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www.wfm.co.in

www.wfm.co.in Volume 3 | Issue 5 | ` 100 March - April 2017

ARCHITECTURAL GLASS Potential for Future Development as a Structural Element Project Watch

Unilever Headquarters, Jakarta, Indonesia by Inhabit Group

Face to Face

James Law Founder & CEO, James Law Cybertecture International

Special Feature New Developments in Dynamic Glass


LONG LIFE

EYE CATCHING LOOK

CERTIFIED

EN ISO 9001 CERTIFICATION NO 20 100 14141183 TUV AUSTRIA CERT GMBH

WEATHER DURABILITY

LOW MAINTENANCE

SOUND & THERMAL INSULATION


Brilliant inside, perfect outside The ideal combination of sealing and hardware systems for the window of the future Schlegel provide the ultimate in high-performance energy-saving seal technology for aluminium, PVC and timber framed windows and doors.

Giesse creates the most innovative hardware for your aluminium doors and windows. Quality, Innovation and Design are our strong points.

Poly-Bond Brush Pile Seals:

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� Polypropylene pile yarns – siliconised to repel water � Woven or extruded base in various standard widths � Multiple standard heights with small intervals � Excellent memory – retains its original shape year after year � Insertion in T-slot or fixing with adhesive tape � Available with centre and / or lateral fins in various heights

Q-Lon PU Foam Seals: proved and tested for almost 50 years

� In accordance with fire safety requirements � Sash up to 180 Kg � Multipoint locking � Flash XXL aluminium hinges with customizable cover, adjustable in two directions � Limited opening � Asia handle

Parallel Opening Hardware Solution: a balanced push bar to open and close the window

� Unique seal made from PU foam in PE foil � Low / no stretch gained by glass fibre internal cord or insert � Low compression forces

� Easy to open � Choice to automation for windows up to 1250 x 1250 mm and 65 kg � Easy to install

� Multiple applications in all slot and pocket types � Nominal thermal conductivity 0.041 W/mK � Outstanding acoustic performance � The widest operating range -60 °C to +70 °C

www.schlegel.com | www.giesse.it GSG INTERNATIONAL S.p.A. – India Branch Office of Schlegel International Copyright © 2016 Schlegel International. All rights reserved.

Schlegel International


“Printed and Published by Amit Malhotra on behalf of M/s F & F Media and Publications Pvt.Ltd. Printed and published at ‘Anupam Art Printers, Plot -3, lst Floor (Back Portion), Sector -7, IMT Manesar, Gurgaon (Haryana). Telephone: (+91 120) 4725400 Name of the Editor-Ms. Renu Rajaram”

WINDOW& FACADE

Contents

MAGAZINE

Volume 3 I Issue 5 March - April 2017 New Developments in Dynamic Glass 08

71

On the materials and technologies which will help achieve good acoustics and solve any sound transmission issues

Window Installation has Evolved Dramatically over the Last Decade

On achieving high energy performance, daylight harvesting and exterior views

Industry Speaks Interview: Farid Khan, 86 Director & CEO, profine India Window Technology & Dr. Peter Mrosik, Owner and CEO, profine Group

14 On airtight and water-tight window installations

Project Watch

Future of BIPV 20 On Kromatix technology - the best solution to address the present day challenges in integratingBIPV on facades

96 VR Bengaluru by Virtuous Retail South Asia

Interview: Sanjay Seth, Senior Director, Sustainable Habitat Division, TERI & Chief Executive Officer of GRIHA Council

26

103 Unilever Headquarters, Jakarta, Indonesia by Inhabit Group

Solar Window System to Reduce Energy Consumption

Face to Face 37 Interview: James Law, Founder & CEO, James Law Cybertecture International

Co-Founders: Syed Ahad Ahmed Amit Malhotra Sarvesh Bagla Technical Panel: Mahesh Arumugam - Director, Meinhardt Façade Consultants KR Suresh - Regional Director, Axis Façade Consulting Editorial: Renu Rajaram renu@wfm.co.in +91 9312864830 Esha Sharma esha@wfm.co.in +91 98119 86040

Project Watch

Expert Speaks

Published by: F & F Media and Publications Pvt. Ltd. C-55, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase - 1, New Delhi 110 020 T: +91-11-40623356

108 On an innovative solar window which can provide thermal comfort & natural light

Marketing & Operations: Kapil Girotra kapil@wfm.co.in +91 9560925255 Subscription & Circulation: Jasmeen Kour jasmeen@wfm.co.in +91 9871151112 Studio Design: Vermillion Communication Pvt. Ltd.

RNI: DELENG/2014/57870

A Quieter Office Space

Cover Courtesy: James Law Cybertecture International DISCLAIMER: With regret we wish to say that publishers cannot be held responsible or liable for error or omission contained in this publication. The opinions and views contained in this publication are not necessarily those of the publishers. Readers are advised to seek expert advice before acting on any information contained in this publication which are very generic in nature. The Magazine does not accept responsibility for the accuracy of claims made by advertisers. The ownership of trademarks is acknowledged. No part of this publication or any part of the contents thereof may be reproduced in any form or context without the permission of publishers in writing. WRITE TO THE EDITOR Please address your suggestions to: The Editor, Window & Façade Magazine, C55, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase – 1, New Delhi, 110020 or email renu@wfm.co.in. Please provide your full name and address, stating clearly if you do not wish us to print them. Alternatively log on to www.wfm.co.in and air your views. The opinions expressed in this section are of particular individuals and are in no way a reflection of the publisher’s views.

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EDITOR’S NOTE GST is set to get implemented on 1st July 2017 and is expected to bring muchneeded relief to the construction sector. Together with Real Estate Regulatory Act (RERA), GST will go a long way in ensuring transparency in the realty sector.

Renu Rajaram renu@wfm.co.in

There is no doubt that GST will be a game-changer, which will integrate more than 16 major taxes and levies into a single consolidated tax. The unified tax regime will stop the unwanted practice of double taxation, which was inflating the prices of goods. Though unorganised players are cautious of GST’s impact since they would now come within the tax regime, it will create standard or uniform tax for organised entities. From the consumer point of view, the major advantage would be in terms of decrease in the overall tax burden on goods. GST will help in free transport of goods without stopping at the state borders for long hours for payments of state tax or entry tax from one state to another state. India is a key focus for manufacturers of many construction materials – both as a fast growing market as well as a strategic resource hub. Many more multinational companies are expanding their footprints in India, recognizing, leveraging and developing remarkable local talent through design, engineering and research facilities. Along with the MNC’s strong affinities for India, the onset of special campaigns like ‘Make in India’, are constantly increasing India’s contribution to global construction market. The nation seems to be on a mission to make things happen and the construction market in the country is set to break all records by 2020. From the potential of architectural glass to be used as a structural element to the surging interest on using BIPV as a façade component, to the use of electro chromic glass for optimum energy performance of a building, this issue of Window & Façade Magazine explores the current trends in the industry. Apart from this, the edition brings you a few interesting special features. The article by Mike Carrick of Siderise Group explains solutions for sound proofing, which is a major problem faced by offices in our buzzing cities. We have featured experts who share their opinion on topics like future of the fenestration market in India, need for standardization and testing of façade and fenestration products, and challenges in implementing green façade and fenestration designs. Happy reading!

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Acoustics

A Quieter Office Space About the Author:

Mike Carrick Head of Acoustics, Siderise Group

Mike Carrick is the Siderise Group’s Head of Acoustics. Mike has worked for the Siderise Group for over 28 years. He is one of the three qualified acoustic engineers within the group and is a member of the Institute of Acoustics. He works closely with noise consultants and architects at the design stage to ensure that robust compliant solutions are developed to meet the project criteria and particularly enjoys complex acoustic challenges. During his time with Siderise, he has helped to develop innovative acoustic solutions which have been used on some of the most prestigious projects in both, the UK and overseas including 2012 Olympic Athletes Village, The Warner Brothers Studios, and One Hyde Park.

Productivity, well-being and happy employees are all key considerations in the ideal office environment. With noise being high on the list of annoyances in the workplace and a cause of work-related stress, how can designers and specifiers create a quieter office place, improve privacy and deliver exceptional floor-to-floor, room-to-room sound reductions?

good acoustics and solve any sound transmission issues. The designer must also not only satisfy the legislative requirements, but the client or end user’s ‘wish list’ of acoustic behaviour. Proper acoustics and the unobtrusive sum of all sounds, is the key objective for a comfortable environment.

The office has changed quite dramatically over the years, with informal, open-plan and flexible spaces replacing the more formal enclosed and private rooms of the past. This flexible working ends up having a knock-on effect - increasing the level of occupation, upping noise levels, which in turn hinders productivity. Acoustics, like lighting, should be an integral part of good architectural design and when it is done well, is a significant contributor to the well-being and productivity of the office employee. From the outset it’s important to use materials which will achieve

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Offices have changed quite dramatically over the years, with informal, open-plan and flexible spaces replacing the more formal enclosed and private rooms


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Cross-talk The sound separation achieved between adjoining rooms or offices is often severely limited by ‘crosstalk’ via a common void. This common problem occurs when the transmission loss associated with this sound path is less than that provided by the primary separating element, for example, a partition. Voids affected by ‘cross-talk’ include: ∙ Suspended ceiling voids at partitions ∙ Access floor voids below partitions ∙ Cavities at floor slab edges to façades. To effectively reduce sound transmission or ‘crosstalk’ via hidden voids which sit above office partitions, ceiling void barriers should be installed directly inline with the partition. The Sound Reduction Index or SRI (Rw) of the cavity barrier is not normally required to equal that of the partition itself. This is due to the presence of other obstructions in the room-to-room sound path such as the suspended ceiling. The individual performance of the barrier needs to be sufficient to correct the shortfall between the partition and the untreated cross-talk path.

Raised access floors Sound-Transmission-Path

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Suspended ceilings Sound-Transmission-Path


Siderise Project - One Canada Square, Canary Wharf, London, UK

Suspended Ceiling Systems The actual value of these paths can vary substantially. For ceiling voids, 15-40dB Dnf,w (DnCw) would usually be associated with most suspended ceiling systems. An acoustic engineer can assess a minimum SRI value for the cavity barrier with the knowledge of either the existing overall path value or details of the individual path obstructing elements. Occasionally, conditions demand for substantially higher SRI values of the cavity barrier, such as ceiling voids formed by open-cell or substantially perforated suspended ceilings. Twin barrier or multiple element arrangements can then be employed to accommodate almost all possible sound performance criteria. In this situation, Rw values are for the barrier arrangement alone. Roomto-room performance (DnCw) would normally be significantly higher. Curtains to Noise When you combine the evolving and changing nature of the workplace with modern lightweight construction, such as curtain walls, this can also present a number of challenges when it comes to acoustics.

