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www.wfmmedia.com Volume 5 | Issue 3 | ` 150 January - February 2019

THE GLASS AGE Smart Use of Glass for Stronger, Safer & Sustainable Buildings

Glass & Glazing

Efficient Use of Glass in Faรงade & Fenestration

Face to Face

Ar. Raman Sikka Associate Principal, Sikka Associates Architects (SAA)

Project Watch

Central Information Commission, New Delhi


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Volume 5 | Issue 3 January - February 2019 PUBLISHED BY F & F Media and Publications C-55, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase - 1, New Delhi-110 020 T: +91-11-40623356 CO-FOUNDERS Syed Ahad Ahmed Amit Malhotra TECHNICAL PANEL Mahesh Arumugam Director Meinhardt Façade Consultants KR Suresh Regional Director  xis Façade Consulting A EDITORIAL Renu Rajaram renu@wfm.co.in +91 9312864830 Shefali Bisht shefali@wfm.co.in DESIGN & CONCEPT BY Prashant Kumar MARKETING & OPERATIONS Kapil Girotra kapil@wfm.co.in +91 9560925255 SUBSCRIPTION & CIRCULATION Mukesh Kumar mukesh@wfm.co.in +91 9560088995 RNI: DELENG/2014/57870

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60

102

10

Time to Turn Tall Building Design Upside Down Energy, daylight and overheating: Study in tall buildings

18

U & SHGC values: Impact on Energy Consumption Effect of glazing on the reduction of heat and solar gain

27

Solar low-E glass as the Future of Building Façade Impact of low-e glass can reduce the energy consumption for cooling and lighting

34

Advanced Interlayers for Versatile Façades Enhancing the functional versatility of façades

40

Reflections on a Shiny Façade Why floor-to-ceiling glass walls are not advisable

48

Efficient Use of Glass in Façade & Fenestration On understanding the building requirements and selecting the optimum basic glass

60

Cover Story – The Glass Age On the need to choose the right kind of glass for management of heat ingress, light and acoustics in buildings

102

Industry Speaks Interview: Subhash Tyagi (Chairman & Chief Promoter), Jimmy Tyagi (Executive Director), Vivek Dubey (Director - Marketing), Gold Plus Glass Industry Limited

114

Face to Face Interview: Ar. Raman Sikka, Associate Principal, Sikka Associates Architects (SAA)

126

Project Watch Central Information Commission, New Delhi

Cover Courtesy: Sikka Associates Architects (SAA)

DISCLAIMER: With regret we wish to say that publishers cannot be held responsible or liable for error or omission contained in this publication. The opinions and views contained in this publication are not necessarily those of the publishers. Readers are advised to seek expert advice before acting on any information contained in this publication which are very generic in nature. The Magazine does not accept responsibility for the accuracy of claims made by advertisers. The ownership of trademarks is acknowledged. No part of this publication or any part of the contents thereof may be reproduced in any form or context without the permission of publishers in writing. WRITE TO THE EDITOR Please address your suggestions to: The Editor, Window & Façade Magazine, C55, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase – 1, New Delhi, 110020 or email renu@wfm.co.in. Please provide your full name and address, stating clearly if you do not wish us to print them. Alternatively log on to www. wfm.co.in and air your views. The opinions expressed in this section are of particular individuals and are in no way a reflection of the publisher’s views. “Printed and Published by Amit Malhotra on behalf of M/s F & F Media and Publications Printed and published at EIH Limited - Unit Printing Press, Manesar, Haryana-122050. Name of the Editor-Ms. Renu Rajaram”

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WFM | JAN - FEB 2019


EDIT

O NOTE

R’S

Window and Façade Magazine has come a long way since its induction five years back and has seen phenomenal growth in circulation of 40-45%. The publication has become Asia’s premier medium in the fenestration and the façade market in this short span of time and is the most sought-after platform to publish, present and market ideas, innovations and technologies in the façade & fenestration sector. This fast growing publication brings to you niche content customised for the industry by the industry experts. We’re fortunate that readers rate the quality of the content among the best in the sector globally. The magazine is circulated among key developers, architects, fabricators, structural engineers, consultant, contractors and other industry members pan India. While we're delighted to celebrate the success of this one-and-only publication in Asia exclusively for façade & fenestration sector, we promise you that we will continue to serve you as the premium knowledge sharing platform for the industry, presenting industry relevant articles every edition. In a world where innovation, managing change and new skills and knowledge are demanded, the insightful contents of this publication will surely help you take wise, forward-looking decisions in your business. Within a considerably short period of time, our magazine has created a niche in the architecture/building/construction industry. This magazine is also promoted in key industry exhibitions & seminars for effective support. It has earned rave reviews from readers who compliment the columns, written by respected leaders in the industry, and the feature articles that delve into complex issues. Soon we will be launching our website www.wfmmedia.com, which will be one-of-a-kind Digital Knowledge-Sharing Platform for the façade and fenestration sector. The site will offer the latest information on products, technologies, designs, future trends, industry focused news, research-based articles, etc. This will be a participative forum where you can post freely about your ideas, creations, projects, milestones, landmarks, including sustainable and innovative designs, latest technologies, and share the ideas and thoughts with the whole world. We will keep you informed about the launch of the portal. We would like to express my gratitude to all of you – who have contributed to the magazine, read the magazine, and provided valuable suggestions. Also, we thank all the advertisers who supported us. It has been an honour and a privilege to have been a part of this industry’s growth and evolution. Let’s see where the future takes us!

Renu Rajaram renu@wfm.co.in WFM | JAN - FEB 2019

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Glass & Glazing

Time to

Turn Tall Building

Design Upside Down

F

ull glazing in tall residential buildings is not necessary, and likely to cause overheating problems, according to BuroHappold’s experts. “You don’t need that much glass to deliver daylight. Clever architects will find a way of delivering daylight without storing up problems for the future,” said Duncan Price, partner.

Clever architects will find a way of delivering daylight without storing up problems for the future

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WFM | JAN - FEB 2019

Managing Glazing & Shade Ratios in Tall Buildings Jon Gregg, senior sustainability engineer, agrees that too much glazing can be a problem. He suggests that tall building developers should look back to more traditional designs when designing daylighting for tall buildings, “In UK Victorian design, the trend was large panes of glass at the bottom of the building, with smaller panes at the top. Essentially, modern design has flipped this principle. Top floors are typically where rents are higher and tenant expectation of ‘penthouse living’ exists. Designers are responding to this with more glass. This can have negative knock impacts on overheating, drive the need for air conditioning and provide poor energy performance”. This recommendation is just one of the learnings that emerge from the analysis report, Energy, Daylight and Overheating: Study in Tall Buildings. BuroHappold


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Glass & Glazing each of the client’s designs in conjunction with their impact on energy performance, overheating and daylighting, clients can then assess and adjust design before any modelling begins, “What we are finding now is that we are not trying to overcome problems through over-designed solutions, we have mitigated them before they occur. We understand how the building will perform, and we are guiding architects and clients to the right solutions”.

The key drivers to mitigate overheating risk are the positioning of high risk dwellings in locations of low solar exposure

was commissioned by the Old Oak Common Development Corporation (OPDC) in London, to test the technical feasibility and financial implications of meeting the Mayoral targets for passive energy performance in tall buildings. These form part of the masterplan for the Old Oak and Park Royal area in West London. BuroHappold's team, headed up by Jon Gregg, Duncan Price and Giulia Escher, modelled 69,000 flats and houses and 17,000 commercial spaces, optimising all the possible permeations of many different designs and creating an extremely large dataset. This huge study into tall building optimisation in terms of environmental design is not only of vital importance to future UK government policy around tall building design, but also for future project work at BuroHappold. “What we are doing now is using the dataset from this study to drive new learning into our other projects,” said Jon. “The first thing I do when starting a new project is provide a design principles ‘cheat sheet’ to the architects and developer. This outlines the principles’ impact on daylight, energy and overheating, as well as

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WFM | JAN - FEB 2019

giving details of different design measures to be applied, including glazing ratios, fenestration approaches and balcony positions”. Jon explains that by exploring

Bigger Units at Risk of Overheating Developers need to think carefully about where different unit types are placed within a tall building. According to the OPDC findings, one or two bedroom apartments have a lower overheating risk than three bedroom units. “Three-bed units have higher occupancy and therefore higher internal heat gains,

Cheat sheet page: While starting a new project, a ‘cheat sheet’ of design principles’ is provided to the architects and developer. This outlines the principles’ impact on daylight, energy and overheating, as well as giving details of different design measures to be applied, including glazing ratios, fenestration approaches and balcony positions


Glass & Glazing important when considering overheating, according to Jon’s research, but perhaps not as significant as other factors such as glazing ratios and ventilation. According to the report, “The impact of inset/projecting balconies and shaded/exposed locations was found to be less significant than other factors,” when assessing overheating risk. “In general, projecting balconies perform better than inset balconies. This is because dwellings with inset balconies have a greater façade area….the resulting increase in glazed area for an inset balcony is more detrimental for overheating than the additional shading afforded by insetting the balcony.”

Non-residential process

Reducing the Need for AirConditioning Whilst air-conditioning is needed in many tall buildings, major development proposals should focus on reducing a building’s reliance on it, according to the report. Instead, they need to focus on: 1. Energy efficient design 2. Reducing the amount of heat entering a building through orientation, shading, albedo, fenestration, insulation and the

Residential process

so it is actually quite hard to avoid them overheating,” explained Jon. “The southwest corners are always the highest risk location. So best to try and avoid those locations for the high occupancy residential units”. The report concludes that, “The key drivers to mitigate overheating risk are the positioning of highrisk dwellings in locations of low solar exposure….South-west facing glazing should be avoided where possible”. Projecting Better Positioning

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Balconies of

Perform

balconies

WFM | JAN - FEB 2019

was

Energy, daylight and overheating: Study in tall buildings


Glass & Glazing

JON GREGG, Senior Sustainability Engineer,

GIULIA ESCHER, Sustainability Engineer, and

DUNCAN PRICE, Partner BUROHAPPOLD

ABOUT THE EXPERTS: Conserve energy through passive ventilation, mechanical ventilation and active cooling systems

provision of green roofs and walls 3. Manage the heat within the building through exposed internal thermal mass and high ceilings 4. Providing passive ventilation, mechanical ventilation and active cooling systems In short, energy efficiency in tall buildings is complex and challenging, with many factors affecting heating, cooling and carbon. As Duncan said, “You have to work really hard

to optimise performance of energy – carbon, overheating and daylight. There are sometimes trade-offs to be made”. With the wealth of new data now available to BuroHappold’s sustainability experts from the OPDC report, we are now in the very best position to advise, plan and build highperforming, energy efficient tall buildings, for every client. (As compiled by Victoria Bentley, copywriter, BuroHappold)

MINIMISE INTERNAL HEAT GAINS

REDUCE HEAT ENTERING MANAGING HEAT THE BUILDING THROUGH MATERIALS

PASSIVE VENTILATION

MECHANICAL VENTILATION

ACTIVE COOLING

• Short pipe lengths • Energy efficient lighting • Efficient domestic equipment

• Slor control glazing • Balconies • Low G-values • External shading, blinds

• Dual aspect units • Shallow floor plates • Openable windows

• Bypass on heat recovery in summer

• Install comfort cooling

• Exposed thermal mass and high ceilings • Heat stored in the day and released at nignt

MEASURES TO BE IMPLEMENTED THROUGH DESIGN

Sustainability - cooling hierarchy

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WFM | JAN - FEB 2019

IF SHOWN TO STILL OVERHEAT

Jon has an MEng from The University of Sheffield and has worked on a number of master planning redevelopments, district heat network feasibility studies, production of energy strategies, renewable technology feasibility and viability assessments, and development of bespoke sustainability frameworks. Duncan has a high profile within the sustainability market. A chartered engineer and chartered physicist, he has worked with leading clients to deliver policies, strategies and projects across a wide range of sectors including retail, commercial property, social housing, public sector and finance. He is currently leading BuroHappold’s work in climate change resilience and designing to maximise health, wellbeing and productivity. Giulia is a sustainability and physics engineer with a degree in environmental and land planning engineering and a MS in civil and environmental engineering. She delivers analytical research, using tools such as Excel, Python and PowerBI as well as managing sustainability and building physics consultancy services on multidisciplinary projects.


Glass & Glazing

U & SHGC Values: Impact on Energy Consumption

I

ndia is the second most populated country in the world with nearly a fifth of the world's population. According to the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects, the population stood at 1.339 billion. Infrastructure and industries tend to increase by meeting population demand and growth, which will considerably increase the energy demand. Therefore, it would be essential to reduce the energy per capita to meet the demand of the increased population. It’s also essential to reduce the carbon footprint and to preserve the environment. Substantial infrastructure has been developed across India to meet the demand of the growing population. Bengaluru is one of the best examples of development with an increase in population. In this article, we shall be going through on how the selection of glazing can play a significant role in the reduction in thermal and energy consumption. An energy model has been developed for the prototype villa to perform energy Simulation and study the impact of savings. In this example, we have assumed

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WFM | JAN - FEB 2019

Fig. 1: Graph summarising the dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures of Bengaluru

a G+1 Villa with 4BR located in Bengaluru and studied the impact of the reduction of thermal and energy reduction. Bengaluru climate has been categorised as Zone 1 as per ASHRAE 90.1 which is defined as Very Hot-Humid (1A) and Dry (1B). The graph above (Fig. 1) summarises the dry-bulb and wetbulb temperatures of Bengaluru. A building envelope is a physical separator between the conditioned and unconditioned environment of a building, including the resistance

to air, water, heat, light, and noise transfer. Thermal envelope is one of the key elements of a passive or a low energy house. Most important parts of the thermal envelope include outer walls, roof, foundation, windows, and doors. The purpose of the thermal envelope is to prevent heat transfer form interior of a house to its exterior in the winter and vice versa in the summer. Most villas are designed to have 20 to 40 percent of window-towall by taking into consideration


Glass & Glazing

Fig. 2: Avoiding heat gains can be addressed by creative glazing design, which should vary as a function of the orientation

the architecture and daylighting aspects. Selection of suitable glazing by taking into consideration of architectural parameters could benefit the occupants during operation. Prior to the start of the design, it is essential to focus on the orientation and distribution of the window-to-wall ratio (WWR). Following are the few points to be considered during the concept stage of the project: • Adjusting the window-to-wall ratio (WWR) of the building envelope affects the amount of heat entering a space. The lower the WWR, the better the Envelope Thermal Transfer Values (ETTV). • Provide glazing where it is

effective for views and/or daylight. Avoiding heat gains can be addressed by creative glazing design, which should vary as a function of the orientation. • Façade orientation should influence WWR. A north facing façade receives the least solar exposure and should have the largest glazing area. • ASHRAE energy modelling guidelines penalise the building (by reduction of energy savings) if WWR percentage is more than 40 per cent. Hence, WWR should not exceed more than 40 per cent. In general, the selection of glazing depends on architectural appearance and cost, instead of

focusing on thermal properties of the glazing. This article focus on the relationship between the U-factor and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) in relation to solar gain. Thermal energy is an example of kinetic energy, as it is due to the motion of particles, with the motion being the key. Thermal energy results in an object or a system having a temperature that can be measured. Thermal energy can be transferred from one object or system to another in the form of heat Due to the increase in temperatures, HVAC is becoming part of our life for thermal comfort. Hence, minimisation of thermal gains into the building could reduce energy consumption. Solar gain is defined as solar radiation absorbed on the internal surfaces of the room, plus solar radiation absorbed in glazing and transferred to the room by conduction. The analysis is performed by considering the different U value and SHGC values. Definitions are these parameters are as follows: • Thermal transmittance (U-factor): Heat transmission in unit time through unit area of a material or construction and the boundary air films, induced by the unit temperature difference between the environments on each side (W/ m2K), in IP units it is referred in (Btu/h·ft2.oF).

Items

Baseline Case

Parameter 1 – U value 4.5 W/m2K, SHGC 0.25

Wall

0.705 W/m2K

0.705 W/m2K

0.705 W/m2K

0.705 W/m2K

0.705 W/m2K

0.705 W/m2K

Roof

0.360 W/m2K

0.360 W/m2K

0.360 W/m2K

0.360 W/m2K

0.360 W/m2K

0.360 W/m2K

Floor

0.363 W/m2K

0.363 W/m2K

0.363 W/m2K

0.363 W/m2K

0.363 W/m2K

0.363 W/m2K

6.81 W/m2K

4.5 W/m2K

3.5 W/m2K

2.5 W/m2K

2.5 W/m2K

2.5 W/m2K

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.22

0.20

Glazing SHGC

Parameter 2 – Parameter 3 – Parameter 4 – U value 3.5 U value 2.5 U value 2.5 W/m2K, W/m2K, W/m2K, SHGC 0.25 SHGC 0.25 SHGC 0.22

Parameter 5 – U value 2.5 W/ m2K, SHGC 0.20

Table 1: Analysis 1 - Impact on overall heat gain

WFM | JAN - FEB 2019

19


Glass & Glazing Parameter

Solar gain (MWh)

External conduction gain (MWh)

Heat gain (MWh)

Baseline Case

36.7876

49.1763

85.9639

Parameter 1 - U value 4.5 W/ m2K, SHGC 0.25

30.0534

42.3988

72.4522

15.72%

Parameter 2 - U value 3.5 W/ m2K, SHGC 0.25

29.3795

39.8498

69.2293

19.47%

Parameter 3 - U value 2.5 W/ m2K, SHGC 0.25

28.605

37.1467

65.7517

23.51%

Parameter 4 - U value 2.5 W/ m2K, SHGC 0.22

24.8747

37.5619

62.4366

27.37%

Parameter 5 - U value 2.5 W/ m2K, SHGC 0.20

22.4882

37.3251

59.8133

30.42%

Percentage difference

Table 2: Over all heat gain which is the combination of solar gain and external conduction gain has been analysed by changing the U values and SHGC

Thermal Energy Solar gain (MWh) 60 50 40 30

49.1763 36.7876

20

External conduction gain (MWh)

42.3988

39.8498

30.0534

29.3795

37.1467 28.605

37.5619

37.3251

24.8747

22.4882

10 0

Baseline Case

Parameter 1 - U value 4.5 W/m2K, SHGC 0.25

Parameter 2 - U value 3.5 W/m2K, SHGC 0.25

Parameter 3 - U value 2.5 W/m2K, SHGC 0.25

Parameter 4 - U value 2.5 W/m2K, SHGC 0.22

Parameter 5 - U value 2.5 W/m2K, SHGC 0.20

Fig. 3: Graphical representation of thermal energy for five parameters

• Solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC): The ratio of the solar heat gain entering the space through the fenestration area to the incident solar radiation. Solar heat gain includes directly transmitted solar heat and absorbed solar radiation, which is then reradiated, conducted, or convicted into space. The relationship between the thermal transmittance and solar heat gain coefficient has been

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WFM | JAN - FEB 2019

studied in the following analysis and impact has been presented. For the purpose of analysis, the U values and SHGC of different fenestration of glazing are considered whilst the rest of the inputs are kept identical in all cases. Five options have been considered comparing with the ASHRAE 90.1 baseline case and further enhancement to the U value and the reduction of SHGC. Kindly note that this article focuses

only on the enhancement on fenestration whilst the rest of the parameters are kept identical. Table 1 exhibits the assumptions considered in each simulation. Over all heat gain which is the combination of solar gain and external conduction gain has been analysed by changing the U values and SHGC. The analysis was considered on all of the five parameters by comparing with the ASHRAE 90.1 baseline (Table 2, Fig. 3). The selection of efficient glazing


Glass & Glazing Parameter

Total system energy (MWh)

Total lights energy (MWh)

Total equip energy (MWh)

Total energy (MWh)

Baseline Case

60.6327

11.04

4.8492

76.5219

Parameter 1 - U value 4.5 W/ m2K, SHGC 0.25

58.2649

11.04

4.8492

74.1541

3.09%

Parameter 2 - U value 3.5 W/ m2K, SHGC 0.25

57.5853

11.04

4.8492

73.4745

3.98%

Parameter 3 - U value 2.5 W/ m2K, SHGC 0.25

56.8695

11.04

4.8492

72.7587

4.92%

Parameter 4 - U value 2.5 W/ m2K, SHGC 0.22

56.4498

11.04

4.8492

72.3389

5.47%

Parameter 5 - U value 2.5 W/ m2K, SHGC 0.20

56.2258

11.04

4.8492

72.115

5.76%

Percentage Difference

Table. 3: Total energy changes consumptions by changing the U values and SHGC

Energy Consumption Total energy (MWh) 49.1763 74.1541

Baseline Case

Parameter 1 - U value 4.5 W/m2K, SHGC 0.25

73.4745

Parameter 2 - U value 3.5 W/m2K, SHGC 0.25

72.7587

Parameter 3 - U value 2.5 W/m2K, SHGC 0.25

72.3389

72.115

Parameter 4 - U value 2.5 W/m2K, SHGC 0.22

Parameter 5 - U value 2.5 W/m2K, SHGC 0.20

Fig. 4: Graphical representation of thermal energy for each parameter

could significantly reduce the heat gain which could maximise more than 30 per cent. As the SHGC value decreases, proportionally the solar gain is reduced. This exercise can overview the importance of selection of lower SHGC values and it has a major factor in reducing the overall solar gain. Analysis 2: Impact on Total Energy Consumption Overall energy is the combination of system energy, lighting energy and equipment energy. The analysis was considered on all the

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WFM | JAN - FEB 2019

five parameters by comparing with the ASHRAE 90.1 Baseline. Total energy changes consumptions by changing the U values and SHGC are presented in the following table (Table. 3), as it is noted that massive amount of energy savings are demonstrated by selection of efficient glazing. Conclusion: Reduction of U value and SHGC plays a significant role in the reduction of the overall energy and thermal energy and likewise similar increase could have an adverse effect on the building

energy consumption. Glazing parameters should be reviewed in detail prior to the finalisation of fenestration. It is very important that test conditions are considered prior to selection, the following are few guidelines that could assist in the selection of glazing, • The “Overall U value” should be considered not the centre of the glass. In general, the U value at the centre of glass is more efficient compared with the overall U value. Data sheets should be reviewed to obtain these details.


