWARE SUITABLE FOR INDIAN WEATHER ESPECIALLY FOR COASTAL AREAS? Performance of the hardware depends on its material, design, surface coating (if any), etc. If these criteria are met, the hardware can be suitable for Indian weather conditions, be it imported or Indian. Mahesh shares imported hardware items usually come with standard specifications. Imported items have better surface coating especially in gear mechanisms to prevent any corrosion but still, it cannot protect it from the weather in coastal areas. It requires SS 304 or higher grade material which is generally not available in imported hardware. According to Ahuja of Siegenia, all the hardware are suitable for Indian weather. For the costal area, we recommend special surface, corrosion resistant, 1000-hour salt spray test, etc. Also, one should go for Steel with zinc-nickel coating, stainless steel, and long-term guarantee for hardware meant for coastal state worldwide. On the usage of glass against the Indian weather and geography, Sayal says that as far as the validity of glass in tropical climate is concerned, solutions have been devised by using high performance solar control coatings keeping in mind the shade of glass. He also recommends that the hardware

The interlocking door system from GEZE


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Image courtesy: Kinlong Hardware (India) Pvt Ltd

selected should be weather-resistant, scratch proof. The profiles should be UV resistant. uPVC products are especially treated with titanium dioxide. China is taking care of these checks thoroughly before manufacturing any product for Indian weather, says Sayal. Shetty explains hardware are manufactured assuming the harshest conditions being tropical or otherwise. One should insist on grade 4 240 hours corrosion test for non SS material and grade 5 496 hours for SS 304 material with high nickel and chromium content. The products are available in different grades for different applications and

one can select them as per site conditions and requirements, says Anwar. He too insists on corrosion resistance properties for coastal areas. With most of the experts favouring the suitability of imported hardware in Indian weather conditions, Dhiman says 90 percent is still imported in the current situation, and especially for the coastal area, we have SS grade accessories. Sharma gives in details that SS316 has a version called CF8M which according to ASTM standard is the material to be cast in order to attain properties of SS316. However, this ASTM standard for CF8M has sub catagories as ASTM A743 and A744 which states that any CF8M products cast under A743 can be used for ‘general corrosion resistance’ but if the same CF8M product is cast under A744 standard will be used for ‘severe corrosion resistance’ for areas like under sea water, nuclear power storage plants, etc. And for the door and window hardware, the coating done on the hardware should follow the AAMA standards as normal or super weather coating. By the above statement, we can derive that a hardware imported from any country is suitable to Indian region as long as the production methodology is followed as per standards.

Cover Story

The Hardware Industry Needs To Be More Organised

not applicable on hardware, which is the Indian standard.


Director, Kolf International (P) Ltd.


hat are the criteria for selection of architectural hardware for fenestrations? The basic for any hardware selection depends on the application of the area and installation type. We need to focus more on the durability, practicality and functionality rather than emphasising on design and look.

What are the key safety parameters to look for while selecting hardware? It depends on the applications. For e.g., in case of a sliding door, we need to make sure that the glass has been hung properly; and for a swing door, the floor spring or the hardware used should be as per the requirement. Sometimes people use low capacity product just to save cost. We need to make sure the application is at par the product technicalities. Is the hardware imported from other countries suitable for Indian conditions, especially for coastal areas? Yes, it is very much suitable for Indian weather. In India, the weather condition is not extreme. So these hardware are very easy to use. With

little alterations, most of the imported products are adaptable to any places in India. There is stainless steel 316 cart, which is tested for coastal areas. Tell us about the future of architecture hardware industry? Hardware industry in India is very small right now. But there is a large scope which people will be realising very soon. It is a very big industry which is still untapped. The sector needs to be more organised. Please point out a few hurdles faced by your company and the industry? This sector is mostly unorganised and it is a major hurdle. The imported materials are sold at different costs, many without any invoice, which is actually a menace to the industry. Therefore, we need to tackle this grey market very cleverly. Besides, the government needs to give more attention to the industry. There is a need for huge investments in the hardware industry and the government intervention is desperately required to boost the industry, along with some incentives for export and manufacturing setups.

Please tell us about the latest technologies in hardware products? Aluminium extrusion products are more environment friendly, recyclable and durable. So, now we are shifting most of our railing products mainly from stainless steel to aluminium. Now aluminuim is more widely accepted and used replacing stainless steel and brass. What are test methods for deciding the quality of hardware used in windows and doors? There are two types of tests – UL and CE, which are carried out to gauge the life cycle of the products. The customers can follow these tests while deciding the quality of hardware. If we go for more advanced testing, then we have fire testing certifications. BSI is

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Cover Story

Image courtey Veka

Bay windows in a highrise building

HURDLES FACED IN THE HARDWARE INDUSTRY The industry has seen a big turnaround in the last five years with the increase of technology and its use, and customer expectations. Safety and security have been the primary objective for the customers. However, there are certain hurdles that need to be addressed. Shetty highlights the necessity of reducing time duration in developing new products feeling the trend of the market. Investment should be done on new products and machines that allow quality improvement and flexible production. There should also be more investment in training people and building a team with all the actors in the supply chain.

Parkview Business Tower, Bestech, Haryana


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Price disparity has always been a major concern to tackle in the hardware industry. In regard to the pressing situation, Ahuja says that pricing and mismanagement of the hardware order are some of the issues. Customers hardly give importance on the quality but easily enticed by the cheaper price with less concern of the security features. Anwar opines it is very important that the customer can differentiate between good quality and inferior products which will help them in selection and decision making as well. He further adds it is also important to share the knowledge by conducting small training programme for fabricators on selection, and installation of hardware, so that their team is equipped to use good products in appropriate ways, most of the problems are due to poor installation which can also be addressed by supplier involvement at all stages, as there is partnership with them in a project. Sharma and Dhiman point out that the market is still quantity driven, price sensitive and yet to be very professional to understand the worth. FUTURE OF ARCHITECTURE HARDWARE INDUSTRY FOR FACADES AND FENESTRATIONS The future of architectural hardware industry is certainly brighter as people

Image courtesy: Kelwyn Door Cares India

are getting aware of the importance of hardware in façades and fenestrations. With the government regulations such as RERA, all the builders and developers are required to maintain the building for minimum five years. In such a state of affairs, Londhe says it will tend to opt for a better quality hardware which will upgrade the product and the whole industry in coming years. Sharing his perspective, Shetty elucidates that today the demand for closing solutions with minimal systems, automation and hidden accessories still characterise the medium/high market, but in future, we will have a greater demand diffusion, thanks to the technological development that will make these products more competitive in terms of price too. Customisation requests will become an ever stronger need in the future. The current market is a developing one though it is driven by quantity with a huge compromise on the quality. There is a lack of proper standards and unprofessional approach of the manufacturers are some of the factors affecting the growth rate of the industry. It is a big challenge for our local hardware industry as the foreign companies have well-established infrastructure, production quantum and strong QA/ QC. However, Sharma believes that in the coming years if the manufacturing sector in India gets developed either locally or the overseas companies stepping in to meet the Indian market’s demands, it will surely impact the industry growth in a big way. The work done by many event organisers for the sector, including ZAK Group, to create awareness and promote some sort of standardization is commendable which is leading in the right direction. The market is mega with lots of challenges as the sector is largely unorganised.Yet, the future is bright with more buzz creating around to curb the crippling effect of illegal activities in the market before it digs deeper. With more awareness and training programmes, the swift evolution of the hardware industry is expected to determine the markets in the next 5 years.

Architectural Hardware

The Importance of Choosing

the Right Hardware for Windows & Doors


he market for doors and windows in uPVC and aluminium is steadily growing and expected to cross over Rs 15-20,000 crores by 2025. Let’s take a look at the reality in developments. Aluminium door and window systems were introduced in the Indian market in the early 80s. Thereafter, aluminium window systems saw a steady growth. They were made essentially using extruded aluminium profiles available in the local market. Components like glass were common. Other components, including beading, gasket and hardware were required to make a complete system. Over the past one decade the façade and fenestration industry across the country has become more organised and evolved in many aspects; but the major transformations were seen in safety, security and durability features. Each of these traits needs to be understood in order to assimilate the

evolution of the trade. Safety in the window comes with the aspect of security. It is officially determined by the typology of glass used in order to make the window tamper-proof. With the introduction of float glass in the early 90’s, the glass industry began to see evolutions. Towards the end of 90`s, companies started producing processed glass which is also called tempered or toughened glass. As the demand for toughened or tempered glass in commercial glazing increased, the quest for the better safety lead to the development of laminated safety glass. As of today, more than 150 glass processors are present across India in every graphical location. Thereafter, the profiling industry benefited since they have to provide thicker and steadier aluminium frames to hold heavier glasses. Only in the first decade of the 2000s, the evolution of the uPVC industry started, which brought about the development of windows systems for

lots of residential projects followed by vendor applications in the housing segment. Continuous improvement in the profiles, glass and silicones culminated in the development of stronger, safer and durable window systems. The most important aspect of safety and security in any of the window system is essentially the hardware used. It is also essential for better performance windows and doors. The window and door for any housing requirement are with respect to the very important aspect of durability, security and safety of the household. In window and door, the part which determines durability is the accessories and the hardware. Hardware is a vital and super essential part of any window and door. Let me explain the types of windows which are generally used in homes and projects. For aluminium and uPVC windows & doors, basic typology is as follows for the residential & commercial purpose.

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Architectural Hardware Fixed Window: A fixed window is a type of window with at least one sash that does not open.

heavy panels with very little effort. For any window or door to function according to its typology, hardware

plays a major role in it. Let me give you a brief idea about choosing the right hardware for the right window.

Casement (Open In/ Open Out) Window/Door: A casement is a window that is attached to its frame by one or more hinges or stays at the side. Casement windows either open from outside or inside. Horizontal Sliding Windows/Door: A horizontal sliding window/door is a type of window where the sash(es) operate(s) by sliding horizontally along a track in the window or door frame. Vertical Sliding Windows: A vertical sliding window is a type of window where the sash(es) operate(s) by sliding vertically for ventilation purpose. Tilt & Turn Window: Tilt and turn windows open in multiple directions through the use of a single operating handle. The sash can be opened at the top for ventilation, inwards for cleaning and ventilation, or locked in the closed position. Pivot Window: The window that opens by pivoting either horizontally or vertically. Lift & Slide doors: Lift & Slide custom door systems are a popular choice for opening up large expanses. A system of levers and wheels lifts the panel of the sill enabling movement of large,

Sliding doors

Hardware Classification: Door Door (uPVC/Aluminium)

Openable Door Handle



Door Closer

Door Bolt


Sliding Door

Bi-fold window systems are a choice for opening up large expanses


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Lift & Slide

Sliding & Folding Door

Automatic Door






Lock System

Lock Set

Automatic Lock


Roller set




Panic Bar

Architectural Hardware Hardware Classification: Window Window (uPVC/Aluminium)

Openable Window Handle



Espage Rod

Friction stay


Tilt & Turn Handle



Lock set



Friction Stay


Friction Stay


Importance of Handle in uPVC & Aluminium Window/Door:

Handles are the key hardware of window or door

Handles are the key hardware of window or door. For the selection of the handle, one should keep in mind the aesthetic look and function of the handle. Quality, design and colour of the handle are more important in




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uPVC & aluminium system. Standard materials used for handles are aluminium, ZAMAC or zinc-aluminium alloy die cast. Quality of powder coating varies from handle to handle depending upon its price. While selecting a handle, one should consider safety parameter like purpose and position of the door/ window. If it is for residential purpose, there is always a risk of children or elderly people falling out of the window during operations or cleaning. The handles must ensure safety. There are various types of handles available in the market like lever handle, pull handle, pop-up handle, single point handle, multi-point handles, detachable handle, panic bar, etc. Each handle has its own type of operational mechanism. Selecting the right handle depends on the window or door typology, durability, security and safety.

Importance of Hinge, Friction Stay and Rollers in uPVC & Aluminium Window/Door: Hinges, friction stay and rollers are window’s invisible functional hardware and the functional life of window/door depend on this hardware. To select the right hinge or friction stays, one should focus on window or door panel/vent size and weight. Many times, the operation of window fails or sagging of windows happens due to wrong selection of friction stay or hinge. Type of frictional stays are standard, heavy duty and restricted friction stays. Material grading for friction stay used are SS304 and SS202. Quality and durability of stay depend on its material grade. Hardware companies should provide the right hardware for window and door to a client Like hinges, sliding roller selection is also crucial. Selection of roller should be done considering the sliding panel’s weight and size. There are various roller types available, depending on the manufacturing material, like nylon roller, copper roller, etc. One should know the difference between heavy duty roller and light duty roller. Also the performance and quality of the roller depend on the material of the roller.