The overall sound performance in a curtain wall building is effectively controlled by the ‘weakest link’. This means that very careful consideration should be given to any potential weak point to ensure it does not become the ‘limiting factor’ in the overall sound transmission performance. The curtain wall, together with the movement joint, should all be considered as potential weak points and thoroughly assessed accordingly. Making It Sound Tight Involved in projects throughout the world and having manufactured acoustic and fire insulation products for more than 40 years, Siderise offers a large range of tried and tested product enhancements specifically developed for both building interiors and the façade industry. From flexible and semirigid acoustic barriers for suspended ceilings to acoustic void closures for top of walls and fire stops for profiled decks, the ceiling void barrier range is designed to effectively reduce sound transmission via hidden voids. Designed to reduce vertical and horizontal sound transmission in curtain wall buildings, this comprehensive range includes a choice of effective and proven acoustic void barriers and barrier overlays

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Siderise SC cavity barriers and fire stops for suspended ceilings

Siderise FLX flexible acoustic barriers for suspended ceilings

Siderise CVB acoustic void barriers for suspended ceilings

Siderise CBX flexible acoustic barriers for suspended ceilings

Siderise CVB and CBX Twin barrier arrangement

Siderise CVB acoustic void barrier for raised access floors

for facades that deal with all common sound path problems and are frequently used to assist in reducing flanking transmission between adjacent internal areas. Acoustic comfort in the built environment has become a concern to society and a challenge for the designers. It is all too common when considering the specification of the seal between the slab edge and the facade, for product selection to be based exclusively in terms of compliance to the relevant fire regulations. For faรงade engineers, architects and their clients, it is essential that due consideration is given to both the acoustic implications and performance of the closure arrangement, ensuring any potential weak point in curtain walled buildings is controlled. The cavity seal should ideally always be selected at the design stage because at this point, the largest

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range of suitable products is potentially available to the designer. Products can therefore be selected based on cost-effectiveness, ease of installation, and acoustic performance. Post or remedial treatment severely limits available product selection. Also, it is invariably more expensive, less practical to install and may not always be fully compliant. Often the acoustic design of offices does not receive the attention that most other architectural systems would. A superior acoustic environment should be a given. The use of performance enhancing products will mitigate against these issues and ensure any potential noise issues within offices are eliminated. For further information about Siderise or for technical advice visit www.siderise.com or call 01656 730833


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Fenestration Feature

Dramatic Evolution of Window Installation Technologies About the Author:

Filip Van Mieghem Marketing Manager Airtight Construction, Soudal

Filip Van Mieghem is the Marketing Manager - Airtight Construction at Soudal. Soudal is one of the largest independent European manufacturers of sealants, adhesives and polyurethane foams, headquartered in Turnhout, Belgium. Filip, with a university degree in law and marketing, gradually got involved on more technical issues. He started at Soudal in 2005 as a Product Manager. In 2009, he was promoted to Senior Product Management, specializing in everything related to windows & doors, focusing on energy conservation aspects. Since 2016, he has been working as a Marketing Manager, leading a small team in the field of airtight construction and window related products.

One of the major new challenges in modern construction is the energy performance of the building. As major components of the so important building envelope, windows play a major roll here, but let’s not forget the joints and connections between those windows and the construction…

aspect was impacted the same way: in the quest for highly modern and energy efficient glazing solutions,

Energy concerns and legislation have pushed the construction world in high tempo towards new construction materials and has dramatically impacted all components of the building envelope. Uf, Ug and Uw have suddenly become major USP’s, but what’s the point in ‘throwing’ these highly efficient new generation windows in to the wall just like that? In order to meet all these new challenges, care for detail is needed more than ever, so let’s have a look at some points of interest. Remark: We will not consider the mechanical fixing of the window here, as this would extend the scope of this article too much, although admittedly this

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Window installations should be watertight and rain tight


tightness (often tested according to EN1027) with a certain degree of water vapour permeability, allowing moisture trapped within the joint to evaporate to the outside rather than to the inside. Sd-values of around 0.05m are typical for these products. In higher constructions (over 50m), EPDM (Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer) membranes would be a better option, provided they are properly bonded to the – often concrete – structure. Although they will probably have higher Sd values (so more vapour tight), they will provide better protection against the elements.

Sealants and pre-compressed tapes can offer good weatherability

windows have become bigger and heavier (triple glazing). Window installation should be tackled on three levels: outside, inside and centre. Keeping the Water Out The first concern is, of course, to keep the water out. Nothing new here, but the solutions available have evolved. One has to bear in mind that these products do not just have to be watertight, they have to be driving rain tight which means they will keep the water out at (wind) pressures up to 600 Pascal or more. Also critical is the tablet area where water can collect and possibly will form standing water, exposing materials to more moisture than a few drops of rain. In case of ventilated façade systems, the newer non-woven membranes can combine that water

In more traditional dwellings, sealants and precompressed tapes can offer good weatherability. If available on the packaging of a sealant, please refer to the CE marking to identify the right sealant for this application. If used between the frame and wall, go for the F-rated sealants; F = Façade. Better sealants have movement capacities of up to 20 or 25 per cent. Best quality is thus rated F-EXT-25LM (EXT = exterior5 use). Premium quality might be provided with a quality label such as RAL. Interesting technology here are the ‘hybrid’ sealants, which combine high movement capacity with advantages such as: non-staining on natural stone, adhesion to slightly damp surfaces, no smell, good toolability and excellent weatherability. Newest evolution, as seen on the Bau Munich Exhibition, are hybrid based liquid flashing products that can be sprayed or brushed on, to form an elastic and watertight coating on almost any substrate. These products are easy to use and thus lower the threshold in comparison to the now-woven membranes. Keeping the Air Inside: Airtightness EUROPE- race towards NZEB! With directive 2002/91/EC, the so called Energy Performance of Buildings Directive or EPBD, Europe heralded the quest for more energy efficient buildings, based on their “20-20-20 policy”: to reduce CO2 gas emissions by 20 per cent, to l MAR - APR 2017 WFM 15 l


With an n-50 value (air exchange rate) Passive House has set very high standards not only for for the overall efficiency, but especially for the level airtightness. Airtightness

Basic principle of airtightness

reduce energy consumption by 20 per cent and to increase the share of renewable energy to 20 per cent (reference year: 1990). The recast of that energy performance directive (2010/31/EC) included not only stricter requirements for new buildings and renovations and a stronger role for the energy performance certificate, but also the introduction of the NZEB (Nearly Zero Energy Building) concept. The definition in the recast: “A building with a very high energy performance, as set out in Appendix I. The nearly zero or very low amount of energy required should be covered to a very significant extent by energy from renewable sources, including energy from renewable sources produced on-site or nearby.”

So airtightness is key in both these approaches. It is quite logical as uncontrolled ventilation losses are the reason for quite a lot of heat loss, draft, poor acoustics and damp or moisture problems. Good airtightness and a high quality building envelope go hand in hand. Furthermore, good airtightness is one of the most economical ways to improve the energy performance of a building. On site, airtightness is quite easily tested using the so called ‘Blower Door test’, which is also regulated by European standard EN13829 (method A or B) and more recently by an International Standard (ISO 9972). The result of the measurement is a leak flow (m3³/h) at a pressure difference of 50 Pa under-pressure and overpressure between the inside and outside. In order to achieve accurate measurements, many countries have implemented a quality framework for testers.

As from 2021, this will be the standard for all newly built houses in the whole of Europe! Passive House The early 1990’s saw an alternative and voluntary route towards very energy efficient houses in Germany: Passive House. The concept based on the Trias Energetica: 1. Prevention: limit energy consumption by avoiding waste. 2. Use sustainable sources of energy as much as possible. 3. Use fossil fuels as efficiently as possible to meet the remaining energy needs.

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On site, airtightness is quite easily tested using the so called ‘Blower Door test’


conjunction with a non-woven fleece to bridge wider joints. Thanks to their built-in colour indicator, blue turns to black when cured, the end-user can check when the coating is ready to be plastered. Center: Thermal Bridges

To make window to wall connections airtight, one can rely on sealants

Airtightness of windows is tested according to standard EN1026 (lab conditions), that of other construction materials such as window installation products according to EN12114; the result is a value indicating the leak flow per running m or Sq m (per hour). In practice windows (including their installation), on average, account for 35-40 per cent of the total air loss in a standard detached house; window-to-wall joints alone are of crucial importance; poor execution accounts for an estimated 15 per cent. The airtightness barrier is located on the warm side of the building envelope, so on the inside. To make window to wall connections airtight, one can rely on sealants; preferably quality products rated F again, either INT or EXT. Movement capacities may be a bit lower, but preferably 12.5 per cent or more. Acrylics are easy to tool and very airtight, but beware of poor quality, if you need higher levels of airtightness. In that case, a combination with non-woven membranes is the better option; they come in various widths (70-100-150 mm) and can be plastered or finished, otherwise afterwards. In general, they will also prevent moisture to migrate into the joint, as they usually boast Sd values of 10 m or more. Latest evolutions here are the water-based or hybridbased liquid flashing products, which can be sprayed or brushed on; main advantage over the classic membranes is again ease of use and time gain. These ‘liquid membranes’ are very universal and can be fibre reinforced to fill larger cracks (sprayable versions don’t contain these fibres). They can also be used in

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Often mould formation is found on the inside of a (plastered) wall, right next to window frames. This might not be caused by water infiltration, but rather by pure condensation. A cold surface provokes this phenomenon, and is a clear sign of a non-insulated area in the wall, in other words a thermal bridge. This is also the reason why most European countries impose calculation of these thermal bridges in the overall energy performance rating of a dwelling. The linear heat transmission coefficient is indicated with the letter psi (ψ) and is expressed in W/mK (Watts per meter Kelvin). Psivalues are a 3D correction on 2D U-values of the surrounding materials. Especially construction polyurethane foams, score very well in terms of heat insulation and are very appropriate to fill the gap between the wall and the window frame right after installation of the latter. The better quality foams show better properties. Especially gun grade PU-foams are intended for professional installation jobs. The last few years saw a strong shift towards more flexible foams for window installation, as they are capable of following movement due to thermal expansion of frame material within the connection joint.

water-based or hybrid-based liquid flashing products, which can be sprayed or brushed on form an aesthetic air and watertight coating on almost any substrate


Green Talk

Future of BIPV About the Author:

Philip Kwang Managing Director, Façade Global Master Pte Ltd, Singapore

Philip Kwang is the Managing Director of Façade Global Master Pte Ltd (FGM), a Singapore based company which manufactures building facades. It also provides design consultancy, value engineering, project budgeting & scheduling, and building & commissioning of projects. The company was incorporated in 1999. FGM is the authorised distributor of Emirate Insolarie’s KROMATIX Solar Glass from Singapore. Kwang is a façade engineering consultant with a special attribute in solar technology, offering products and services to the industry from the expert perspective. He is also a lecturer on “Advanced Architectural Technology” in the Department of Architecture, National University of Singapore.