Glass & Glazing • U value should be analysed by including the frame i.e., not only the glass but also should include the assembly. Several softwares are available in the market that can perform the analysis • Testing should be in accordance with following listed standards or equivalent whichever is efficient, o U value should be in accordance with NFRC 100 o SHGC should be in accordance with NFRC 200 and o Visible transmittance should be in accordance with NFRC 200. • Visible transmittance should balance by considering daylighting and security If the project has a minimal budget, then the focus should be on the areas that have the maximum solar exposure and install the building in a west facing orientation. Daylight & Views: • Good daylighting not only reduces the artificial lighting load of a building, but it also reduces the heat gains from artificial lighting, and therefore the ventilation or cooling load. It is therefore important to understand the effect of glazing on the energy performance of buildings by performing the simulation during the concept design stage. • Daylight and occupancy sensors can be used to reduce or turn off electric lighting automatically when it is not required. In new offices, the glazing ratio

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WFM | JAN - FEB 2019

(the area of unobstructed glass as a fraction of the total wall area) should not exceed more than 40 per cent. • Providing glazing from floor to ceiling is not the most effective way to provide views as it will also bring in more solar radiation. Vision glazing is typically applied between 750 mm and 2,100 mm to accommodate sitting and standing occupants. Areas below 750 mm, therefore, do not require glazing for either daylight or vision purposes. This can save in material cost and also reduce the amount of solar radiation entering into space through the glass. The Balance between SHGC and Visible Transmittance Windows that reduced solar gain (with tints and coatings) also reduced visible transmittance. However, new high-performance tinted glass and low-solar-gain low-E coatings have made it possible to reduce solar heat gain with little reduction in visible transmittance. It is measured in the Light-to-Solar Gain (LSG) ratio. In hot climates, high LSG means good heat rejection with minimal impact on view and daylight. • The LSG ratio is defined as a ratio between visible transmittance (VT) and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC). A clear double-glazed unit with a low-solar-gain low-E coating (H) reduces the SHGC significantly, to 0.25, but retains a relatively high VT of 0.70, so the LSG is VT/SHGC = 2.80

ASHRAF ALI KHAN

Sustainability Consultant, Hoare Lea

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Ashraf Ali Khan, a sustainability consultant with Hoare Lea (an awardwinning engineering consultancy), brings a strong commitment to sustainable design, energy conservation, and healthy building design. He has extensive experience in all aspects of the sustainability rating system such as Estidama, Global Sustainability Assessment System (GSAS-Qatar), TRAKHEES Green Building Regulations, and Dubai Green Building regulations and LEED projects. Ashraf is a qualified CEM, LEED AP, WELL AP, GSAS – CGP, Legionella Auditor, Pearl Qualified Professional (PQP) in Buildings and Communities (PBRS & PCRS) and Pearl Villa Rating System (PVRS). He is aware of the ASHRAE standards, MECO, MEDG, Dubai green building, energy efficiency, commissioning, energy auditing and environmental assessment. He is currently working as LEED AP, GSAS CGP & PQP on some prestigious projects in GCC region.


Glass & Glazing

Solar Low-E Glass as the Future of Building Façade

R

ising Trend of Glass Façade in India Glass with time has risen to be one of the most important and primary construction components in the building industry. In a country like India, which consists of hot and humid climate zones and where thick brick walls and concrete structures are better at providing insulation, thus lessening the cooling loads of the buildings, in recent times, are using more and more glass for building façades. The increasing demand for glass façade lies in

the fact that glass imparts higher aesthetic value to a building. All high rise buildings in the metro cities are glazed with high quality glass façades. The other reason for this trend is the fact that apart from the sophisticated exterior, glass façades make the buildings lighter and reduces the weight on the foundation. Also, glass provides natural day lighting and unobstructed views of the exterior giving the building occupants a better working environment[1]. However, all these advantages are outweighed by the higher energy consumption needed for cooling

Fig. 1: A building with high performance glass façade in Berlin.

the building interior spaces. The difference in performance between a normal brick wall and a glass wall in terms of the amount of heat flow allowed can be understood by simply analysing the U-values of the two. As per ECBC 2017 maximum allowable U-factor of vertical fenestration for Indian climate zones is 3 W/m2. K. Whereas, the same for opaque external walls in 0.4 W/m2. K. This simply means that glass façades allow 7.5 times more heat to flow in from the exterior spaces. Hence, drawing a conclusion that the cooling energy consumption of a building comprising of glass façade to that of a normal brick wall building would not be wrong. The trade-off between whether to use a glass façade or apply conventional construction practices largely lies with the architects, building engineers and energy analysts. Low-e Glass The solution to the poor energy performance of glass in a country like India is using the right kind of high-performance glass. This will enable the buildings to reap the advantages of natural lighting and occupant well-being that glass façade allows while trying to lessen the SHGC (Solar Heat Gain) and U-value. The newest development in the glass and façade industry is a solar control

WFM | JAN - FEB 2019

27


Glass & Glazing low-e glass. Such glasses have coatings that result in a lower solar heat gain, lower reflectivity and glare control, all of which contribute to making the products sustainable. Low-e coatings have been specially developed to minimise the amount of ultraviolet and infrared light passing through the glass without compromising the amount of visible light that is transmitted. The special features of this glass are[2]: • The low-e coating reduces the emissivity of the glass and lowers the U-factor • Low solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) values result in energy and cost savings • Provides optimum visible light transmittance, helping to reduce lighting loads • Low internal/external refection, reducing sun glare and the need for interior blinds and shades • Low UV (ultraviolet) transmittance, reducing UV rays results in less fading Other forms of this glass can be manufactured by providing low-e to an insulated unit, laminating, toughening, and enamelling using standard techniques. Solar low-e coatings provide the lowest SHGC of any pyrolytic family of products. These make this glass a perfect choice for a new commercial building project in the Indian climatic scenario. A modest range of tints including shades like grey, blue-green, graphite blue, and arctic blue is also available to the designers in the Indian market. The Technology of a Low-e Glass The interesting concept about a low-e glass is that it has a microscopically thin (thinner than even a human hair) coating that is transparent. The "e" in low-e refers to emissivity which is the ability of a material to radiate heat. Normal glass has an emissivity of 0.84 whereas in a low-e glass the emissivity is reduced to as low as 0.02. This coating reflects long-

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WFM | JAN - FEB 2019

wave infrared energy (or heat). In colder climates when the interior heat tries to travel to the colder exteriors, the coating helps to reflect this heat back to inside, hence reducing the radiant heat loss. The reverse phenomenon occurs in warmer climate zones where the exterior heat is prevented to travel to the building interiors. This makes low-e Glasses not only relevant for cold climate but also extremely worthwhile for warm and humid climate zones. The working analogy is the same as that of a thermos where the temperature is maintained in the interior spaces because heat reflection occurs [3]. There are two types of low-e coatings that are available in the market: • Passive low-e coatings - allows maximum solar heat gain • Solar control low-e coatings contains the quantity of solar heat inside the home Both of these techniques keep the building interiors cooler, thus reducing air-conditioning consumption. Pyrolytic, or “hard coat”, and Magnetron Sputter Vacuum Deposition (MSVD), or “soft coat” are the two processes of manufacturing the low-e glasses.

The performance measures of these glasses are same as any other glass where are properties of the measurements are U-value, VLT, SHGC, and light to solar gain. The interrelation between these properties is measured and adjusted such that the SHGC and U-Value are kept lower without compromising the visible light transmitted through the façades. Promoting the Use of Low-e Glasses Almost all leading glass manufacturers in India right now produce solar low-e glasses. The glass and façade industry is confident of the fact that low-e glasses are the future of glazing in climatic conditions as that of India because using less energy is the need of the hour. The limitations of using these glasses in all commercial buildings lie in the higher costing which builders are most often reluctant to pay. Conversely, using these glasses as mentioned earlier reduces the utility as well as maintenance costs due to which the cost savings over the life of the building will suffice the initial extra investment made on the façade. There is also a certain lack of awareness related to the advantages of the low-e glasses which needs to be bridged

Fig. 2: Working of a low-e glass (Source: Google)


Glass & Glazing down by consultants, architects, and designers and promote the use of smart technologies and glasses such as low-e which will end up promoting sustainable practices throughout the Indian building construction sector.   Case Study Analysis of Using Low-e Glass Façade in a Design Project: In a recent design competition, where the task was to design a Net Zero Visitor Center for the Ranthambore Tiger Reserve Forest, the design team made the use of low-e glass in their design to bring down the air-conditioning energy consumption. The net-zero concepts essentially means that a building is a self- sustainable in terms of energy, water, and waste. This is conventionally achieved by balancing out the energy consumption in the building by renewable energy generated within the project site. The utilisation of the low-e glass, in this case, was considered as an effective Energy Conservation Measure (ECM) by the design team. For this case study analysis, this design was used and energy simulations were run once using a low-e glass and once using a conventional DGU. The claims that the lower SHGC and U-value properties of the low-e glass results in lower cooling energy consumption were tested and critically analysed. The properties of the two different glasses used for the sensitivity analysis are provided in the Table 1. It can be clearly seen from the glass properties that the low-e glass has a far less solar heat gain coefficient value along with a lower U-value. While the VLT for the DGU is seen to be higher than that of the solar low-e glass. This can be linked to the fact that the external and internal reflection values for the DGU are higher than

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WFM | JAN - FEB 2019

Fig. 3: Rendered Image of the building design

TABLE 1: Properties of the Glass used External Internal Reflection Reflection

Glass Type

U-Value

SHGC

VLT

wSolar low-e Glass

1.7 W/m2. K

0.2436

42%

17%

14%

Conventional DGU

2.8 W/m2. K

0.3306

26%

19%

28%

that of the low-e glass. The energy consumption data for the two cases are as given in Fig. 4. The main two end-use components that are observed to show significant consumption variation are interior cooling consumption and area lighting. The data is as given in Table 2.

Analysis Made: From the consumption data provided in Table 2, it can be analysed that the Space Cooling consumption when the building uses low-e glass in the façade are 5% lowers than that of a conventional DGU. This variation helps to validate the fact that low-e

Fig. 4: Energy simulation data using solar Low-e glass in the building façade


FACADES SYSTEMS

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Glass & Glazing

Fig. 5: Energy Simulation data using conventional DGU in the building façade

TABLE 2: Consumption data for two different glasses End-use affected by the choice of Glass

Solar Low-e Glass

Conventional DGU

% of variation

Space Cooling (MWh)

21.62

22.66

5%

Area Lighting (MWh)

4.9

6.02

23%

Glasses provide better insulation to the building spaces. The glass property of SHGC plays is responsible for this reduction. This variation would be far more than 5% if the WWR (Window to Wall Ratio) for any building is higher and the building heavily uses glass façade. Hence, for buildings relying on glasses for its external façade low-e should be the obvious choice. Secondly, the area lighting consumption for low-e Glasses is found to be 23% lower than that of DGU. This can be owed to the fact that the visible light transmittance of low-e was 42% while that of the DGU selected was 26%. Hence, low-e does not alone reduce the cooling energy consumption but also diminishes the lighting consumption. Similar sensitivity analysis can be made between different solar low-e glasses to judge the performance between the wide range available in the market. An initial judgment in selection can be made by studying the glass properties. Lower SHGC means

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WFM | JAN - FEB 2019

higher cooling consumption reduction and higher VLT means higher area lighting consumption reduction. This analysis conclusion can also be implemented in real life building designs hence achieving similar outcomes. References: [1] Economic Times, Pros and Cons of Glass façade, June 16, 2017, [Online] Available at: https://economictimes. indiatimes.com/pros-andcons-of-glass-façades/ articleshow/14178517.cms [2] Stanek Windows, What is low-e glass and does it make Windows Energy Efficient? February 14, 2017, [Online] Available at: https:// www.stanekwindows.com/ what-is-low-e-glass-anddoes-it-make-windowsmore-energy-efficient.aspx [3] Vitro Architectural Glass, What is low-e Glass? No date, [Online] Available at http://glassed.vitroglazings. com/glasstopics/how_ lowe_works.aspx

RIDDHI CHATTERJEE

Project Manager Design2Occupancy Services LLP

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Riddhi Chatterjee has an M.Sc. in Civil Engineering and Management from the University of Glasgow in the UK where she carried out a research dissertation in “Operational energy and carbon evaluation of Learning and Teaching Hub to minimise performance gap through energy modelling”. Presently, she is a beginner in the green building industry in India and is working as a Project Manager in Design2Occupancy Services LLP. Her interest lies in building energy performance and sustainability materials.


Glass & Glazing

Advanced Interlayers for Versatile Façades

G

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WFM | JAN - FEB 2019

© BlackStation & Gensler

lass has become an inevitable construction material for any modern-day building. It is hard to imagine any new building coming in our locality, be it commercial, residential, retail, hospitality, airport, hospital, not making use of glass. This is because glass façades directly or indirectly enhance the functionality of all these types of buildings. However, glass is still not well accepted as a structural material by a community of structural engineers in our country as they fear about its brittleness and the consequences of a sudden failure which are in sharp contrast to conventional structural materials i.e., concrete and steel. Some good news for them! The standards for usage of glass in buildings in India have been evolving steadfastly in recent years under the aegis of the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). The inclusion of an exclusive chapter on glazing by the National Building Code of India (NBC) -2016 and Indian Standards (IS) 16231. Use of glass in buildings in India (Parts 1-4) is a big leap taken by BIS. Kuraray, the leading manufacturer of interlayers for laminated glass has been actively contributing to the development of standards on the use of glass in buildings, with a major focus on the structural analysis of laminated glass. Creating awareness of these standards is the next challenge BIS is working on. Enforcement and

Fig. 1: Shanghai Tower, China. SentryGlas® ensured a thinner, lighter & stronger façade that can bear wind loads as high as 6.5 KPa. Outer façade glass specs: 12 mm low-iron annealed glass + 1.52 mm SentryGlas® interlayer + 12 mm low-iron annealed glass. Inner façade glass specs: 6 mm low-iron glass + 0.89 mm SentryGlas® interlayer + 6mm Low-iron glass +12 Air + 6 mm low-iron glass.


Glass & Glazing compliance with these standards, penalty on developers for any noncompliance, would require the state legislatures to make suitable acts. Laminated glass is one of the types of safety glass that is required in buildings to safeguard the occupants of the building against the risk of injuries from broken glass shards. Skylights, canopies, balustrades are few applications requiring laminated safety glass. “Safety” is the basic function of laminated glass that can be attained through the use of standard PVB interlayers. Advanced interlayers can be made use of to enhance the functional versatility of the façades. Thinner, Lighter & Stronger Façades: Advanced Interlayer SentryGlas® enhance the design freedom of the engineers to design façades that are not only much stronger for the same given design loads but can also sustain larger loads even at elevated temperature conditions like 50°C. Alternatively, now they can design glass façades that are making use of large glass panels that goes very well with the general concept of the architecture of providing “large unobstructed views” to the building occupants. Additionally, reduced weight of the glass makes the installation of panels much easier that speeds up the installation rate, especially for super tall buildings. Thereby, bringing in some other intangible benefits. There won’t be any exaggeration in saying manufacturing thinner glass leaves fewer carbon footprints compared to a thicker one. Shanghai Tower, standing tall at 632 m in China (Fig. 1) is a classic example that demonstrates the versatility of its façade. The tower has used around 200,000 Sq m of SentryGlas® in combination with annealed glass to ensure there are no optical distortions for its double skin façades.

The concept of lighter, thinner and stronger façades is best highlighted in a freestanding balustrade application (Fig. 2). It has been structurally analysed through finite element techniques for the imposed design live loads as necessitated by NBC 2016 of India. Durability: Durability of laminated glass with exposed edges in aggressive environmental conditions (high temperatures and humidity) has been a concern as PVB interlayers are hygroscopic in nature. It is a common practice to “cap” the exposed edges of the laminated glass. However, exceptionally high edge stability of laminates made with SentryGlas® has been proven in natural weathering tests running for more than 20 years now in Florida in the US.

Cyclone Resiliency: In the year 2018, Hong Kong witnessed Typhoon Mangkhut, which has been called as one of the severest typhoons to have struck the country ever, causing catastrophic damage to some of the important buildings. The impact caused by wind borne debris was one of the strong reasons behind it and this has to lead to an “introspection” by the Hong Kong Building Department on the existing façade design practices. Our country too has few regions like the coastal areas of Orrisa, Andhra Pradesh, TamilNadu that are vulnerable to cyclones. On 6 December 2016, cyclone Vardah wreaked havoc in coastal Tamil Nadu causing widespread damages to glass façade buildings, especially in Chennai. A study conducted by IIT Chennai cited wind borne debris impact as

Fig. 2 Freestanding balustrade and the design loads required by the standards.

Glass Interlayer Construction Type

Peak Stress

Peak Weight Cost Deflection Comparison

2 x 6 mm FT

36.99 MPa

26.27 mm

52 Kg

125 %

0.89 Sentry 37.66 Glas® MPa

28.16 mm

51 Kg

96 %

2 x 8mm FT

1.52 33.08 Trosifol® ES MPa

26.72 mm

68 Kg

112 %

2 x 10 mm FT

1.52 Trosifol® Clear PVB

23.73 MPa

20.87 mm

85 Kg

100 %

12 mm FT

NA

35.56 MPa

30.17 mm

50 Kg

39 %

1.52 Sentry Glas®

Table 1: Techno commercial analysis of various glass constructions

WFM | JAN - FEB 2019

35


Glass & Glazing one of the reasons for the failure of façades. Missile impact tests followed by pressure cycling tests as required by ASTM standards in the US are required to make our glass façades more resilient and thus keep the buildings functional post any such calamity.

WFM | JAN - FEB 2019

©. Zhangjiajie Grand Canyon Tourism Management Co., Ltd.

36

Fig. 3: Zhangjiajie Glass Bridge, China

Fig. 4: Proof load test of the SentryGlas® laminated glass panels of the Zhangjiajie Glass Bridge before it was thrown open to the public.

© Trosifol.com

Post Breakage Strength: In overhead glazing applications like skylights, it is important to ensure that there is sufficient design redundancy to ensure the safety of not only people underneath but the maintenance workers over the top. DIN 18008-6 in 2015, brought a new regulation in Germany requiring the broken glass to be strong enough to sustain a load of 100 Kg for a period of atleast 30 minutes post the breakage of all glass layers. Kuraray pursued this

©. Zhangjiajie Grand Canyon Tourism Management Co., Ltd.

Structural Applications: Even a small glass window that has all four edges framed can be called a structural application. However, the imagination of architects has always put to test the creativity of structural engineers to use glass with minimal structural supports. Often the glass is required to be used in applications like balustrades, floorings, where conventional materials like wood, steel or stone have been used since ages. Mumbai has several media to high end condominiums making use of free-standing balustrades in the balconies and terraces, safely withstanding humongous wind loads. Glass bridges or skywalks have become almost a rage in countries like China, Malaysia. The glass is not only expected to bear safely the imposed loads but also ensure a high redundancy in the event of accidental breakage. Zhangjiajie Glass Bridge in China (Fig. 3 & 4) makes use of SentryGlas® laminates to sustain the weight of 800 people at a time.

Fig. 5: Broken SentryGlas® laminate sustaining 400 Kg of imposing loads before failure

new development with Bureau of Indian Standards and it was readily adopted by BIS in the National Building Code of India – 2016. Kuraray also ran a research project at University of Armed Forces in Munich, Germany with the objective of exploring the post breakage strength of laminates as a function of interlayer stiffness and temperature (Fig. 5) Blast Resistant Glazings: Growing incidents of terrorism


Glass & Glazing across the globe have resulted in governments of countries, even like Singapore which is considered safe, to have building façades that can withstand a certain level of the blast. Important buildings in the US such as federal courthouse in Miami has a glass façade that is designed to withstand bomb blasts and hurricanes. In Singapore, the upcoming terminal 5 of the Changi Airport shall make use of blast resilient glazing. Laminated glass panels made with Trosifol Clear® and SentryGlas® were tested in a shock tube at ATI Laboratories in York, Pennsylvania. Peak pressure of 41 kPa (6 psi) and impulse of 282 kPa-msec (41 psimsec) were chosen to represent performance levels found in the Unified Facilities Design Criteria (UFC) of the U.S. Department of Defense. The test specimens were 126 cm (49.72 inches) x 172 cm (67.75 inches), wet-glazed in a wooden frame. Blast testing was conducted according to ASTM F1642 standard test method for glazing and glazing systems subject to airblast loadings. This standard enables the user to determine a hazard rating for the glazing or system utilising either a shock tube or arena test. ASTM hazard ratings are expressed differently than those of the U.S. General Services Administration (GSA). GSA Condition 3a equates to the very low hazard level defined in ASTM F1642 where the glass cracks, and fragments land on the floor no further than 1 meter. GSA Condition 2 equates to ASTM F1642 no hazard where glass cracks but is retained in the frame. The results of the test program are presented in Table 2 below, giving a comparison of the blast performances two glass constructions. Intrusion Resistant/Forced Entry: The glazings can be effectively designed to thwart

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WFM | JAN - FEB 2019

Glass Construction

Interlayer Type

3 mm Annealed Glass

0.76 Trosifol® Clear

Hazard Level

GSA Performance Level

Very Low

3

None

2

Interlayer 3 mm Annealed Glass

0.89 SentryGlas®

Blast level: 41 kPa (6 psi) 282 kPa-msec (41 psi-msec). Table 2: Comparison of blast performances of laminates made with different interlayers

any attempts by an intruder trying to make a forced entry using commonly used tools e.g stone, sledge hammer, axe etc. EN 356 is very commonly used to rate the intrusion resistance of given glazing. The glazings are given a rating based on the number of impacts, strike required to make an opening. The five low classifications P1A to P5A prevent the glass pane being smashed in, e.g. with a stone. It does not offer traditional burglary protection. For that reason, it is also called only "impact-resistant glazing. The three high resistance classes P6B to P8B offer higher resistance against burglary and are accordingly called burglarresistant glass, P8B glass offering

the highest level of burglary resistance. Bullet Resistant Glazing (BRG) is another segment that is growing due to the increasing number of high net-worth individuals in our country who want to safeguard themselves against any attack, be it at their lavish home, office or even in vehicles. Conventional glass clad polycarbonate solutions are bulky and are vulnerable to delamination when exposed to UV radiations. SentryGlas® and CPET Spallshield® together provide an unmatched solution that is not only significantly lighter and thinner but highly durable. Fig. 6 shows a comparison of weight and thickness of the solutions for NIJ standards.