Selecting the right handle depends on the window or door typology, durability, security and safety

Architectural Hardware Importance of Lock in uPVC & Aluminium Window/Door: Your home is a place where you and your family should have the ability to relax and feel safe, day or night. Without having high-quality locks on your doors, that relaxing feeling can turn to stress and worry. Having the ability to securely lock your doors, home or not, is an option everyone deserves. When we talk about safety and security, selecting the right locking mechanism is on top of the list. Different types of locks available are mortice lock, deadbolt, night latch, theft resistant lock, multi-point lock, automatic lock, etc. Selection of lock is very crucial, and one needs to check the position of the door in a house or commercial place. Have secure front door locks. The door should have deadbolts in addition to keyed door locksets. Look for deadbolts with a 1-inch (2.5cm) throw bolt and an interlocking frame. Don’t choose a dual-cylinder device – the kind with a key from both sides. This can trap your family inside in the event of a fire. If you have one now, replace it. Burglars look for the easiest way in, and in most cases, they head for the windows and balcony doors. Old windows offer only a low level of burglary protection and without any window locks, they can be easily broken in. We recommend the use of special burglary protection, especially for To select right hinge or friction stays, one should focus on window or door panel/vent size and weight

windows that are easily accessible. This can be in the form of lockable window handles or, in the case of balcony and terrace doors, use a variety of locking handles that prevent forced entry. Multipoint locking window helps to prevent burglars from breaking in, and it will also help window insulation. Importance of the other Overall Screws and Accessories: Other accessories and screws quality also affect the performance and durability of window or door. Other accessories include door closers, door plates, lock plates, cylinders, etc. While choosing hardware, we need to check the quality of other accessories along with screw’s quality and grades. Selecting a wrong hardware can impair the window and door function. Hence, choosing the right hardware for any window or door is important. Hardware is the backbone of this system. Quality, durability and safety are the three major parameters to be considered for hardware in uPVC & aluminium doors and window. While choosing the hardware, it should be noted that they are extremely functional. Always choose the maintenance free material that can function at least for 10 years. Also, they should complement the stylish modern design of your windows and doors.


Leader McCoy Group of Companies

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Amit Malhotra is the Leader of McCoy Group of Companies. He is a well-known personality in the silicone and building products industry in SAARC nations. Amit joined the family business of waterproofing started by his late father Mr VK Malhotra in 1993. From its humble origin, McCoy Group has come a long way and has offices in India and abroad and sourcing offices globally, with an annual turnover of more than 150 crores. Amit is the Marketing Head & Treasurer of uPVC Window and Door Manufacturers Association, known as UWDMA, and was also the President of Confederation of Construction Products and Services (CCPS) for many years. In his professional life, Amit has chaired many committees of various industry’s associations. In his constant endeavour to learn, he is currently pursuing an Executive Education Programme at the Harvard Business School (OPM), Boston, the USA since 2015. MAY - JUNE 2018 l WFM



Design Director, Venkataramanan Associates & Principal Architect, PRAGRUP

Kumar Ravindra (Ravee) heads Design at Venkataramanan Associates (VA). His strength lies in providing innovative design solutions to emerging project trends in India. He has designed many of VA’s large complex projects and has more than two decades of experience in this field. Ravee is also the Principal Architect at PRAGRUP, a design firm that has pioneered a sustainable approach to design, through work that spans the spectrum from master plans to furniture design. He leads as the Founder Principal for the research lab. Ravee has been a visiting faculty member at various departments of architecture including UCLA, Cornel, Keene State, Marlboro, Berlin School of Architecture, IACCA Barcelona, Toronto University, Bangalore University, RVCE Bangalore, Anna University - Chennai, etc. He has lectured in various cities in India and around the world, sharing his experience on ideation of architecture. Kumar Ravindra talks elaborately on his firm’s design approach, latest projects, concepts on façade designs and green buildings, and his views on future façades in his candid conversation with WFM.

Holistic Approach for Experiential Architecture


ell us about your practi ce and design approach? Our practice is focused on designing projects, prima facie looking at the environment, context, location, typology and most importantly, the functionality of the building. The drive will primarily focus on the functional


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realm or the occupation of the users. If you look at the design approach, in every project that we envisage, we see a certain prerequisite to bringing in innovations. The imagination of the space and its design must bring a paradigm shift in the kind of work that we can do; not in terms of what has been done in any other parts of

the world. With our inventive thinking and new ideas, with the best use of available materials or technologies, we create an equilibrium of a building which becomes super innovative and would remain as green benchmark intrinsically. It is not that the project has to be iconic or the necessity is not to make

Face To Face

Lupin Laboratory

a form provocative to the user, but it should be experiential rather than just making a significantly visible structure in the urban landscape. A person while walking into the building, and from the time he is on the threshold of the shift from the outside environment to the inside, the user experience becomes primordial; so that has to be iconic. I would regard this as our approach to design. In all these dramatics of the green - reuse, reduce and recycle - these three things have super important perspective in the making of a building. What inspired you to become an architect? I was graduating to be an artist post my pre-university. Somewhere in between, I was introduced to the history of architecture for some portfolio that I was interested to do. That became a programme shift for me to understand for more assigned reasoning and the idea of experiential living. When I look at habitats or temples, there was semantic in it, there

was “Arth” ingrained in it. The great civilization, lifestyle and the need of certain cultural semantics in historical precincts were completely fascinating. As I started reading architectural history, I realise that what we build today is in no way parallel to such

nuances of the recognition of the time or the context, nor I felt the buildings of the past, which I was looking at that time, was not experiential in terms of climatic or was not qualified to save the environment. When we see a building design in the modern

Nirlon Knowledge Park

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Face To Face

Purva Venezia residential apartments by Puravankara Limited in Yelahanka, Bengaluru

era, designed by Le Corbusier or B.V. Doshi, they too are very experiential. If you step back and look at the history, the temple complex of Madurai for example, or the Padmanabhapuram palace or the whole city of Jaisalmer or even the smallest and simplest town like Melkote next to Mysore or the Paschim Vahini on the edge of a river, all these strike the humongous chord of a reciprocation to architecture as the point, as the language of communication, to what the people wanted to be. So I felt that I too should become an architect and be able to bridge that ability to our present time. I presume you connect a lot of art and architecture in your project. A lot of it. Every person should have a “trained” opinion and each one should explore that innovative message of communication whether it is


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structure of aluminium which could expand, spread and contract. It could have a glass panel which could be stuck on the aluminium frame that can strain itself to the deflections of an RCC building structure. And when I presented the whole document to him, giving possibilities of such nature to the building, the client was taken aback. He discouraged me to do that project, nevertheless, in introspection, he encouraged me to actually complete a course on glazing technology to refine that method. For the first time, in Bangalore, we built a building which had glass stuck on the exterior and that was my first introspection into façade making, technologies of fenestration and external elements. Of course, it took very long time for the building to get completed. Post that, I was very intrigued by the quality of how the external system works – whether it is drywalling, primary or secondary walling of glass, an element parallel to glass or the façade architecture that could become a great new age idea for thermal equilibrium within a building,

language, literature, art, architecture, drawing or living one’s own life. If we do not become innovative and creative in what we do, mediocrity will disdain us to nothing. Therefore, being artistic will be significantly important in everything that we do. Please talk about your projects featuring very innovative and different kinds of façade and fenestration designs Many years back, in 1997, when I presented my design for a project, a tower named Embassy Heights in Bengaluru, for the first time to the builder, I suggested that we should clad the whole building with glass. I had done the hand drawing and a physical large model of the tower. He thought I was a fool. He did not understand what I was trying to tell him that the façade could be a whole

Embassy Heights in Bengaluru

Face To Face

Infosys Park, Bengaluru

a simulation to nature. I think that is where my journey started with many buildings, interacting with many corporate clients like the one we did for SmithKline Beecham (now it is the corporate office for Accenture), where glass started reacting with the nature of the trees and its geometry.

SmithKline Beecham

Then we did John of Welch Centre in the GE Campus, Bangalore, which showcases very innovative concepts. Also, we explored the potential of the Venturi for a project at Infosys Park, Bengaluru. These are a couple of examples where we initiated ideas of how an external skin can bring in

thermal equilibrium, connecting to the outside in an intelligent way. Today we do that in the glass technology. Through pressure equalisation, we create temperature or heat capture or the air equilibrium, lessening the heat ingress to the interior environment. We primarily do this to avoid condensation or frosting or heat bubbles. These are scientific systems through which we control the environment ingress to the building, but still be able to experience the connection to the outside world. I was quite influenced by the works of architects like Alvar Aalto and Louis Kahn, and fascinated by the idea of ‘Verandah’ that would create the quality of transition from a hot environment to a warm livable state inside. I think the whole external skin or the glass technology has the potential to create an inbuilt equilibrium, creating that transition in a very different method. We started exploring ideas in the making of the building, and I think that was the first big introduction to the façade and cladding industry. We went on to build in many buildings post that, like the Nirlon Campus, to capture such elemental experience. Also, the resorts that I have built for Cicada and Venezia were also some couple of examples. We have also done large and simple residences where we explored the potential with a triple layered window system where we collaborated with the manufacturer of Indonesia to create this window wall unit for

Welch Centre in the GE Campus

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Face To Face They should also have access to the use of the same.

Spring Spa - a ground plus four-floor hotel

residences. So all these became a creative experience to qualify the idea of fenestration beyond the traditional method of air condition. Could you please tell us about the latest façade and cladding technologies and materials available in the Indian market and those you used in your project? The idea of a secondary walling system is something that we are exploring in a very novel way. There could be a disconnect between the two layers of the façade and still you can create a space of equilibrium, and a verandah in a simplistic way to do so. Also, the idea of how to re-qualify the heat ingress of solid wall surface


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by creating secondary panel system – the drywalling system - is another huge potential that the industry can offer. You can bring in a second or third layer of an element which can become a qualifier to resist thermal incidence or heat gain from the primary wall. And also this will act as a vent wall to the exterior. These are some of the innovative methods. What is more interesting is that we can bring in a lot of craft from Rajasthan, Gujarat and even from deep down south of India. People who are trained and well versed in the work of stone and other elements of our traditional civil construction methodologies have to adopt more accurately to the present technology.

Please brief on technologies you have used in your projects in the recent past? In our project Wipro at Bengaluru, for example, we are trying to reinvent the idea of the third trellis. Here we have the layers of windows, which are also creating different layers of double equilibrium in terms of pressure equalisation. We created the third layer of a warming element which would bring different incidence of light and heat ingress to the façade and the whole building. This exploratory way of making the façade look iconic because of the nature of shadows and patterns that you would see between the colour elements of the third wall, primary wall, and the secondary wall. We are also doing a number of retrofit projects, many of them inspired by the 7th and 8th century temples, which were built with drywalling elements. Using some of those fabulous methods, we are creating a second or third layer skin for the base of the building, parallel to the traditional one. In some way, we are between the history and the new age. We are using full intense technology and secondary wall ideas, at the same time, reflecting back to the history and tradition that connects to the context. We are working on a university building using limestone and Corton steel, creating an aerated frosted glass exterior. Again, this will be a super green initiation to the university building typology which will be quite self exploratory. Another project which we completed recently is the Lupin Laboratory. Every façade is designed carefully by analysing the direction of the sun. If you look at all the four elevations of the façade, you may find similar materials, but each façade has a different composition and elevation to it, different specification of the glass, different depth of vertical fins, different grading of the secondary walling elements, such as woven stainless

Face To Face

Infosys, Pune

steel mesh, etc. In some cases, we build the double wall, the third wall elements of concrete, etc. The extent of cantilevers that we programmed as the trellis work again is another exploratory element. So each façade is uniquely analysed for the system of walling, primarily to understand the equilibrium with nature and I think Lupin Lab project at Pune was a super success story, where we managed to integrate the landscape and understand the reaction of landscape to the architecture in terms

Wood House - a timber pavilion house that we built 50 feet above ground in the middle of a large coffee estate ground


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of glass, incidence of heat, proximity to various vegetation on the edge of the building, and visual connectivity between inside and outside. Here we had collaborated with different consultants and were able to literally create a transparent, open house pavilion, where we could enjoy the landscape at the temperature of 24 degrees within. For me, it is the most technologically intensive sun pavilion in the making. What are the key factors to consider

while designing and installing fenestration? There are many parameters, I cannot pinpoint one or two. Most of the technical things would tend to recognise - heat ingress or radiation or quality of air equilibrium. I think the key parameters would be to experience daylight without hurting the eyes or comfort (daylight ingress and heat ingress), which means that being in the tropical desert climate, we bring nature inside. Ar. Geoffrey Bawa was fantastic

PES University building using limestone and Corton steel, creating an aerated frosted glass exterior

Face To Face able to connect with nature outside at every given moment of time that you are in the building. We as architects must articulate what we see outside carefully. Therefore, it is not just about building design or the programme design or the functional design of what the plan would have as a recommendation, but to have the pleasant experience of living in the building as an environment. So for me, I think that is what the façade has to resolve and be able to give the most sustainable environment that you desire. The value that it adds out of it is super cost savings in terms of energy consumption and building maintenance.