Global market for Building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) is projected to grow from a current low of US$5B to a high of US$26B by 2022. This represents an exponential growth of 27 per cent CAGR. There appears to be a sudden surge of interest in BIPV. It is not driven by the finite space available for rack mounted rooftop PV. BIPV, as applied to the façade, will offer the best option to increase solar integration into the built environment. This appears to be consistent with the big rush for decentralised building and nett zero energy buildings. While we can certainly afford to be optimistic about the surging interest in BIPV, there remain certain fundamental real world challenges which need to be overcome before BIPV can be expected to take traction within the building sector. The complexity of these challenges, aesthetical, efficiency and commercial in nature, are the primary reasons why BIPV has been restrained from

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Black and ugly coloured BIPV with low efficiency (top images); KROMATIX beautifully coloured BIPV with high efficiency (bottom images)


widespread application into and onto the building facades. However, the good news is that recent advances in glass and solar technology can provide the ultimate solution to resolve not one but all of these problems holistically. These are not paper solutions residing in research laboratories but are matured technologies available commercially to the market today. The next thrust of BIPV will therefore be technologically supported and solution driven.

Architects are a discerning lot of professionals looking at products and technologies from a combination of design, altruistic and pragmatic perspectives. In order for any façade BIPV to be acceptable to an architect, the technology must be designed and engineered to meet the following requirements: ∙ Strong aesthetic or architectural appeal ∙ High efficiency ∙ Strong business case

Problems

There are not many façade BIPV technologies today that can satisfy any or all of these criteria.

In the present day context, getting architects to design façade BIPV as a matter of default is the equivalent of getting them to climb a tree. And, I don’t blame them.

The Solutions

Most architects are stuck with the idea that PV panels are black and ugly. And, even if they are coloured, they are typically associated with low efficiency and high cost.

A game changing technology known as Kromatix technology is ready to offer the best solution to address all of the present day challenges for BIPV. This new technology is specially developed to empower architects the world over to indulge in

KROMATIX beautifully coloured BIPV with high efficiency

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solar architecture by effectively addressing, issues relating to aesthetic and architectural appeal. It offers colourful photo voltaic panels that looks pleasingly like a glass while performing highly efficient PV. It is an all value proposition which also includes impressive fiscal benefits to be derived from Green Mark and other international benchmarks and certifications. It is a BIPV glass technology that would enable any black PV to morph into a colourful PV module. Its range of imaginative coloured options offers the strongest architectural appeal in the industry. All the PV cells are carefully masked behind the atomically coated glass, to blend harmoniously with the facades. Developing a colourful version of a PV may be the best thing to offer to the industry but it must be done without compromising peat power efficiency. Unlike

most coloured PV in the market, Kromatix offers coloured PV with 16 per cent efficiency, currently the best in class in the industry. The efficiency rating can be scaled to match future efficiency advances in solar cells. The perceived cost of BIPV is an enigma that can be effectively addressed with this novel technology. It offers a low nett cost over the building material it replaces. It has been characterised to generate high yield and are well placed to attract high scores with Green Mark or other LEED certification. As a BIPV, it takes advantage of an otherwise passive façade, converts it to an active solar wall and in the process creates new opportunities for producing extra solar energy that can save up to 6 or 7 per cent of electricity in a typical office building. This is an exceptionally under-explored option which should get any building owner excited. It offers the

Copenhagen International School - the world’s largest façade BIPV installation

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Entire township may evolve into world class solar city: a visionary illustration of the future of Singapore. Copyright©: FGM Dec 2016

unprecedented potential to generate huge savings in expensive electrical equipment. It energizes the building facades to produce renewable energy in addition to the traditional habit of saving energy. It helps to improve the envelope thermal transfer value (ETTV) of the façade. Lower ETTV attract higher Green Mark scores. Signature Reference Project The new advances in coloured PV technology create new opportunities for architects to embark on a new and exciting journey towards solar architecture. KROMATIX’s signature project at Copenhagen International School (CIS) in Denmark is touted as the world’s largest façade BIPV installation. With 12,000 pieces of Kromatix shingles angled differently to create solar effective chromatic surfaces across the façade, it is meant to be trend setting architectural display of the school’s green and sustainable footprint. Students were extremely inspired to follow in the school’s pied-piper initiative, helping to shape their future as responsible individuals with a green conscience.

The system, set to produce 300MWh of solar energy per year it is being held up as the gold standard for façade BIPV at major solar conferences around the world. The Future of BIPV While Copenhagen International School is being held up as the “gold standard” for BIPV, the rest of the world is now taking swift and sweeping actions to capitalise on the new founded opportunity to drive the PV up the wall. Many pipeline projects are already planned with BIPV as a matter of default. There is no doubt that with the total solution provided by the new advances in this technology, an entire township may evolve into a world class solar city, such as in the visionary illustration of the future of Singapore. Contact: Philip Kwang Façade Global Master Pte Ltd, Singapore Email: philip.kwang@facadeglobalmaster.com Website: www.facadeglobalmaster.biz Mobile: 65-96642336

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Expert Speaks

An Efficient Approach towards Building Sustainable Façades

Sanjay Seth, Senior Director, Sustainable Habitat Division, The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) & Chief Executive Officer of GRIHA Council

Sanjay Seth is the Senior Director of the Sustainable Habitat Division with The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI). He is also the Chief Executive Officer of GRIHA Council which administers the Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment. Prior to joining TERI, he worked with the Bureau of Energy Efficiency, Ministry of Power, Government of India and headed the vertical on Building Energy Efficiency. He was also the interim Secretary of the Bureau of Energy Efficiency and provided oversight to the implementation of policies and programmes of BEE as well as the National Mission on Enhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEEE), and all international bilateral/multilateral cooperation programmes. He also represented BEE on the Board of Energy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL) as the Director. He joined BEE in 2007, with the introduction of the “Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC)”, and was given the responsibility of developing an enabling framework for facilitating its implementation in a consistent manner throughout the country.

Sanjay Seth, in his interview with WFM, spoke in detail on the purpose of TERI and the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC). He also elaborated on the requirements for construction of efficient facades and fenestration adhering to ECBC norms, need for testing of façade and fenestration products as per ECBC norms, standardization of façade and fenestration products, and much more.

WFM: Tell us briefly the purpose of The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) and the GRIHA Council. Sanjay Seth (SS): TERI was established in 1974 with an initial focus on documentation and information dissemination. Over the years, it has emerged as a research institute and a think tank, to provide efficient utilization of energy and sustainable use of natural resources in the process of development. TERI is one of the largest institutions in developing countries which works towards sustainability, formulating local and national level strategies in shaping global solutions to critical issues. It has over 30 years of excellence in research and innovation. GRIHA Council is an independent not-for-profit society established jointly by The Energy and

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Resources Institute (TERI) and Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), Government of India (GoI). It promotes and facilitates GRIHA India’s own green building rating system. GRIHA is a rating tool which evaluates the environmental performance of a building holistically over its entire life cycle, based on a quantitative and qualitative criteria, thereby providing a definitive standard for green buildings and habitats. It seeks to minimize resource consumption, waste generation and overall ecological/environmental impact of buildings and habitat. Based on the principle of ‘what gets measured, gets managed’, GRIHA measures a building’s environmental performance on a scale of 1–5 stars. It brings together the wisdom of traditional architecture and modern technology to create a sustainable future.


Coal India Limited Office Building, Kolkata

WFM: You were the key personnel in propagating and introducing the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in India. Please brief us about ECBC and its purpose? SS: Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) was developed by the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) which sets minimum energy performance standards of the various components of the building, while taking into the account the climatic zone in which it is located. The code is applicable to large commercial buildings having a connected load of 100 KW and above or contract demand 120 kVA and above and covers the following building systems: a) Building Envelope b) Lighting c) Heating Ventilation and Air-Conditioners d) Service Water Heating e) Electric Power and Distributions The code provides for energy efficient design for commercial building such that it reduces the use

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of energy without affecting the building function, comfort, health or productivity of the occupants and with appropriate regard for economic considerations. The code eliminates building design practices that lead to unnecessarily high building energy use and associated costs. While the code has been developed at the central level, the state governments have the flexibility to modify ECBC to suit local or regional needs and notify them for its enforcement. WFM: The ECBC code is presently under voluntary adoption in our country. When will it be made mandatory, at least for large-scale buildings? SS: Buildings fall under the business rules of the government. As a result, although the code has been developed at the central level, its enforcement lies with the state government and urban local bodies through notification within their states.


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About 22 states in the country are at various stages of the implementation of the code with 11 states having notified the code through notification in the existing bye-laws or under the provisions of Energy Conservation Act 2001.Consequent to the notification by the states for the mandatory adoption of the code, integration of the provisions into the bye-laws provides an enabling framework for its enforcement. The policies of the Government of India for urban development integrate energy efficiency as a core component for urban planning. The National Mission on Sustainable Habitat initiated by the Ministry of Urban Development stressed the need for awareness, and announced incentives for wide scale adoption of energy efficiency programmes, promoting a mix of voluntary guidelines and mandatory rules for energy efficiency in buildings and capacity-building of state and city level bodies for implementation and enforcement. In view of this, model building bye-laws to mandate minimum energy standards for residential and commercial building complexes for formulation of draft National Sustainable Habitat parameters on energy efficiency

had been framed and circulated by the MoUD to all states for their integration into the existing government orders. Additionally, an addendum to the National Building Code 2005 has been finalized by including a chapter on sustainable building design namely “Approach to Sustainabilityâ€?, so that it is adopted in all future constructions by including the same in the Schedule of Rates (SoR) of the Public Works Department/Construction Agencies. Simultaneously, amendment in the CPWD Schedule of Rates and Plinth Area Rates have been carried out to incorporated energy efficiency aspects. The notification of the ECBC in 22 states would cover 90 per cent of the area of infrastructure development in the country. WFM: Façade design and building performance are interrelated. Could you please discuss on Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) requirements for efficient facades and fenestration? SS: As already mentioned, minimum energy performance standards for building envelopes is