Fig. 6: Shows a comparison of weight and thickness of the solutions for NIJ standards.


Glass & Glazing

40 39 38 37 36

40

35 34

37

33

36 34

32 31

12mm Monolithic Glass

6 mm + 12AG + 6mm

13.52 PVB Laminate

13.52 Acoustic PVB Laminate

Fig. 7: Acoustic performance comparison of various glass constructions

Decorative Glazings: Few architectural applications require very high clarity of the glass which can be achieved using extra clear glass only. In such applications, if the glass must be laminated for any of reasons, right selection of the interlayer that has a matching clarity with the glass is very important. Otherwise, it would defeat the purpose of using extra clear glass. It must be ascertained the interlayer has a low yellowness index. SentryGlas® and Trosifol® Ultra Clear have the lowest yellowness index compared to other interlayers. The colour element when added to the glazing, give design freedom to the architects to be used for making the glazings livelier and brighten up space. Acoustic Glazings: Contrary to the prevalent belief in the industry, laminated glass gives better acoustic performance than an IGU unless the IGU is making use of a large air gap. It is better to use just 12 mm

monolithic glass instead of 6+12+6 IGU as it gives better performance (Fig. 7) when noise reduction is the primary design concern. Acoustic PVBs can be used dampening the noise by additional 3-4 decibels compared to regular PVB. Conclusion: Laminated glass can no longer be called just a safety glass. Unfortunately, the awareness about the influence of interlayer on various types of performances of laminated glass is too less in the industry. Selection of appropriate interlayers can add a lot of value to the façade like enhanced structural and post breakage strength, larger glass panels for maximised view, lighter and thinner glass, reduce environmental impact, acoustic comfort, resiliency against windborne debris impact, forced entry or intrusion resistance, blast and bullet resistance, and aesthetics. With so many different aspects, the interlayers can make the building façades truly versatile.

MALVINDER SINGH ROOPRAI

M.E (Structures) Technical Consultant (Asia Pacific Region), Kuraray India Pvt. Ltd.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Malvinder Singh Rooprai is working for the trosifol® PVB division of Kuraray India Pvt. Ltd. as Technical Consultant for Asia Pacific region. He works on finite element modelling of laminated glass for analysing the effects of viscoelastic behaviour of polymeric interlayers on the structural performance of laminated glass panels in architectural applications. He has provided consulting reports on the structural performance of laminated glass to architects and façade engineers and structural consultants for some of the mega projects like the Shanghai Tower in China and World One in Mumbai – India. He has presented papers on structural analysis of laminated glass in events like GPD, and in World of Façades in many countries. He did his Masters in Structural Engineering from Thapar University, Patiala – India and has worked as a Structural & Façade Engineer for nearly six years with a façade fabrication company (a subsidiary of construction giant DLF Ltd) in India. WFM | JAN - FEB 2019

39


Glass & Glazing

Reflections on a

D

Shiny Façade

espite a growing obsession with the sleek, allglass aesthetic in architecture, floorto-ceiling glass walls are not a good thing in almost any climate. IFC’s Chief Industry Specialist for green buildings Prashant Kapoor explains why. Windows are essential for any building, providing enjoyment for people who work in day-lit environments with a view to the outside. So why does a highly glazed building often have the blinds lowered while the sun is shining? Direct sunlight can be beneficial, particularly in cold climates where windows can bring desired passive solar gains to warm a building

during the day. Floor-to-ceiling glass curtain walls, however, are not a good thing in almost any climate,

The “q-four” office building for Quasitum Intelisoft India Pvt. Ltd. in Bengaluru was designed by Fluid Space Architects. The EDGE-certified building has a reduced window to wall ratio and higher thermal performance glass

Johnson Controls’ Asia Pacific headquarters in Shanghai features a controlled use of glazing and higher thermal performance glass, in addition to daylight photoelectric sensors

40

WFM | JAN - FEB 2019

no matter how much glamour they may add to the perception of a “five-star” building. Here’s why.


Glass & Glazing GREENHOUSES IN THE SKY Glass allows most of the incidental heat (and light) from the sun to be transmitted indoors. The heat is then trapped inside as it converts from short wave to long wave. The long wave heat cannot pass through the glazing, creating a “greenhouse effect” and the need for more air conditioning. Solar control coating of glass was developed to deal with glass buildings. A coating of tinted glass either absorbs or reflects nonvisible heat. Even with superior thermal performance and solar protection, however, tinted glass conducts considerable heat compared to an insulated wall. For example, heat entering the east and west façades of an office building in Singapore can admit 750 watts per square metre, which is equivalent to leaving an electric heater running three to four hours daily for each two-square metre section of the façade. A study in India found that energy consumption is proportional to glazed area. For each 10 percent increase in glazed area, energy consumption for an office in a subtropical city like Delhi increases by 15 percent for clear glass and by 2-4 percent for solar control glazing. When the glazed area

Villa P3-2, a residential complex located outside of Hanoi, features nearly 200 EDGE-certified homes. The project, which uses less glass on the façade, was developed by Nam Cuong Corporation

exceeds 20 percent, the office can get overheated even in winter when daytime temperatures can dip to 130C, requiring some cooling for comfort. BLINDED BY THE LIGHT What about the benefits of natural daylight? Doesn’t glazing let light in and therefore save energy? Not unless electric lights are either switched off or dimmed. Most employees rarely make the conscious effort to turn off lights when there is daylight, and seldom have access to a switch that will

ENERGY USE FOR COOLING & LIGHTING FOR VARYING FAÇADES 130

Single gl

120

azed + un

-insulate

d faÇad

e

110 100

High pert. glass +

90

un-insulated faÇade High pert. gla

80

ss + insulated

faÇade

(kWh/m2/year)

70

High pert. glass +

60

aylight controls +

insulated faÇade

50 40 90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

The linear relationship between WWR and energy consumption for the lighting and cooling of an office building in Manila in the Philippines as simulated using the EDGE App.

42

WFM | JAN - FEB 2019

turn off the lights in a brighter area without annoying their co-workers elsewhere. The truth is that almost 60% of window areas are covered by blinds at any given time. The presence (or absence) of blinds has no correlation to the orientation of the façade or time of day. Blinds prevent glare and stop some heat gain to the inside, but are not very effective. Once solar radiation comes through the glazing, most of the heat is absorbed by the blinds and then radiated inside. With blinds down, any visual advantage or energy savings are lost. In climates like Mumbai, the inner surface of window glass can reach 430C, causing “radiant discomfort.” This effect acts asymmetrically on the occupant, causing parts of the body to be considerably cooler or warmer. It’s the same sensation as sitting next to a fireplace when the temperature in the room is within the comfort range. This is another cause of internal blinds coming down often. HIGH FIRST COSTS If a glazed building increases operational cost, is glass an efficient material for construction?


Fold & Slide Door

Sliding Door Systems EN62 Fold & Slide Door v Opening IN or OUT v 3, 4 , 5 and 6 pane option v ENCRAFT top guide & bottom track to perfect alignment

v Max. frame height & width is 8’4” X 18’8” v Max. Sash height & width is 3’1” X 8’4” v Max. sash weight 80 kg


Glass & Glazing COMPARISON OF ESTIMATED ENERGY BILLS FOR VARYING OFFICE* FAÇADE SPECIFICATION

Total Opex $/year Additional Capex $

*Base cost: 10-story, 15,000m2 office buliding in Manila with WWR of 40% $800

$667 $600

$525 $437

$400

$373

On average, Less Glazed saves 22% energy compared to Highly Glazed $390

$361

$200 $61

USD$ (x1000)

$ $(37) $(200)

$(400)

HIGHLY GLAZED FAÇADE HIGHLY GLAZED + SOLOR (WWR 90%)

CONTROL GLASS

(WWR 90% + 1.9 U-Value + 0.28 SHGC)

LESS GLAZED + ROOF/WALL INS. (WWR 30%)

LESS GLAZED + ROOF/ WALL INS. + SOLOR CONTROL GLASS

A quick comparison check of façade options using the EDGE App reveals that less glass leads to energy savings and reduced capital costs.

Developers, financiers and building managers often don’t grasp the impact of glazing on capital cost, which is more expensive compared to bricks or concrete blocks. Double-glazed, solar-control glazing costs approximately $150 per square metre, which is 30 percent higher compared to typical walling materials (~$100/ m2). Since more glazing almost always means bigger air-conditioning

capacity, it adds more capital cost – not just for the glass but also for the installation of larger chillers, ducts and fans. Less glazing can save on energy bills by 22 percent while highly glazed buildings can add $25-44 per square metre in capital costs, according to an analysis using the EDGE App. COMMODIFIED AESTHETICS In the last few decades, architectural language has given

The San Borja district of Lima rewards property developers for EDGEcertified properties such as REBEL with a height bonus incentive. Properties must include green roofs and gardens to complement their resourceefficient design, which often include a reduced window to wall ratio

44

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more emphasis to “lightness” and “transparency,” with a push towards fully glazed envelopes. A high proportion of glass is a desirable corporate image for tall, high-end offices around the world. Co-star, a U.S. and UK-based company that rates commercial properties, gives five stars to buildings with aesthetics that include “full height glass, corner windows, abundant natural daylighting” and “a high ratio of glazed to opaque exterior walls.” If your building has “punched or ribbon windows” then it receives three stars. These ratings reinforce the bias towards glass-covered buildings, a trend which has spread to emerging markets. Lloyd Alter argues that glass architecture has allowed architects to become lazy as curtain wall suppliers end up designing the exterior of the building to look pretty in an architectural rendering. SEVEN SENSIBLE DESIGN CONCEPTS FOR HIGHLY GLAZED FAÇADES While it is clearly better to have less glazing (<20-30 percent WWR), if a highly glazed façade is unavoidable, there are a few ways to maximise benefits and minimise costs for both builders and occupants: 1. Perform daylight simulations during the design phase to ensure uniform distribution of daylight as deep as possible into the building’s interior. A glass façade can generate high glare and a contrast between lux levels indoors, which is undesirable. 2. Install photo-electric sensors along the perimeter to dim artificial lighting when daylighting is available. If you are going to pay the “tax” on glass through higher utilities, get the best value by switching off or dimming artificial light.


Glass & Glazing

More than 1,200 EDGE-certified apartments in São Paulo’s Julio Prestes complex feature a conservative use of glass to help keep low-income residences cool

3. Cut back on glazing on east and west façades by varying the ratio for effective compromise. Rather than 80 percent WWR on all four façades, keep 80 percent on the northern and southern exposures with 1020 percent on the eastern and western façades, where there is a greater risk of glare and direct solar gains. 4. Eliminate glazing below desk level as inclusion in the bottom 1-1.5 metres of the façade contributes little to overall daylighting. In order to provide privacy for workers, this area could be made either opaque or translucent. A better option would be to rethink the façade and consider an insulated wall to improve thermal performance. 5. Install exterior shading with horizontal overhangs on the northern and/or southern façades and an egg-crate combination of horizontal and vertical overhangs on the other orientations. This ensures daylight and views while providing a permanent solution to solar heat gains. Movable (operable) exterior shading in particular provides greater occupant control.

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6. Reset internal blinds so they don’t sabotage the daylighting strategy. To make sure blinds aren’t left permanently down make sure someone is routinely bringing them up. A more designed solution is to automate blinds with a motorised common switch. 7. Explore innovative composite sandwich glazing products with phase change material (e.g., Glass-X) or transparent insulation blinds integrated inside the glazing system. Looking towards the future, it’s possible to imagine a world where we no longer drool over shiny façades. Through a conscious effort to be more practical, innovative and smart, a five-star office building can emerge where the blinds are up, daylight is ample, and workers are both comfortable and productive. Rethinking our notion of glamour will be dependent upon all of us: architects, developers, financiers, corporates and employees. (“Reflections on a Shiny Façades” originally appeared in Eco-Business and has been published with permission.)

PRASHANT KAPOOR

Chief Industry Specialist, Green Buildings, IFC Climate Business Group

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: An expert in bioclimatic design, Prashant Kapoor is a passionate advocate for sustainable solutions that align the interests of developers, financial institutions, governments and homeowners. He created EDGE (Excellence in Design for Greater Efficiencies), a universal standard, software application, and certification system to mainstream resource-efficient building growth in emerging markets. Since 2010, Kapoor has provided dynamic guidance for the International Finance Corporation’s (IFC) global green building programme. He has played a critical role in developing the national green building codes for many countries. EDGE is currently operating in more than 140 countries. Prior to joining IFC, Kapoor worked as a director at WSP consultants in London, where he led the planning of many projects including Masdar City. Kapoor holds architecture degrees from Manipal Institute of Technology (India) and a master’s degree in energy-efficient building from Oxford Brooks University (UK).


Glass & Glazing

Efficient

Use of Glass in Façade & Fenestration

GLASS For thousands of years, glass was thought of as something to look at. It was valued in making precious objects for decorating purposes. Glass really became useful when it was thought of as something to look through. The ancient art is now a medium of architectural advertisement. Glass is architectural. Its transparency, masking, fabrication ability, adaptability and specialisation highlight its suitability for structures. To meet the specific construction needs, glass can be made transparent, translucent, opaque, diffused or stained by mechanical or chemical means. Processed and cured correctly, it is sound insulating, heat absorbent, heat reflecting, weather resistant, non-abrasive, and incombustible. EFFICIENT USE OF GLASS IN FAÇADE AND FENESTRATION It starts with understanding the building requirements and selecting the optimum basic glass and its processing. With logical and correct selection, glass can be a very useful and friendly material by providing optimum daylight, energy efficiency, sound insulation, comfort and wellness, while being safe from injuries to human beings. An incorrect selection can result in just the opposite by being a source

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of excessive heat gain or loss, glare, discomfort and risk of injury from glass. The primary function of glass is to provide daylight and visibility through it or the transparency and one should not lose sight of these primary functions. Visible Light Transmission or VLT is the most important parameter of glass and higher VLT will result in higher daylight but also a higher energy transfer and glare. The designers often consider that a higher VLT means a higher transparency and end up with wrong selection. Transparency is dependent on the colour rendering index, reflectivity and illumination levels inside v/s outside. A glass of VLT as low as 10% is also quite transparent if viewed independently and not in a contrast or simultaneous comparison with a higher VLT glass. Other than light and energy, the factors like strength, safety, acoustics etc., should be considered to enable us to evaluate the processing needs of the primary or basic glass selected above. It will be useful to bring a method to the selection process which is easily understood by all the stakeholders and steers them to a common approach. The National Building Codes 2016 has introduced a new section 8

of ‘Glass and Glazing’ under Part6 ‘Structural Design’. The code covers almost all design aspects of glass and glazing. It explains various types of glasses as well as processes and defines the methodology of selection as well as draws the boundaries of certain limitations.

Fig. 1: Efficient use of glass in façade and fenestration


Glass & Glazing Right from the initial project evaluation stage, a suitable methodology that incorporates the implications of use of glass materials and their influence on performance of the building shall have to be looked into. A typical flowchart outlining such a methodology is given in the figure (Fig. 1). Design requirement including aesthetic considerations and client specified requirement such as security and maintenance are to be considered. Effect of design on cost such as initial cost of glazing (specification of glass; glazing method; access for initial glazing; work schedule; protection during construction); effect of glass material on capital/ running cost related to building heating/cooling, lighting and ventilation; and maintenance cost of glazed areas (access for cleaning and re-glazing) should be considered as well. CONSIDERATIONS FOR LIGHT AND HEAT Light: Natural light is important for health and wellness of human beings. Glass and glazing design must take into consideration introduction of day-lighting into the interior space of the building and to manage the external and internal heat loads. External loads include solar heat gains through fenestration, heat losses across the glass surfaces and unwanted air infiltration in the building whereas internal loads include heat released by the electric lighting systems, equipment and people working in the building space. Proper orientation of a building and due consideration to the size and placement of windows at the design stage can provide the advantage of day-lighting. Daylight Analysis: should be done to find the penetration of

Fig. 2: Natural light is important for health and wellness of human beings

natural light on the building floor plan or at working plane level. This can be done by studying the building orientation, sun path analysis, site shadow analysis and solar exposure analysis etc. A good lighting strategy involves optimising the glazed area, number of Windows, and visual light transmission of glazing. This reduces the dependency on artificial lighting. Using a glass with optimum light transmission can go a long way in curtailing the dependence on artificial lighting. The presence of natural light also rids the inmate from the claustrophobic feeling typical in many buildings with limited glazing and outdoor views. If the light transmission of glass is high, it may also result in â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;glareâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; due to exposure to direct sun, or sun rays being reflected from highly reflective surfaces. Analysis helps to understand the ideal VLT requirement for the building. Any

glass with energy performance will sacrifice certain amount of daylight although it will be transparent for vision through it to the outside. Higher the demand for energy performance, higher will be the compromise on daylight. The selection of glass should therefore start from evaluating the daylight needs and deciding the optimum VLT. This can narrow down the options of selecting the glass which shall give the good performance for the given VLT +/- and considering the cost and aesthetics. Floor plate geometry plays an important role as the daylight distribution will depend on the depth of the plate from the glazed area. The farthest area from glazing will be the dimmest and the nearest area will be the brightest. Courtyard plan and atrium plan have a great advantage of harnessing maximum daylight from glazed area not subjected to direct solar radiation by using glass of higher VLT. Glazing at higher level will have a deeper penetration of light across the width of the floor plate. Glare: Glare results from the excessive contrast of illumination or from an excess of illumination in the field of view. When correctly designed, natural lighting should not give a glaring problem. Even when the light transmission of the glazing is as low as 10 percent some 10,000 lux can still be experienced and glare shall almost certainly occur. Glare can be reduced by some form of mechanical shading, for example, a canopy, an overhanging floor, a balcony or a louvre system. It may also be possible to reorientate the glazing in order to avoid entry of direct solar radiation. Alternatively, the interior layout can be suitably designed to eliminate glare. Glazing products with light transmission lower than 50

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Glass & Glazing

Fig. 3: Daylight Analysis should be done to find the penetration of natural light on the building floor plan or at working plane level

heat carrying radiation followed by the visible and ultraviolet rays. Infrared wavelengths can be further subdivided into a) Shortwave or near infrared which is more penetrating and will travel with visible light, b) Medium and c) Far or long wave infrared which gets absorbed by the atmosphere and warms it up. (see Fig. 4). Analysis helps to understand the sun impact over the elevation and from this, the impact on the building can be understood. This helps to understand the peak load values and design can be done considering this. The total solar energy transmitted through the glass from the outside environment is the part of solar radiation which is transmitted directly through the glass and the part which is

percent can reduce discomfort glare. These products decrease the sky luminance component, but permanently reducing the admission of daylight. Alternatively, shading devices, movable or fixed, may be used. External shading devices have a great advantage as they address the solar energy transmission before entering into the building to keep the heat out. The internal shading devices will reduce glare but will not be able to prevent the solar energy from coming in the building and then this energy has to be mitigated by airconditioning or ventilation. Heat Transfer: It is important to understand the patterns of solar radiation that affect the building. Direct solar incident radiation is the energy transmitted from the sun which lies between the wavelength range of 250 and 2500 nm. Solar radiation is typically made up of 3% ultraviolet light, 42% visible light and 55% infrared light. Infrared radiation is the major

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Fig. 4: It is important to understand the patterns of solar radiation that affect the building


Glass & Glazing re-emitted from the glass after being absorbed. This heat energy which is transmitted through the glass has to be limited in-order to achieve thermal comfort for the occupants and also to reduce the energy demands of the building. This is governed by the solar factor or Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) of the glass. SHGC is the ratio of solar heat gain that passes through the fenestration to the total incident solar radiation that falls on it. SHGC is expressed as a number between 0 and 1. The lower the SHGC, the more a product is blocking solar heat gain. The other part to be looked at is the transfer of heat from outside to inside environment through the glass, due to the temperature difference. This is known as thermal transfer and is represented by U-value which is the rate of heat flow through one square metre of glazing when there is a temperature difference of 1 degree C. The lower the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Uâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; value, the better it is. Coated glasses can be used as an

option for cutting down the heat transmission through the glass since they offer better thermal performance. Solar control glasses have special coatings on them which reduce the amount of solar radiation passing through the glass thereby reducing the amount of heat gain through the glass. Due to these coatings, the amount of light passing through the glass would also be reduced. Care has to be taken while selecting these glasses so that an optimum balance between the light and heat transmittance is achieved. DGU with both clear glasses and subjected to direct sun will result in penetration of short wave infrared, which in turn will heat up the interiors and cause a heat trap or a greenhouse effect. (see Fig. 5). Low emissivity (low-E) coatings have a surface emissivity of less than 0.2. The use of such a coating on glass improves the thermal insulation. They are more efficient when used on the cavity surfaces of IGUs. Certain types of low-E glasses such as silver-based are

Fig. 5: The total solar energy transmitted through the glass from the outside environment is the part of solar radiation which is transmitted directly through the glass and the part which is re-emitted from the glass after being absorbed

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used in double glazed units only, as the silver oxide coating will get oxidised if used in single glazed. Insulating Glass Units (IGU) is a very effective way to reduce transfer through the glazing when used in conjunction with solar control or low-E or reflective coated glass. These units combine the performance parameters of the individual coated glasses along with the air gap inside the hermetically sealed unit to provide an overall increased reduction of heat transfer. Increasing the width of the air gap would further improve the thermal insulation of the IGUs. Use of inert gasses like argon and krypton in the air gap would also further improve the level of thermal insulation provided by the IGU. To maintain thermal comfort and minimise internal cooling / heating loads, the envelope needs to regulate and optimize heat transfer through roof, walls, windows, doors and other opening. An integrated building design considers the envelope, the Heating Ventilation and Cooling (HVAC) system and the lighting system as a whole rather than dealing with these independently. Changing the specifications of one system can affect the performance of the other two significantly. The main goal of glass and glazing design should be to provide visual and thermal comfort to the occupants and thereby reducing the electricity cost for lighting and HVAC CONSIDERATIONS FOR STRENGTH AND STRUCTURAL ASPECTS AS PER NBC 2016 Loads: Like any other building material, glass used in building façades also must adhere to the considerations of strength and serviceability. In general, glass in


Glass & Glazing building façades will be subjected to both in-plane and out-of-plane loading. But response is usually dominated by the out-of-plane wind loading. Various other loads like dead load, imposed load and seismic design are also to be considered. Thickness: Based on the type of glass, area, aspect ratio and support conditions, an appropriate thickness can be selected from the detailed tables in NBC 2016 or can be calculated by the empirical formulae for the same. While a design strength factor for normal annealed float glass is taken as 1.0, the factor is 2.5 for tempered glass, 1.6 for heat strengthened glass,

1.5 for DGU and 0.8 for laminated safety glass. Deflection: Should be calculated at the centre of the glass panel is also to be checked for permissible limits. In case of tempered glass, the design thickness is mostly limited by permissible deflections. CONSIDERATIONS FOR HUMAN SAFETY Critical Locations: The selection of the type of glass is governed by the critical location criteria. Critical locations are parts of a building most likely to be subjected to accidental human impact and safety glass should be used in such critical locations.