Cicada Kabini Resort, Mysore

in his vernacular expressions considering these aspects. His designs of large living space with a large veranda, where one can experience the sun and the daylight, is the timeless way of building for the tropical weather. So if you are able to resolve that connection with glazing technology or façade making, we have a win-win space. Could you please brief on the technological benefits of the wellmanaged façade? Efficient fenestration can provide ample sunlight, which is essential to create hygienic spaces. This is the

GE - John F Welch Technology Centre


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first and foremost benefit. The second benefit is to see maximum ingress of the natural air in your environment. Most of the air-conditioned buildings that you see in the retail or the office environment, only 10 to 12 percent of the air is recycled, and the rest of the air is only refreshed which is not great. We have tried to see how we can look at 100 percent fresh air ingress into the building in the making. This is again essential for the environment of hygiene. The third is to be able to visually connect the landscape of the outdoor to the indoor. It is important to ensure less dark spaces and be

What are your views on future façade and fenestration technologies as well as materials? I would say that we need to go back to our time, and there are certain wonders that our forefathers had built like the temples or the vernacular section of a house, the settlements or even thousands of towns and villages that came up by the nature of organic living. For example, if you go to Rajasthan you will be surprised to see the Udai Villas/Udaipur Palaces completely built on a large water tank. Literally, it is a rainwater harvesting tank. This is how they could manage to convert resources and maintain a balance. New materials and technologies could be seen in automation or in intelligent façade and fenestration. It could be reciprocatory to many tactile elements. There could be a lot of automation that we might see in the future buildings. But first, we need to learn what is already there as a great invention and innovation. Would you like to go back to organic façade but using the intelligent way of building construction materials and methodologies? Yes. Passive intelligence is more important than active intelligence. So we need to stress that factor and train the younger generation to understand

profiling the future in aluminium...


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Face To Face

Spring Spa - spectacular aesthetic ordeal for the building

how the passive system can become the best of the priority. How can intelligent façade bring in the greenhouse effect and also restrict the intensive use of air conditioning? Most of the buildings designed to be iconic are showcasing man’s connect to the composition. Of course, a building can be a huge act of a water brush in the landscape. An architect can create a signature idea as geometry or as a composition in nature and it can be appreciated. But it should not be a sculpture. An artist has a potential to do it because he is creating purely a composition, not a living environment. A lot of practices should understand to move away from the urge for designing iconic ideas which don’t have any meaning or experience, nor would respond or reciprocate to the principles of nature. We choose the wrong method and then try to figure out or find the solution later. I think my recommendation to practices is to have a better process. It is very important where you start and how you arrive rather than you arrive and then you requalify the programme


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of that process. How do you go about choosing the material of façade and cladding? It is a very difficult question to answer. As I said, we always define the experience. We define even the colour pallette, the plan, the geometry of the building, the idea, the typology of the landscape or the master plan. Every time I keep staring at the intrinsic way of building which of course gives answers to make it timeless and connect between different types of fundamentals – like the ecology, environment, outdoors and the climatic condition. The morphology or the type becomes very important as we design buildings today. We want the elements of the exterior to deplete and become earth at the end. We want to ensure that façade is made of less non-biodegradable components. So when we choose to build the façade, the primary focus should be choosing biodegradable materials like clay, glass, stone, etc. that will become earth at the end. We should also prefer materials, and architectural products which could be reused, such as steel (which can reuse

almost 65 percent), and aluminium (which is 100 percent recyclable). Use less plastic, or resins and composites. I think that is what the need of the day is - reuse, recycle and reduce. What is your advice for young and upcoming architects? The most important aspect of doing architecture is about its experience. Sustainability is inevitable in its material content - to reuse, reduce and recycle. One must not be a fugitive of the ‘iconic’ but make that intrinsic choice to build nature-friendly buildings is what I expect. The building is the position of experience. It is also the posture of time. We recognise the architecture regardless of the scale – it could be a small pavilion, house, a landscape, or a two million sq ft facility - they must be able to create an experience. Great architects have taught us that buildings are not just about its materials, texture or colour, it is the composition of the elements that make a great building. That is why I use the word ‘haptic’. One needs to create the joy as the child lives through a womb. Architecture is all about that.

Case Study

Intelligent Glass Configuration

Lupin R&D Centre, Pune

Lupin R&D Centre, Pune - Night view


rimarily, the capture was to create the aspect of a laboratory and a corporate office was to be positioned as a pavilion in the garden. So, we wanted the skin of the whole building to be extremely translucent and possess very less reflectiveness and the ‘U’ factor being pretty high, we wanted to gather a grade of glass that would have a very high grade of transmissibility. Therefore, not only the radiations that bring about heat capture within the building will be drastically reduced. Never the less, the connect between the inside and outside would be maximised because of the high transmissibility of the glass and less reflective factor will allow the capture

Shading systems around the building help in accommodating minimal heat gain

The glass acts as a weather seal between the exterior and the interior

in the night for people to visually experience the landscape. That was the objective of creating a glass façade. The space of the glass panel was to be envisioned in the night space as a full floor to floor element, rather than have opaque spandrel ideas. Therefore, the glass and aluminium were acting like a verandah, a space where people could experience the perimeter of a building like that of a verandah of a bungalow. The mullions became the colonnade factors, the glass became the weather seal between the exterior and the interior. So, keeping this contextual direction in mind, we primarily looked at double glazed units along the east and the north wall. The south being extremely heat radiant, we captured a huge

amount of wall space that contained all the services such as the lifts, air handling units and the service requisites of the building were captured in that. Hence, the plan became intelligent in terms of the glazing articulation.The façades which were programming a lot of heat gain, such as the west, south-east and north-west were addressed by looking into GKD mesh. This stainless-steel mesh is a secondary layer wall element which will cast differential shadows on the glass panels at varying parcels of the day, allowing glass to not get heated up by direct incidence. As the sun path moves, the shadow pattern on the glass changes allowing the glass to not become a heat conductive, reflectance material to the inside space. Further on, the trellis parasol that we have all around the building helped in accommodating minimal heat gain to the top two floors and programme less incidence of heat ingress again to the façade. Therefore concluding, that though the building is an all glass element, it is a very tropical idea of intelligence. The glaze system was primarily a four-way unitised system which was super efficiently done by glass walling and the elements of the section was done in such a manner that the transoms became super minimal so that one experiences the verticality of glass as completely linear to the vertical, that was the idea behind the design of this project.

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Case Study

Incorporating Ecologically Conscious Concepts Nirlon Knowledge Park, Mumbai


irlon is quite a complex example of buildings to conglomerate and create a close door urbanity. It was a large 26-acre campus, capturing various buildings in its precinct at various faces. Couple of them built to suit, couple of them envisaged as an office space and a couple being built to be unified for large financial and banking sectors. Therefore, each of the buildings understands the context of its orientation, its landscape position, trees, and buildings around it. Deep detail shadow studies were done of various daylights, of the

Nirlon Knowledge Park is the first largest campus to be LEED certified


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yearly pattern to understand the incidence, factor of heat ingress plus the value of the daylighting we wanted to command to the inside spaces. The system of glazing was incorporated in such a way that most of the walls were transparent. The interirs were connected to landscape and the experience became that of large transparent elements. The glory of the whole campus is the terracotta, and in the glazing system, 77 percent of the material can completely dilapidate and become earth, as a product extension of the earth material itself. Therefore, the whole system other than the

Terraces and landscape elements around the building

aluminium which is a parcel of the ore and can be recycled as content. The whole glazing system became an energy-efficient and ecologically conscious kind of an ideation. We are proud of the fact that it was the first largest campus to be LEED certified, thanks to the qualification of the whole glazing technology that we could command. The campus was a complete success story based on the architecture and the orientation. In terms of the system design, we have used double glass units that were mounted on a four-way unitised system mullion, which has a clip-on rake off element. This means to say that each glass element can be de-mounted without affecting the adjacent three or four panels, which is usually deemed as a constraint on a four-way unitised system. Each mullion was structurally capable taking 300 kg of human weight strain. Terracotta panels were directly mounted, either on walls or on glass panel aluminium extrusion elements to avoid doubling of masonry elements within the structure. Further on, terraces and landscape elements were encouraged around the building premises with the help of trellises on top to allow shading, plus wall shading was allowed using planting and tree perimeters around the glass. Therefore, the success story here was the use of again a simple fourway unitised system, which could be comfortably replaced, serviced, activated, energy intelligent and can also provide the quality of daylight and transparency. We also had ALABAR, an international glazing contractor to execute the whole job.

Industry Speaks

“Absence of Indian Standards is No Excuse for Quality Assurance of uPVC Profiles”


ell us about Encraft and your business in India? B. Muralidharan (BM): Having gained years of experience under the guidance of his father, it was the dream of late Shri D.C.Jain to bring in the best to Indian consumers in line with the core competency of the group, i.e. based on extrusion

technology. His dream came true in 2007/08 when he shook hands with WHS Halo-UK for a collaboration to set up the uPVC profile extrusion plant at Dehradun under the technical leadership of Robert Höllrigl. We are happy that Encraft has completed its first 10 years this year, and have undoubtedly established Encraft as a premium uPVC window


Executive Director, R&D at Encraft India Pvt. Ltd.

Robert Höllrigl is the Executive Director of R&D at Encraft India Pvt. Ltd. Robert, an Austrian mechanical engineer, advised this truly Indian venture since 2006 and joined Encraft full-time in 2013. His involvement in fenestration covers more than 4 decades of the uPVC window and door R&D and workplaces like Cincinnati – Battenfeld (Austria), W.H. Smith (Extrusions) Ltd, WHS Halo, Bowater Building Products and VEKA UK. B. Muralidharan, a post graduate in Business Administration, has over 32 years of sales and marketing experience in a number of building material products in India. He has

and door brand in India. What is your company offering to the current market trends? Brief on the latest products that have been introduced in the market? Robert Höllrigl (RH): Encraft offers a broad spectrum of products, which includes a wide variety of premium segments, such as tilt and turn


Chief Executive Officer, Encraft India Pvt. Ltd.

been associated with Encraft since 2008 and had been instrumental into bringing in a high level of system-oriented working culture in his core function of Sales and Marketing and is currently associated with Encraft as Chief Executive Officer. In conversation with the two noted personalities in the fenestration industry, Robert Höllrigl and B. Muralidharan unravel a fresh and insightful perspective on Encraft’s business in India, latest trends of uPVC products, guidelines for indoor and window specification, misconceptions related to uPVC products and more. MAY - JUNE 2018  l  WFM


Industry Speaks

Parnkuti Resort, Pune

windows, lift and slide doors, fold and slide doors and windows, range of low threshold patio door options, etc. apart from the standard range of casement window and door and a range of sliding window and door options. Encraft has been launching new products consistently, with twin sash

range of windows and doors which was launched two years ago. A super premium version of twin sash has been recently launched with integrated provision for mosquito mesh, louvers and security grill, all in one. Also launched for the first time in India by Encraft is the parallel window