GAIL Building, Mumbai

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Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh

integral part of ECBC. Co-efficient of performance for Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC), U-values, Visible Light Transmittance (VLT) and air-leakage for windows and skylights have been prescribed in the code for the various climatic zones of the country. It is important to note that the ECBC is a designed standard and does not prescribe any technology or product. WFM: What are the most important features that a building professional should look for regarding windows, doors and skylights? SS: Building Envelope is one of the most critical components in the overall design of a building. A well-designed envelope will minimize heat gain and dependence on artificial lighting for a building. While designing a building, the aspects of Wall to Window Ratio (WWR) and Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) together with optimum orientation of windows and shading devices minimize heat gain into the building thereby reducing energy conservation to the

extent of 25 percent on account of lighting and airconditioning. In case where skylights are provided in a building, Skylight Roof Ration (SRR) should also comply with the provisions of the code. It is important to note that in a tropical country like India, the maximum heat ingress in a building is through the roof, as it is exposed to sunlight for most duration of the day. Providing insulation in the roof, shading and improving Solar Reflective Index (SRI) will minimize heat gain into the building thereby reducing the cooling loads. The requirements for WWR & SHGC coefficients for the different climatic zones are prescribed in the ECBC. WFM: In ECBC, mandatory requirement for fenestrations are recommended - like “U factors for fenestration systems must be in accordance with ISO- 15099�. Is it being followed? What are the hurdles and solutions for the same? SS: In states where the codes have been notified for adoption, compliance to the provisions of the

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NHPC, Faridabad

EI Bhawan – Chennai

ECBC are mandatory. However, as the demand for energy efficient buildings is gaining momentum, design professionals are gradually mainstreaming energy efficient design practices in their building designs. This has led to noticeable improvement in the market in terms of the availability of the products for energy efficient windows and fenestration. With the rising demand for the insulation material, high performance glass, heat reflective paints, energy efficient masonry units etc., the number of manufacturers and suppliers of these materials is also gradually increasing.

accredited labs to showcase compliance to the requirements of ECBC.

WFM: How are the fenestrations products tested, certified and labelled in India to check whether they comply ECBC norms? SS: The ECBC provisions require the fenestration U-factor to be determined as per ISO 15099. Presently, a certification and labelling programme for fenestration product has not been introduced in the country. BEE had initiated discussions for developing a labelling programme for fenestration product which is still to be finalized. Presently there is no certification process in place for fenestration systems. The manufacturers of such products obtains test certificates from NABL

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WFM: With various products imported from different countries, it has become difficult for the end user to compare the products and to understand their price and quality. Enforcement of standards is critical for building materials. But the standardization of façade and fenestration products is still at an initial stage. What is your take on it? SS: The standards prescribed for design of energy efficient building is ECBC, which as mentioned earlier does not specify any product or technology to showcase compliance. Labelling of appliances and products provides a consumer an informed choice on the performance of the specific product or appliance. In case of fenestration products, currently, there is no certification process in place in the country. It is also important to note that the building construction is a dynamic industry and is continuously evolving. The design standards are therefore developed independent of the technology to meet the performance standards.


Advertorial LGF Sysmac: Setting Itself Ahead of Market Trends Pulse, in 2009, to offer solutions for hardware to mid segment projects, for both aluminium and uPVC or whether it was our partnership with UCS in 2013, to bring in a dimension to automation in windows, be it for smoke or natural ventilation LGF Sysmac has believed in setting itself ahead of what the market trends are. Our recent partnership agreement with Hautau bellies the belief that solutions for premium residential projects will exist, but what will drive the next 5 years is the mid segment market housing culture, where homes would be in the offing of Rs 20-50 Lakhs, for which we put up our state-of-the-art factory to manufacture architectural hardware in Rai (Sonepat) in 2016. Deepak Chugh, Director, LGF Sysmac

Deepak Chugh, Director, LGF Sysmac, talks about his company, products, services and solutions: Please tell us briefly about your company LGF Sysmac and your journey since the inception of the company in the year 2000? What are the major milestones? LGF Sysmac was established in the year 2000 with a vision to change the dynamics of the door / window and facade industry in India, by introducing world class products, be it high quality machines for aluminium and uPVC fabrication or architectural hardware. At the inception, we mainly started with LGF, a company based in Rimini, Italy. Over the next few years, we forged associations with Securistyle from UK and Alualpha from Portugal for world class architectural hardware solutions. As uPVC windows started gaining prominence, we established our relationship with Urban from Germany and became the first partners for leading companies that set up uPVC plants in India, including a household name, Fenesta. Innovation has always been the key to our success. Whether it was bringing in our own brand,

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Our belief is that with partnership we will grow, which is why all our partners including suppliers have been with us since the time we signed up, with some of them now being into our 18th year. Today, we are a young and vibrant team that will drive us forward in the years’ to come, consistently offering innovative solutions ahead of time. What are the services and solutions that you offer? LGF Sysmac has two diverse segments including innovative architectural hardware solutions & supply and installation of machinery, both for aluminium and uPVC windows and doors. Our range of hardware is principally spread across two segments that are catered to by our partners Alualpha, Securistyle and UCS for the specification market and by our in-house brand, Pulse. We provide end to end solutions including specification of having the right product applied on the right profile, besides ensuring that our team works end to end with contracting companies when it comes to installation or fixation of the hardware on the windows/facades in the correct


CNC Machining Centre

possible manner. If required, our team also visits sites to review the progress from a fabrication factory to the final installation of the window/facade itself. On the capital equipment front, our team of engineers are equipped to technically present a time working to ensure that our clients invest in the correct equipment rather than follow a sales approach. This is beyond the steady fact of installing machines and giving training when the equipment arrives. The team takes pride in being able to program machines for customers too. What are the standards and functional parameters you follow to ensure quality of your products? We are accredited with an ISO 9001:2000 certification coming from TUV from an organization perspective. A very transparent Management Information System runs within the organization which ensures that the products are delivered to our customers in time. Today, with a 97.4% on-time delivery status for orders processed within timelines, we are amongst the best, when it comes to reliability of having met your deadlines. Please tell us about your partnerships and how does it help in providing innovative hardware solutions? The strength of Alualpha and Securistyle for the conventional solutions of facades and windows comes from innovation which not only means developing product solutions for projects (as we did recently for the Indiabulls BLU project, where Alualpha and Securistyle together developed a product code 699 and 9318), but it also means addressing client needs with the correct product for that project, based

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on the aesthetic, design, application and functional requirements. All our partners work together to address skilfully, the demands that are thrown their way and the challenges that leading developers, architects and facade/window consultants have. With Pulse, now an equally established brand, we have the full bouquet of solutions that the market needs today. Our testimony to over 5,000 projects in India easily certifies that. Please throw some light on your in-house and on-site products training? Our in house product line Pulse, is now manufactured in India, under the Make in India campaign. We ensure that product quality coming from our stable meets the recognition and demands of the industry by having quality checks. The first products launched including the uPVC touch lock, pop up handle and sliding door espag handle have garnered high appreciation. On-site product training is a feature that we are able to provide to most of our customers through an engineering team stationed in Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore. These engineers are able to offer technical specifications to the window and facade industry. Our team visits fabrication set ups to check and monitor installation closely, besides assisting on window testing when required. I am proud to mention that we recently achieved certification on the stringent test parameters for the IB Blu project in Mumbai at the FITI test lab. The same success was achieved again when we were nominated the sole brand tested and approved for The 42 project in Kolkata and Wipro for its new campus in Bangalore.


Face to Face

In Pursuit of a Sustainable Future Architect James Law founded James Law Cybertecture International in 2001 to design buildings of the future world for the betterment of mankind through his passion for innovation, technology and sustainability in design.

James Law Founder & CEO James Law Cybertecture International

James Law is also the founder of smart cities company Cybertecture X; smart health company Cybertecture H; design education institution Cybertecture Academy, and the NGO Cybertecture for Humanity. As an internationally renowned architect, designer and innovator, James is a council member of the World Agenda Council of the World Economic Forum. He has won international awards in the field of design and innovation including the Edison Award for Innovation (Gold), International Property Award, Asian Innovation Award, Design for Asia Award, CNBC World Architecture Award and many more. James Law is a nominatedYoung Global Leader of the World Economic Forum as well as a pioneer in the new design of Cybertecture. As an architect of modernity, creativity and dynamism, James Law talks about his practice, few of his ongoing and future projects, and about his vision and mission for future architecture for mankind. Here are the excerpts from his interview with WFM.

WFM: Please introduce your firm and yourself James Law (JL): My architectural firm is called James Law Cybertecture and the name Cybertecture represents the kind of work I have been pursuing and hope to continue in the future as well. We do very forward looking futuristic architecture, which tries to marry the latest innovation and technology with people, spaces and the modern world. We try to work around advanced architecture where we attempt to establish a connection between the latest innovations in technology with the people and spaces of the modern world. I got into architecture by chance. At the age of seven, I happened to watch a black and white film titled ‘The Fountainhead’ in which the main protagonist is an architect. Since then, I have worked hard towards my dream and am now practising on my own.

WFM: It is almost more than a decade since you started your practise. JL: Yes, essentially. It has been almost 15 years since I started my firm James Law Cybertecture. Before that, I was practicing as an apprentice in different offices. WFM: Where did you study Architecture? JL: I graduated in architecture from The Bartlett School of Architecture, University College London (UCL) after completing my high schooling from UK itself. WFM: How would you describe your design approach and what is your signature style? JL: I would like to describe my design style as a pursuit for the future. I am always looking for

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The Capital – Night View & Day view (below)

future designs that would enable people to live better lives, to work more efficiently and to be healthier. The spaces I design are done using a lot of cutting edge technologies, so as to make every design stand out from the rest. This is also so because I believe that designs depend on the locations, functions and requirements of that space. With every project, I try to be original with research and thinking. I wouldn’t say that I have a particular style. I rather would shy away from calling mine a ‘signature style’; but at the heart of it I feel we could call it futuristic while also being sustainable. WFM: This is an era of iconic buildings. How do you work in a system looking for iconic buildings while continuing to make more meaningful architecture?

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JL: I think we should not merely term a building ‘iconic’ for the sake of it. If the iconic architecture has derived its character because of it’s effective design, then it is generating benefit to the user. At this point, the iconic character of the design is very important. So, most appreciated buildings are those which are aesthetically beautiful and at the same time utmost functional.