Fig. 6: The selection of the type of glass is governed by the critical location criteria

Safety glass should also be used, a) Where, there is danger of falling infill glass material(s from overhead glazing. b) The danger of falling due to a change in floor level. c) In case of balustrades, stairs and floors. Based on study, some of the locations in buildings that are found to be more vulnerable to human impact than others are shown in the adjacent figure (Fig. 6) where necessary precaution should be taken. • In and around doors, low windows • Door side panels • Panels mistaken for a doorway or opening • Panels at low levels in walls and partitions • Bathrooms • Building associated with special activities, for example gyms, enclosed swimming pools, etc • Schools and child care facilities and • Nursing homes and old age care facilities Appropriate precautions should be taken to reduce or avoid injuries due to glass breakage by selecting glass of suitable type, thickness, size and quality as per relevant Indian standards and enhancing a person’s awareness of presence of glass by making glass visible (manifestation of glass), and minimising manual handling of large pieces of glass during installation. In case of external laminated glass façades, openable portions have to be left at regular distances for fire-fighting and smoke exhaust. This portion should be of toughened (tempered) glass and clearly indicated by suitable visible marking. If insulating glass unit (IGU) is used in situations mentioned

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Glass & Glazing

Fig. 7: Appropriate precautions should be taken to reduce or avoid injuries due to glass breakage by selecting glass of suitable type, thickness, size and quality as per relevant Indian standards

above, then one of the following shall apply: a) If IGU is installed in areas subjected to human impact on either side, then both the panes of the unit shall meet the requirements as per IS 2553 (Part) 1 b) In situations where access is restricted to one side of the unit, then only the accessible side should meet the safety requirements of this Section.

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CONSIDERATIONS FOR ACOUSTIC PERFORMANCE Noise: Unwanted sound is considered as noise when it intrudes in our daily lives. To minimise this intrusion all aspects of the building construction need to be evaluated. However, we will only analyse the acoustic qualities of glass. The first step in this analysis is to determine the source of the unwanted noise. This is a critical step, as the noise source can vary from low frequency

traffic noise to high frequency aircraft noise. Starting from a single 6mm glass lite with an STC of 31, we can achieve STC ratings of as high as 50 with different combinations of laminated and insulated glasses. Although the increase in absolute numbers seems small, it results in a big difference in performance. An increase from 28 to 38 means 90% of the noise is reduced. A change from 28 to 43 represents a noise reduction of over 95%.


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Glass & Glazing so that they can minimise its weakness when the overall unit reaches its critical frequency. This therefore produces a coincidence in a broader frequency zone but compared to symmetrical glazing the trough is less intense.

Fig. 8: Monolithic glass has specific critical or coincident frequency at which the speed of incident sound in air matches that of bending wave of glass

Thicker Glasses: Monolithic glass has specific critical or coincident frequency at which the speed of incident sound in air matches that of bending wave of glass. At this critical frequency, glass will vibrate allowing sound waves to penetrate without significant attenuation; the thickness of a single-pane glass enhances the glazing's sound insulation, for e.g., a 4mm thick glass provides an Rw of 29 dB, which can increase to 35 dB for a thickness of 12mm. However, increasing glass thickness is generally a poor choice for applications such as

city structures which are primarily subjected to lower pitched sounds. This is because increasing glass thickness shifts the critical frequency trough towards lower frequencies which results in weakened protection against lowpitched sound. Insulating glass with different thickness: Contrary to the common belief, DGU or insulating glass is not effective against sound insulation. To enhance the level of sound insulation provided by doubleglazing, glasses with sufficiently different thickness should be used

Fig. 9: The PVB film used in laminated glasses have a shear damping effect that has substantial sound attenuation characteristics

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Laminated Glass: The poly vinyl butyral inter-layer (0.38m m to 1.52mm) used in laminated glass provides a dampening effect that reduces vibration by absorbing the sound waves hence reducing sound transmission. Laminated glass has superior sound insulation qualities in the higher frequency range where the noise from sources such as aircraft is a problem. The PVB film used in laminated glasses have a shear damping effect that has substantial sound attenuation characteristics. When the outer glass layer is exposed to bending waves, the PVB layer creates a shear strain within itself and the bending of wave energy of glass is transformed to nondirectional heat energy which is barely noticeable. During this phenomenon the sound waves are absorbed by the PVB layer and not transmitted to the second glass layer. This results in reduction of the amplitude of vibration and sound transmission. Increasing the inter-layer thickness has marginal effect on the performance of laminated glass. Acoustically enhanced PVB's are designed to have higher damping characteristics that further reduce the amplitude of the sound waves. Combination of Insulated and Laminated Glass: Further increases in sound-reduction performance can be achieved by using combinations of insulated and laminated glass. These units offer the dual benefit of greater mass and different frequency resonance of insulated glasses coupled with the damping effects


Glass & Glazing of PVB laminated glasses. Double glazed unit with certain gases also provide sound insulation characteristics.

upholstery and other interior objects. This is of particular importance to Hotels and Premium Houses.

Areas around Windows: It is important to note that no matter how good the noise insulation qualities of the windows are, there should be no gaps or cracks around the window frame and these are sealed with soft sealing materials.

Thermal Breakage: Can happen only in annealed glass due to temperature difference at the edge and centre of glass with higher absorption. Tempered and Heat Strengthened glasses are safe from Thermal Breakages.

OTHER CONSIDERATIONS Fire Safety: Fire rated glass has to be used in doors and partitions of fire escape route and refuge areas. There are three broad classifications of fire rated glass to be used depending upon the estimated evacuation time for the occupants, size of glass and NBC Compliance requirements: • Integrity (E): Glass that stops the spread of fire and smoke from the fire side to the non-fire side and stays in place for a defined time or rating of 30, 60, 90, 120 minutes or more. • Integrity and Radiation Control (EW): In addition to above, it also controls the radiation to < 15KW at 1m. • Integrity and Insulation (EI): In addition to (E), it also gives very high heat insulation and limits the temperature on non-fire side glass to 180 at any point and average of 140 max. UV Control: UV light, though 3% of solar radiation, is responsible for fading of the upholstery and causes discomfort. PVB in laminated safety glass absorbs 99% of the incident UV giving more comfort and longer life to

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Spontaneous Breakage: Can happen in tempered glass due to nickel sulphide particle. It can happen even after installation and even after a gap of months to years. Heat soaking of tempered glass is recommended to reduce such risks but involves additional costs. The complete phenomenon has been published in WFM issue of July-August 2015. Conclusion: Glass is a wonderful material of the future. Its appropriate selection and application combined with understanding the building requirements can be a very rewarding exercise resulting in a delightful experience for the users of the building.

Fig. 10: Spontaneous breakage can happen in tempered glass due to nickel sulphide particle

SHARANJIT SINGH Founder Chairman, GSC Glass Ltd.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Sharanjit Singh is the Founder Chairman of GSC Glass Ltd., a technology driven company, leader and pioneer in glass processing, GSC has many firsts to its credit including the first architectural tempering, laminating, ceramic fritting, hardware, processing machines etc. It is also the first company to design and supply glass with design, systems and solutions for many European airports and rail stations, where quality and safety requirements are very high. He is an accomplished engineer and a third generation glass-man and regarded as one of the most knowledgeable person on glass in India. He is convener of standards committee for processed glass of BIS as well as of Glass and Glazing Knowledge Forum. He has conducted many seminars and training workshops and has also written and compiled ‘Architectural glass guide’ for Federation of Safety Glass (FOSG), which is a comprehensive and complete book on the subject. His writings & presentations are well known for their simplified and easy to understand approach even on the complex matters.


Cover Story

THE

GLASS AGE

T

he production of window glass started in 1836 in a factory in Belgium. Since then, the product has come a long way. Glass has become an inevitable part of any urban building. One of the first milestones was the invention of tempered glass in 1929 by the French glass company Saint-Gobain. The first double glazing was produced in 1947 in Belgium, and it became popular due to its insulation capacities, both thermal and acoustic. During the 1950s, the British manufacturer, Pilkington invented a new method of glass production called float process and since then float glass has become the rage. By the end of the 20th century, 90% of the flat glass used throughout the world were float glass. Enameled and tinted glass followed this. With the material science constantly pushing its boundaries, we saw the entry of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Smart Glassâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, which can switch between allowing light in and blocking it out. The decorative and architectural possibilities with the use of glass are seemingly endless, while the list of extra functions that glass could fulfil has become longer - e.g., blocking UV and infrared radiation, providing thermal and acoustical insulation, and greater resistance to breaking. The cover story of this edition elucidates on versatility of glass, the need to choose the right kind of glass, management of heat ingress and light in modern glass buildings, optimising acoustic properties of glass, and much more.

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Image courtesy: Kembhavi Architects

Cover Story

Laughter City- For Laughter Yoga University by Kembhavi Architects

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Cover Story

Anshu Shukla

Deputy General Manager – Design, Kalpataru Ltd.

Ar. Indrajit S. Kembhavi

Principal Architect, Kembhavi Architecture Foundation

Glass is an aesthetic, adaptable, versatile, economically viable and eco-friendly material which actualises possibilities in architecture and design that only few materials can. State-ofthe-art technologies for lamination and processing have made possible new types and varieties of glasses that enable the perfect blending of function and aesthetics – for both exterior and interior applications. GLASS - THE CHOSEN MEDIUM FOR FAÇADES & FENESTRATIONS Glass has been quite popular in real estate because of its versatile and transparent nature. Its ample use in building walls, partitions, beams, roofs, canopies, skylights and staircases is somewhere a reflection of the transparent working atmosphere that today’s millennial generation prefers. The openness that glass adds to these structures makes even a mundane design interesting, points out Ar. Anshu Shukla, Deputy General Manager – Design, Kalpataru Limited. The glass was in use as early as 7th century in buildings, and then it used to be a luxury item. With evolving

technologies, today glass is more relevant than ever, especially in India, which has different environment in every part of the country, says Ar. Indrajit S. Kembhavi, Principal Architect, Kembhavi Architecture Foundation. “Glass enhances the visual appeal of living space and adds a touch of modernity wherever it is used,” states Vikram Khanna, COO, Consumer Glass; COO, Architectural Institutional Business; CMO, CIO, Asahi India Glass Ltd. The applications and uses of glass are as breathtaking as its effects. Glass is the material with which you can see more & do more with. According to Khanna, it is not only light and easy to handle, but can be used in a variety of ways. Its aesthetic, self-cleaning and insulating properties, gives it a preference, depending upon where and how it is used. Glass with a plethora of products helps in reducing the weight of the building, thus resulting in less stress on the building and its foundation. Ashok Jain, Executive Director, Fuso Glass India Pvt Ltd too agrees to this. Glass is certainly a very good

VIKRAM KHANNA

Image courtesy: Asahi India Glass

COO, Consumer Glass COO, Architectural Institutional Business, CMO, CIO, Asahi India Glass Ltd.

ASHOK JAIN

Executive Director, Fuso Glass India Pvt. Ltd.

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Cummins, Pune


Cover Story

Chairman, GSC Glass Ltd.

AR. ABHISHEK BIJ

Partner and Lead Designer, Design Plus Architects

RAJIV BALAGGAN

Sales Head- Architectural Glass India, Pilkington Glass India Pvt. Ltd.

MALVINDER S. ROOPRAI

Technical Consultant - Asia Pacific Region, PVB Division, Kuraray India Pvt. Ltd.

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and other load bearing installations if properly designed and executed, adds Pathak. Glass is a product which will keep growing in our economy as we haven’t really started using glass yet, as the difference between per capita consumption of glass between India and other countries, like China, the USA, Hong Kong, etc., is huge. Tariq Kachwala, Director - FG Glass too agrees that glass unarguably occupies the prime spot among the cladding materials, and it comes with its fair share of logical justifications. Glass façades are both pre-engineered and modular, looks great, and offer transparency. Even in tropical climates like that of India, glass remains an ideal choice for façade cladding, under certain very important considerations, adds Kachwala. The choice of glass should consider criteria such as glare, heat behaviour (both incident and reflected) and installation type. Fortunately, the range of glass tints and coatings available today, combined with advanced manufacturing and processing techniques allow for the use of highly energy-effcient glass that can replace traditional opaque walls without compromising on performance.

Image courtesy: Asahi India Glass

SHARANJIT SINGH

material if used intelligently, points out Sharanjit Singh, Chairman, GSC Glass Ltd, agreeing with the rest. However we cannot use it based only on load calculations from an engineering standpoint and looks, or aesthetic standpoint of the client or the architect. We do need a better understanding of the building requirements and knowledge of glass and glazing. The quantum of glass used in a design is dependent on various tangible and intangible reasons, notes Abhishek Bij, Design Plus Architects. Accounting for local weather conditions have become one of the tangible, measurable components in façade design. So it is no longer a question “if” glass is going to be used, it is a discussion on “how”, adds Bij. Rajiv Balaggan (Sales HeadArchitectural Glass India, Pilkington Glass India Pvt. Ltd.) too agrees with Bij’s statement. Glazing should be based on the purpose and use of the building, considering the weather conditions. High performance, energy saving glass products are very much advisable. Right selection of glass is the key, adds Malvinder Singh Rooprai, Technical Consultant - Asia Pacific Region, PVB Division, Kuraray India Pvt. Ltd. Unfortunately the knowledge about the usage of the right type of glass has not matched the pace of increased usage. Structural engineers do not accept the glass as a structural material in spite of the new codes on glass released by BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards). Glass as a building material needs to be researched in our universities, the way it is in Europe, remarks Rooprai. Glass is among a very few building construction material which luckily has an extremely low effect of weather, states Swapnil Pathak, Partner, ArtN-Glass Inc. A smart specification can actually solve a lot of issues in buildings, including excess heat, noise, energy consumption, etc. Also glass does not have a decent enough alternative, hence there are certain areas where only glass can be used. It is excellent for walkways, skylights

Google HQ, Gurugram


Cover Story

Partner, Art-N-Glass Inc.

TARIQ KACHWALA Director, FG Glass

VARGHESE PV

CHOICE OF GLASS FOR WINDOWS FOR EFFECTIVE FENESTRATION Choice of glass for fenestration is totally

dependent on the utility, intention, scale, cost, and application, says Bij. From clear glass to coloured, from float to laminate, using glass independently or in combination with other techniques/materials, the choice varies. There are more picks, adds Khanna, like energy efficient glass, acoustic laminated glass, frosted glass, etc., that can be put on windows based on the requirement. I.e., if the consumer wants to decrease heat ingress, if it is a north facing window, if there is excess solar heat coming in from the window, if the consumer wants an acoustic solution, if the window faces a noise generating area, or if he wants a privacy solution. Agreeing with Bij and Khanna on the

Image courtesy: Fuso Glass

CEO, Glazing and Metal Works, Sobha Ltd.

GROWING DEMAND FOR GLASS IN LOW-RISE APPLICATIONS The demand for glass in the niche and low rise applications will be growing, observes Sharanjit Singh. Agreeing to this, Kachwala observes that the use of extremely large glass panels fixed in very slim aluminium systems are in demand for low-rises. This is driven by the desire to have maximum vision possible without the framing ‘clutter’. Security of the façade is of prime importance in such applications and there are glasses available today with varying levels of intrusion resistance, some even harder to break through than the steel!

Indira Gandhi International Airport - Glass has been cautiosuly used in partitions, external walls and roofs

HCL project

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Image courtesy: Fuso Glass

SWAPNIL PATHAK

Varghese PV, CEO, Glazing and Metal Works, Sobha Ltd too opined that glass cannot be replaced with any other material due to its advantages and its utility is increasing with rapid technological advancement in this field. In moderate Indian weather conditions, these elements perform well. However, the risk of breakage is always there. Contrary to the above comment, Shukla denotes that regular glass is not sustainable in Indian climate as it traps hot air indoors, thus increasing the energy to maintain the temperature. But this weakness can be tackled by handling the solar radiation in a more effective way, thus improving the performance of glass.

Gift City, Gandhi Nagar, Gujarat


Cover Story variety of glass available, Shukla adds on the parameters which determine the choice of glass, such as daylight, glare, internal and external reflection and sound. She stresses on the need for creating comfortable indoor by studying and analysing the sun-path, wind and acoustics. Jain points on few other factors that should be considered before selecting the glass for fenestration like orientation and location of the building, safety requirements, purpose of the building (school, hospital, residence, etc.), and type of the building, viz., mall, theatre, commercial complex, etc. “Nowadays, smart glass is used in fenestration to minimise solar gain. Screened, painted, coated and laminated glass are used depending on transitional space between the exterior and the interior which results in a beautiful combination of space, visual link, light and exterior view”, Kembhavi adds. COMPLETE GLASS WALLS - PROS AND CONS There is no limitation in having a complete glass wall even in Indian

Six Major Elements Determining the Selection of Glass: 1. Safety & security 2. Multiple load acting 3. Acoustics 4. Energy efficiency 5. Aesthetics and the most important 6. Budget According to these parameters and a lot of permutation and combination of products, we try and fit in the best possible combination. (Swapnil Pathak, Partner, Art-N-Glass Inc.) climatic conditions, says Khanna. There are varieties of glasses used externally depending on tint and thickness, and thus reducing the level of heat coming from outside. The products offer advanced solar control technology and help in ultimate cooling comfort, combined with durability and high energy efficiency applications. State-of-the-art technologies for lamination and processing have made possible new types and varieties of glasses that enable the perfect blending of function and aesthetics – for both exterior and interior applications, Khanna

The Choice of Glass Should be Based on: Functional aspects & safety: A detailed study of the weather conditions, including the analysis of sun’s path is done before selecting the glass. The building’s functional aspects are also to be considered before opting for glass. Factors such as visible light transmission is very important in the selection process. Further, the levels, angle of the façade location in terms of movement of people needs to be studied for safety. Energy efficiency: This aspect helps decide the type of glass and the processes. Moreover, there is a statutory requirement to comply. Ideally, look for parameters like better shading coefficient, low U-value and double glazed with 12 to 16mm space in between filled with inert gas (argon is common) for better energy saving and comfort. Aesthetics: One is allowed to play with colours. A wide range of colours are available, which can meet all the above parameters. (Varghese PV, CEO, Glazing and Metal Works, Sobha Ltd.)

explains. Few of the major trends are: improved thermal insulation glazing; façade retrofitting for better energy performance; smart glazing; integration of photo-voltaic; and innovative structural use of glass. But some experts did not favour the glass-only façades. The greenhouse effect produced by the glazing system becomes a serious concern, observes Shukla. And a naïve use of glass in façade would only add to this concern as it would make the surroundings hotter. Bij too recommends using complete glass walls with caution. “One should take caution for orientation, choice of glass for vision clarity, and provision of shading devices (louvers/screens/shelves). This is further enhanced by the building design/massing,” notes Bij. Limitation in having a complete glass wall could be more in terms of affordability and access to select the correct glass products, states Kembhavi. According to Singh, the main limitation of complete glass wall is to address the shading against the direct solar radiation. Combining other materials is a good idea and can give a huge arena of innovative designs while addressing energy concerns and performance strength, notes Singh, Balaggan and Kembhavi. “I strongly believe that we have the products and the processing capabilities required to create energy-effcient façades, while on

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Image courtesy: Kembhavi Architects

Cover Story cladding can act as a good heat insulating layer. Green walls with vertical gardens increases the energy efficiency and reduces the electric bills. According to Bij, to achieve netzero, glass will always be used with other materials, as it alone cannot address all concerns. Application of glass is irreplaceable, and the question arises on the intelligence of application. This is where a close communication between the manufacturing world and the design fraternity is critical. Achieving clarity and yet addressing heat percolation, cutting glare yet ensuring vision, are important, observes the architect.