Fold & Slide Door

TIlit & Turn Window

Vertical Sliding Window

Parallel Window

TwinSash With Louvers

Lift & Slide Door

TwinSash Door


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Industry Speaks and vertical slider window options. Fully functional display of the above mentioned new range of products is displayed in our newly opened showroom in Delhi. Tell us about your production facilities and services in India? BM: Encraft has its production facility at Selaqui Industrial Area, Dehradun, Uttarakhand. We have a highly competent team headed by Robert, taking care of not only the day to day production but also have highly skilled design and development team, whose contribution has been immense in developing the earlier mentioned new products. Encraft also has one of the best uPVC profile lamination facilities in India and have recently added a new shade of grey to meet the longstanding demand from the market other than the wood grain shades of lamination. Encraft technical team engages with its fabrication associates at regular intervals to educate them on new products and also help the associates in improving their fabrication quality by training them regularly. What is your position in the Indian fenestration market? BM: Encraft has an excellent reputation of being one of the best manufacturers of premium quality uPVC profiles and has also earned the reputation of having offered the widest range of products that meet the requirement of Indian customers. The core strength that we enjoy is due to the wide network of associates spread across every major state of India, hence the customer needs not wait for a long time and can get their window and door requirements at a shortest possible time from their nearest Encraft associate. Throw some light on the latest trends in fenestration designs and materials? What types of doors and windows are available in terms of the Indian climatic context? RH: Encraft offers fenestration

solutions for all Indian climatic regions and for all market segments. Over the last decade, new attributes have entered the window agenda in India. Some examples - the requirement for sound reduction has increased in importance making the conventional sliding systems less attractive. Frames with compression seals, either sliding or hinged, has increased demand. Safe window cleaning from inside will become a necessity in the future, making the use of inaccessible windows challenging for homeowners. Ergonomics is being finally considered and handles with better grip, suitable for all generations, are being sold as standard, nowadays. Wind load and/ or accidental load calculations have replaced the guessing game of which type of reinforcement or coupling joint to offer or to use. Calculations have stopped bullying approaches to obtain lower frame costs; numerous times the required Hurricane bar has been omitted from frames or the steel reinforcement thickness was changed without considering its purpose or usefulness. Surprisingly, the inquiry level for grey coloured frames is steadily increasing. Indian architecture may

follow the UK by moving away from the commonly used colour in fenestration - white. White frames will become the synonym for cheapness in the future. Grey frames do not show dust and dirt as much as white and have become a statement of high quality. What is the importance of proper installation of windows to make them more efficient? RH: With the worldwide presence, we have 60 years of experience in installing uPVC frames. This experience is well documented in numerous code of practices and industry guidelines like the German GKF 'Montagehandbuch' or ift guidelines or official British standards like BS8213-4, which could shorten India's steep learning curve and would prevent unwanted premature failure due to inconsistent workmanship. Installers achieving consistently high quality standards enjoyed good practical training and have acquired an in-depth knowledge of installation techniques and finishing off methods. Unfortunately, frame installation does not get the credit and importance it deserves. Most uPVC frames when installed

ACE City, Noida

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Industry Speaks better materials to ensure long-term durability.

Anukampa, Jaipur

and finished-off correctly will please even the most demanding customer whilst uPVC frames when installed badly will upset the customer and tarnish the reputation of the whole supply chain including the uPVC profile supplier. Installation problems are common throughout the world, but it has been recognised that inherent skill shortages can be successfully combated by ongoing installer training,

Hotel Hyderabad Grand, Hyderabad


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the application of modern installation materials and the use of better tools. Benchmarking uPVC frame installations with high profiled curtain walling installations has revealed common grounds like the need to achieve a long service life, the protection of the building fabric, coping with high wind speeds, etc. But there is one fundamental difference; in curtain walling there is willingness to pay for quality workmanship and

Tell us more about your first uPVC windows and doors experience centre which was opened very recently in New Delhi. BM: The experience centre is located at 70, Okhla Industrial Estate – III, New Delhi, and is spread over 5000 sq ft, which includes a product display centre, fabrication set-up and uPVC window and door testing rig. As mentioned earlier, the objective of opening Encraft’s uPVC window and door experience centre was to give every potential customer, architects, interior designers and industry related professionals to have a feel and operating experience of different options of windows and doors. The objective is also to help and remove various misconceptions about uPVC in general and also to know the various other options of windows and doors that they can think of when they design their new project or renovating their existing property. Professionals from the architectural fraternity, real-estate, and related professionals also will have the opportunity to expose themselves to the detailed process of uPVC fabrication and the various parameter of performance testing of the windows. Do you think India will be a lucrative market for uPVC window and door market? Why? BM: Yes, the scope of growth that Indian market can offer today probably would be the largest in the Indian sub-continent. It is not only because that there are substantial real estate activities, but also that Indian market would offer one of the largest renovation market opportunities. With more and more competition, the customer would be benefited with a different segment of window and door products that would be catered by the suppliers. With every conversion of aluminium, steel or wood to uPVC irrespective of whether to lower segment or middle segment, would

Industry Speaks

Edana, Noida

help in expansion of the market base for uPVC industry and ultimately this change/shift from wood, aluminium or steel to uPVC would graduate from lower to middle to premium segment, thus will constantly expand the uPVC market base for a long time to come. There





assumptions concerning uPVC products and people are still struggling with the nagging reluctance to buy the products or not. What advice would you like to give? RH: uPVC is suitable for all market segments including low-cost social housing. No one can blame the

material (uPVC) for the issues encountered in the builder’s project market. New materials necessitate a different approach and sometimes drastic changes to established working practices. We need a paradigm shift for the Indian construction industry. Most uPVC frame manufacturers were faced with rigid working practices

Grayshott-homestay, Coonoor

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Industry Speaks market that raised the standard of uPVC fenestration for its rental properties. Local authorities, acting as the landlord for millions of citizens, could no longer afford the ongoing cost of soft-wood window re-painting/ repair and established that uPVC frames are the best value for money option for the UK taxpayers. There is no doubt that attitudes will changes in India because of greater consumer awareness, increased long-term thinking and the necessity to save energy and to reduce CO2 emissions.

Grape County, Nasik

and extremely low prices which led subsequently to a lowering of the profile/frame specification and the use of lower grade ancillary items like gaskets, hardware, and external sealants to meet the builder's price aspiration. Unfortunately, India’s high volume/ low-cost project market was not interested in compliance with recognised product standards, high weathering performance, genuine product guarantees, long-term durability, etc. Only price matters here. Besides, some uPVC frame

Retail Project, Mussorie


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manufactures went into ventures with ‘too over optimistic’ approach and learned a bitter lesson. Sacrificing component integrity to match prices will cost more in the long run. None of the Indian uPVC frames manufactures tried to outline best working practice used in other new build/projects markets. Anyway, history may repeat itself! The UK retail and new build market experienced a similar phenomenon in the early eighties (low prices and questionable quality) and it was the extremely competitive social housing

In India, there is no enforcement of certain guidelines for indoor and window specification. As per your understanding of the market, what steps can be taken up to bring standardization? RH: There is no official Indian standard for uPVC profiles and frames but the supply chain, from extrusion tooling, to raw materials (PVC and its additives) and to finished uPVC profiles, everyone works with EN 12608-1:2016 and tests the materials/ products in accordance with the relevant clauses. Therefore, there should not be an excuse that there is no uPVC profile standard, EN 12608 has been officially introduced in 2003 and adopted worldwide as the most

Industry Speaks independent assessment by TÜV India or ift Germany would provide the required confidence in the fabricator's technical ability.

Retail Project, J&K

comprehensive product standard. The UK is the only country that has an official standard for the fabrication of uPVC frames (BS 7412:2007) and for the installation (BS 8213-4:2016). Besides, every system supplier is providing comprehensive guidelines of how to fabricate and how to install uPVC products. The comment that standards or guidelines are missing is simply a myth, there is plenty of excellent documentation in the public domain to ensure that well-known brands do not suffer. The latest

Hotel Taj Mahal, Hyderabad

release was the Indian UWDMA (uPVC Windows & Doors Manufacturers Association) guideline for fabrication of uPVC windows and doors, providing a good practice guide and answers to numerous questions raised by fabricators, architects and builders. There is always a time lag between a new product entering a market, introducing a standard and enforcement of the standard. In the meantime, voluntarily compliance with the UWDMA guideline for fabrication combined with a third party

The word “Sustainability” has become a buzzword in the building industry considering the environmental issues. What is your take on ‘Sustainability’ - how uPVC profile can help in creating a sustainable building? RH: Ideally, all fenestration materials should have a small carbon footprint when processed or manufactured; should use renewable energy; should not be wasteful with raw material resources; should have a similar life cycle as the whole building envelope; should be fully recyclable and should provide a contribution towards energy and carbon dioxide reduction. In addition, the latest state-of-the-art fenestration should be ergonomically in operation, especially for the aging population; safe and secure in use; offer optionally traditional or modern appearance and should be, more importantly, cost effective. Complying with those desired attributes is a tall order for any of the known fenestration materials. The industry has not found the ‘perfect’ frame material yet that ticks all those boxes. Choosing the appropriate or most suitable fenestration solution in terms of frame material and glass will always depend on the actual application. For example, you will not find any curtain walling screens or glass facades in uPVC and hardwood, nor will you find 20-feet wide by 10feet high, heavy duty patio doors made from galvanised or painted steel although steel is undoubtedly the strongest frame material around. For example, curtain walling or glass facade designers had to accept that steel is stronger but aluminium is more formable, has a reasonable strength, is easily workable in the manufacture and extremely durable in long-term use. Knowledge of some of the inherent

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Industry Speaks uPVC scores well in any life cycle assessment and has, therefore, become a very strong framing alternative when compared with the other, long-established material options.

Paladium, Pune

material deficiencies, architects, and fenestration designers can successfully overcome those by changing design parameters to play to the strength of their chosen material combination.

Modern School Jaipur


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How is the current market scenario in India? Any challenges that the uPVC window and door industry is facing? BM: There is a number of challenges that we as an Indian brand have to face. Though there is a positive movement in the understanding of uPVC today compared to what it was a few years back, still there is a lack of understanding of the term ‘quality’ with regard to uPVC as an alternative material for windows and doors. Before we discuss the challenges, one needs to understand a few basics about uPVC. For instance, wood, aluminium and steel are materials which nature has given to us, and not originally developed by humans unlike uPVC, which is a formulation arrived at by mixing certain raw materials. Since uPVC is a formulation, there is a scope for different ratio of raw material mix that can be maintained to control the cost of production. But it is also to be understood that any formulation made with an intention to only keep the cost

low without analysing its impact on the performance parameter, can also result in manufacturing of poor quality uPVC profiles, which would throw out different quality problems like profile turning yellow, warpage, cracking, rotting, etc. though in the initial stage all base uPVC profiles appear to be same. As an Indian brand maintaining very high-quality standards from the stage of procurement of raw materials from across the globe till the material is delivered to our customers, we have to face multiple challenges. On the one side, we have to face cheap imports from Asian countries, and also few other segments, which only sell their products by highlighting their European origin, though most of these products are manufactured in India. What are the advantages of your products compared to those available in the local market? BM: Encraft offers the widest range of products in India than any other manufacturer can offer from their Indian source. These ranges are available both in regular white and wood-grain laminated options at the shortest possible time. The quality standards that we maintain enables our fabricator to adapt our systems in every situation, whether highly humid condition in the south, hot weather of summer in Rajasthan or freezing cold of Leh-Ladakh. One of the major advantages the Encraft offers to its associates is to create multiple ranges of windows or doors to their customers, by adopting a few ranges of Encraft systems, thus have a controlled inventory. Please tell us about some of your important projects. Where do you see your business in another five years? BM: Encraft would thrive to be the best and trusted brand by customers for windows and doors in India and SAARC countries. Encraft would be a synonym to ‘Fenestration’.