Sometimes, though, what is concerning is that we might lose the essence in a building’s design in order to achieve the iconic stature. But as long as the courage in the design of a creator merges and keeps in mind the issues of people, space and environment sustainability in their innovations, the design wouldn’t go wrong. And this is what I hope to achieve through my work. WFM: Could you please tell us about some of your important projects? JL: Well, that will take a long time. I have several stories to share with you on my projects. My first foray in to projects in the Middle East started from Dubai, where I won a competition against stalwarts like Norman Foster and Zaha Hadid, for creating a building which is inspired by the Apple iPod. That particular architecture is very much a new revolution, with a totally different look, more akin to electronic products. The main concept was to have a programmable building which allowed the users to download apps and customise their lifestyle according to it. It is a really good example

in my career as a piece of work that symbolises “Cybertecture”. Here, the design possibilities are generated by the interaction between technology, architecture and the people. So this is one of projects which symbolises my work very well. There’s another example that I can think of, which symbolises my work and my passion for exploring knowledge about our eco-system in the planet. It is also located in the Middle East. It is a very large project called the Technosphere, which is a ten million square feet mega structure building, placed in the centre of the city of Dubai in Jabel Ali. In this project, many buildings are enclosed by one huge spherical megastructure that helps to create a mini climate within the space. It has commercial, residential and institutional spaces surrounded by green areas. I am creating a whole new model, on how a city can be designed and built with proper infrastructure to commute. This mini planet contains everything in one structure; the free walls of the structure become a green envelope that can be shared with everyone who lives and works within the buildings, i.e., within Technosphere.

Cybertecture Egg - Day view

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The Pad - Day view & night view (image below)

The Technosphere is an interesting approach to architecture. It is a bold move to create a mini planet or a bio-sphere that protects the inhabitants from harsh environment and generates an eco-system which is very efficient, accompanied by the latest innovation and technologies, allowing more and more people to live together in a harmonious way, saving lot of time and energy. WFM: Could you please tell us about your Indian projects too? JL: My very first project in India was for an office building called ‘The Capital’. It is located in Bandra Kurla Complex in Mumbai. The project is approximately a million and a half square feet of constructed area for a futuristic office building. It is presently occupied by the Deutsche Bank. The building was conceived originally as an egg-like structure which has an environmental characteristic. Due to an increase in the FSI of the building, we

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decided to evolve the building into one that has an egg inside the box. We have also designed the world’s largest underground robotic car parking here. The typology of the building façade allows it to have a combination of terraces that can become farms and urban breathing spaces for each of the office floors. The iconic egg structure gives the building its identity. It is an architecture which balances the commercial needs of the users of the building with aesthetics. The architecture encourages to create a landmark and it has key sustainable characteristics. The façade design breaks the conventional box design of office buildings and allows an understanding of the fact that it is a green building. WFM: What are the greatest challenges that you face while designing and implementing green designs? JL: The greatest challenge is to find the feasible balance between the functions, which often are commercial, with the environmental needs, in order to make the building sustainable. One shouldn’t put

Technosphere - Aerial view & Day view (right)

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too much emphasis on the sustainability aspects alone, but should focus on the functional aspects of the building too. Over emphasis on sustainability will pave an experimental green architecture which may not be commercially viable. But then, the building should not just be commercially oriented too. One should consider and review areas of investments; façade treatments or a different system planning might help achieve sustainability while also keeping in mind the functionality. Ultimately, the success of the project highly relies on finding the balance between the two. WFM: While talking about materials, how do you decide on the materials of the façade? JL: Choosing the right kind of material is extremely imperative for any building. The choices, at the moment, have become very restricted to either glass or aluminium but that does not work in every location. I have done some work with stone, PV panels and mixture of components. The challenge is finding the appropriate combination,


One BKC - Day view & Side view (right)

which is chosen based on the function of the building. For example, for a commercial building, natural lighting and indoor-outdoor connect is essential. At the same time, it should balance with environmental parameters of the particular site. If the project is located in Middle East, it should have ample shading. I think the challenge is to understand how to choose from readily available local materials and put them together in a formula that gives the best effect for any site of architecture. The key factors include selection of materials, and understanding the functional aspects of the building, which also revolves around the geography of the building site. It is also important to look at the factors like long time maintenance and life cycle of the faรงade. The faรงade should remain strong as the building ages and should not cause troubles. If the building is a tall one, the study of effect of wind on the building is important. The shape and faรงade details of the building certainly will affect the safety of the building. If the location has strong eddy currents and turbulence, the shape and orientation of the building should be such as to have minimum impact and to provide maximum safety.

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Acoustic treatment of buildings, if located near railways, airports, or other noisy places, should be good enough to shield the noise from right direction with insulated glass facades of greater thickness. WFM: Could you please tell us about some of the innovative technologies or materials used in your own projects? JL: Talking about the iPad project in Dubai, the faรงade of the building has a very simple and organic design.


We are designing a convention centre where the roof and façade is one element. In order to create a wide span of 150 meters, we are using very light weight Ethylene Tetra Fluoro Ethylene (ETFE) fabric on the facades, with air bubble cessions. This allows the structure to be very light, though the span of the project is significantly large. ETFE fabrics are like an inflated bladders, which are transparent. We can apply switching on the actual pattern of these bubbles to control the amount of light. They have the advantage of being water tight and are also significantly lighter than a contemporary glass and aluminium façades. This is a very novel material and a new technology. We are using it for the first time. WFM: How does the façade design affect the workability of a building? JL: Well, the façade of a building is extremely important to the workability of building, i.e., in maintaining comfortable and safe environment inside the building. A wrong façade will entirely disrupt the functional life of the building. For example, a building that needs to have an environment that is sensitive

Ohm at Bandra, Mumbai – the pool & balcony

Mumbai Convention Centre - Day View

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to light and temperature such as laboratories and hospitals, will need facades which are very sensitive to the functions inside. While buildings like factories or power plants need to have insulated or protective sheets inside to protect the safety of people. WFM: Brief on some of the opportunities and challenges faced by your firm while working in India? JL: Being a firm that originates in Hong Kong and has mainly done projects there and then branched out internationally, coming to the Indian construction cultural was very different. I can highlight a few differences, perhaps those can be categorised under challenges. First of all, I think the available labour, especially skilled labour, and available materials in the market are still catching up in India as compared to the Far East. The systems for facades and materials, which are not readily available in India, need to be imported. This incurs a lot more cost and risk in the installation and design. Another challenge is the appreciation for the workmanship. I think, there needs to be a much higher labour of care and workmanship in order to install certain delicate facades that cannot be easily handled by unskilled labour. So, it needs to have an industry that has matured enough to install active facades, which include motors, actuators, computer systems, etc. There are a few glass factories in India which are able to produce glass of wider range of performance and quality. Same with fabricators of aluminium. There are very few who are able to extrude aluminium and make desired components out of it, which can be used in some of the latest complex architectural shapes and architectural installations. Having said that, we see a lot of progress over the years. I think, with the creation of many more modern architecture, the desired skills as well as quality and technology in production are also improving to produce better products needed for contemporary

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Innovative faรงade for a project in Mumbai for Parinee Developers

architecture. It is easier to build once industries in India are able to offer relevant experience and source of materials or components. WFM: What is your advice to young & aspiring architects in India? JL: If they have chosen to study architecture and plan to become an architect, they should have a passion for it. Architecture is all about working towards a better future. The future is in their hands to dream of and to design. They have the power to change our closed environment from the way it is today to the way they feel it should exist. So I would encourage them to dream, think about designs and invent technologies which could change the world through the building that they build. I would also advise them to hold on to their passion. Being an architect is incredibly meaningful and impactful profession for the world.


Cover Story

A hotel at Bangalore designed by Kembhavi Architects

Architectural Glass Potential for Future Development as a Structural Element

Glass in architecture has been used in façades and as a construction material for many years.The invention of steel and plate glass in the late nineteenth century made possible an imaginative leap - the transparent steel framed enclosure - which underpinned the development of architecture in the twentieth century. Glass perhaps, is the only material that has seen continuous technological advancement since its first use as a building material. This is evident from the vast range of glasses now available to clad the buildings depending on the usage and budget. In this article, we present are view of today’s available architectural glass types as well as their characteristics and potential for future development of glass as a structural material.

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Anup Naik, Director, Space Matrix Architects & Planners

Abhishek Bij, Associate and Lead Designer, Design Plus

In Façades, says Anup Naik (Director, Space Matrix Architects & Planners), glass has scaled itself from mere windows to structural glazing, wherein the glass technology has contributed to various glass types from laminated, printed, painted to chemically coated and screened the choices are numerous depending upon the requirements. Curtain walling, structural glazing, bolt glazing or spider glazing, fin supported glazing, cable glazing and suspended glazing - are available according to the customer’s specifications. As a construction material, the application of glass has manifested from glass masonry walls and glass blocks to canopies, skylights and roofs, and as load bearing elements. In recent years, designers have begun to use glass more in structural applications. Instead of panes of glass being supported on metal beams and columns, glass is now being used to support itself through glass structural members. Drawbacks of glass, such as privacy issues, can be resolved by the usage of technologically advanced forms of glass like frosted/ translucent glass. Advantages of Using Glass as a Structural Element

Mukesh Jaitley, DirectorProjects, The Wadhwa Group

In the past few decades, the use of glass in buildings has remarkably increased. As a result, several transparent buildings have been constructed. The flexibility or versatility of glass keeps on increasing as experts find new applications to this paramount building material. Now it is being used for building delicate looking fenestrations on facades as well as complex architecture. With the advent of green technology in construction, glass is constantly undergoing transformation. Solar power glass, switchable glass projection screens are a few of the newer uses. This is one material to look out for!

Glass is a critical material for any building envelope in the contemporary architecture. This could be because of its lightness of weight, visual porosity, thermal comfort, acoustic insulation, ease of installation and safety, says Abhishek Bij, Associate and Lead Designer at Design Plus Architects. It is the only mainstream material that provides multiple variations in all the mentioned parameters. Mukesh Jaitley (Director-Projects, The Wadhwa Group) mentions that developers are using glass to bring in efficiency and enhance the aesthetics of a structure. Lightness of glass results in the reduction of the structural load. Its transparency allows maximum natural light, resulting in reduced consumption of electricity. If glass, with correct specification of reflectivity and thermal insulation properties, is used, it will definitely help in efficiency. Lastly, glass façades and roofs provide unobstructed views and help to make it an interactive building envelope.

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Indrajit Kembhavi, Pricipal Architect, Kembhavi Architects

Deben Moza, Joint CEO & Executive Director, Project Management Services, Knight Frank Property Services Pvt Ltd.

Since glass has the ability to absorb, refract or transmit light, says Architect Indrajit Kembhavi, Principal Architect of Kembhavi Architects, it can be made transparent or translucent to add extraordinary beauty to the building and increase visual connectivity between the building and its surroundings. Glass holds the capacity to transmit up to 80 per cent of available natural day light in both directions without any yellowing, clouding or weathering, adds Kembhavi.