Image courtesy: Kembhavi Architects

the other hand it is also important to be extremely prudent in determining the façade coverage percentage with glass,” cautions Kachwala. Instead of indiscriminate and unplanned usage of glass as is seen in some buildings, it is important that architects and consultants jointly design architecture that is sustainable and has the minimum possible load on the heating and cooling systems, he advices. While glass façade imparts an aesthetic and contemporary look,

Fatima Mall for Fatima Group by Kembhavi Architects

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incorrect usage of glass will bring down energy efficiency of the building, states Varghese. In India, it is a general practise to limit the glass usage in façade to about 30 - 40% and use ACP, HDL, stone/ tile etc. for the remaining. This helps in making a well-balanced, energy efficient, easy to maintain, aesthetically pleasing and durable façade. Shukla says that stone

Image courtesy: Pilkington Glass

Laughter City - For Laughter Yoga University by Kembhavi Architects

i Think by Lodha Developers, Mumbai

Guidelines Determining the Use of Glass In Buildings • High-performance coatings offering exceptional spectral selectivity should be adopted • All nuances of the façade that are responsible for heatingress should be considered during the glass selection process • Glare problems should be mitigated with the use of the various shading devices available today • Adequate ventilation should be provided at regular intervals for air circulation and to facilitate emergency smoke and people evacuation • The design should conform to the building’s overall fireprevention strategy and the directives issued by the local fire-authorities should be implemented The final decision rests on the good judgement of building planners and consultants to create a façade that performs well on all fronts: energy, safety, cost, maintainability and life. (Tariq Kachwala, Director - FG Glass)


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“Performance Based Systems are the Future of Design” On Glass for Contemporary Façade and Fenestration: Glass is a contemporary material with the inherent quality of framing the views, creating inviting spaces and connecting the outside to the built form. It would not be accurate to classify glass as a good or bad material. It is the vision of the designer and the application that makes its use relevant to the design. Indian climate is a very wide topic itself, and we have a varying climatic condition that might require from a triple glazed windows to trap the winter heat, to twenty percent opening on a particular façade in very hot climatic conditions. Glass can well be a material of choice to achieve even a net positive building.

AMIT GUPTA & BRITTA KNOBEL GUPTA Founding Partners, Studio Symbiosis Architects

For us, the glass selection is done in spirit of the design and the values required. We prefer using a neutral shade and DGU is our selection of glass. In our projects Punjab Kesari HQ, Bangalore train station and Lucknow hotel (to name a few) heat gain studies were done to arrive at the optimum opening ratio and also effect of fins or cantilevers on the actual heat gain. In some projects, full glass façades are given by us in combination with the study of cantilever depth to cut down the summer sun from entering.

Punjab Keasari HQ, Delhi - by Studio Symbiosis

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On Light and Heat Management in Buildings with Glass Faรงades: The location of the building with respect to its immediate surroundings is critical for simulations for us, to arrive at the specific requirement of the project. The sun during summers is very vertical; so cantilevers, jaali and vertical fins that can be closed are very effective elements to cut down the direct exposure of the glass surface to the summer sun. These elements of design ensure well-lit buildings, and also an efficient way to reduce heat gain. On Performance of Glass in Acoustic Insulation: In our German projects, DGU is anyway a given specification, but at times a triple glazed glass is also deployed for acoustics. It is not just the glass, but also the complete fenestration system has an impact on the acoustic insulation of a building. On Awareness Level of Consumers The Indian user is very sensitive to the materials

used in design. Double skin is a very effective system, but it has its impact on cost. Having said this, for one of our project we have managed a double skin faรงade within eight hundred rupees per square feet by using innovative faรงade materials. The technical knowhow is there in India for most critical design. The question is of the design itself and the demand from the market. Something like a double curved DGU might not be possible to fabricate in India right now, as there is no/very limited demand for this. We have worked around a double curved DGU by cold bending 4.2 meter by 1.8 meter glass on site to end up with a double curved panel. On Future Designs and Systems: Performance based systems are the future of design, these systems can provide immediate occupancy buildings. Digital faรงades as information sharing systems, embedded in glass is another field along with the sensor based opacity systems.

Ahmedabad Hotel - by Studio Symbiosis

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Cover Story

Image courtesy: Pilkington Glass

ENERGY-EFFICIENT GLASS FOR GREEN BUILDINGS With the dream of ‘Nearly-Zero Energy’ fast turning into a reality, green buildings are actually becoming a norm globally, through extensive use of innovative glass in buildings which helps in reducing the air-conditioning load and the need for artificial lighting, and thus minimising energy consumption in the building, says Khanna of AIS. Balaggan and Jain too agrees that excellent energy saving and high performance glass products are available for use today, which are suitable for local conditions. With new types of glazing solutions, spaces - both internal and external - are becoming more efficient. The additional costs incurred in making green buildings are more than compensated by the reduced operational costs, compared to conventional buildings. With an increase in awareness about the carbon footprint, it is expected that buildings with energy efficient glasses help in reducing energy load of a building, hence incorporating energy efficient glass solutions will drive the market for construction glass, notes Khanna. Glass generates minimal environmental impact, which makes it a product of choice for sustainable buildings. For instance, explains Balaggan, the total CO2 equivalent emitted by the manufacturing of an energy efficient double glazing unit is offset on average within only 3 to

K. Raheja HQ, Mumbai

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10 months by the energy savings realised compared to the same building equipped with inefficient glazing. High-performance solar control glasses are best suited for a tropical country like India, states Kembhavi. Not only is glass recyclable, it is also a good insulator, which combined with solar and smart air-conditioning helps buildings become self-sustainable with heating and cooling. State-of-the-art glazing technologies when used can create a carbon negative building envelope. Dynamic glazing such as electrochromatic and photochromatic glass offer great potential savings in locations and at orientations that experience variation in peak air temperatures and incident solar radiation from low sun angles, explains Shukla. Properly executed daylighting strategies can also reduce HVAC peak loads with corresponding reductions in mechanical equipment capacity and carbon footprint. Singh advices to select glasses with low light transmittance and higher shading. “But the designers insist on higher light transmission as they generally perceive the transparency and Visible Light Transmission (VLT) to be the same

property of a glass. We need to have external shading by any external means or we have no choice but to use a Double Glazing Unit (DGU) having its outer glass of good shading co-efficient, he elucidates. We can also look at harnessing solar energy from roofs and façades,” Singh suggests. Pathak points out that every building/direction/geography/ height has different challenges. SHGC, U-value, VLT, width of air/ argon gap are among a few parameters which decide the type of glass and specification. Hence on the same need the product is also chosen - for example - for a building which faces a lot of sun, fins or ceramic fritt or a perforated aluminium skin would be excellent. So would be a glass with high VLT. “According to the latest technology used around world, we believe that we should have triple low-E and double low-E combinations of the glass, with an overall thickness of 24 to 30mm for best results in energy efficiency. Further, argon gas filling should be carried out in the airspace in DGU. This will result in a product that will be able to resist heat ingress due to conduction and modest due to radiation. To tackle the problem in the best possible way, these glass with suitable shading elements can be provided,” enlightens Varghese.

Guidelines for Managing Solar Heat Gain: The four main aspects affecting solar heat gain are: thermal transmittance of the glass (U-value), solar heat gain through glass (SHGC), thermal transmittance of frame and air tightness of the glass assembly. The sun’s position in the sky changes seasonally and affects availability of daylight. Position of the sun is the true altitude and azimuth based on geographic location. It becomes bright when the sun angle is higher. Best orientation of buildings can be determined with the sun’s angle. The movement of sun from east to west and the angle of the sun may affect the amount of daylight penetration in a building. (Vikram Khanna, COO, Consumer Glass; COO, Architectural Institutional Business; CMO, CIO, Asahi India Glass Ltd.)


Shukla says that we are far away from having an energy efficient glass suitable to the Indian conditions. Apart from the conventional double glazed high performance glazing systems, there have been recent developments in glass industry such as the ability to make façade glass thinner which could help reduce the logistic and operation costs and hence help in reducing the CO2 footprint. But to what extent these and other such technologies can be implemented still needs to be explored. MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL LIGHT & SOLAR HEAT GAIN Balanced or smart façade will have enough light levels (300 500lux). This will be effective in resisting the solar heat gain, spots Varghese. We need to address this contradiction carefully to enjoy both the conditions. New generation of glasses are smart glasses that provide 35 to 50% light transmission and are capable of resisting the total heat gain effectively. Total solar heat gain depends on several factors like U-value and shading coefficient of glass, and horizontal and vertical shading elements on the façade, explains Varghese. Out of these, first factor purely depends on the coatings and processes on the glass. However, the second and the third factors can be achieved by suitably playing with orientation of the building and shading elements. In fact, to enable the interior of the building receive natural daylight, we can use a technology called light shelf like an internal chajja placed horizontally at 8 feet height with very glossy reflecting surface on top, points out Varghese. Reflective glass, also known as solar control glass, reduces heat gain and glare from the exterior and allows optimum VLT to the interior. It facilitates energy savings through reduction in interior solar heat gain

Image courtesy: GSC Glass Ltd

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Raddission, Greater Noida

and HVAC, and air-conditioning costs, explains Khanna. Buildings that employ passive solar heating or daylighting often depend on well-designed sun control and shading devices. Reflective materials on glass or low SC glass combined with light shelves, adjustable louvers or blinds with overhangs or vertical fins can address light and heat management of a building, observes Kembhavi. Heat travels into the building primarily by two causes, explains Singh. (1) Temperature difference between exteriors and interiors called thermal transfer which is easily addressed by using DGU and Low-E glasses. (2) Direct solar radiation which has to be addressed by shading. DGU and Low-E glasses do not address this

transfer and do just the opposite and work as a heat trap unless we use any external shading means or use external glass of DGU for shading. We need to start with evaluating the daylighting needs first and then make a right balance of light and heat. ACOUSTIC PERFORMANCE OF GLASS The thicker the glass, better the sound insulation. Insulated glass with an inert gas acting as sound barrier between the glasses enhances acoustic properties. Laminated glass consisting of two or more layers of glass held together with PVB layer apart from making it safer also helps in acoustical insulation since the layer help in protecting from ultraviolet rays, thus enhancing the building energy efficiency, says Shukla. Khanna too

Façade Elements Aiding in Reducing Solar Heat Gain There has been a growing tendency from the architects and developers to put forward façade elements such as double glazing, vertical screens and horizontal louvers into the façade aesthetics. Well-designed double skin façades can provide both improved indoor climate and reduced use of energy. Ventilated screen, an extra skin is added to the outside of the building envelope provides additional thermal insulation. During solar irradiation, when placed as per the sunpath, it gets naturally ventilated as the heated air in the cavity rises thus reducing the solar heat gain. (Anshu Shukla, Deputy General Manager – Design, Kalpataru Limited)

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Cover Story Techniques Enhancing the Acoustic Insulation of Glass • More thickness of outside and inside glass (6 to 8mm even to 10mm as per requirement). • Providing more space in DGU (16 to 20mm) • Use laminated glass • Use acoustic PVB • Use PVB laminated glass even for both. The above five factors will enhance the acoustic insulation value. We have to strike a balance between the requirement and cost, the cost increases with the number of steps. (Varghese PV, CEO, Glazing and Metal Works, Sobha Ltd)

insulates against sound is a hugely false perception, Singh points out. Agreeing with Singh, Rooprai too observes that a laminated glass fares better than an IGU unless the IGU is having a large air gap of 20 mm or more. “Using an IGU is a good solution for reducing the indirect solar heat gain (U-values) but not for acoustics, at least with the prevalent standard air gap of 12mm. Having air gaps more than 12mm is a big deterrent as it leads to increased overall framing system cost. Infact, it is better to use a single monolithic glass than an IGU,” suggests Rooprai. Glass is generally 90% of any

Image courtesy: GSC Glass Ltd

recommends PVB interlayered laminated glasses and insulated glasses which can provide 50–60% sound reduction. These glasses work well for buildings abutting the highways/railways, for hospitals and childcare centres. The progression for acoustic should be first to increase the thickness of the glass than to jump to DGU principals. Also, in the case of DGU, one should remember to create a differential in thickness, says Bij. Depending on the methodology of glass (thickness/DGU/lamination) the decrease in dB can be attained. A general understanding that insulating glass (IGU or DGU) also

Aloft Hotel, Delhi

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glazing, hence it plays a pivotal role when it comes to acoustic insulation, and there are a lot of myths and notions which needs to be addressed, points out Pathak. For example expectations in terms of decibel reduction, we can’t have a zero dB sound. Using the word sound proof is wrong. Sometimes there are multiple areas from where the noise can seep in or come but all the focus is given to glass hence making it extremely difficult to address the situation. When installing in a system, the gasket, the fabrication of the product, the installation and civil itself all of them play important roles. Glass manufacturing companies have done an excellent job in promoting and educating about high performance glass for thermal insulation, it is time for processors to do a similar working on acoustics. In modern façade, the initiatives taken to bring energy efficiency are enhancing its overall acoustic insulation, states Varghese. “As a thumb rule, we may look for a 40 decibel sound level inside, with a possible noise level of 70-80 decibel outside. Ideally, we aim for decibel reduction of 32dB to 44dB according to the nature of the space. High decibel reduction is desirable for the high-end hotels where the level of noise outside due to proximity to highway, railway station and flight path is high,” explains Varghese. AWARENESS LEVELS OF CONSUMERS The glass industry is growing at about 8-10% a year. Government regulations such as GST and RERA have affected the construction sector, which have pushed real estate developers, architects and designers to explore more options in ‘green building materials’, glass being one of them, says Khanna. At a consumer level, says Kembhavi, the awareness is improving drastically compared to


Cover Story

Image courtesy: Art-N-Glass Inc

right mind-set. Exhibitions and seminars on glass have helped a lot to spread out the awareness. The glass manufacturers have also initiated many awareness programs on glass, its performance and different use of glass.

World One - Alphathum Bhutani Group - 33 floors , 12000sq m of semi unitized glazing

how it was a decade ago. People are on a constant look out for new products, and products come up with an upgrade with as little as a fortnight these days. End consumer still is a lacking awareness about energy efficient glass, double skin façades, etc. They are largely reliant on architects and designers to choose best product for their requirement, Khanna points out. Bij, agreeing with Khanna, opines that the onus of educating the consumers/clients lies both on the architect and the industry. Every client is willing to understand the importance of devices, techniques and products that would improve the quality/life/comfort of occupants of the building. Needless to say, cost and aesthetic are also strong drivers in decision making. Most of the customers, especially from IT sector, are aware of the solar shading techniques, as they have become common in important buildings. The awareness about the double skin façade and ventilated façade is, however, lower amongst Indian clients. According to Varghese, the multinational customers are aware of the new products and technologies, but

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do not practice it due to the costs involved. India being extremely price sensitive market, the acceptance of the same might take some time because cost issue, says Pathak. But it is motivating to see a few builders going a step ahead and bringing these revolutionary changes with

ON MARKET AGILITY AND EXPERTISE TO MEET THE INCREASING DEMANDS The market does have the agility and expertise but exercised by a few, opine Singh and Pathak. This can further improve if there is good coordination and understanding in the entire chain of stakeholders from the concept or planning stage of the building. According to Bij, Indian construction industry works at 1/5th to 1/7th of cost compared to Middle East / Europe / US or other organised markets, where the protocols are also more stringent. “There is a catch 22. The problem is that while the clients are not willing to pay for the specialised expertise, there is an expectation of stringent delivery. Since, the delivery is nonexacting, an aura of negativity gets created,” spots Bij.

“Go for Indian Façade Systems” There is an unnecessary brand cost attached to the international systems which can be used by the client to get better specification and product rather than spending on an ordinary system. I think we can develop and design systems better than international system when it comes to design for our country. Brain drain has been a problem for façade and fenestration industry as it was extremely small and not organised hence a lot of talented designers and consultants joined the bigger companies abroad but now with the new generation coming up in both architecture and fabrication the thirst for knowledge and product is more than ever. I am quite excited and sure in the coming times Indian systems will stand up and compete with the global leaders not in India but everywhere around the globe. With the new people coming back to India after a very niche education in façade it about time that we will see similar courses in our educational institutes and exciting competition among Indian systems which will be healthy for all round development for Indian façade industry. (Swapnil Pathak, Partner, Art-N-Glass Inc)


DLF Cyberpark - Gurugram


Unity Amaryllis, Karol Bagh, Delhi

in glass buildings, fire department across most regions have become stringent in their NOCs, which to a large extent has assured safety in such buildings. Internationally, countries have laid down stringent safety laws, regulations and standards pertaining to façade maintenance but, in India we are lacking in the safety regulations! SMART FENESTRATION SOLUTIONS FOR THE FUTURE With the ever-growing demand for improved aesthetics glass safety and strength, the market is naturally seeing a lot of innovations.

Sofitel Hotel, Mumbai

Image courtesy: FG Glass

“Given a good R&D team, and better understanding of customer requirements, we are able to manufacture and supply to the market products that are customised to everyone’s needs. We have developed about 25 products in last 6 months as per the market requirement,” remarks Khanna, speaking about his company. The market has grown at a very fast pace and so has the capability of the glass processors, says Rooprai. There are so many new entrants in the market making the competition very tough. Some of the old players are investing a lot to upgrade themselves or distinguish themselves from other, and to meet the specialised requirements of market in India and outside. The use of glass in buildings has increased manifolds in the country. However in most developments, the specifications of the façade installation and system norms are far from being met, complaints Shukla. Recognising the gravity of the problem and uncertainty faced by the engineers, architects and users, the guidelines for selection of appropriate glass structures suitable for a particular location have been developed by the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE). With the recurring incidents of fire breakout

Consumers are testing the limit by making large glass panels and thin glass panels. The combination of new technologies and hybrid components including hot and cold-bent glass, advanced laminating and adhesive technology has led to an enormous increase in the efficiency of glass applications, observes Shukla. A sense of responsibility towards creating a sustainable and carbon neutral building has created path for eco-friendly technologies such as glass with built-in photovoltaic solar collectors, bio-reactive façade (algae façade) which when exposed to sunlight such that the by-products, biomass and biogas are used to produce electricity. Recently, silk screen technology, digital printing and film laminates

Image courtesy: FG Glass

Image courtesy: Art-N-Glass Inc

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Lupin Research Park, Pune

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Cover Story Smart Fenestration Solutions: • Use of BIPV SIGU (Building Integrated Photovoltaic ; Sealed Insulated Glass Units) with blinds • Movable shading devices/ louvers • Self-Cleaning Glass • LED laminated Glass • LED Display Glass (Vikram Khanna, COO, Consumer Glass; COO, Architectural Institutional Business; CMO, CIO, Asahi India Glass Ltd.)

architects should encourage young newcomers to learn and assist the seniors in technical aspects, material science and research while encourage seniors to have a serious look at NBC 2016 and the new addition of Glass and Glazing (section-8) under Structural Design (part-6),”denotes singh. “The competition between the glass manufacturers has become

Image courtesy: Asahi India Glass

have enabled the realisation of glass designs which was considered impossible for a long time, remarks Shukla. According to Singh, education and awareness is the key. “We need to train the trainers, introduce it as subject in engineering and architecture institutes as curriculum. The industry has initiated action in this direction and now the institutes have started implementing it. The

The Central Park- Sydney: The plants act as natural heat control device that changes with the seasons

Supreme HQ, Pune

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exciting every year as we see a new better spec glass coming out and client and architect are being hands on using it. The next step is integrating a lot of electronics and nano tech into glass which is still a long shot but with the price correction it would become feasible. The growth and the speed at which we as Indians are moving with glass is quite up to date and future looks awesome,” Pathak is optimistic. As is Varghese, and he is hopeful that smart glass façade will evolve going forward, with focus on providing shade on demand.

Al Bahar, Abu Dhabi - The screen operates as a curtain wall, installed two meters outside the buildings’ exterior on an independent frame


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“Glass Yields itself to Multiple Applications”

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hat i s yo u r v iew on the g ro w ing d e m and fo r g lass in n i c he an d lo w - rise a ppli c at i ons? Glass for façades and cladding is becoming more commonplace, because of the sheer functionality of the material. Energy-efficient glazing in the vision area optimises the natural daylight and the heat ingress into the building. To have glass cladding in both interior and exterior applications, makes it easy to clean and maintain, while making the architectural

element aesthetically appealing. Glass also yields itself to multiple applications; the increasing use of glass is only natural considering our changing architecture, limited space, larger floor space, and an increasing emphasis on user comfort (thermal, acoustic and visual). Applications of glass and related solutions in niche applications are more prevalent, because of increasing consumer awareness, global sensibilities of designers and improved technology from a manufacturing standpoint for customisation.