Project Watch

Breathing Nature Aero Hive, Hong Kong


ero Hive is a breathing entity. The breath of this building transpires through vertical diaphragms in the form of green sky atriums that behave as lungs, performing the intake of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxide. This exchange is a way of natural ventilation and is the preferred option when attempting to deliver fresh air to any space due to its low

energy requirements. The wind flow to the indoor spaces is carried out using wind-scooping and the ‘venturi’ effect through the traversing green diaphragms that are oriented facing prevailing winds. The aerodynamic architectural design is realised by taking into consideration building orientation, position, form and plan variations. An algorithmic process of design has been followed by creating a differentiated array of a hexagonal

floor plate that variably changes scale based on environmental criteria, functional aspects, structural logic and aesthetic parameters. Parametric modelling and computational simulations, namely, solar insolation and CFD analysis were carried out to verify the climatic effects of twisting geometries. Key to these forms of adaptation is the relationship of the building to their environment and the contextual forces that shape the form development and environmental behaviour. Aero Hive aims to challenge the common belief that contemporary tall buildings cannot be ventilated naturally due to their ultra heights and offers pause from typical hermetically sealed glass-boxes, serving as a model of sustainability. The site is located at Kai Tak area of Kowloon, Hong Kong


Aero Hive, Hong Kong


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Design Evolution The site is located at Kai Tak area of Kowloon, Hong Kong. Following the relocation of Hong Kong International Airport from Kowloon City, this derelict reclaimed area was envisioned to be redeveloped into a distinguished, vibrant, attractive and people-oriented sustainable neighbourhood. Taking this vision forward, we have chosen a vacant site at runway precinct 4C4, measuring approximately 155m x 80m (i.e.10730sq.m) facing Victoria harbour. To foster a streetscape which is walkable, livable and comfortable,

Project Watch

The site for the proposed building is located at Kai Tak area of Kowloon, Hong Kong

an emission-free economy is the only way forward. Effective ways to deal with the ‘street canyon’ effect is to reduce tail-pipe emissions, initiating an emission-free zone to achieve a long-term cleaner, more efficient public transport. Availability of private passenger hybrid and electric vehicles with a wide availability of charging points will reduce exposure to pollution. To combat the issue of emissions at sea level blowing into areas with high population density, the ships at Kai Tak Cruise Terminal, will be required to switch to a much cleaner 0.5 percent sulphur fuel at berth. Environmental Receptivity Environmental factors and structural concepts shape the form and skin of this tower. For optimum environmental operating efficiency, the building form should be accordingly shaped, maximising sun control for different solar angles and insolation intensities. A series of shading and insolation (Wh) studies conducted showed that twisting the tapered hexagonal form 90 degrees clockwise (north-west quadrant) and anti-clockwise (southeast quadrant) yielded self-shading benefits. In addition, the towers (Tower A & Tower B) are positioned such that they mutually shade each other at different times of the day and year. By carefully incorporating the natural wind patterns of the site, the

building is designed to accommodate changing wind conditions. The three wind scoops on each tower efficiently captures the moving air into the rotating sky atria – which is then transferred throughout the floor using large plenums. Aero Hive uses scooping for air intake with the help of hexagonal arms that function as wing walls and allows air to exit through operable windows or adjacent atria. During the day, south-easterly cool sea-breeze provides relief and in the evening, cool northerly winds come down the forested slope and wash across the building. In wind climates like Hong Kong with very directional extreme winds, building shapes that are directionally sensitive are more effective than traditionally shaped buildings. Developments in structural systems of high strength materials with increased height to weight ratio, but reduced stiffness, have become greatly affected by wind. Major structural and aerodynamic modification in the design development includes tapering, sculptured building shape, openings and twisting of the building. In addition, along with advances in visco-elastic materials like tuned mass dampers as well as structural systems like trussed tubes, the shape of the towers become distinctly modified by the micro-ecology. To drive the natural currents to enhance

air volume exchange, pressure differentials between windward (upwind) and leeward (down-wind) faces of a building were analysed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for thorough ventilation and surface wind flow acceleration. Parametric Differentiation and Structural Rationalisation A central tube core anchors each tower that arises 290m above ground level carrying a twisting form. The form is encapsulated by a triangulated exoskeleton articulating a multi-storey atrium located at the extremities leaving clear floor plates for functional distribution. The triangulated structure geometry with an average base height of 1:4 floors extends across the facade to form the exoskeleton. The rotational and scaling aspects of floor plates around the central cores create a folding form that grows high to create an amorphous geometry with atriums that spiral along the towers in two different directions as per climatic aspects. The parametric model based on environmental calculation projects the lines of the exoskeleton onto the free-form facade, with which a mesh wireframe is generated. In the freeform areas, the exoskeleton’s tubular structural steel is single-curved and clad with composite aluminum panels, most of which are double curved. A multi-objective optimisation is carried

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Project Watch of a hexagonal shape. It came to be known that an efficiency of 90% can be achieved with hexagonal packing. The intention was to explore the facilitation of air movement with respect for the final form, the feasibility of ventilation techniques using atriums that transverse effectively, so as to enhance wind indoors. Using simulation CFD, the optimised towers were modelled as a block, and the boundary conditions were set up to emulate Aero Hive – Night view

out to create a novel form where two dynamic looking towers connect at three distinct levels with structural bridges formed by tubed trusses that stretch out from the exoskeleton. Aerodynamics and Computational Fluid Dynamics Low values of drag and lift are produced by a hexagonal cylinder that it is comparable to a circular cylinder cross-section. Wind effects on different geometric shaped buildings such as circular, square, triangle and hexagon were analysed using CFD simulation software. The results showed that the circular

Environmental analysis


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shape had the lowest wind pressure coefficient and the square had the greatest wind pressure coefficient. To design a shape which maximises aerodynamic and packing efficiency, a unique optimisation linking these two critical characteristics was investigated. While it is known that a sphere will have the greatest aerodynamic efficiency, its packing efficiency will result in a huge loss of space. Shapes which can mesh such as rectangles or irregular shapes which interlock have a much higher packing efficiency. Having a spectrum of different shapes in mind, this analysis examined the potential

QUICK FACTS: Project: Aero Hive Location: Kai Tak, Hong Kong Client: Bee Breeders Competition organisers & Manipal University (MEE) Dubai Architect: Suraksha Acharya, Midori Architects, Chennai Other Consultants: Parametric modelling – rat [LAB]; Visualization - Vizis, Chennai Size: 18,84,717 sq.ft (17, 5096 sq.m) Materials used for facade & fenestration: Aluminium composite cladding, core tube trussed structure, operable double glazed triangulated panels Construction Stage: Concept Awards: Skyhive Skyscraper Challenge 2018 (1st Place), Silver A' Design Award at Architecture, Building and Structure Design Competition 2018, Como Italy

Project Watch the chosen site for 500m radius of the urban fabric. Simulations were run based on Hong Kong’s weather data for prevailing directions East (4.1m/s) and South East (2.5m/s) respectively for 500 iterations. Facade Development Hong Kong’s climate is subtropical, but for half the year it is largely temperate, with the average yearly temperature at 18 0C (64 0F) to 25 0C (77 0F), with summer mean daytime temperatures touching 32 0C (90 0F). In winter, strong and cold winds are generated from the North to Hong Kong; in summer, the wind reverses in direction and brings the warm and humid air from the South. In the workplaces, the double-glazed windows’ skin opens inwards at the top with an angle of maximum 15°, thus allowing fresh air to move indoors. 30 per cent of the panels are static and the remaining 70% of facade panels are kinetic. The percentage of opening is determined by the amount of ventilation required for the space based on data obtained from internal CO2 sensors. When the natural ventilation strategy cannot be applied due to extreme weather conditions, mechanical systems help ventilate the building. Sky atria always remains naturally ventilated

North Installation

East Installation

Heat radiation analysis


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during summer. During winters, when temperatures are uncomfortably low, natural ventilation is restricted. The building has been optimised such that the sunlight will be carefully controlled to bring in diffused lighting while avoiding the direct solar heat. Each three-storey semi-enclosed atrium contains office spaces on either side of the hexagonal arms framing the visual communication, bringing people together. The green areas are not only recreational with psychological benefits for employees but also adds protection from strong winds and avoids glare within office spaces. A communal lobby, ancillary spaces (i.e indoor sports) and sky park make up the designer’s proposed function which will be open to the public. Aero Hive’s aerodynamic architectural design plays a critical role in mitigating the “wall effect” caused by uniform highrise developments. The flared roofline at the architectural top is designed to accommodate a sky park – a public green observatory that addresses the “urban heat island” effect due to the combination of high-density, tropical climate and high-rise buildings. This creates a natural habitat, filtering pollutants and reducing CO2 content in the air while satisfying the aesthetic needs of a roof.

South Installation

West Installation


Founder & Principal Architect, Midori Architects

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Suraksha Acharya established Midori Architects in 2015. This multi-award winning firm is a cognitive member of the sustainable architecture field in India, championing the need to build better and more environment-friendly structures. Suraksha completed her Masters in Sustainable Environmental Design from Architectural Association (AA), London. The firm believes that there lies an element of inspiration for all projects, large or small, through the green approach. They are a young team of new-age designers, planners, thinkers and consultants from Chennai, striving to create everlasting structures through innovative form, modern flow and versatile function. The firm is committed to using advanced technologies and simulation techniques to produce architecturally pleasing work while pushing the boundaries of performative design.


100 tests completed and going strong

PERFORMANCE TESTING OF BUILDING FACADE Testing of curtain walls, windows and doors systems for water penetration, air leakage, structural performance and seismic loading


SERVICES Curtain walls Exterior windows & Doors Storefronts & Sloped Glazing Systems Skylight Building Facades Weather Louvres Field or On-site testing Third party witness Consultancy Inspection Services

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Project Watch

Inspired by Landscape Patterns

Inderlok Hotel, Dehradun, Uttrakhand


nderlok Hotel is located in Dehradun, the capital of Uttrakhand, and is part of the picturesque Doon valley, but lies in the thick of the city littered with colonial monuments. The architects were commissioned to reinterpret the hotel’s environment, especially the façade and interiors to lend the 25year old building a new lease of life. The design team of Spall Associates reimagined the hotel’s atrium space as an extended courtyard garden. The features of building, both interior and exterior surfaces, are inspired by elements of landscape - flora and fauna, resonated in the fractals


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of shapes and patterns used in the design scheme. The property was initially built in 1988 with a few architectural changes in the following years. During the preliminary assessment of the site, the team strongly sensed the drawback due to lack of a garden in the original scheme. Gardens in all forms - virtual or real, mythical or factual, small or big, have inspired and enticed human beings. This element made the central idea of the design, blending surfaces, finishes and patterns to emulate the spirit of the garden. Thus, courtyard garden was incepted, aligned vertically in

the central atrium to compensate for the lack of horizontal space as well to enable interaction of all floors with this space. The 30-feet high green wall forms the backdrop of the atrium. Skylights were created by puncturing the existing coffers in the atrium roof. This ensured adequate natural light in the interior space, facilitating the growth of plants on the green wall and added dynamism to space through changing hues of the sky, seen from atrium during the course of the day. The three upper levels have lobbies overlooking the courtyard, where the oriental garden flows through the thematic artwork on the corridor

Project Watch walls; wildflowers, butterflies and small garden birds from first to the third floor. The random flooring pattern in carpet tiles also schematically corresponds to the altitude levels, changing from orange on the first to green on the second to sky blue on the third level. A glass railing provides the transparent interface between the corridor and the courtyard. The exterior form of the hotel is designed as an extension of the garden, with the fence and sliding gate literally made with representative stems and flowers, twirling and tying with one another, flowing to the porch soffit, culminating into a shower of floral shapes with lights. The façade is wrapped in metal cladding with a pattern inspired by landscape scenery. The metal panel's subtle index of reflection traces the highlight colour of the sky on the façade and changes from tones of cyan to orange, from dawn to dusk. Every metal panel's uniquely routed patterns were placed schematically to form a composition of grass, butterflies and sky. These shapes

Garden inspired façade design – night view

are formed by image colour sample based on an algorithm, providing an accurate diameter to the circle based on the colour value. The hotel signage is also drawn into the composition and is placed in the centre to get maximum visibility from the main street. The ground floor façade is clad with stone

The exterior surfaces are inspired by elements of landscape - flora and fauna

to contrast against the dark brown colour metal fence. The driveway pattern is made with concrete pavers with a flower shape cut out and brick tiles. The flower cutouts are filled with blue colour stone chips, adding a mythical sparkle of brightness. The terraces are paved with a mosaiclike pattern of tiles in blue, white and

QUICK FACTS: Project: Inderlok Hotel Client: Mohit Dang and Monisha Datta Location: Dehradun, Uttrakhand Design Team: Spall Associates, Gurgaon | Rahul Spall, Harbans Spall, Rakesh Ranjan, Biplab Deka, Abha Jangra, Hari Singh Commencement Date: January 2016 Completion Date: September 2016 Photo Credit: Mohit Dang MAY - JUNE 2018 l WFM


Project Watch

The oriental garden finishes and patterns to emulate the spirit of a real garden

Skylights and vertical garden add to the sustainability

orange in colour. The view from the third-floor terrace provides a beautiful foreground of the mosaic pattern, foreshortening in perspective on the second and first floor. As the sun sets, dusk takes over the afternoon sky with hues of dark blue and brilliant orange, the faรงade is mystically transformed by subtle patterns on metal panels. The backlit panels are forced to illuminate the circular cuts and light up the faรงade against the shadow. The colour temperature of the light was carefully selected in contrasting colour tone of the metal panels to achieve the desired warm and subtle look. The porch is flooded with lights, strategically placed in the centre of flower shapes that flow up from the fence. The stone faรงade on the ground floor and fence also attenuates with the wash of linear lights placed within planters.