©Architect Rajendra Kumar & Associates

Deben Moza (Joint CEO & Executive Director, Project Management Services, Knight Frank Property Services Pvt Ltd.) points out that the properties of glass including its very high compressive strength, resistance to corrosion,

Various uses of glass in construction

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Deepak Dinesh Prabhakaran MD, PNC Architects

K P Nagaraj, Associate Vice President, Regional Head – Infrastructure, Infosys Limited

recyclability, and reduction of energy consumption also adds to its demand. With the advancements in glass coatings, there is tremendous increase in demand for sleeker structures - structures having more light, and with an argument of being ecofriendly in all conditions. For Deepak Dinesh Prabhakaran, MD, PNC Architects, it also protects the building from the vagaries of nature, and serving as a surface for branding and advertising of digital and other media. In addition to its transparency, these properties add to the demand for glass in construction. Glass with high selectivity ratio is the key, says K P Nagaraj, Associate Vice President, Regional Head – Infrastructure, Infosys Limited. Glass that reacts to change in environment and occupant preferences ensures that light and heat transmission parameters are adjusted to provide maximum thermal and visual comfort to occupants throughout the day all year. A façade (due to variant solar insolation) can be designed for different specifications from bottom to top with varying fenestration area and percentage, shading strategies and selection of glass type (heat resistant glass near top and high visibility near base) making the envelope interactive.


K P Nagaraj from Infosys says that choice of glass has to be part of the integrative approach. By choosing a high performance glass, one can reduce the cooling requirement due to lesser amount of heat. The key is to select glass with low solar factor (direct heat reduction), low U value (indirect thermal heat reduction) and optimal light transmission. Rajendra Kumar, Founder and Principal Architect, Architect Rajendra Kumar & Associates

Kapil Handa, Managing Principal, Studio DRA LLP

According to Rajendra Kumar, Founder and Principal Architect, Architect Rajendra Kumar & Associates, a good double layered glass acts as a good insulator. Lower heat-loss is achieved by introducing multiple glazing layers, gases and low-e coatings. In future, glass used in the façade will have integrated solar cells and it will be used for generating energy. This will change the definition of building envelope completely, says Kapil Handa, Managing Principal, Studio DRA LLP. PV cells can be mounted on the blanket area of the façade and this can generate power. However, India being a tropical country, the usage of glass is not necessarily environment friendly in all cases due to the varied environmental conditions as compared to colder climates, opines Deben Moza. Hence, the use of glass should be minimal to prevent heat. Rajendra Kumar reminds that energy efficient glass is the only solution for energy conservation. For a building with larger glazed areas in façades and roofs, and entirely glazed façades, the key driver for energy-saving is energy-efficient glass. In hot climate, reliance on air conditioning, is mitigated by the use of advanced solar control glass, allowing the sun’s light into buildings, while blocking much of its heat. In cold climates, low-emissivity glass reduces heat loss, while allowing high levels of valuable free solar gain to heat buildings without significant loss in natural light. However, in the summer, unless combined with solar control glass, it can become uncomfortably hot, says architect Rajendra.

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The correct choice of glass can help to reduce the capital outlay, running costs and associated carbon emissions of buildings. Types of Architectural Glass The skylines of Indian metros are dotted with highrise buildings clad in glimmering glass, spelling out affluence and style, but there’s much more to glass than just that. Broadly, architectural glass can be classified into Annealed, Heat Strengthened, Toughened, Laminated, Coated, and Patterned. Each of these can be further classified into sub categories depending on more subtle variations and manufacturing patents. Annealed glass or Float Glass is the basic flat glass product that is the first result of the float process. It

Mindspace at Airoli East, Navi Mumbai by K Raheja Corp


is also known as soda lime glass. This type of glass is produced without internal stresses imparted by heat treatment, i.e. rapid cooling, or by toughening or heat strengthening. It is common glass that tends to break into large, jagged shards when subjected to a relatively small temperature change or mechanical shock. It is primarily used in making canopies, shop fronts, glass blocks, railing partitions, etc., and often used in double-glazed windows. Building codes in many parts of the world restrict the use of annealed glass in areas where there is a high risk of breakage and injury, for example in bathrooms, indoor panels, fire exits and at low heights in schools or residences. Heat-strengthened Glass is a semi-tempered glass which retains the normal properties of ordinary float glass. It is similar to tempered or toughened glass except that the cooling is done slower than toughened glass, but faster than annealed glass.

Heat-strengthened glass is about twice as strong as annealed glass. It is valued for its mechanical strength which makes it a good choice for vertical vision spandrel areas and for laminated sloped glazing. Toughened Glass is chemically or thermally treated float glass, to increase its strength as compared to normal glass. It is far more resistant to breakage than simple annealed glass. Tempering of the glass puts the compression in the outer surface while tension remains in the inner side, therefore at the time of breakage, instead of splintering into jagged shards, which is less likely to cause injury. Toughened glass has extremely broad applications in products for buildings though it may have distortions with low visibility. It can be used for exteriors and interiors, such as glazing for building faรงades, glass sliding doors and partitions in houses and offices,

Vijayawada Airport by Studio DRA LLP

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Laminated glass is made of two or more layers of glass with one or more ‘interlayers’ of polymeric material bonded between the glass layers. In the event of breaking, it is held in place by an interlayer, typically of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) or ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), between its two or more layers of glass. This reduces the safety hazard associated with shattered glass fragments, while there are security risks associated with easy penetration. Laminated glass produces a characteristic ‘spider web’ cracking pattern when the impact is not enough to completely pierce the glass. The interlayer also provides a way to apply several other benefits, such as colouring, sound dampening, and resistance to fire, ultraviolet filtering,

courtesy: Knight Frank

glass furniture such as table tops, and many other products.

Mixed use development of Glazed Glass and other Material

and other technologies that can be embedded in or with the interlayer. It is primarily used in glass façades, aquariums, bridges, staircases, floor slabs,

The 42 - The Tallest skyscraper in Kolkata Pushyamitra Londha, Senior Associate Architect, Architect Hafeez Contractor on his project:

Glass these days is an integral part of many façades and roofs. This material can be easily shaped and installed, creating structures which are gripping and dominating. With regards to the luxury residential project ‘The 42’ at Chowringhee, Kolkata, which is touted as the tallest tower in the eastern India, we wanted to give a 360 degree view of the city’s skyscape from the windows. In the project, we have incorporated Double Glazed Units which provides air gap between two glass panes in order to reduce the heat loss and gain. Normal glazing can cause immense amount of heat gain and upto 30 per cent of loss of air conditioning energy. Green tinted energy efficient glass can reduce this impact and avoid glare and lower UV radiation, thus providing an ambient comfort inside each apartment. The balcony railing is uniformly designed at 1.5m high with a glass balustrade and stainless steel hand rail for safety purposes. Moreover, we have used clear laminated sentry glass railings in all balconies to get a clear view of Kolkata city, which are also toughened providing safety, if any glass breaks due to any unforeseen reasons. The unique building height of the 42 demands specialised solutions when it comes to the windows and the façade. Double glazed, high precision aluminium windows and glazing system with partially fixed and partially openable shutters form the overall structure.

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Pushyamitra Londha, Senior Associate Architect, Architect Hafeez Contractor


A project by PNC Architects

Platina at Bandra Kurla Complex, Mumbai by Wadhwa Group

etc. It also plays a big role in overhead glazing like skylights, glass ceilings and roofs.

(usually just after it exits the furnace where it is made) between rollers whose surfaces contain the negative relief of the desired pattern(s). It is typically used for functional reasons, where light but not transparency is desired, and the patterns are accordingly subtle. However, it has also at times been fashionable as a design feature in itself, in such cases often displaying more prominent patterns.

Surface coatings can be applied to glass to modify its appearance and give it advanced characteristics and functions available in today’s flat glass products, such as low maintenance, special reflection/transmission/ absorption properties, scratch resistance, corrosion resistance, etc. AIS, for example, adds sun shielding properties through various coating mechanisms. Another example of coated glass is Mirrored Glass/ Reflective glass, where a metal coating is applied to one side of the glass. The coating is generally made of silver, aluminium, gold or chrome. Tinted glass is manufactured by adding a dye at the molten glass stage. It is used primarily to minimize solar heat gain and glare and allows for increased control of energy usage. Spectrally selective glazing is a low-e variant, which is able to differentiate between ultraviolet, daylight, and infrared. It allows only the desired rays to penetrate through. This is a mature technology and spectrally selective glass is available with major manufacturers. Gas-filled glass panel is a low-e variant, which is an insulated glass unit (IGU) filled with inert gases, that reduces the U-factor. Argon is the most popular gas fill, while Krypton offers greater energy efficiency. Patterned glass is flat glass which has a pattern or texture impressed on one or both sides in the process of rolling. The most common method for producing patterned glass is to pass heated glass

In addition to the said types, there are more varieties of glass used for construction: Wired glass is formed when fine twisted hexagonal wire netting or mesh is inserted during the process of rolling. It may be patterned, smooth rolled or ground and polished and is used primarily in fire rated windows, doors, skylights and applications requiring a safety glazing material. Extra clean glass is hydrophilic i.e., the water moves over it without leaving any marks. It has a photocatylitic character too. Since it is covered with Nanoparticles that attack and break dirt, making it easier to clean and maintain. Chromatic glass has a dynamic film coating, which either reflects or absorbs light, by means of a lowvoltage charge. This type of glass can control daylight and transparency effectively by reversing the charge. It can switch its behaviour from allowing light through to blocking its passage. When a current is supplied, they darken and when electricity is withheld they become clear. It is available in three forms- photo chromatic, thermo-chromatic and electro chromatic.

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It has largely been used in areas which are sensitive to light, like in hospital ICU’s and Labs. Thermo-chromic laminated glazing (TLG) enables the regulation of daylight by dynamically adapting to the continuously changing climatic conditions. TLG aids

in reducing the energy requirements of a building and providing thermal comfort. Neither electrical power nor driving unit is required. Smart Glass with Suspended Particle Devices: In this type of smart glass, a thin film laminate of

Balancing the Right Amount of Glass Usage in a Structure is the Key Ar. Reza Kabul, President, ARK Reza Kabul Architects

How does glass help in making an effective and interactive building envelope? What are the advantages of using it as a structural element? Glass is a versatile material, filtering in natural light into the structure and providing a visual connect between indoor and outdoor spaces. Predominant in the retail Ar.Reza Kabul, segment, it also extends Director, ARK Reza to the residential and Kabul Architects commercial segment where Pvt. Ltd. a one-way visual connect is required. The use of highly reflective glass and DGU glass assists in reducing the heat transfer within spaces. It also makes the building look lighter. Design optimization is determined by a balance of three key factors: functionality, aesthetics, and economics. Balancing the right amount of glass usage in a structure is the key to making the structure cost effective. Please tell us about the use of different glasses in façade construction?