Kanak NMS Icon is a commercial development of Kanak Infrastructure, located in Navi Mumbai (Products: SGG Nano – Icy Menthol (KT 140), SGG Nano - Moonshine (KT 155), SGG Cool-Lite – Sterling Silver (ST 120), SGG Antelio Plus – Blue Ray (ST 767))

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A.R. UNNIKRISHNAN

Director - Sales & Marketing, Saint-Gobain India Pvt. Ltd

Throw some light on the choice of glass for windows / effective fenestration? The choice of glass for windows or effective fenestration is to be built primarily on the understanding of the local climatology and the intended use of the building with the end objective being overall wellbeing of the end user. To make the choice, it is important to define wellbeing for the end user, which can be defined as a sense of comfort (thermal, visual or acoustic) along with being sustainable and not adversely affecting the environment. An analysis of the energy consumption pattern of both the residential and commercial segment shows that about 70 – 80 percent of energy consumption goes for lighting and air-conditioning. In the residential segment, the ECBC mandates the use of highperformance glass in buildings. This is to optimise the natural light and reduce the heat ingress into homes. For a commercial application on the other hand, where the window wall ratio (WWR) is over 45 percent, the choice of the glass should also consider passive elimination of glare condition.


Cover Story

Arihant the Verge is a commercial offering located on the Old Mahabalipuram Road, Chennai (Products: SGG Planitherm – Pristine White (PLT T), SGG Nano – Tropica Green (KT 440), SGG Cool-Lite – Turquoise (STR 436))

Please brief on limitations of having complete glass walls on buildings considering Indian climatic conditions? Architectural glass is a material that exists in plurality. This plurality has overcome what used to be the limitations of using glass in buildings, in the early days of architectural applications of glass. Today’s glass not only boasts of extremely high energy-efficiency, but it also has superior technology that makes façades dynamic and responsive to the environment, thus making the users comfort a supreme attribute. Notwithstanding the complete glass walls of buildings, one can have complete glass walls in the interiors too without any limitations. Modern glass has addressed every need of the discerning consumer of today. Feeling safe and secured in an environment is as essential for well-being of occupants as acoustic or thermal comfort. Glass from (Vetrotech Saint-Gobain) as a fireresistant wall, can withstand fire for about 120 minutes. These products apart from adding aesthetic and functional value to the building,

also limit the spread of fire, flue gases within the fire compartment of origin protect from high temperatures and thus enable easier fire-fighting evacuation. Having said that, the use of glass in buildings needs to be optimised based on the location of the building, the prevailing climatic conditions and the intended use of the building. Combining glazing with other building materials would help to combine the strengths of different building materials in allowing the right amount of light (ambient & optimum day lighting without glare) and maintaining the right amount of heat (through insulation) in the building for the benefit of the end user. Have we cracked the need for energy-efficient glass, the one suitable for local conditions? With natural daylighting, and the use of light shelves / light tunnels, artificial lighting can be reduced to a substantial amount. Using a glass of superior selectivity also gives the user the opportunity to gain from the natural daylight

and also keep out the direct and indirect heat. To achieve a carbon neutral building, active measures such as power generation, waste management, etc. needs to be employed apart from the more important passive features such as building design. This can be done by consciously designing the right orientation, for the right cooling/ heating loads and decreasing the dependency on artificial lighting. The use of energy-efficient glass plays a significant role in the part of passive features and needs to be considered during the design phase of the building. Brief on light and heat management in buildings with glass façades. The light ingress into the building is largely dependent on factors such as orientation, WWR, and shading factors. Heat gain can both be direct or indirect heat. The direct heat is the amount of solar heat transmitted into the building from the amount of solar heat incident on the glazing. This is measured by a parameter known as the Solar

Ceebros One 74, a residential project at Chennai (Products: SGG Planitherm – Pristine White (PLT T), SGG Antelio Plus – Sparkling Ice (ST 167))

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Cover Story Please tell us about the performance of glass in acoustic insulation? Glass can play an important role in acoustic insulation. Thicker glass, laminated glass and glass in asymmetric Double Glazed Units (DGUs) help to attain substantial dB reduction of even up to 50 dB when used in combination of the appropriate interlayers. In terms of exterior glazing, Saint-Gobain has developed a technology to retrofit existing façades that was built a decade back, with basic single glazing. This retrofitting can help structures, improve the acoustic insulation in the interiors and also give additional benefits in terms of heat cut off and glare control.

Maersk, Bengaluru (Products: SGG Planilaque – Titanium Grey)

Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) or solar factor. Indirect heat gain is based on the property of thermal insulation of the façade material. This is measured by the parameter called U-value. The U-value of the façade (combination of glass and other materials determines

the indirect heat gain of the building). Selectivity, which is the ration between the visual light transmission and the solar factor of the glass has become the most common thumb rule to make the choice of glass for a project requirement.

Yahir Auditorium, Thiruvalla, Kerala (Product: SGG Midas Gold)

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Considering glass as the material in demand for façades, what should be the next in building intelligent futuristic façades? With manufacturers today, offering state-of-the-art intelligent glass that can respond to the environment, architects have begun their adoption in the buildings they create. Recent developments like LED integrated glass façade, Electrochromic façades, etc., are in this direction. There are dynamic glazing solutions such as SageGlass that tints on demand and can be integrated with the overall building management system to build intelligent buildings that are efficient in use and easy to maintain. With an enhanced rate of adoption, it is just a matter of time before futuristic buildings become commonplace in the Indian skyline. As manufacturers, our R&D centers are constantly innovating to build new products and solutions that can serve the façades of today and tomorrow in an intelligent, energy-efficient and sustainable manner. It is this sense of agility from manufacturers and eager experimentation from designers that will help us leapfrog into the arena of ‘futuristic façades’.


Brand Watch

Saint-Gobain’s

Third New Facility

Worth ₹1,200 Crore Near Chennai

Aerial Shot of the World Glass Complex, Sriperumbudur

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amil Nadu's Chief Minister Edappadi K Palaniswami inaugurated SaintGobain’s third plant next to its existing facility near Chennai. This new plant will cater the demands of both domestic and international customers. “As one of the fastest-growing economies in the world, India is an important investment destination for Saint-Gobain. We see immense opportunities in India to utilise our expertise in sustainable building solutions to enhance human habitats and promote well-being in living spaces. Over the past two decades we have consistently invested in developing new markets, in building new worldclass manufacturing facilities, in technology and in human capital," said Pierre-André de Chalendar, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Compagnie de SaintGobain France. About 95 per cent of its local sales

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are of products manufactured in eight Indian plants, said Anand Y Mahajan, Chairman, Saint-Gobain India. "The World Glass Complex at Sripenimbudur is Saint Gobain’s largest investment in a single location. The third float glass plant will be the largest in India and is equipped to manufacture a wide range of complex products that

cater to the needs of sustainable habitats and affordable luxury," said B Santhanam, Managing Director, Saint-Gobain India. The third float glass plant will be the largest in India and is equipped to manufacture a wide range of complex products that cater to the needs of sustainable habitats and affordable luxury, Santhanam added. Keeping in with the global trends, Saint-Gobain invested in a second magnetron coater facility that will enable World Glass Complex to have the capacity to manufacture 140 million sq ft of high-performance and energyefficient glass catering business across Africa, West Asia, ASEAN, Oceania region. The plant features several innovative processes that are being deployed for the first time in India and the Region – a modern plant with advanced robotic technology, 3.5 MW roof top solar power generation facility as well as 1.2 MW electrical power generation from the waste heat of the furnace meeting almost 100% of its electrical energy needs.

Edappadi K Palaniswami, CM of Tamil Nadu, inaugurating the facilities


Brand Watch

NCL VEKA’s ₹ 50 Crore

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ne of the uPVC profile leaders in India, NCL VEKA, has scaled up its manufacturing capacities with the inauguration of the newly-built ₹50-crore uPVC profile extrusion facility in Medak district in Telangana on February 13, 2018. The new plant with a fully automated mixing and conveying system and 18 extruders, was inaugurated by Jayesh Ranjan, Principal Secretary of the Industries & Commerce (I&C) and Information Technology (IT). Congratulating the company, Ranjan said that this occasion is a milestone in the uPVC profiles manufacturing capabilities in the country. The facility is spread over 1,20,000 Sq ft, on 16.8 acres of land. Ashven Datla, Managing Director of NCL VEKA, said that this largest Indian uPVC plant was completed in record 12 months, enhancing the capacity to produce 24,000 tonnes of profiles, translating to window requirements for 300,000 homes per year. “We will continue to invest toward attaining the phase wise expansion to 30 uPVC extruder’s lines to support our growing market,” he added. The manufacturing facility provides employment for 450 people. It will produce new generation VEKA uPVC profiles to serve the domestic and MEA markets. The production facilities are eco-friendly and use green plant practices. Andreas Hartleif, CEO, VEKA AG in his address said that India’s window market is a vast resource

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Plant Goes on Stream

NCL VEKA new plant goes on stream. Leadership team of NCL VEKA and VEKA Germany at the ceremony

of untapped potential for uPVC, and expanding profiles production within the country will be essential for VEKA to address the growing market needs and maintaining a leadership position. He added that they will use this facility to export to the Middle East and the African markets. NCL VEKA, a JV, between NCL Group (Hyderabad) and VEKA Group, (Germany) had announced ₹25 crore fresh investments in machinery, product enhancements, new showrooms, and marketing outlay, in the last fiscal. The new up-graded extrusion lines costed an additional investment of ₹25 crore involving machinery and building of the factory in Hyderabad. NCL VEKA holds a 15% share of the UPVC window market. Commissioning of the new production line will help the company tap into the increasing demand for uPVC which is becoming the preferred choice

for windows because of better aesthetics, longer life, less maintenance, better insulation, and factory finished windows. Growing with a 30% growth YoY, NCL VEKA will cross a turnover of ₹200 crores for FY 2018-19 and has built strong partnerships with over 100 specialist fabricators to serve markets across India. NCL is an INR 2000 crore building materials manufacturer based out of Hyderabad. VEKA is a $1.2 billion producer of uPVC profiles with manufacturing units in 18 countries, operations in 40 countries and total employees of 5,600.


eco Alud Product Watch

LAUNCHES

Firewall A2 at the #BeatTheFire Seminar

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ludecor, a pioneer in the world of metal composite panels, held a discussion session between key industry thought leaders and stakeholders to exchange ideas and share knowledge on the best construction practices and fire safety solutions on 14th February, 2019 at Mumbai. Titled #BeatTheFire, the discussion was attended by Dr. Prabhat S. Rahangdale, Director - Directorate of Maharashtra Fire Services and Chief Fire Officer; Ar. Kshitij Limaye, Executive Director – Sankalpan Architecture; Ashok Kumar Bhaiya, Chairman & Managing Director, Aludecor and Ar. Rahul Mehta, Senior Associate – P G Patki Architects, who was the moderator of the panel discussion. Speaking at the occasion, Dr. Rahangdale said that the fire department is working towards improving the infrastructure, capacity building, superior communication, mitigation and importantly active citizen interference. He added that

The launch of Aludecor Firewall A2 at the #Beat The Fire seminar

such events are a good platform to communicate with the stakeholders and educate the citizens about the right building materials with fire proof properties. Elaborating on the need for superior fire safety norms, Ashok Kumar Bhaiya said “We at Aludecor have been striving to contribute in the best way possible for us towards fire safety in buildings, through developing the best fire-safe product or by sensitising the industry on the subject. We also explore the best materials that can be put into

Parameters

Aludecor Firewall A2

Aludecor Firewall

Heat release

Negligible <3MJ

<13MJ

Resistance to fire

A2 is fireproof and it stops fire from travelling to the top

B is difficult to ignite, and it will resist fire from travelling to the top

Flame spread

No flame spread at all

Won’t contribute to the rapid spreading of flames

Smoke

Negligible

Negligible

Molten / Flaming droplets

Zero

Zero

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use across high-rises which have become a norm for a metropolitan skyline”. He spoke about Aludecor’s latest indigenously made noncombustible metal composite panel or MCP. Aludecor showcased their latest range of Firewall A2, which is the highest grade core of fire retardant ACP. Firewall A2 has negligible heat release, doesn’t contribute to flame spread, generates no smoke and produces no flaming droplets. Aludecor ACPs can be made fireretardant (on demand) and can come as an Aludecor Firewall A2 grade or Aludecor Firewall. The former is certified by the Exova of the UK (ewcl5) for reaction to fire classifications of EN 13501-1 Class A2 s1, d0 and it has fireproof properties similar to metals; the latter is certified for Class B s1, d0 and it passes 2-hour resistance to fire classification of ASTM E119-12 and BS 476 Part 6 & 7 Class O. For more information, visit www. aludecor.com


profiling the future in aluminium...

O

ne button for all your fenestration needs: Bhoruka Extrusions: Established in 1979 and part of USD $8 Billion YKK, Japan with in-house facilities for die manufacturing, extrusion, anodising, powder-coating and dedicated machining centre. Whether you are an architect, designer, specifier or contractor: Bhoruka offers India’s most comprehensive range of aluminium products for varied application through our dedicated 100% made-to-order desk and our collaboration with leading system suppliers like - Airclos, AluK, EFP, Reynaers, Schüco to name a few! Contact veerendra_rudresh@bhorukaextrusions.com for more information, or call us at +91-821-4286100. Our teams located at Bengaluru, Chennai, Delhi, Kochi, Mumbai, Mysore and Pune are waiting to hear from you!

Bhoruka Extrusions Pvt Ltd. #1, KRS Road, Metagalli, Mysore - 570016. Karnataka, INDIA. Tel: +91-821-4286100

enquiries@bhorukaextrusions.com—www.bhorukaextrusions.com


Product Watch

Eurobond FR ACPs:

A Breakthrough for Fire Safety in Façade Materials

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urobond, one of the leaders in the ACP facade industry has brought new line of products in the market.

The Advantages of Eurobond FR ACPs are: • Non-Combustible • Low Toxic Smoke • Safer Evacuations • Innovative Core • Superior Strength • Everlasting Finish • Tested and certified • 10 years warranty FR-ACCP Eurobond Aluminium Core Composite Panels (ACCPs) eliminate the combustible core of ACP with non-combustible pure aluminium core. EUROBOND ACCP, along with A2 class fire retardance, offers best strength to weight ratio among the three classes and gives a better edge for application. The ACCP sheets are as formable and construction friendly as regular ACP, and are also completely recyclable and

FR Project - Sanmar Group, Chennai

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Aluminium Coil

Pure Aluminium Core

Eurobond FR - ACCP (Aluminium Core Composite Panel) Aluminium Coil

Aluminium Coil

90% Mineral Core

75% Mineral Core

Eurobond FR - A2 ACP

Eurobond FR - FR Plus

eco-friendly. They are the best choice for high rise constructions as they are incombustible and very light in weight. A2 ACP Sheets EUROBOND A2 ACP sheets are composed of 90% mineral core sandwiched between two aluminium skins of alloy 3xxx/5xxx with Kynar 500 PVDF/FEVE lacquered surface on the front. The FR mineral core of Eurobond A2 ACP is made of MDH and ATH compounds which emits nontoxic harmless vapour upon forced burning, exhibit best flame selfextinguishing behaviour and are active smoke suppressants. EUROBOND A2 ACP sheets satisfy almost all the building and construction codes worldwide. FR Plus ACP Eurobond FR

Plus

(Class

B)

Aluminium Composite Panels secure your buildings with superior performance and fire retardance in an economical budget. The FR core material contains 75% advanced mineral compounds which are best in restraining the flammability and restrict the flame propagation and smoke generation. EUROBOND FR PLUS is also composed of two aluminium skins front skin coated with PVDF/FEVE coating to provide the highest life to the panel. The front skin being PVDF/FEVE coated provides excellent colour retention, gloss retention, UV stability, weathering resistance and pollution resistance for more than a decade with negligible periodic maintenance. For more details on the product, visit the company website http:// www.eurobondacp.com


Product Watch

Twisted Series of Spider Fittings for Frameless Façades from

O

zone, the leading player in the architectural hardware industry, recently introduced twisted spider fittings for glass façades. The curvilinear twisted design element with PSS finish adds the magical look to the product. They are available in 4 way and 2 way spiders with fin type for the glass to glass and glass to wall / ceiling application. The curvilinear design reduces stress concentration at transition points, hence twisted spiders have higher strength to hold the glass. With twisted spider fittings, dome nuts will not be visible on find side glass. They are crafted in high quality SS 316 grade for longevity. Due to their g r e a t features a n d

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Ozone

benefits, the product finds greater acceptance in many of the projects like the Maruti Suzuki Nexa showrooms across India. Besides aesthetics, these stainless steel spider fittings have great strength, durability yet minimalistic in design to be able to hold the desired load without interfering with the look and interior aesthetic. Hence, these fittings need to be designed very meticulously and manufactured using superior quality material. Project heads should buy these fittings only from a reputed brand with valid certifications for the product application and quality. Ozone offers a wider range of glass façade spider fittings in standard and customised designs. The range includes with fin spiders and without fin spiders, and each sub range comprises 04 way, 02 way (1800), 02 way (900) and 01 way spiders for the glass to glass and glass to wall / ceiling application. Façade spider accessories such as routels, splice plates and find plates, complete the range. Ozone also offers glass clamp glazing system for DGU façades. It is designed in a geometrical rhombus shape, hence named as Rhombus Spider and available in PSS & SSS finishes.

Ozone’s in-house manufacturing facility and product design & development team enable it to offer customised solutions for glass façades. Over the years, it has gained experience and developed the capability to deliver all size projects. Ozone provides wideranging solutions under one roof for architectural building industry such as architectural glass fittings, door control devices, door hardware, automatic doors, customised railing systems, fire (exit) safety doors, clean room doors, urban street furniture, digital electronic safes, CCTV surveillance solutions, etc. It is evident from this collection that a project has advantage from Ozone to have multiple solutions under one roof for his building requirement. Like in case of Maruti Suzuki Nexa Showrooms, Ozone has supplied automatic sliding door systems for the majority of its showrooms across India. In these showrooms, other products of Ozone like wooden and glass door hardwares are also used. For more details about Ozone and its products, visit www.ozone-india. com or send an enquiry at customercare@ ozone-india.com or call +91 9310012300.


Product Watch

Renson Wind-Resistant Terrace Coverings

from

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ind-resistant t e r r a c e coverings from Renson are not only perfect for large terrace gardens or immense terraces next to a swimming pool, but they also help create additional outdoor spaces all year long. The wind-resistance and durability of terrace coverings are of critical importance for rooftop terraces and penthouses in a high-rise building since they are subjected to strong winds and other weather conditions than those at ground level. Rensonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s terrace coverings are tested in most hurricanesensitive coastal areas, where it has withstood every test. Windproof screens are an interesting option for the sides of a rooftop terrace to offer protection under the terrace covering from the wind that often rages at those heights, thanks to a wind-resistance of up to 60 km/ hr. An optional wind sensor closes the roof blades and pulls back the screens to prevent them from damage when the wind blows strongly. The Algarve, Camargue, and Camargue Skye terrace coverings with adjustable (and even sliding, in the case of the Skye) bladed roofs are suitable for these uses, as are the Renson terrace coverings with screen roofs (Lapure). All of the listed terrace coverings can also be paired perfectly with one another to enclose an entire terrace. Plus, since they can be customised, they work great in any project. Thanks to the new Algarve Canvas, a part of a rooftop terrace

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can even be covered by a fixed roof while the other part is covered by a bladed roof. One can carry the consistent look & feel of the apartment (colour of the cabinetry) through to the terrace thanks to the fact that the terrace coverings are available in every RAL colour. Numerous options, such as a heat & sound beam, sliding glass panels, screens, LED lighting, glass blades in the roof, etc., mean that you can use the terrace covering to create a

luxurious outdoor space with every comfort in it. Another great aspect is that a terrace covering can be built onto a façade with large windows, thus working as structural sun protection to regulate how much sun gets inside and to prevent the inside of the home from overheating on hot days. For more details on the product, visit: www.renson.be


NATURALLY FEELING GOOD... NATURALLY FEELING GOOD...

Endura® Twist Decentralised window ventilation with heat recovery Endura® Twist Decentralised heat recovery • Simultaneouswindow supply ofventilation fresh air andwith extraction

of polluted air, with heat recovery • Simultaneous supply of fresh air and extraction • With bypassair, function andrecovery silent mode of polluted with heat • ventilation 2 sensors) • Demand-controlled With bypass function and silent(CO mode and optional filters (coarse 45% (G3), ePM1 80% (F7)) • Demand-controlled ventilation (CO2 sensors) • Horizontal and vertical installation possible and optional filters (coarse 45% (G3), ePM1 80% (F7)) • without ducts, ideal forpossible renovation projects • Installation Horizontal and vertical installation • Installation without ducts, ideal for renovation projects

Makarand Kendre | Area Sales Manager India • Mob. +91 98 22 912 403 • makarand.kendre@renson.net

www.renson.eu

Makarand Kendre | Area Sales Manager India • Mob. +91 98 22 912 403 • makarand.kendre@renson.net


Product Watch

Greenlam

Exclusive Exterior from Grade Cladding

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reenlam, one of the market leaders in decorative laminates in the Asian continent, offers an exclusive range of exterior grade compact laminate cladding that are specially designed to beautify your exteriors. Their state-of-theart exterior cladding panels effuse elegance with tasteful patterns that can enhance the look of all kinds of outer surfaces. If you want to incorporate a rich and gorgeous finish and complement it with your luxurious house, then exterior grade compact laminates are the best option for you. The exterior clads come with an unmatched GLE

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technology that makes them fade resistant, resistant to microbial threats, weather-proof and fireretardant, hence apt for exteriors. Faรงades activate space, drawing out relationships between light, environment and view. They also accommodate varying levels of privacy. Adding warmth and elegance, facades are designed through studies in transparency and liminal conditions. Together, they show how we can frame new perspectives by rethinking how we connect to everyday cladding. Talking about the upcoming trends in the wall cladding space, wood finishes and neutral solid colours will be the style icons. Greenlam believes that abstract

patterns and wood finishes stand the test of time and will be very popular in the coming years as well. Interestingly, increased awareness of texture is coming to the forefront in the cladding space. Amidst these wonderful designs, Greenlam clads can withstand extreme temperature conditions and have excellent light fastness property with 3 layers of UV protection. They are also antigraffiti and chemical resistant and saves up to 30% energy. These are ventilated faรงades, which makes them ideal for different weather conditions. Greenlam exteriors clads come in a variety of finishes, such as, Lawa Stone and Vermillion Red, Natural Wood which are a perfect example of a classy combination of stone and wood finishes. Added colours to outside spaces, durability and resilience make the exterior clads withstand years or use without any wear and tear of the product. For more details on the product, visit www.greenlamclads.com


Industry Speaks

“Our Expansion Plans are Targeted to Capture the Exponential Growth in Demand”

Infosys, Mysore

SUBHASH TYAGI

Chairman & Chief Promoter, Gold Plus Group and Gold Plus Glass Industry Limited

A pioneer in the glass industry, Gold Plus Glass Industry manufactures, processes and trades various types of glasses. Headquartered in Delhi, it is the first and only 100% Indian owned float glass manufacturer. Subhash Tyagi (Chairman & Chief Promoter, Gold Plus Group and Gold Plus Glass Industry Limited), a self-made man, started his career in 1976,

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JIMMY TYAGI

Executive Director, Gold Plus Glass Industry Limited

VIVEK DUBEY

Director – Marketing Gold Plus Glass Industry Limited

and in a span of 25 years, he set up one of India’s largest glass processing units and first fully Indian owned float glass plant.

associated with the group for the past 20 years, driving sales and marketing function across India and overseas.