The faรงade is wrapped in metal cladding with a pattern inspired from landscape scenery


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Principal Architect & Partner, Spall Associates

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Rahul Spall is the Principal Architect/Partner of the Spall Associates based in Gurgaon. He is a multidisciplinary designer with more than 15 years of work experience in architecture, design and digital media. With an undying will to experiment and passion to work across various design disciplines, Spall has taken up roles of a graphic designer, photographer, installation artist, instructor, 3-D visualiser, user-interface designer, motion graphic artist, product designer and an architect. This diverse range of work experience has empowered him to think with multiple hats on.






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5-chamber profile Construction depth frame: 194 mm, sash: 82 mm Glazing up to 52 mm U-value up to UW = 0.72 W/(m2K) Large-scale window units let plenty of natural light into the home Optimised sealing levels provide excellent thermal insulation properties Reduction of structural thermal bridges, ensuring the reduction of heating/cooling costs /// Exclusive safety technology, tested up to resistance class RC 2 for burglary protection /// Low threshold systems as well as various opening schemes feasible

Acoustic Insulation

Weather Resistance




SALAMANDER WINDOW & DOOR SYSTEMS PRIVATE LIMITED Gat No. 147, Shed No. 03, Village: Chakan-Mahalunge, Tal: Khed, Dist: Pune - 410 501, India

Wind Resistance


Energy Saving


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Pioneering Solutions

for Energy Conservation & Operational Cost Reduction


building design is considered as an efficient one if it is passive solar and rightly oriented and shaded, which helps reducing unnaturally stimulated energy usage that can contribute to the sustainable architecture. With the help of technology, the range of building materials used has widened. Every aspect of the design is affected by rising demand for sustainability. "Façade and fenestration are the elements to achieve aesthetic values while contributing functionally towards energy saving as also creating poetry with shades and shadows”. This concept was employed in most of the architectural structures across the world and India in particular. Earlier the materials used were stones and bricks in the form of projections, canopies, chhajjas, sunk portions, etc. The introduction of RCC and concrete gave little flexibility to the architects in creating façade of any shape and size (not necessarily a structural member) which resulted in creating super geometric façades. The introduction of metals such as steel and aluminium enabled architects


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to create curtain walls, structural glazing, space frames, etc., adding a higher level of aesthetic values to the building elevation. More and more materials have been tried in curtain walls such as thin stone tiles, ceramic tiles, ACP, glass, etc. The architects are now using these elements to create a façade and fenestration that are not only aesthetic, but also contribute to saving energy, providing more natural light to the interior spaces. Use of right colours reduce heat penetration and help to be more sustainable. Softwares are developed to study the behaviour of the materials and fenestration through simulations and treatments. The solutions can offer a higher level of energy conservation at an optimum operational cost. Architects have to think not only of the expenses, but study their contribution in reducing life cycle cost at minimum maintenance. Typical Energy Saving Approach in Buildings: Façade and fenestration are the prime determinants of the exterior aesthetic quality and overall performance of the building. The balance between the

cost of the building envelope and its levels of performance will be of great importance in achieving the most cost-effective design of a building. The following fenestration measures can be considered: • Good insulating materials can be used for insulation. Hollow blocks, fly ash bricks and aerated autoclaved concrete blocks are good insulators • The heat ingress through the roof can be as high as 12-15 percent. Insulating the roof can substantially reduce the heat ingress; also the terrace gardens considered at different levels help to reduce the glare and heat ingress • Minimal exposure on the south and west can reduce the heat gain in the building • Use of simulation tools and techniques can help in designing the orientation to minimum heat ingress and enhance energy efficiency • Evaporating cooling system can be used instead of air conditioning

Case Study

Hager Electro India Pvt. Ltd. remains in the shade which in turn minimises the heat radiations coming on the faรงade. The windows are positioned to get maximum of light while continuous louvers at higher level help to get natural ventilation.

Attic/plenum exhaust Turbo vents

Turbo ventilators

Sandwich panels with glass wool


Production hall


GL Tremix with U-crete Topping (Jointless floor)

Office building for Hager Electro India in Pune


he project designed for a German company Hager Electro India Pvt. Ltd., a leading international manufacturer of electrical distribution systems, is located in Phulgaon, Pune. The perfect solution has been given to the client by providing a workspace designed using preengineered building technology due to the long span requirement for utility space, offices, canteen in RCC.

Remaking and re-designing were done for flooring and enveloping services and utilities within the existing built structure. Insulated panels were used for the false ceiling as well as external cladding to match Hager factories across the globe and save energy. About the Site The maximum face of the shed faces South-West, which helps with proper ventilation. The entrance always

Insulated panels were used for the false ceiling as well as external cladding to save energy

Typical section

Concept/Design Approach The client insisted on retrofitting with optimum expenditure and thus the industrial planning concept of the internal and external layout had the constraints of existing parameters. The structure, therefore, required removal of the roof, removal of certain columns to achieve span and strengthening of columns which were retained. Why PEB? India has become the growth centre of the emerging economy that has led to the demand of raising complex industrial and allied structures across the country in the past decade. The rising demand of steel structures on one hand and reduction in skilled labour and the rising labour costs on the other hand, therefore, created a niche for a technology that would design any complex structure with applicable statutory codes, taking care of all aesthetic details desired by the architect, and the local conditions. The Pre Engineered Building (PEB) was and is the solution to all these challenges and have already been proved for over a century now. The best part is - it works on software that

MAY - JUNE 2018 l WFM


Case Study

The PEB construction

engineers architect's design concepts criteria into structural design solution, detailing it out to the last screw, at times even giving options and then prepares shop drawings fine-tuning manufacturing process flow. PEB is about 30 percent lighter through the efficient use of steel. Price per square meter may be as much as 30 percent lower than conventional steel. Structural Features Retrofitting process The major part of renovating the existing building was the removal and strengthening of the existing line of columns along with the conventional trussed roof being replaced with new PEB sections. An entire row of columns placed centrally were removed, allowing flexibility in machine placement for dimensional benefits. The PEB columns provide support to the Jack beam which in turn supported the portals and purlins necessary for the new roofing system. PEB COLUMNS Removing and strengthening existing line of columns

ROOFING Roofing thus made

The PEB columns provide support to the Jack Beam

aesthetically appealing. These panels have been used for external cladding as a cavity wall. Glass façade has been used in elevation to capture more sunlight and to decrease the use of artificial light in the building. The roof is made of 0.50mm precoated colour galvalume with glass wool insulation of 24 kg/m3 density and 50 mm thick. The false ceiling was designed to be walkable to cater the maintenance of all the utilities above the false ceilings. The false ceilings were made out of sandwich panels using steel frames and PV foam material for insulation. Naturally operated turbo ventilators were used for ventilation with grey colour FRP base. SUSTAINABLE DESIGN CONCEPTS

JACK BEAM Jack beam provided support for portals and purlins


Aesthetic Elements The building is provided with puff sandwich panels which make it look


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1. Puff Sandwich Panels Puff sandwich panels have been used for external cladding as a cavity wall which will reduce the temperature by 5 °C. It has a high load bearing capacity at a low

QUICK FACTS: Project: Proposed New Industrial Complex Location: Phulgaon, Pune Client: Hager Electro India Pvt. Ltd. Architect: Prashant Deshmukh and Associates Structural Consultant: Prashant Deshmukh and Associates Material Used for Façade and Fenestration: Sandwiched panels, curtain wall, pre-coated galvalume wall panel, turbo ventilators, bare galvalume roof panel Commencement date: August 2015 Completion date: October 2016

Puff sandwich panels are used for wall cladding

weight. Puff sandwich panels used for false ceiling and was designed to be walkable with the support of the gripple system. Puff sandwich panels are excellent in thermal insulation. These panels are absolute water and vapour barrier and excellent in air tightness and free of thermal bridges which result in considerable energy savings. Puff sandwich panels are easy to install and have a long life.

Case Study

Use of electricity and operational cost is reduced using the evaporative cooling system

stops spinning because properly functioning turbine vents spin with the slightest wind. Cavity wall

2. Evaporative cooling system An evaporative cooling system has been used instead of HVAC. This system relies on adiabatic cooling. It saves electricity and operational cost is reduced using the evaporative cooling system. Evaporative cooling system allows fresh air to circulate throughout a building and it forces hot air to displace out. Evaporation is a natural process and it does not require any refrigerant. It eliminates odour and stale air out instead of recirculation. A well designed evaporative cooling system can consume 2530 percent less electricity than conventional air conditioning system. It provides a natural environment and improves air quality. Constant temperature maintained at least in production area 25±3°c for winters and monsoon season and 32±3°C in the summer season. 3. Turbo ventilators Turbo vents provide year-round ventilation. These are low cost and high-efficiency vents which make them an extremely popular ventilation component. Roof vents and turbines must always be used with adequate soffit venting to meet minimum ventilation code requirements. It is needed to replace the turbine vent when it


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4. Building management system Building management system has been used to control lighting/air conditioning/fire protection. Physical movement sensors are installed to save the energy. Other sustainable design concepts include: • Tough and glassy floor topping (u-crete by BASF) increases the life of the floor and reflections help to reduce fittings/ emissions. LED light has been used to save electricity • uPVC windows 100 percent airtight toughened glass is used in the building • Wastewater is recycled after treatment through STP • Heavily landscaped around the building to reduce ambient temperature • More glazings (windows) have been used to have maximum natural light

Building management system has been used to control lighting


Founder & Principal Architect, Prashant Deshmukh & Associates

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Ar. Prashant Deshmukh is a practising architect/consultant since 1976. He started his architectural consulting firm Prashant Deshmukh & Associates (PDA) in 1986. He has since then designed and executed many industrial, commercial and educational projects pan India. Ar. Deshmukh has designed projects in various countries, including Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Algeria, the Middle East countries and Russia. The firm has added another support company known as Prashant Deshmukh Projects Pvt. Ltd. (PDPPL) for providing turnkey solutions to new and old industrial setups that give engineering design back up for services and utilities including project management.

uPVC Window and Door Manufacturers Association

uPVC Windows and Doors Manufacturers Association

uPVC Window and Door Manufacturers Association is a non- pro t body, formed to create value proposition to all stake holders - Architects, Developers, Window producers and End Users

50+ Technical, Marketing, Association collaboration, Govt Liaison, CPWD, and many more events dedicated to uPVC Industry in during last one year...

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Workshop on Use of Glass & Glazing Systems in Buildings

Release of training manual


lazing Society of India (GSI), Indian Institute of Technology Madras and CSIR – Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute have successfully conducted the first of its kind ‘Train the Trainers’ workshop on use of glass and glazing systems in Indian buildings as per the National Building Code 2016 at IIT Madras in Chennai. The three-day workshop was supported by the Bureau of Indian Standards

Certificate distribution


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(BIS), Federation of Safety Glass (FOSG), All India Glass Manufacturer Federation (AIGMF), Confederation of Construction Products and Services (CCPS), Glass Academy, International Fenestration Forum (IFF) and uPVC Window and Door Manufacturers Association (UWDMA). The workshop comprised theory sessions, case studies, demo sessions and plant visits covering all aspects of the use of glass and glazing systems in buildings including energy efficiency, safety, structural integrity and others as per NBC 2016. The workshop was addressed by 15 eminent speakers from industry and academia including Arun Kumar, Scientist E, Bureau of Indian Standards; Sharanjit Singh, Chairman, GSC Group; Mahesh Arumugam, Director, Meinhardt Façade Technology; Deepa

Sathiaram, Director, EN3; Antony John, Technical Director, Schueco India; Ar Deepak Gahlot, Director, Xebec Design; Ravishankar, Technical Head, Dow Corning; N Murali, Head – Design and Sustainability, Saint Gobain India; Ar Aditi Salway, Technica Expert, AIS; Sudhir Mohan, Technical Expert, Gujarat Guardian Ltd; Jothi Ramalingam, Director, Winwall Technology and others. Besides, the event had three exclusive live demos by the Structural Glass Research and Testing (SGRT) Facility, Winwall Technology, Dow India, Schueco India and UWDMA. The participants visited the plants of Saint Gobain, FUSO Glass and Sobha Glazing and Metal Works on the second day. The workshop was well attended by 44 faculty members from 16 architectural and engineering academic institutions. It was conducted as part of creating a group of trainers for training the construction professionals on National Building Code 2016. The event was concluded with a formal vote of thanks from R Subramanian, Chairman, GSI and Sharanjit Singh. All the participants were awarded participation certificate from IIT Madras and GSI.