Please tell us about the latest technologies to alter transparency of glass? Smart Glass is an impressive innovative technology which switches the sheet from transparent to opaque. There are two variants to this technology: electrically adjustable and non-electrically adjustable. One such structure that uses this technology is the EDGE in Melbourne, where a cube is suspended from the 88th floor of the tower, and it switches from transparent to opaque, giving the people inside the cube a view of the city. What is the potential for future development of glass as a structural material? Size and scale is one of the key factors for the future use of glass as a structural material. There is a huge demand for larger sizes with smaller sized support sections. This will help span greater heights, which can be used to withstand the wind pressure in tall buildings. How do you think India can further develop standards to help safe and effective application of glass as structural products? The use of trained expertise helps a lot in the process of safe and effective application of glass in structures. Similar to architects and structural engineers, façades engineers too need to be involved in the design process.

Flat glass is extensively used in railing and window façades. Warm bended glass is ideal for curved façades and bay windows. Cold bended glass is more practical for façade construction as it is gradually bent on site at room temperature and installed there and then. How can we improve the safety, efficiency, and appearance of glass buildings? Consulting experienced personnel during the design ensures safety right from the construction phase to the utility phase. The efficiency and appearance of a glass structure can be constantly improvised by attaining the right balance between the need, functionality and aesthetics.

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Kanakia WallStreet, Mumbai


rod-like nano-scale particles is suspended in a liquid and placed between two pieces of glass or plastic, or attached to one layer. When no voltage is applied, the suspended particles are randomly organized, thus blocking and absorbing light. When voltage is applied, the suspended particles align and let light pass. Varying the voltage of the film varies the orientation of the suspended particles, thereby regulating the tint of the glazing and the amount of light transmitted. SPDs can be manually

or automatically “tuned” to precisely control the amount of light, glare and heat passing through, reducing the need for air conditioning during the summer months and heating during winter. Glass bricks are hollow glass units or blocks of glass shaped to work as bricks. These blocks are joined using silicon sealants to obtain a seamless finish. The two outer, exposed surfaces may be smooth or textured.

Choose the Glass Carefully Shabbir Kanchwala, Sr. Vice President, K Raheja Corp

Shabbir Kanchwala, Sr. Vice President, K Raheja Corp

In the Indian market, usage of glass is growing, with prominent supplier companies like Saint Gobain manufacturing performance glass to suit the Indian climatic conditions and emerging trends. Architects are specific about getting the required look and aesthetics for the structures. The option of unconventional shapes and dimensions only goes further to complement it.

Glass is a non-combustive material. In the event of fire, glass shatters in seconds allowing smoke to escape, hence evading casualties due to suffocation. There are different standards in developed countries like America, Europe etc. for glazing works. These are mainly devised based on applicable weather conditions prevailing in that continent. In India, there is lack of a relevant code for glazing which is something that needs to be worked on.

Apart from being unconventional and aesthetically pleasing, glass walls provide unhindered views. They allow light to pass during daytime and prevent extreme heat from entering the building, thus, reducing power consumption. The type of glass is carefully selected keeping in mind certain factors like applicable load, usage and location of the structure. The design requirements and calculations of the structure also play an important role in determining which type of glass has to be used. The flat Glasses are largely used as float glasses in façades, while the warm bended glasses are used in exterior railing and façades where substantial amount of bending is required. The usage of cold bended glasses is limited. Tempered glasses can be used to increase the safety of glass buildings. In order to further enhance it, the use of laminated glasses is suggested. Solar controlled, single low-e and double low-e are recommended to improve the efficiency. However, the appearance depends on what combination of shades of glasses one selects.

Mindspace properties in Airoli, Navi Mumbai by K Raheja Corp

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Fire Rated Glass is a laminated glass with an in tumescent layer that is specially engineered to withstand extreme levels of heat, restrict heat transfer and prevent passage of smoke and flames. Prominent application includes data server rooms, partitions, doors & windows, façades, smoke screens etc. Bullet Proof Glass is made with laminated glass along with polycarbonate sheets, the bullet proof glass is a strong but optically clear armoured glass used for safety from bullet penetration. This type of glass is majorly used for doors and windows of buildings with high levels of security requirements. Almost all types of architectural glass used across the planet are available in the Indian market. However, there are two drivers that determine the extent of use are necessity, and economics. While the know-how is not yet up to the mark in the Indian market, the consumer is up to date on advancements and the latest products, and ensure availability via dealers. Design Optimisation with Glass Glass has become a favoured feature in buildings, since it reduces the weight on the foundations and makes way for a lighter building. Its modularity has added to the construction speed, says Anup Naik of Space Matrix. However, before incorporating glass in construction, certain factors likedesign requirements, applicable load, etc., need to be calculated to choose the right type of glass, says Mukesh Jaitley of Wadhwa Group. As on date, architectural glass is mostly used on façades as stick glazing, structural glazing and unitized glazing. It is used as a structural element only in architectural components such as canopies, in clear shop fronts as fins, and as balustrades, railings and other internal building elements. Cost plays a major factor in the use of glass as a major structural element. While selecting glass for a project, architects and engineers face a lot of challenges:

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A project by Space Matrix Architects & Planners

∙ Life span ∙ Necessity and visual appeal ∙ VLT (visible light transmittance), solar heat gain coefficients, U and R values ∙ Availability of colour and texture ∙ Buildability and performance ∙ Project budget. Every project carries a special theme which works with the design philosophy at every step. The decision of selecting a glass also has to resonate with the same fact in a measurable manner to control the final outcome. According to Deben Moza, the design aspect of any building resides on few factors; the most important one is management of the ‘sun path’. In an Indian context, it is important for the building orientation to be in alignment with the solar path, which is a deciding factor in most cases for the designing of the façade glazing. The optimization of design vis-à-vis glass can vary from being extremely scientific or equally intuitive, says Abhishek Bij. For example, if the sole purpose of a certain commercial façade is purely based on the balance between thermal comfort and estimated cost, then software simulations fed with manufacturer’s specification can suggest the ideal product. If geometry is the overriding decision maker, then the optimization process resolve the geometry such that most double curved glass panels are eliminated. “One of our current projects,


Selection of glass and aluminium for curved structural elements depends on several factors like the aesthetics of the façade, load-carrying capacity of the structural members and amount of visibility required within the building. It also depends to a large extent on the cost factor.

PNC Architects - bedroom villa exterior

Saily international Sports Complex, uses several combinations of structural glass from Saint Gobain to achieve the desired thermal comfort and the mosaic pattern on the façade,” points out Bij. The latest trend in Architecture is prefabrication and modular design, and glass and aluminium are the sought after materials in this area, since they are high precision materials that can be prefabricated, engineered and pre-processed easily. “The key here is focus on its material properties, the design methodology and its failure mode. With the advancement of technology and the science of building, it is important to have clarity on the application of bent glass, single curved and double curved glass. The focus here should be on safety, operation and maintenance”, observes AnupNaik. Building Geography, Geometry & Curved Glass Glass is a very flexible material in terms of application in various areas, thanks to all modern technologies available to treat it in different manners. According to Indrajit Kembhavi, glass, being a lighter material, tends to occupy lesser volume of space, and apply lesser structural load, thus helping in optimization of the design. In addition to the location, typology of the building and existing climatic conditions of the site, the existing acoustical conditions around the site also play a vital role in deciding the amount of glass which can be used in a building.

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The curved glass has unbeatable design aesthetics and should have been architect’s first choice in the areas where it can be used. However, says Kapil Handa, architects tend to avoid curved glass, since it is prone to undulations and is more refractive by nature. Because of the costs of curving etc., it still remains quite prohibitive and finds its usage in very limited areas. The industry is yet to bring down the costs. According to Nagaraj, when curved façade is desired, first try to use flat glass panels arranged in an appropriate array to give the impression of curvature. This is done because it avoids the additional processing involved in curving the glass panels. It is very essential to ensure proper detailing of the frames, glass and the clearances required for expansion/contraction when the façade is of a complex shape. Use of Flat, Warm-Bended and Cold-Bended Glass in Façade Construction The arching of glass creating curved glass makes it highly load resistant in most cases. When done properly, arching minimizes deflections also, points out Deben Moza. The use of moulds to bend the glass by raising the temperature to the limits of 580 to 600°C (and above) is the hot bending technique, which on cooling creates the bended glass. The hot bended glass created by manufacturers requires lamination for all architectural applications, where the manufacturers are expanding the limits of radius, angle, thickness, girth and coatings, in order to offer architects and designers the larger sizes and greater possibilities. Cold bending technology is a much recent advancement in the fabrication process where by means of external pressures (frame) one can attain the desired geometrical arching. Cold bending can


be carried out after the glass is already tempered. By doing so, the glass adopts the mechanical properties of safety glass. This is used for slight bending of glass. Cold bending can be attained in a factory or at the construction site as well. According to Abhishek Bij, hot bending is much more expensive than cold bending. “In fact it is so expensive that I would always avoid suggesting hot-bending if I can get away solving the geometry with flat or cold bent glass”, he adds. Glass probably bends more than most people can imagine. Within limits, which conservatively isat approximately 1:1,000, this property allows cold forming, drastically reducing the energy required to achieve curvature. Cold-bent glass in a single pane recovers its original flatness when released. This means that cold bending requires a closed frame that holds it in place; this method is better suited to gentle curves and large scales. While cold bending is feasible with either single panes, laminates, or insulated glazing units (IGUs), the long-term integrity of IGU aluminium spacers, moisture seals, and structural silicon can be another constraint on the amount of bending. In hot bending, the manufacturer uses moulds, which allow the glass to adopt the desired form. The glass is bent solely by gravity or with mechanical bending equipment. It is preferred to laminate this glass for it architectural application.

GTM Residency Tower with tinted glass for thermal comfort by Design Plus Architects

Cold bended glass is used for double-curved surfaces while warm bended glass is used for single surfaces. In some applications a mechanical bending process is applied on thinner cross sections of glass. For bent laminated glass, the glass sandwich is bent with the desired number of glass sheets in the interlayer, then autoclaved. Since the glass is laminated, it fulfils all the safety glass requirements. The key benefit of this process is the possibility of making very flexible shapes. Prabhakaran of PNC Architects observes that The Omniyat Building by Zaha Hadid is a fine example for the usage of glass in flat, warm and cold bended form. “However, my personal preference is definitely for flat glass – keep it simple and straight,”

Warm Bended Glass: The manufacturer uses moulds, which allow the glass to adopt the desired form. The glass, as well as the mould, is then heated up to 580–600°C. Bending can be solely based on gravity. Alternatively, the glass bending process can be assisted in which a mechanical bending press forces the glass into a target shape. The shape is then slowly cooled to avoid any residual tension in the glass. Bending technology allows creating a wider range of shapes, for instance, a tighter radius and non-cylindrical shapes. The hot bending process itself does not add mechanical strength to the glass nor the ability to tolerate temperature variations. The use of hot bent glass requires lamination for all architectural applications. Cold bending Glass: Cold bending can be carried out after the glass is already tempered. By doing so, the glass adopts the mechanical properties of safety glass. As the name indicates, cold bending is performed within the factory’s natural temperature. The process starts by putting the glass into a frame that mechanically bends the glass into the desired frame shape. In the frame installation process, the glass is glued or screwed directly into the frame. The frame is then ready for installation into the building. The bending radius is normally quite high, which means there’s only a slight bending of the glass. The thinner the glass, the easier it is to bend from a mechanical perspective. The shape, however, can also have a twisted design. Cold bending can be performed for an entire insulated glass unit or for single glass. While bending a full insulated unit, the sealant is under multiple forces.