Jimmy Tyagi (Executive Director) joined his father in the business in 2007 and has been actively involved in setting-up and running of the float glass project at Roorke.

In a candid conversation with WFM, Subhash Tyagi, Jimmy Tyagi and Vivek Dubey, talk about the company’s growth and achievements, their products and production facilities, their contribution to Indian glass and façade industry, and their future plans and endeavours.

Vivek Dubey (Director – Marketing), has been


C

ould you please tell us about your journey in the glass industry? Subhash Tyagi (ST): We started our journey with a small scale trading in the glass industry in 1985. At that time, processed glass was not in use in India. In 1994, I went to Germany to attend an exhibition and there I saw the buildings were using processed glass like insulated glass, tempered glass etc. When I returned from there, I thought of setting up a processing industry in 1995. I brought the insulating glass for the first time in India, which we imported from Austria. We got our first order for insulated glass for Taj hotel's renovation in Mumbai. We were the first to introduce insulated glass in India. By 2000, we had our complete processing facility ready and started manufacturing laminated,

Industry Speaks tempering, ceramic and many other glasses. In 2005, Saint Gobain started its second line of glass and by then we had come up with our second processing facility in Himachal Pradesh. At that time, we also observed that the demand was high and there was a huge gap between the demand and supply. To minimise this gap, we came up with few new float lines. Now, in India, there are 11 float lines, but still, there is a need to import the glass of 2 float lines. The boom in government projects saw increasing demand for glass and it is creating a good growth drive for the glass industry, which is now growing at 12-15 percent and it will remain constant for the coming years. Jimmy Tyagi (JT): I joined my father in the glass business in 2007, after completing my studies. At

that time we were in the process of setting up our first float line in Roorkee. It has been more than 11 years now. I have been focusing more on the manufacturing of float glass line. Could you please tell us about the milestones you have achieved so far? ST: The first milestone would be when the float glass came to India, the first plant was set up by the Gujarat Guardian in 1992. This helped us to increase our trading network and from there on we grew at a very good pace. The second milestone was when we started our own processing unit, and we became one of the biggest processors in 2004 when we set up our second plant in Himachal Pradesh. That time, we were catering to the Pan India market and doing most of the big projects. Our next milestone was

Float glass line at Roorkee - The Company has machinery from world renowned manufactures like Grenzebach, CNUD, QGRdI, Lahti Glass Technologies, Five stein, etc.

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Industry Speaks becoming a manufacturer from being a processor. We decided to set up a float glass plant and in 2006 and started working on this idea. We purchased land in Roorkee and that was a huge investment. It took two years to set up that plant, and we started the glass production in January 2009. Tell us about the products you offer? JT: In manufacturing, with line 1, we are producing clear glass, mirrors, frosted glass and one shade of gold reflective glass. Line 2 will be producing tinted glass in all four shades - grey, green blue and bronze. So, with these two lines, we will be covering 9596 percent of the product range which is there in the float glass industry globally. Please tell us about the facilities in your plant? JT: We have two float lines and mirror line in our main manufacturing unit in Roorkee, Uttarakhand. We are planning to add one more mirror line over there by the end of this year. We are planning to update our line-1 to increase our capacity to 550 tons per day. By the end of this year, our capacity would be 1250 tons per day. Our other two facilities are in Sonipat, Haryana and Kala Amb, Himachal Pradesh.

Factory at Kala Amb, Himachal Pradesh

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According to you, what is the demand for architectural glass in India? JT: The growth of architectural glass in India is quite consistent. The major shift is happening because people are getting aware of process glass i.e., safety glass. Many buildings are using safety glass nowadays, especially in big cities like Delhi, Mumbai, etc. As people are going towards safety glass for their buildings, it is creating good growth for the glass industry. Could you please brief us about the types of processed glass? JT: There are several types of processed glass, which include, toughened, laminated, insulated, ceramic printed glass, bullet proof glass, etc. Sales of all these segments are growing at a good pace. Now, these glasses have been included in the National Building Code, and the prescribed standards are being made mandatory also, it will further help in the growth of consumption of these glasses. How do you see the façade industry in India is evolving now? JT: More and more processed and double glazed glass are being used in the industry. Façade industry has to grow along with real estate in order to meet that demand for glass. Both these industries have to go hand in hand. People should

Machinery at the processing facility at Kala Amb, Himachal Pradesh

have more focus on the quality of glass. What has been your organisation’s contribution to the façade and fenestration industry in India? JT: We have focused more on the glass industry and have ensured that whatever technology is available worldwide in the processing sector

Factory at Sonipat, Haryana


GOLD PLUS GLASS THE ONLY INDIAN GLASS MANUFACTURING COMPANY

Float Glass : • Clear float • Tinted glass • Mirror • Reflective glass • Frosted glass Automotive Glass : • Windscreens • Door glasses • Backlites

See your happiness through Gold Plus's Glass.

Architectural Glass : • Toughened glass • Bent toughened glass • Acoustic glass • Heat strengthened glass • Ceramic frit glass • Heat soaked glass • PVB laminated glass • Insulation glass • Burglary resistance glass • Bullet resistance glass Industrial Glasses

India's 1st ISI certified Glass company Gold Plus Glass Industry Limited 4th Floor , Kings Mall, Sector 10, Rohini, New Delhi, 110085 Ph. - 011-66376000 Web - www.goldplusgroup.com


Industry Speaks

Taj Hotel, Chandigarh

and also in the float manufacturing sector, we will bring it to India. We have also tried to educate and make the people aware of the type of glass they should use in their buildings. We have seen tremendous growth in the glass industry in the last few years. Could you please tell us about some of the iconic and innovative projects? Vivek Dubey (VD): We are working on Ashoka University in Sonipat, Indira Gandhi Hospital in Dwarka, and some of the Wipro and Infosys projects. We recently completed a project for UNESCO in Kathmandu, and there are a lot of smaller projects other than these.

Parliament Library, New Delhi

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We are one of the oldest in the Industry in glass processing in India and have supplied glass for many iconic projects like Taj hotels, parliament library, Sahara Star Hotel dome, etc. Our project for Sahara star is a landmark project as the world’s largest pillar less atrium. It has got a very special glass which allows natural light of about 67% but prevents the heat, thus the airconditioning is very effective. These characteristics of the glass support

Sahara star, Mumbai

the growth of plants and even trees in the atrium. The consultants for this project were from Australia. Another important project is a globe shaped building for Infosys in Pune. It was around 4000 different pieces of glass in various sizes and shapes (double glazed, heat strengthened, laminated glass) was used. The challenge was not only to produce these glasses but also to mark them according to their exact location. For another Infosys project in Mysore, which is a ‘stretch cloth shaped’ kind of building, we provided ceramic fritted glass to cut down the glare coming in the building. We did a project for Infosys Chandigarh, which is a huge ship shaped building. Laminated glass without any heat treatment is used in this to avoid any distortion in the glass. In case of damages, the glass remains functional till the replacement comes. As per your view, how important is the role of right usage of glass in façade? JT: It's very important for safety purposes and to conserve resources or to reduce the operational cost of the building. Architects suggest the best possible combination


Industry Speaks signed by the government. Glazing application has to follow those guidelines to ensure the safety of the people who are using them directly. Any floor above three to the fourth level has to use a laminated glass and tempered glass. Now, these regulations have also been included in NBC, but, I think an effort is required to make it mandatory across the country.

Infosys, Pune

of materials/ glass to achieve the same, which is very important. He/she needs to decide on the depending on the purpose of the project or that building itself. What kind of specification do you follow in the manufacturing the glasses? JT: We follow the BIS standards for the quality checking of our products. These standards have been updated and now they are par with the global standards. We were the first company India

ITC, Gurugram

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to get the BIS marking on all our products. Do you advise people to use certified glasses? JT: Annealed glass need to be processed first to make them useful for architectural and automotive segment. All segments, whether it is automotive or construction, have their own regulations which they have to follow. Most of them are specified by the automaker itself, and they would definitely be following the rules and regulations

Are your clients aware of acoustic and heat resistant properties of glass? VD: Acoustics is one of the most challenging tasks, particularly for the hotel industry. If your glass is not enough heat resistant, you may use a better air-conditioning system. But once you choose a wrong acoustic system (glass is not the only element which cuts down the noise, it has to be the whole system), there is no way you can cut down the noise. There has to be the least number of openable windows for better acoustics. If openable windows are a must, then we need to use very good hardware and quality systems and sealants, right glass and right frames treated by glass wool within the system.


Industry Speaks Are the imported glass products suitable for the climatic conditions in India? VD: Indian climatic conditions vary from north to South drastically. When people try to copy specifications from Europe, then it becomes a problem. A lot of stress is given to the U value where as in our climatic condition, the solar factor is much more important than U value. The products which are available in India are very good for the application in our country and abroad. The manufacturers supply what architects or consultant specify. So it is more to do with these experts to study the climatic condition before specifying the light, U value and solar factor. Even if we want to copy specifications, it should be the specifications from the UAE, not Europe or the USA, since the climatic condition matches with ours. Too much stress on U value is not good since it might lead to an adverse condition within the building, turning it to a greenhouse where the heat gets trapped. Checking on climatic condition and building applications are also important (whether it is catering only for day, or for day and night), the type of building (like a hospital, school or a commercial building), fixing arrangements â&#x20AC;&#x201C; all these decide on the type of glass on façade. A lot of learning is required for selection of the glass. What advantages do you see with the BIS standards are being mandated? JT: BIS certification has been made mandatory for the manufacturing of glass, which will be a good step to regulate the quality of glass. This rule will also regulate the quality of the glass coming from other countries. The countries like Malaysia and China need to have the BIS marking otherwise, they will not be able to export their products in India. So, it is a good

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step to ensure the quality levels right up there like the global standards. Tell us about the awareness levels of architects and builders on norms by ECBC? VD: Many of our architects specify a brand or a product instead of specifying values of solar factor, light transmission, U value, shading coefficient, internal & external reflections, etc. That is one change the industry has to see and that is happening. We see it high-end projects where good architects and consultants are engaged. These experts should provide a range, rather than one specific number, like how it is done in the developed countries so that there are more options are available and there is a decent competition. This will allow wider choices for developers and the fabricators. There are performance standards for glass, but not for fenestration systems. How will you choose a window system? VD: Be it any standard, it talks about the minimum parametric requirement, not the highest

Spider Fitting Processing

performance standards. Minimum quality levels have been defined for glass. Now when you talk about systems, the variation is huge. Very low quality system to a very high end system is available in the Indian market. But in the case of glass, it is the same float glass which goes into a luxury hotel or a small country house. The clear float glass or tempered glass, the qualities remain the same. Since there is more standardisation in the glass, there is a lesser variation available. In systems, because of the variation of range, we need to specify the application first and then standardise the system. If the standards are not kept as the lowest required parameters, then it becomes an entry barrier for many players in India. Though most of the glass industry falls into an organised sector, it could be divided into two â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1. The primary glass producers or float glass manufacturers, who all are in the organised sector and the entry barrier is very high. 2, Processors - In processors with many chinese and indian plants coming up, the investment levels


Industry Speaks Connaught Place in Delhi, we have used this switchable glass. There are some defence projects for which we have supplied customised bullet resistant glass. For the roof top of the Sahara Star project in Mumbai, we have specialised bolted glazing without any holes drilled in the glass. We have also done a similar project in Delhi for Dow corning experience centre, where you can stick spider fitting to the glass.

Hyatt Regency, Kathmandu

are totally different. If it is a very sophisticated glass company, the functionality in terms of strength or breakage pattern you may get it in any tempered glass would be similar. But the aesthetic will differ for a glass from a good tempering plant to not so good one. The optical distortion would vary. Still, comparatively, the glass industry is more organised and is more systematic. What kind of advice would you like to give to the façade consultants and the architects about the selection of products? JT: I think it is already on the right track. People have already started using all the right kind of material in the building. The only thing we have to see is that this goes beyond the Tire-1 and Tire-2 cities in India than limiting to the major cities. Going forward, I would like to see that smaller cities are performing the best in the next few years. Could you please tell me about a few of your special products / specialty glass? VD: One of our products, the ‘Magic Glass’, is a remote controlled glass which can be made transparent and opaque as per your needs. We do supply bullet resistant glass

for various applications – resistant to normal revolver upto SLR level. We also supply special acoustic glass. We need to understand the project details and requirements to manufacture these specialty glasses. We also do bent and bent laminated glass. We have tried some LED glasses too, but not supplied to any projects yet. What is the demand for the bulletproof glasses? JT: We supply bullet-proof glass to various companies. They are mainly used in the projects for armed forces. This segment is very small but the demand is quite good. The bullet-proof glass is also used in special buildings like embassies, etc. Tell us about some of the projects where specialised glasses are used? VD: One of the projects is the Bharati Airtel building at Gurugram, where the chairman wanted the conference room with the switchable glasses. Here we have also installed Asia’s largest television screen. With a remote, we can convert these glass to transparent screens too. In another project for Jaipuria Bottling Plant Corporate Office at

What is your emphasis on R&D in India? JT: There is a very high emphasis on R&D in India. We do all our work in-house since we are a fully Indian company, and we don't have any technological partner. So, for whatever we produce, we have to do R&D in-house. Currently, we are in the process of manufacturing different shades of tinted glass, and we keep our R&D at par with the global standards. What are the main challenges faced by the glass industry currently? JT: The glass manufacturing industry has its own sets of challenges. The major challenge is costing. The cost of fuel in India is very high which directly affects the glass industry. The crude prices are also going very high creating big trouble for our industry. So, the stability in the input prices, especially in fuel prices can help the industry. India is not able to compete or export its glass

IFFCO, Gurugram

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Industry Speaks

Forum Mall, Bengaluru

Unitech Project, Gurugram

because of high manufacturing cost. Another threat is the import of glass especially from countries like China and Malaysia. What are your channel expansion plans for the near future? JT: We are planning to set up two float lines in the southern part of India with a capacity of 2000 tons per day. The project has been scheduled for the next three to four years. We have already started looking for land and the work will start within this year.

Unitech Project, Gurugram

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What keeps your company ahead of the competitors in terms of services and the product itself? JT: We have a huge advantage as we have been a trader, a processor and now a manufacturer as well. So, we have good experience of all these three verticals as well as industry. We understand the issues of the dealers and the process better. Our strength is that we are able to connect with all of them at a very high level, and we focus on ensuring satisfaction to our customers. If

the customer is not satisfied, that's mean we still have some room for improvement. We come with our new range of products to fulfil the various requirements of projects to provide satisfaction to the customers. Where do you see the glass and glazing industry in the next 10 years? JT: In terms of glass consumption, India is lagging far behind. The rate at which the Indian economy is growing and at the rate at which the glass is required, there is a huge scope for the glass industry's growth. There is no doubt that the industry will grow tremendously in the next decade. VD: Glass industry is a growing industry, from manufacturing, processing since a number of users are growing along with uses. Glass industry's growth is very organic. There are lots of promises from the government like smart cities, airports and PPP for railway stations, etc., which will help to see exponential growth in the glass industry. The demand for glass will never stop, but the Indian players need to upgrade themselves to take a substantial share of the growth. Otherwise, the MNCs will take over.


Face to Face

Our Mission is Defined in

Established in 1981, Sikka Associates Architects (SAA) is recognised as an important architectural practice in our country, not only for its rich and varied projects but for its rapid growth over recent decades and the unique design solutions it continues to provide. Raman Sikka is an Associate Principal in Sikka Associates. He graduated from SPA Delhi in the year 1991 and joined AD Consortium in Singapore as a Design Architect. He later worked with Sachdeva Eggleston and Associates, then with S. Ghosh and Associates as an architect, and finally joined his father S.R Sikka in his practice in the year 1993.

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Ar. Raman Sikka holds design expertise in varied context and geographies and has delivered successful projects across a variety of sectors from concept to completion. He has also obtained a Masters in Management and often interacts with students of SPA Delhi as a guest jury member. Team WFM had the pleasure of interacting with Architect Raman Sikka. He spoke about a range of subjects including his architectural practice, inspiration, recent projects and the way building faรงade and cladding will take shape during the 21st century.


Face to Face

“Live by Design”

NTPC Technical Training & Development Centre, Noida

AR. RAMAN SIKKA Associate Principal, Sikka Associates Architects (SAA)

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lease tell us about your practice? Raman Sikka (RS): SAA began its journey in 1981. Our team comprises over 100 skilled and experienced planners, architects, designers and engineers. We focus on an innovative and bold approach to finding unique design solutions for our clients. Over the last 38 years, our work has encompassed throughout India. In recent years, we have also expanded our work to neighbouring regions' viz. China, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Oman. Working across these diverse and distant geographies has given us a unique insight into the local requirements and provided us with a strong system driven process to create design solutions in varied contexts. Our team has strong expertise in varied sectors including

aviation, commercial, retail, corporate, residential, hospitality, healthcare and education sectors. Our building solutions go beyond being efficient and cost effective – they make environments enjoyable and sustainable. We strive to achieve the maximum potential from the given resources and our efforts have been frequently award winning. Our mission is defined in “Live by Design”. Our surroundings shape us and our endeavour is to create life elevating and sustaining environments with our design solutions. What inspired you to become an architect? My father has been my inspiration since early years. His bold works always fascinated me. I started honing my skills in sketching and

World Trade Centre, Nauroji Nagar, New Delhi

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later in engineering drawing under his guidance. Gradually, I got more inclined towards taking up architecture as a career. Could you please talk about a few of your ongoing projects? We are doing a number of projects across India and overseas, including the Prime Minister Museum, New Delhi; Institute of Nano Science & Technology, Mohali; Nauroji Nagar Re-development, New Delhi etc. Institute of Nano Science & Technology, Mohali: The Institute is the first of its kind in the field of Nano Sciences in India – a high technology driven research institute. Spread in an area of 37 Acres at the outskirts of Mohali, the campus houses academic buildings, lodgings for the faculties and students, staff residences, guest


Face to Face house and community facilities for all. The unique aspect of the design is that it gives an individual identity to each block while keeping them connected through a common concourse. Landscape design forms an integral part and creates a common language throughout the site, integrating the blocks into a unified entity. Nauroji Nagar, New Delhi: The project rejuvenates the city around with its impressive scale and impact. A world-class office environment is created with efficient business amenities, seamless event spaces, wide variety of F&B options, business clubs and lounges. The project will provide approximately 30 lakhs Sq ft of working space for a total population of about 30,000 people. It has a total built-up area of over 55 lakh Sq ft spread over 25 acres of prime land in South Delhi with a frontage of over 700 m on Ring Road. This largest

consolidated office development in Delhi features various smart and green quotients like double

cavity walls, POE systems, cashless experience, centralised waste management system etc., and

Institute of Nano Science and Technology, Mohali

DOT, Delhi

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he project located in Delhi is designed as a signature building, setting new standards in function, efficiency, and environmentally responsive design. A net zero building is created with minimal ground footprint and large green spaces. While the building is designed to achieve the performance parameters, it was also important for the design to make a visible statement of DOTâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s work and mission. The design reflects a technology driven approach that DOT upholds and gives its occupants a new age workplace.

Department of telecom

Date of Commencement: August 2016 Status: Ongoing

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Face to Face

Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology (IIIT Delhi), Delhi

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he IIIT Delhi is a premier institute with a 25-acre campus that has all the facilities including a 625-seater auditorium, a covered swimming pool, library & 24-hour reading halls in a very contemporary ambience. Sikka designed the second phase of the project. The idea was to build a style which could complement the existing buildings yet had a bold impact of its own. Certain vertical elements were designed to build a rhythm while breaking the monotony of a long building faรงade.

Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology (IIIT Delhi), Delhi

NTPC, Delhi

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he institute reflects the character of a modern, distinguished landmark as well as a learning environment where excellence could thrive. Composed of four independent blocks, the central landscaped boulevard forms the arrival plaza and acts as the focal point to the complex. The barrier-free institute design comprises of academic, recreation and lodging facilities for the employees, students and staff. Date of Commencement: December 2013 Date of Completion: August 2018 NTPC, Delhi

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Date of Commencement: December 2013 Date of Completion: August 2018


Face to Face will set standards for creating a sustainable solution for future office spaces. Tell us about your completed projects featuring innovative façade and fenestration design? Our approach for all our projects is to create smart and green building designs based on a context rooted approach to the contemporary solution. For e.g., we have designed the external walls of IIT Jodhpur in locally available stone. An intensive solar thermal analysis and energy consumption simulations were done before carefully designing the façades and openings. Vernacular design elements like chajjas, jallis, etc., were incorporated to build a response to the local climate based on the analysis. The project has been awarded ‘GRIHA LD 5 STAR’ and is in the process of availing ‘GRIHA 5 STAR’. Another project, ‘Institute of Nano Science and Technology,

Mohali’ has been applied for IGBC Silver rating. Fly ash bricks along with glazing with a .32 μ is incorporated in the façades. Façades and cladding industry in India have gone through a sea change in the past decade. Tell us about the latest in façade and cladding material and technologies available in the Indian market and those used in your projects? We consistently work towards exploring newer materials and technologies based on our changing design requirements and uniqueness of the project. There is thus no signature ‘material pallete’. We have lately been using newer materials like zinc cladding, ceramic panels, terracotta cladding, insulated aluminium panels along with Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) with an intent to create smart façades with a

contemporary look. We are also exploring glazing materials like electrochromic glass which gets cleared or tinted depending on the external climatic conditions. What are the key factors to consider while designing and installing façades and fenestration? One of the major concerns is that the façades and fenestration should be designed as per the architectural intent of the project. This approach is further based on numerous parameters like the building usage, climatic conditions, comfort of its users, etc. This approach should work parallelly with a need to create a sustainable model. Factors like heat insulation and energy efficiency, budget and buildability, resilience to fire and seismic factors, along with cost and maintenance factors should further shape the design.

Unique Identification Development Authority Head Office, New Delhi

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uilt in a linear site in an area of 1.099 acres, the office space reflects an ‘urban insert’ which responds well to its immediate surrounding context. The project highlights a play of solids and voids, composed in a formal scheme. The building is elevated from the ground in strategic locations to preserve the numerous existing trees of the site. The parking areas are stacked on the lower floors while the office spaces are placed on the top. The building has been awarded ‘5-star GRIHA Rating’ and offers several ‘green’ and energy efficient solutions.

UIDAI, New Delhi

Date of Commencement: July 2012 Date of Completion: April 2018

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Face to Face

Global Gateway, Gurugram

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ocated at a prime location in Gurugram, the project is designed to create a vibrant environment with a formal setting yet a relaxed vibe. The building façade uses a rich tapestry of perforated panels and vertical louvers adding interest from within and outside. A play of light and shadow throughout different part of the day further adds a sense of dynamism to the office spaces.

Please brief on the technical benefits of a well-managed façade and how it helps the building to be energy efficient at the same time provide a better interior environment? A good building needs to be energy efficient and it should provide a safe and secure environment for the occupants. People feel safe when they feel a connection to their surroundings. The role of façade hence becomes very crucial. A well-designed façade can be used to harvest energy as well as allowing visual links to the occupants. This offers not just technical benefits like reduction in the cooling as well as lighting load, but also create an aesthetic appealing environment for the occupants. What are your views on future façades and fenestration

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Global Gateway, Gurugram

technologies, and materials? With the coming of more complex and innovative structural systems and the need to create sustainable alternatives, the role of the future façades and fenestrations will move beyond a ‘building envelop’. Façades will become dynamic and will serve multiple roles - as an integrated part of the structural system as well as energy generating platforms and also offer limitless opportunities to explore in terms of aesthetic appeal. According to you, what is an intelligent façade? How can intelligent façades bring in the greenhouse effect and also restricting intensive use of air conditioners? Intelligent façades are like a ‘breathing skin’ which can adapt itself and develop a response to the changing external conditions.

Their role is not limited to the generation of energy, but they also manage energy on their own, reducing any dependence on an external source. For e.g., an intelligent façade can control its amount of opening during different times of the day through a sensor-based system, reducing the cooling load in the afternoon, when the sun intensity is the maximum. It will also give a sense of dynamism, as the building takes on the different aesthetic character during different parts of the day. What about sustainability and environmental considerations when choosing the façade/ cladding material? One of the most important questions and the first one to ask is “for whom are we designing? We are designing for people. A


Face to Face comfortable environment where they could spend their time and engage in activities. A sustainable approach is extremely essential to achieve this. Our idea is always to maximise views to the surroundings while minimising heat gain. Locally available materials like stones are preferred as they are climate responsive to the region. Careful analysis based on energy consumption simulations is done and the material palette is carefully picked based on the inferences. There are many cladding materials available in the market. How do you choose the apt one for your project? What are the criteria? The cladding material palette should be picked with careful considerations based on its lightweightness and durability, thermal and acoustical insulation, cost

effectiveness, performance and maintenance factor. Along with this, it should also fit well with the design intent of the project and add an aesthetically pleasing appeal to the overall design.

Trillium Mall, Amritsar

Welldone IT Park, Gurugram

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ocated at Sohna road, fragmented site profile, a mixed-use project & dual ownership were amongst the issues addressed in the planning of the layout and detailing of the faรงade. The seamless lines of the faรงade seem to merge the project components into an interesting and bold statement. The podium has food & beverage outlets with a landscaped deck above. The offices are housed in two towers which sit atop the podium.

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Welldone IT Park, Gurugram

What is your advice to young, aspiring architects? There are countless opportunities to explore in a design. So always be curious, determined and creative.


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GSC Glass, a pioneers architectural glass processing company. Since 1978 and is a technically strong company owned by a family of engineers with four generations of working experience with glass. GSC Glass provide the widest range of glass processing, high quality aluminium doors, windows and faรงade fabrication facilities using most modern high tech machines and equipments. Contact: +91 - 96508 21100 Reach Us: windows@gscglass.com Fom Aluminium Machines Pvt. Ltd . # 96 ,3rd Phase, Peenya Industrial Estate, Bangalore - 560058, India.

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Project Watch

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Holistic Design Central Information Commission, New Delhi

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he office building of Central Information Commission (CIC) at Munirka, New Delhi is abutting proposed 30 meter wide road namely Baba Gang Nath Marg. The-state-ofthe-art building facilitates the effective functioning of CIC, which is a symbol of transparency in the largest democracy of the world. The ambience of the building is in such a way that the visiting

public shall be at ease and comfort while pursuing their functions at the building. This has resulted in capacity building for the Central Information Commission. The architectural faรงade, an inevitable part of any building, has long been a compelling focus of interest for building physicists and designers, combining attributes of both appearance and performance in a holistic manner. Faรงades, as building envelope,

Central Information Commission (CIC) at Munirka, New Delhi - front elevation

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form the outer skins of buildings as a projected image and creative intent. The faรงade of the Central Information Commission at New Delhi depicts exactly the same. All components of the building faรงade work together to regulate the indoor environment, responding to heating, cooling, ventilation, and natural lighting needs. It balances requirements for ventilation and daylight while providing thermal protection appropriate to the local


Project Watch through simple passive, low-cost measures based on the principle of demand reduction through building envelope design by controlling the Window to Wall Ratio (WWR), Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) and U-value (based on the choice of building material).

QUICK FACTS Project name: Central Information Commission

The building envelope protects the indoors from external elements and provides optimum daylight

climatic conditions. The optimally designed building faรงade is an important factor not only for achieving energy efficiency but also for the human comfort. In the occupant-friendly designed building, the inhabitants can work more effectively, benefitting the owners, occupants, and environment.

Faรงade has an impact on the interior spaces as well as on the external neighbourhood. One of the basic design motives for the building envelope was to protect the indoors from external elements along with providing optimum daylight and to optimise the solar heat gains in the building. This has been achieved

Location: CIC Bhawan, Baba Gangnath Marg, Munirka, New Delhi 110 067 Architect: Renu Khanna & Associates Project Management Consultant: National Building Construction Corporation (NBCC) Site Area: 4653 Sq m Built up Area: 9770 Sq m Energy Consumption Reduction: 60.3% reduction in energy consumption compared to GRIHA benchmark EPI: 55.5 KWh/ Sq m/ year Renewable Energy: Rated capacity of solar PV installed on site is 35 KW GRIHA rating: 4 star rating

Side elevation of the building

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Project Watch Indoor daylighting is achieved by providing glazing having specific Visible Light Transmission (VLT) values and efficient space planning. Double glazed unit façade is used to maximise the external views while causing minimum glare.

Top View

Growing vegetation on the façade has potentially created a positive microclimate around the built form. A reduction of approx. 2˚C is achieved by using green vegetation around buildings compared to the surrounding ambient in composite climates like Delhi. The green wall has been planned for the stretch of the boundary wall and the central atrium inside the building. External shading with a combination of fins and jaalis

Sectional drawing

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Product information: Make: Saint Gobain Model: KT 440 Type of Glass: Double glazed glass (6 mm – 12 mm – 6 mm) Light Transmission: 31% External reflection: 18% Internal reflection: 12% Solar factor: 0.22 U-Value (W/Sqm K): 1.8


Regd. Off: 6/103, Mittal Industrial Estate, Andheri-Kurla Road, Andheri (E), Mumbai - 400 059, Maharashtra, India. Ph.: 91-22-4204-4204 | E-mail: osakarubber@vsnl.com


Project Watch

Interiors with ample natural lighting

AR. RENU KHANNA Reducing energy consumption (compared to TERI GRIHA benchmarks) while maintaining occupant comfort: • For achieving visual comfort: ◊ Artificial lighting design as per NBC norms ◊ External shading with a combination of fins and jaalis ◊ Landscaping planned with native species and green wall features in central atrium and all around the building • For achieving thermal comfort: ◊ AAC block work for external walls ◊ Double glazing unit with optimum shading to minimise the heat gain ◊ Use of occupancy and daylight sensors to minimise the energy wastage Renewable energy technologies installed on site • Solar PV panels were installed • Solar street lights have been installed Use of low energy materials: • Door/window frames are made of aluminium • Low VOC paints • Low energy material like vitrified tiles, kota stone, gypsum board and glass with recycled content are used for interior work

Landscaping planned with native species and green wall features in central atrium and all around the building

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Chief Architect Renu Khanna & Associates

ABOUT THE ARCHITECT: Ar. Renu Khanna, a graduate in architecture from Chandigarh College of Architecture, is a leading architect of India having her projects spread across the length and breadth of India. Renowned for her experiential and emotive architecture, she is known for creating icons and infusing soul in all her projects, be it the monumental memorials, museums, airports, corporate offices, hospitals, housings, commercial buildings or resorts. She has been awarded the JK Indian Architect of the Year Award (1999), Hudco Award (1995), BATIMAT in Paris (2009), Creative Excellence in Architecture (2010), Outstanding Concrete Structure of the year award by the Indian Concrete Institute (2010 & 2012), the Best Architect of Punjab (2016) by MAMR, etc. She is also awarded 4 star Griha rating for her project, CIC Delhi (2017).


Post Event Report

Workshop on

NBC 2016

Glass and Glazing Aspects

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ureau of Indian Standards (BIS), Glazing Society of India (GSI) and Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Madras jointly conducted the second oneday national workshop on â&#x20AC;&#x153;National Building Code 2016: Glass and Glazing Aspectsâ&#x20AC;? on 21st January 2019 at, SCOPE Convention Centre, New Delhi. The workshop was supported by Federation of Safety Glass, All India Glass Manufacturers Federation, Confederation of Construction Products & Services, International Fenestration Forum, Glass Academy and uPVC Windows and Doors Manufacturers Association. The objective of this workshop was to enlighten the different stakeholders of the construction value chain on the new provisions of glass and glazing introduced in NBC 2016, and highlight the importance of implementing the same. In the theme setting address, Sanjay Pant, Scientist F & HeadCivil Engineering Department, BIS

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presented the various chapters of NBC 2016 which serve as a vital tool for every professional in the construction value chain towards ensuring safe and sustainable construction. In his keynote address, Dr. R K Bajaj, Scientist G & Deputy Director General (Standardisation), BIS explained about the tremendous increase in the use of glass and glazing in Indian building in the recent years and the importance of following safety norms and energy efficient methods for the larger benefit of the country. During his inaugural address, Navneet Kumar, Additional Director General (Architecture), CPWD mentioned the importance of provisions given in NBC and how CPWD as a premier government construction agency has taken a lead in adopting and implementing the same in the Indian building scenario. Earlier, GN Gohul Deepak, Director, GSI extended the welcome address. The inaugural session ended with Prof Arul Jayachandran, IITM proposing the vote of thanks.

The day-long workshop comprised of three technical sessions addressed by esteemed experts from BIS, industry and the academia. Eminent personalities and experts include Sanjay Pant and S Arun Kumar (BIS), Prof S Arul Jayachandran, Amor Kool (Member, Panel for Sustainability of NBC 2016), Sandeep Goel (Member, Panel for Fire Protection of NBC 2016), Antony John (Member, Panel for Glass and Glazing of NBC 2016) and Sharanjit Singh (Member, Glass, Glassware and Laboratory Ware, Technical Committee of BIS). The inquisitive audience comprised of over 240 delegates, including architects, civil engineers, builders, developers, consultants, contractors, glass processors, manufacturers, government officials and other professionals. Around 25 students also attended the event and their volunteering support during the event left the organisers highly indebted. The second workshop on NBC 2016 glass and glazing aspects were well received by the members of the construction value chain and excellent feedback was received from the participants.


Post Event Report

UWDMA

Workshop on Quality Window Production & Sales

Distribution of certificated to the students who completed the course organised by the UWDMA Skill Development Centre

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PVC Window and Door Manufacturers Association (UWDMA) organised a workshop that addressed the issues of quality window production and sales to create better value for uPVC windows and their producers. The event was organised at The Lutyens Hotel, Sultanpur, New Delhi on 31st January 2019. The workshop witnessed a large gathering of industry people. Architects Amit Gupta and Britta Knobel Gupta from Studio Symbiosys, a Noida based wellknown architectural studio, were the guest speakers. Amit Malhotra (Treasurer & Marketing Head, UWDMA) warmly welcomed the

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chief guests and the delegates. The program started with the opening speech of Mario Schmidt, President of UWDMA and MD of Lingel Windows. Mario gave an insight into all the activities and events organised by UWDMA. He also shared his views on the uPVC window industry. The program agenda included a welcome address to the new members and UWDMA updates, UWDMA Quality sales team window presentation, and an open forum discussion. Ar. Amit Gupta enthralled the audience with a presentation on a wide array of his projects, including the new Gwalior Railway Station project, the office for the newspaper Punjab Kesari, Convention Centres in Africa and many more. Ar. Gupta

spoke on the importance of materials and their right use in architecture and design. This was followed by the sponsor presentation by Renolit, which spoke about the company and its products and plans. Jignasa Sutar from McCoy Soudal spoke about the importance of sealants in providing proper acoustics and in energy conservation. The keynote speech was given by Manish Bansal, CEO & Director of Window Magic. He spoke on methods to assure quality installation of windows. “As a manufacturer, we need to educate customers about the importance of quality against price and also educate them about the after sales cost too,” he said. He explained the need for after sales surveys to understand the problems of the customers, which in turn assure the sales of quality products. Bansal also spoke about the strategies for winning orders and quality assurance. In the end, the event also had an open forum discussion in which the delegates and the speakers discussed a few interesting things about the window & door industry. The workshop was appreciated by all the participants. Certificates were distributed to the first batch of students who successfully completed and passed the course conducted by the UWDMA Skill Development Centre, which offered a six months training programme to its first batch of 15 students. The centre imparted skills to produce and install different types of uPVC windows and doors to these students. Many graduates from the centre were given jobs in the members’ companies with a salary ranging from 8 to 10,000 per month. The event concluded with a networking dinner.


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Buzz

CMC Launches One of the Rarest Natural Stones

C

lassic Marble Company (CMC) has introduced a new natural stone ‘Spiderment’ - one of the finest marble products, from its 9th Avenue gallery collection. The newly launched natural stone is one of the rarest and exquisite natural marble found on earth. Spiderment is a white marble, displaying a dark brown vein emerging from one edge, and subtly extricating on the other side to create a spectacular abstract piece of art. The unusual stone is embellished with dark and light orange veins and mottles. The classic marble surface with orange and brown mix creates a mesmerising visual for walls. A book-matching of the design further beautifies its appearance making it no less than a piece of fine art for any space. 9th Avenue is CMC’s exclusive collection of the rarest and most exquisite natural stones found on earth. These first choice materials are showcased at CMC’s boutique gallery in Silvassa. The products are handpicked varieties of choicest stones sourced from across the world by a highly experienced team of stonologists.

CP Kukreja Architects Acquires the Indian Arm of dbHMS

C

P Kukreja Architects, one of the leading architectural firms in India, has acquired the Indian arm of Chicago based renowned design firm dbHMS. dbHMS started their operations in India from 2010 and were a part of many prestigious projects. The firm has two verticals – sustainability and engineering. CP Kukreja Architects has become the first Indian architecture firm to acquire an international design firm. This acquisition will help CP Kukreja Architects to expand its

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operations and further focus on sustainable infrastructure in India. It will also give a massive boost to the firm’s vision of environmental friendly buildings which in India have received limited attention. "We are delighted that we are able to bring this world class expertise to our clients in India. The country is poised for unprecedented development in the years to come and it is important that the foundation of our work is based on sustainability and environmentally responsible design", said Dikshu

C Kukreja, Managing Principal, CP Kukreja Architects.


Buzz

BEE Urges AP to Bring Residential Buildings Under ECBC

C

hief Secretary to the Government of Andhra Pradesh, AC Punetha, has recently reviewed the power sector and said that the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) has urged the state to consider bringing residential buildings under energy conservation building code (ECBC). Punetha also issued the directions to all government departments in Andhra Pradesh to implement energy efficiency measures on a priority basis. He said the government was promoting energy efficiency activities as part

of the second phase of power sector reforms to provide costeffective and quality power. The chief secretary was addressing the eighth executive committee and the fifth annual general body meeting of AP State Energy Conservation Mission (APSECM). AP is the first state in the country to retrofit the LED street lights in the municipal sector. The state has already retrofitted 6.21 lakh street lights in 110 urban local bodies and saved about 133 million units. About 20% energy can be

saved from commercial buildings following the ECBC norms.

Scientists Develop Smart Window to Trap Air Pollutants

S

cientists have developed flexible smart windows that can trap air pollutants and can also keep the indoor free from harmful matters. Tuning the light intensity and reducing the concentration of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in commercial buildings are both crucial to keep indoor people comfortable and healthy. Smart windows fabricated on the flexible and transparent silver (Ag)-nylon electrodes can tune the light intensity entering commercial buildings to maintain thermal comfort. However, fabricating a large-scale transparent smart window for high-efficiency PM2.5

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capture has been a significant challenge, until now, researchers said. Scientists led by YU Shuhong from the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) developed a simple solution based process to fabricate largearea flexible, transparent windows for that can efficiently capture PM2.5. Recently, a research team led by Prof. YU Shuhong from the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) has developed a simple process to fabricate 7.5 m2 Ag-nylon flexible transparent windows for highefficiency PM2.5 capture with

only about 15.03 dollars and 20 minutes. The obtained Ag-nylon window material serves not only to turn the indoor light intensity as thermochromic smart windows after uniformly coated with thermochromic dye, but also to purify indoor air as high-efficiency PM2.5 filter. The stablility of obtained material is also outstanding. Its performance remains stable after 10,000 bending cycles. In addition, even after 100 cycles of PM filtration and cleaning process, it still exhibits a removal efficiency of 99.65%.


Buzz

Lioli Ceramica Introduces a Multi-Purpose Porcelain Slab

L

ioli Ceramica has introduced its latest TechnoSLAB product “Mountain Tortora” under the Mountain series. This newly launched dark brown porcelain slab features a beautiful brown mountain ranges on the flat surface. The slab is 6 mm thick, 4 ft. x 8 ft. (1200 mm x 2400 mm). It comes in matte finish and the product is low on maintenance, extremely sturdy and yet lightweight. The subtle mounting pattern on the product lends depth and tranquillity to contemporary living spaces. Ideal for interior and exterior cladding applications, Mountain

Tortora is a multi-purpose product that can be used in flooring and countertop applications as well. The Mountain Tortora is a new age porcelain product that is 10-times harder than marble but light in weight, making it easy in handling. Hygienic, non-porous,

scratch resistant, and fire-resistant, the product checks against all the desired qualities. The TechnoSLAB is a range of porcelain slabs manufactured using state-of-theart technology that encompasses all the qualities required for great aesthetics and longevity in function.

TrosifolTM Unveils Next Generation of SentryGlas® Ionoplast Interlayer

T

rosifol™ has launched SentryGlas® XtraTM (SGX™). This new product improves lamination processing efficiency and also removes a number of the processing requirements placed on laminators. The result being a high quality

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laminate construction that delivers the outstanding operational performance synonymous with the SentryGlas® brand. Trosifol™ is the global leader in PVB and ionoplast interlayers for laminated safety glass in the architectural segment. With this product, adhesion to the air-side of glass has been significantly improved too, with an adhesion primer no longer being required, making multipleply laminated glass assemblies easier to process. There is also the potential to increase the number of laminates in autoclaves, increasing throughput efficiency.

Hurricane system designers and manufacturers will benefit from the robust adhesion offered by the new interlayer, which offers the possibility of incorporating higher design pressures, larger glass sizes and a reduced need for retesting when there are challenging design requirements. The new material will be available in sheet form in a range of film thicknesses. Rolls will be available later in 2019. SentryGlas® Xtra™ complies with global safety glazing codes including ANSZ97.1, EN14449, EN12543, EN12600, EN356 and is SGCC listed.


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