Demo on sealants by: Ravishankar, Dow Chemical International Pvt Ltd

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UWDMA Inaugurates its Maiden

Skill-Based Training Centre

Grand opening of the centre - Mario Schmit, Satish Kumar, Rama Shankar Pandey, Ute Hoffman (L-R)


s a pioneering initiative to educate the youth on uPVC window and door production, the uPVC Window and Door Manufacturers Association (UWDMA) has inaugurated India’s one and only UWDMA Skill Development Centre (U-SDC), located at ITI Bhiwadi, Rajasthan. With the support of the Government of Rajasthan, the centre is set to raise more awareness about the uPVC industry, and equip the youth with quality-focused knowledge and skills on uPVC door and window making and installation. The inaugural event began with the lightening of lamp by Mario Schmidt,

Training facilities at the centre


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President of UWDMA and MD of Lingel Windows; Ute Hoffman (GIZ); Satish Kumar, Secretary of UWDMA and Country Head of Deceuninck India; and Rama Shankar Pandey, Managing Director of Hella India Lighting Ltd. Others prominent personalities present at the event, included Amit Malhotra, Vasu Sharma, BM Mittal, D V S Raghav, Shailendra Singhal, Anil Singhal, among others. At the launch, Mario Schmidt said, “It has been our dream to set up a neutral training facility where students

An attentive audience during presentation

can be taught the right way to make UPVC windows and these students can be recruited by window producers without worrying about quality. The Government of Rajasthan has been very helpful and provided us space at ITI Bhiwadi to start this first centre.” Sharing the efforts behind the successful launch, Satish Kumar, said, “UWDMA strives to support the industry with knowledge and skill in a unique participative way. The members decide the need of the industry, pool in the resources and execute the programme. This year our goal is to train 45 students by the end of the year on uPVC window production and installation. We thank the members who have contributed with money, machines and manpower to make the first UWDMA Skill Development Centre come alive.” The centre will offer 6 months training programme to its first batch of 15 students. During these 6 months, the centre will teach and impart skills to produce and install different types of uPVC windows and doors. Besides, the association will also be providing a stipend of Rs 2,500 per month to the students. Graduates from the centre will get job opportunities in the members’ companies with a salary ranging from 8,000 to 10,000 per month.

WHAT MAKES US DISTINCTIVE ARE THE DISTINCTIVE FACADES WE CONSTRUCT... With a city like Kolkata which is defined by its ancient architecture, we in the recent past are creating structures which we hope will define the future skyline of the city. It is our Engineering, Design & Manufacturing that is helping our clients to create facades that make the world take notice. A reflection of which can be seen in every structure that bears the Glass Wall System’s name.

project : TECHNOPOLIS Client : forum GROUP

project : jw maRRIOTT Client : mANI GROUP

project : ATMOSPHERE Client : FORUM group

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Smart Cities India 2018 Expo Concludes Towards Developing Smarter Approach

The event featured some of the most prominent leaders and experts


he 4th edition of Smart Cities India 2018 expo took place at Pragati Maidan in New Delhi, from May 23 - 25. The three-day event featured some of the most prominent leaders and experts discussing ways to harness technology to make the next generation of urban spaces resilient, sustainable, and inclusive. Organised by the India Trade Promotion Organisation (ITPO), the NASSCOM Centre of Excellence – IoT and Exhibitions India Group, the expo co-locates five major verticals that make up smart city framework – building, solar, smart cities, transport

and water. The expo provides participants to explore the latest smart city projects and technologies, products, services, design and solutions that fit urban lifestyles and needs. Speaking at the event, Durga Shanker Mishra, Secretary, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, said that with more people migrating to cities in coming decades, urbanisation presents many challenges. Given the huge opportunities present within the challenges, the Prime Minister launched three schemes, namely Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, Skill India

Smart Cities India Awards 2018 felicitated policy makers, companies, government bodies and associations working towards developing over 100 smart cities


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and Housing for All to address them Georg Jahnsen, Urban Planner, GIZ, India, said, “A clear vision is critical for sustainable development. Moreover, data collection and visualisation is indispensable as data is undoubtedly among the many pillars of planning and developing smart cities”. Emphasising the definition of smart, Sonali Rastogi, Founder Partner, Morphogenesis, said, “Should smart city only be synonymous with groundbreaking technology and smart be the buzzword of technological capability? Well, I believe that smart should not merely be about digital enablement, but equally about policy mechanisms, governance and a systematic approach”. Besides, the City Leaders’ Conclave, a dynamic and exciting business programme for industry and government was held, where multiple stakeholders addressed the needs of urban sustainability. Panelists at the discussion emphasised that smart city development need to be truly holistic, encompassing everything from technology to policy to enablement to government action and citizen participation. The last day of the three-day expo also saw the Smart Cities India Awards, an annual event designed to felicitate, recognise and encourage individuals, policy makers, companies, government bodies and associations working towards developing over 100 smart cities and rejuvenating 500 cities in India. The Smart Village Conclave served as a platform to bring together village heads (pradhans, sarpanches), MPs, innovators, influencers, NGOs, etc., working towards developing smart villages in India.

FOM INDUSTRIE, Italy, has been well known for more than Four decades for quality systems for cutting and machining aluminium and uPVC profiles. Its products high technology content and proven reliability has been the keystone of its success. Since 1972, the year of its foundation, FOM has set itself the ambitious target of combining reliability, efficiency and technological innovation. FOM INDIA has more than 1500 machines with its 300+fabricators in India since its inception from 2009.

Our Proud Customer FOM INDUSTRIE congratulates BEAUTEX for choosing HIGH PERFORMING 4 AXIS CNC MACHINING center Model DALI 70.

Founded in 1963, Beautex, a family owned business, stood for the promise of quality craftsmanship and impeccable service in the decades that followed. We believe in constantly innovating to keep our passions alive. Reach Us Email:, Mobile Number: 90221-50000. Fom Aluminium Machines Pvt. Ltd . # 96 ,3rd Phase, Peenya Industrial Estate, Bangalore - 560058, India.

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Entwining Emerging Technologies & Enduring Designs for Sustainable Façades Zak World of Facades | 27th April, 2018 – Mumbai


he 42nd edition of Zak World of Façades with its all new focus on ‘Emerging Technologies and Enduring Designs For Sustainable Facades’ was held at Hyatt Regency Hotel, Mumbai on 27th April, 2018. The event saw the participation of stalwarts from the construction fraternity in India and abroad, sharing their experience to achieve best façade design and execution practices. This oneday event is seen as the region’s premier conference on façade and fenestration, and a unique opportunity to enhance the knowledge and skills on select subjects pertaining to façade design and engineering. The event was intimate, with a little under 300 attendees who heard a dozen leaders from the industry at the grand conference hall of Hyatt Regency.


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Welcome address by Ahad Ahmed (Director, Zak Group)

Now in its 42nd edition, the effort of the event was to unite the everexpanding brigade of experts in

Rajeev Antony (Managing Director, Schueco India) hosted and convened the event

the field of façades and building envelopes, to discuss the latest design trends and technologies

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Prameena Karunairaj, Business Development Manager, Sun Shading Façade, FunderMax India

Dhananjay Dake, Founder, Construction Catalysers

and thereby enabling an adept and empowered façade industry. The conference expedited as a platform for networking, necessary in the professional world. In its 7th leading year, the international conference series – Zak World of Facades now takes place in Asia (Singapore, India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines and Hong Kong), the Middle East (United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait), Africa (Kenya, Morocco and South Africa), Europe (United Kingdom & France), Australasia (Australia and New Zealand) and the United States of America. Every section of this programme was well planned to give an insight into advanced facade execution and the support structure available to lift the industry to be in par with world standards. The speakers and expert panels comprised wellexperienced professionals from various construction disciplines who analysed and debated on the present and future scenario of façade industry with an open approach to strengthen the industry. Rajeev Antony, Managing Director,

Schueco India, hosted and convened the event. After the welcome address by Ahad Ahmed (Director, Zak Group), the first session started with a discussion on “Sun shading – Passive architectural solution using highpressure laminates” by Prameena Karunairaj, Business Development Manager, Sun Shading Façade, FunderMax India. She discussed the significance of passive architecture in today’s energy crisis, energy efficiency benefits of sun shading using high-pressure laminates, and the social aspects of improving the performance of built spaces. She also explained the need for sun path and shading analysis and also the study of daylight while designing façade and fenestration and shading systems. Frank Goudman (Sales Manager - Export, Renson) was the next speaker, who explained the use of ‘External dynamic solar shading and its effect on indoor climate and energy’. He spoke about how the values like Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC), U Value, g value, glare control, etc., affect the energy conservation, and how to choose the right glass for glazing. He assured that one can

save 25 to 40 percent on HVAC with effective and smart sun protection systems. He also explained the ways to control heat ingress by using sliding panels and retractable louvers. The next topic of discussion was on ‘Intrinsic beauty of carapaces’, presented by Dhananjay Dake, Founder, Construction Catalysers. He also elaborated on ‘Diversity of forms’, ‘Unified structures’ and ‘Space responsive cladding materials’. He also spoke about various projects in which double glass are used in an innovative way for glazing. Some of the projects explained by him were the Food Court at Infosys, Bangalore; I Lab Shell Building which is a diagrid façade; Ruwal City Centre Project with suspended facades at Mumbai, Sea Wood Project by L&T, etc. After the networking tea break, the conference continued with a brilliant presentation by Arun Madappallath, Country Manager - South Asia, Serge Ferrari. It was interesting to understand the innovative designs using tensile membrane material for façades. He also explained the properties of tensile facades like thermal comfort, solar protection, visual comfort and glare control. He explained the effect of fabric facades in day and night through many projects. The enthralling keynote address on the topic “Building skins: balancing performance and aesthetic considerations in the façade system” by Mic Patterson (Director Strategic Development, Schüco USA) discussed new materials for building envelopes and sustainability through facades. He also emphasised on

Frank Goudman, Sales Manager - Export, Renson

Arun Madappallath, Country Manager South Asia, Serge Ferrari

Mic Patterson, Director - Strategic Development, Schüco USA


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Sameer Kumar, Director - Building Enclosures, SHoP Architects, New York

KR Suresh, Regional Director, Axis Façades, moderated the panel

Venugopal Shamrao Barkur, Associate, BES Consultants

the need to think local considering the 5 Cs – culture, climate, comfort, carbon and context. He explained the concepts of embodied energy and life cycle of buildings and façade retrofits. Sameer Kumar, Director - Building Enclosures, SHoP Architects, New York, presented his recent works as case studies, explaining the concepts of data-driven facades, latest design trends in pre-fabricated building, etc. A panel discussion on ‘Innovations for high performance functional façades’ was quite appreciated by the audience, which discussed the topics like 'Digital influence on façade construction’, 'Multi-layered envelopes for high performance buildings’, 'Heat island effect and design innovations to minimise the same’, culminating on 'Complexity of design with safety and sustainability features of the façade’. KR Suresh, Regional Director, Axis

Façades, moderated the panel, which consisted Nilabh Nagar (Senior Associate, Architect Hafeez Contractor), Sharan Lund (General Manager - Design, Birla Estates), Sandeep Shikre (CEO, Sandeep Shikre & Associates), Zubin Zainuddin (Principal, ZZ Architects), Namrata Mehra (Associate Vice President, Godrej Properties), Sanhita Chaturvedi (Director, UHA India) and Kamlesh Choudhari (Director, Glass Wall Systems). The post-lunch session started with a presentation on the topic ‘Building Façades in services - expensive mistakes and lessons learned’ by Venugopal Shamrao Barkur, Associate, BES Consultants. His presentation dissected on topics like the impact of poor designs on façades, badly implemented details and its impact, and the perils of façades

implemented without any designs. Next was a speech by Alvaro Palencia (Architectural Project Manager, The Size Surfaces) on ‘Ventilated façades with sintered stone’. He explained the concept of sintered stone, various types of ventilated façades and fixing systems, which was quite informative. Micha Pawelka, Managing Director, Priedemann, another key speaker at the event, explained the role of a façade consultant and the need for engaging one. He also discussed on the methods to bring down the project cost and how a consultant can help in budgeting a design. He also gave answers to the questions like ‘What is the interface to the fabricator’ and ‘Who is a competent consultant’. Christoph Troska, ManagerGlobal Architecture Segment, Trosifol, explained the concept and design of ‘Glass interlayers’. He elaborated on the uses of glass interlayers and building performance enhancement by the right interlayer application. The next thought provoking presentation was on the topic ‘Emerging trends & technologies for building façade’. Dharmesh Shah,

The panel discussion on ‘Innovations for high-performance functional façades’

Alvaro Palencia, Architectural Project Manager, The Size Surfaces

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Finest new technologies and products pertinent to the industry were displayed at the event

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Micha Pawelka, Managing Director, Priedemann

General Manager - Performance Silicones, Dow Chemical Company, spoke about his company and their latest innovations for the construction industry. The presentation by Sourabh Kankar, Marketing Manager - India, Gujarat Guardian on the ‘Future of glass façade’ grabbed the attention of the audience. He explained various projects and of his company during the past 25 years since they started. The talk by Hitesha Thakur, VP Design, Glass Wall Systems on ‘How to overcome challenges on façade’ was quite stimulating. She explained the challenges faced by the façade industry, façade contractors as well as challenges due to self-competition, oversupply and lack of awareness. She also discussed the challenges in façade designs and difficulties faced due to the complex façade designs, which leads to customised production requirements and customisation of products. She explained the ways to overcome logistic issues and on mitigating wastage. This was followed by a group discussion on ‘Challenges in façade execution’ which saw the participation

Christoph Troska, Manager-Global Architecture Segment, Trosifol


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Dharmesh Shah, General Manager Performance Silicones, Dow Chemical Company

of experts like Vivek Bhole, Principal, Vivek Bhole Architects; Prashant Mewada, Director - Operations, Runwal Group; Samidha Lad, Vice President, Urbania Realty; Atul Bhandari, Director, RSP Design; Balaji Chandran, Head - Speciality Business, FunderMax India; Eshan Hemrajani, Director, Glass Wall Systems and Uday Malavia, GM - Engineering (Façade), Oberoi Realty. Mic Patterson from Schueco USA was the moderator. The group discussed various important aspects of façade deliveries, like designing for safety understanding and mitigating risk, engineered system façades, on-site logistics and execution challenges, etc. The event ended with a very lively question and answer session. The conference was complemented by a display of products by many

Sourabh Kankar, Marketing Manager India, Gujarat Guardian

Hitesha Thakur, VP - Design, Glass Wall Systems

brands, including McCoy Group, Siderise, Corian, Serge Ferrari, Dow-Corning, Fundermax, Allarch, Aluform, Kinlong, Neolith, Trosifol, Aluform, Kinlong, Neolith, Trosifol, FG Glass, Renson, Glass Wall Systems, ModiGuard, and Schueco, which attracted the delegates. They displayed their newly launched products and demonstrated the latest in technologies.

Panel discussion on ‘Challenges in façade execution’


GSI & UWDMA organise Skill Development Programmes


n 12th and 13th of June, Glazing Society of India (GSI) organised women exclusive skill development workshop on energy efficiency and quality testing of architectural glass and glazing systems. It focussed exclusively on the women professionals in the glass and glazing industry. The workshop provided a technical platform for women to familiarise and gain further knowledge in energy efficiency and quality aspects of glass

and glazing in buildings and aimed to enhance the skill sets of women and thereby support them for a sustainable and high-level career in the glass and glazing industry. Satish Kumar, Secretary-UWDMA, presented quality control methods and standards on uPVC profiles. Several queries related to durability, recyclability and reaction to fire were clarified to the audience comprising of women entrepreneurs, architects,

designers and PWD engineers. They also participated actively in a hammer test to check the impact strength of uPVC profile. MOU between UWDMA and GSI: GSI and uPVC Windows and Doors Manufacturers Association (UWDMA) signed a Memorandum of Understanding on 23rd June 2018 for capacity building for “Window and uPVC Profile in India”. The MOU was signed by Rupinder Shelly, TreasurerGSI and Mario Schmidt, PresidentUWDMA. Inauguration of UWDMA Skill Development Centre: UWDMA will soon launch its Skill Development Centre (U-SDC) at ITI Bhiwadi, which aims to train youth in the skill sets required for fabrication of uPVC windows & doors. This centre is unique as the industry has come together to create it, and in turn, it will enrich the industry with skilled workers, who have been trained hands-on by experienced professionals.

Morphogenesis to design ‘Trump Towers’ project in Gurgaon


elhi-based architecture firm Morphogenesis has collaborated with Trump Organisation to design its ultra-luxurious residential project ‘Trump Towers’ in Gurgaon. The Trump Towers is a line of branded apartments which are developed globally by the Trump Organization, Donald Trump’s acclaimed organisation. The design will focus on the sociocultural lifestyle with the bungalow concept. It will create a sense of individuality and reinforce the Trump brand. Besides, the towers aims to be a landmark, carrying the essence of villa infused into the high-rise format with lavish verandahs. Allowing for inside outside living, the verandahs will act as solar shading devices for


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the high-performance façade. This much talked about ‘Trump Towers” project will be promoted by

Tribeca Developers, who is the Trump Organisation’s partner for the Indian market.















E-43/A, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase - II, New Delhi - 110020 Ph.: 011 2650 1588 w w w. v e r t i c a l p l a n e t . c o

+91 9717 6 555 88


CP Kukreja appointed to design Biswa Bangla campus in West Bengal


elhi-based CP Kukreja Architects has been roped in by the Bengal government to design the campus of the newly conceived Biswa Bangla University. The architectural firm grabbed the project after winning the competition organised by the Bengal government. The university will spread over an area of 20 acres at Bolpur, in Birbhum district, West Bengal. It will have a total built-up area of 600,000 sq ft.

The university will be designed with a touch of modernity at the same time integrating the ethos of Visva-Bharati. The firm said that the structure will comprise 18 buildings with the plantation of nearly 300 trees. As per the brief, the buildings will not go beyond the height of three storeys. The campus will feature murals, cultural relief work, bamboo facades, etc. So far, the company has submitted the detailed drawings to the

government and it has now floated a tender for appointing a contractor. The plan is to wrap up the project in 18 months with an investment of Rs 375 crore. The firm has designed and executed many iconic educational institutions, such as Jawaharlal Nehru University New Delhi, Gautam Buddha University - Greater Noida, IIT - Jodhpur, South Campus of Delhi University and IIM Lucknow, among other institutions.

Foster + Partners releases a master plan for Amaravati, the new capital of Andhra Pradesh


oster + Partners has unveiled more information about its masterplan for Amaravati, the new administrative capital of the Andhra Pradesh. The international firm will design the central area of the governmental complex including two key buildings, the Legislature Assembly and the High Court Complex, as well as several secretariat buildings. The new administrative capital was formed following the redefinition of state boundaries between Andhra Pradesh and the newly created state of Telangana. Situated on the banks of the River Krishna, the new city is strategically positioned to benefit from an abundant supply of fresh


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water, and will be one of the most sustainable cities in the world. To further implement sustainability, a widespread of solar energy will be installed and means of transportation will include water taxis and electric vehicles. The urban design will also encourage people to walk around the city by installing shaded streets and an abundance of greenery surrounding the routes. Measuring 5.5 kilometres x 1 kilometre, the governmental complex occupies the heart of the city, defined by the strong urban grid that structures it. A clearly defined green spine runs through its length, providing the foundation of the masterplan’s

environmental strategy, where at least 60% of the area is occupied by greenery or water. Norman Foster, Founder and Executive Chairman of Foster+Partners, said, “The design brings together our decade long research into sustainable cities, incorporating the latest technologies Foster + Partners was appointed by the government of Andhra Pradesh after winning an international competition to design the new capital state of Andhra Pradesh in 2017. The project is expected to be completed within 25 years.


Balkrishna Doshi receives Pritzker Architecture Prize at the Aga Khan Museum in Toronto


eteran Indian architect and professor Balkrishna Doshi

received Pritzker Architecture Prize at the Aga Khan Museum in Toronto, Canada on May 19, 2018. Doshi has become the first Indian to receive the Pritzker Architecture Prize, which is also considered as the ‘Nobel Prize of Architecture’. The 90-year-old architect was born in Pune and currently lives in Ahmedabad. Doshi has received many awards during his career. The veteran architect has designed many landmark buildings including Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore. The Indian government had also awarded Padma Shri to Doshi in 1976.

The Pritzker Architecture Prize is awarded annually to a living architect whose work has produced consistent and significant contributions to humanity. The Pritzker Prize is being awarded for the last forty years. Being the first Indian architect to receive Architecture's most prestigious award, Doshi has had an active career of more than 70 years with a poetic architectural style that is based on oriental cultural influences, creating a production that "covers all socioeconomic classes, in a wide spectrum of typologies, since the 1950s," according to the jury's record.

Design Forum International unveils the design of Guwahati International Airport


esign Forum International recently unveiled the design of Guwahati International Airport. The firm believes that it is important to be contextually reverent, the design, therefore, is infused with the flavours of Assam, the land which is asam (undulating). The form of the structure takes its inspiration from Icarus - the mythological figure who dared to fly. The majestic centrepiece is symbolic and looms over the departure concourse, its arms outstretched as it


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reaches out to the skies. The floating form doubles up as the canopy for the drop-off zone. Terminal roof, the flooring patterns, the column cladding, the theme walls, and even the signage design are inspired by Japanese paper folding art of Origami. Adding to several design elements are the indoor forests. The visitor is positioned within a 90-feet high indoor rainforest, which needs to be navigated before being reunited with the luggage. The Namaskar atrium is a massive

double-heighted space that creates an experience for the inbound visitor, with its walls adorned with the art and craft of Assam. The baggage claim hall wall is an exercise in modularity with origami aluminum panels that derive inspiration from the hilly terrain of the north-eastern states. The teagardens are a mark of reverence to the context, and serve as an inspiration for landscape design. They are positioned at the front yard along with a water cascade. The car park structures are designed to be covered with photovoltaic panels that generate almost 500 KW of solar energy. The project is the collective dream and effort of a team of fifteen consulting and design firms, including Aecom, Design Forum International, Integral Designs, Axis Facades, Gaurav Jindal, Alpana Khare Designs and CBRE. The construction is scheduled to finish by January, 2021.


CMC launches Magma Stone


lassic Marble Company (CMC) has launched its latest Techlam product 'Magma Stone' in the sleek porcelain slab range. Inspired by the natural formation of magma found under the earth's surface, the product surface displays golden honey swirls against a deep black background. Like flames from a fire, the patterns rise and fade against the complimenting dark framework and makes for a beautiful unconventional decor. The largeformat porcelain slabs create infinite spaces with seamless installation and are perfect for flooring and wall cladding applications. The products are available in 3mm thickness and in the standard 3000mm x 1000mm format. The tiles are extremely strong and durable despite being thin and have great aesthetic quality making it befitting for all a range of applications. It is also low on porosity and offers flexibility in installation. The product is available in standard dimensions of 3000 x 1000 mm, having thickness of 3mm.

TrosifolTM launches Global Design Competition


uraray’s TrosifolTM business has announced the launch of a global design competition for projects and structures that incorporate laminated glass. Titled as "The World of Innovative Glass Laminating Solutions Design Competition”, the competition will run from June 11 to September 7, 2018. Architects, engineers, façade consultants and fabricators are invited to submit projects for consideration. An international jury of experts will select winners in Trosifol® PVB and SentryGlas® categories. The winners will be recognised at ‘Glasstec 2018’ International Trade Fair in October. For more information, visit:|www.

Dubai’s Museum of the Future to become one of the complex structures in the world


he Museum of the Future in Dubai by Killa Designs is set to become one of the complex shapes and structures in the world. Modern technologies and materials have made it possible to push the restrictions of engineering and design, and create a new sense of architecture. The structure is LEED certified and is


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scheduled to open in 2019. With a motto “See the future, create the future”, the building is envisioned to be an incubator for innovation and invention. As per the architect, the idea of the structure originated from the concept of “Feng Shui”. In Feng Shui, a round shape in the structure represents both the fertile fields of earth and the limitless imagination of the sky above, and the void in the centre represents the unknown. The design manifests art and poetry with Arabic calligraphy inscribed onto the exterior that features quotes from his highness Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, vice president and prime minister of the UAE and ruler of Dubai, about the future. This

Arabic calligraphy inscribed on the building's facade are the windows. The striking facade has a smooth appearance with a joint-free assembly of 890 unique stainless steel-andfiberglass-fused panels fabricated using methods borrowed from the aviation industry.

Window & Facade Magazine - May/June 2018 issue  

F & F Media and Publications Window & Facade Magazine (WFM) is a technical journal published by F & F Media and Publications.

Window & Facade Magazine - May/June 2018 issue  

F & F Media and Publications Window & Facade Magazine (WFM) is a technical journal published by F & F Media and Publications.