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which is 4 times stronger than normal annealed glass and breaks into small crystals on impact. Use of fire rated glass has to be ensured at least in critical areas as specified by National Building Code (NBC). Openable panels should constitute at least 10 per cent of total faรงade area. Rather than opting for glass-box like design, architects should ensure that window to wall ratio is optimal. All the recent Infosys buildings have around 35 per cent WWR, says Nagaraj. This will ensure both enhanced appearance and efficient envelope, good natural lighting and comfortable interiors for occupants. Atmosphere at Mulund West, Mumbai by Wadhwa Group

he adds. The value of bended glass can only be appreciated in iconic projects, and not in run of the mill developments. Improving the Safety of Glass Buildings By using the right glass, architects can improve the efficiency and safety of buildings. Inappropriate products such as poor quality glass or framing material that is used in some buildings, largely due to ignorance and cost, leads to safety concerns in the long run. Each material presents its own limitations, which must be dealt with during the design process, opines Deben Moza of Knight Frank. The use of adequate materials improves the safety of transparent structures during exposure to fire by increasing the fire resistance of glass elements or by slowing down the development of thermal strain in them. Glazed faรงades come with a challenge of cleaning and adds substantially to the upkeep cost of the structure. Fire resistance of glass can be enhanced as you climb the glass type hierarchy, says Ar. Bij. This is apexed with specific fire resistant glasses, where laminated glass is sandwiched with an intumescent layer. Safety is of paramount importance here. There is nothing more important than ensuring the safety of human life, observes Nagaraj from Infosys. As of now there are no stringent safety norms for use of glass in buildings. Use of laminated glass must be made mandatory, if not voluntary for certain applications. The next best can be toughened glass

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Deepak Dinesh Prabhakaran of PNC Architects, like Nagaraj from Infosys, agrees on having stricter norms and codes which have to be constantly updated based on performance and usage feedback. Strict implementation of code compliance and maintenance by owners should be mandatory. Potential for Future Development of Glass as a Structural Material Trends in the global architectural glass market are essentially driven by two things - building regulations and architectural fashions. With more and more countries pledging to cut their carbon emissions, energy efficiency is increasing becoming a key factor in glazing, says Deben Moza. Ar. Kembhavi adds that the demand for recyclable, self- cleaning, fire-resistant, heat-insulating materials, makes glass a versatile product for construction. Hence, the potential for future development of glass as a structural material is very high. Nagaraj of Infosys expects that dynamic glasses will enter the next level of development and application. More and more properties of glass will be controllable. Unobstructed view of exteriors also requires that the structural systems like Aluminium frames be developed and designed accordingly. A new imaginative leap has taken place recently by architects and structural engineers investigating the potential of using glass structurally, informs Ar. Rajendra Kumar. The glass element may simply resist


wind load, or it may carry its own weight, or support live loads of people walking and leaning on it. To the structural engineer, the issues of most concern will be properties of strength, stability, stiffness, along with durability, robustness and buildability. Deepak Dinesh Prabhakaran also predicts that there is a very good potential for glass to develop into the structural material of choice across various typologies and geographical locations. With technology advancing in leaps and bounds, it will soon be structurally sound to use in a large scale and volume. Glass in Media Façades Serving as a surface for branding and advertising of digital and other media, the façade could be converted into a leasable area, and obviously, it garners more attention against the skyline. Today‘s technology allows for the glass surface to be communicative through display of information. Usage of glass instead of concrete on the façade increases the speed of construction. Also, because glass is the most recycled material in the world, the supply is plentiful and non-detrimental to the environment. Development of Standards to Help Safe & Effective Application of Glass Standards enforced in developed countries, for usage of glass in specific areas of building, building, are sadly not adhered to in India, says Nagaraj. Kapil Handa observes that India has always been dependent on an adopted version of British standards, which at some stage started to be known as IS codes. In the meantime, in the world over there was a huge advancement in the codes which allow for greater flexibility in the material usage. America and Australia in particular now have much more stringent as well as flexible rules that allow proper usage of glass as structural elements. Like Nagaraj, Kapil also feels the biggest back draw in the industry comes from the state bodies who do not comprehend the importance of the codes for the health and safety of the users.

Paras World School with Sun shield Coated Glass, designed by Design Plus Architects

As an industry, advices Deben Moza, the ideal approach would be of integration, wherein the designer, manufacturer and the installer take the onus of designing and integrating the various components and ensure adherence to safety standards. Consultants who advice on façade designs are few and are involved only in certain large projects. Deepak Dinesh Prabhakaran advocates that the standards are becoming all the more important for India as it becomes one of the major producers, inventors (and not remain as users), and Importers. The “Make in India” campaign should extend to the manufacture of high quality building materials in the country. We need to become contenders in the global market, and there is a long way to go to do so, adds Prabhakaran. Since India is a tropical country, one of the major issues to be considered is the amount of heat being trapped by the glass which indirectly increases the electricity loads and causes warming up of the space, observes Kembhavi. Recyclability of the glass should also be considered as an important criterion. In addition to the above factors, the issue of privacy should also be given due consideration as India is a country with a pre-dominantly conservative society. Prescriptive norms specifying right use of glass need to be developed. Laminated toughened glass needs to be made mandatory for high raise buildings. Use of annealed glass has to be avoided. These are just pointers but there is a long way to go.

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Advertorial Beat the Inferno with Aludecor’s Firewall

In-house mineral core production line in Aludecor

Fire protection is of prime importance in today’s construction. To address the issue, flame retardants are used in a variety of buildings to provide individuals with fire safety protection and additional escape time, should a fire start. Aludecor is one of the ACP companies in India that is trying to sensitize the industry, about the importance of using FR ACP. “We as an ACP manufacturer do have the responsibility of informing the market about the importance of the fire retardant ACP. In all our promotional meets we make it a point to devote fair amount of time to talk about FR ACP”, says Aludecor CMD, Ashok Kumar Bhaiya. A typical ACP clad Indian building façade has a frame structure comprising non-load bearing brick wall, followed by plaster, steel frame and ACP envelope fixed on the frame. One of the criteria of fire resistance is that the ACP envelope will contain fire and retain its

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structural integrity for 2 hours. The 2 hour window provides the time for evacuation. An authentic fire resistance rating also takes into account that smoke kills faster than fire and other vital factors.

Smart City, Kochi, where Aludecor’s FR ACP has been used


Fire protection provided by Aludecor’s Firewall: o It does not blur vision and thus make it easy for people to escape o It does not release excessive heat onto other flammable materials o For 2 hours, as an exterior cladding of a typical Indian construction, it would not contribute to rapid flame spread towards the upper floors of the building o It does not melt into flaming droplets and come off the façade. Flaming droplets turn into innocuous dust particles. o It does not come off the façade when the building is doused with water through fire hose

The Baby Line is a miniature line in Aludecor where trial production of mineral core takes place

An FR ACP should also not produce toxic gases and flaming droplets which will blurr the occupant’s vision during escape. To find out if an FR ACP meets these criteria or not, it is tested at different fire testing labs, one of the most respected among which is Exova Warringtonfire of the UK. Aludecor’s FR ACP, Firewall, has cleared all the tests at Exova, and has been certified for the same. Firewall has 71% mineral content and is made with AA5005 alloy. Magnesium Hydroxide (MDH) is the non-halogenated material that is mixed with Polyethylene to form the core of Aludecor’s FR products. MDH delays the Polyethylene from getting transformed from solid to plastic state to the point of ignition, up to 360°C, by releasing water molecules and bringing down the temperature continuously. Aludecor is also equipped with a Baby Line, a miniature version of an ACP Lamination Line, where trial production of the Aludecor mineral core takes place. The mineral core produced in this Baby Line is subjected to rigorous testing. It is only after passing these that the particular batch goes for final production. The company is also equipped with in-

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Shangri La Hotel in Bangalore: clad with Aludecor’s FR ACP, Firewall

house fire testing lab where non-combustibility, ignitability, limiting oxygen index and smoke density are tested. For more details, contact: 1800 102 0407; Website: aludecor.com


Special Feature

New Developments in Dynamic Glass About the Author:

Eloïse Sok Concept Creation Manager SageGlass Europe, Vetrotech Saint-Gobain

Eloïse Sok joined Saint-Gobain as an R&D engineer for the Flat Glass Activity, where she developed a deep expertise in the areas of high performance glazings, building physics and indoor comfort. She supervised key internal R&D programs such as dynamic glazings and visual comfort. She also participated as an expert in the European Standardization working group on Daylight in Buildings, alongside with other standardization groups related to Building Energy Efficiency. Now, Eloïse Sok is a part of Vetrotech Saint-Gobain, and provides guidance to the Marketing and Sales Department on the technical front - to develop strategies, tools and approaches supporting the SageGlass business development in Europe and Middle-East. She also acts as an advisor to customers and partners, and coordinates strategic technical projects. Eloïse Sok holds a Double-Degree in the Engineering field from Ecole Centrale de Nantes (France) and Beijing Tsinghua University (China).

From very early on, man has been living outdoors and has evolved to need exposure to sunlight for our health and well-being. With the advent of architecture, man has sought means of replicating this natural light, and has developed artificial lighting to provide lighting on demand. Such invention has freed us from daylight dependence and has transformed the way we live and build. Today, we spend around 90 per cent of our time in enclosed spaces, lit with fluorescent light, because of which daylight harvesting has been progressively neglected. It is only recently that scientists have started to understand how light influences our body and mind. In addition to the cells that contribute to the formation of images, our eyes also contains cells responsible for the so-called “non-visual effects” of light. Those cells are light-sensitive and key for the regulation of several of our biological functions such as sleep, mood, alertness etc. A lack of

daylight exposure at the right time or too much of the wrong colour light at the wrong times can thus cause several disorders, both in the short term and long-term. The Importance of the Built Environment for Human Health Recent research, particularly in “biophilic design” has also stressed out the role of connection to nature in supporting our health and well-being, which can be achieved through external views. And those also play a key role in our satisfaction with the built environment, since it also depends on information not related to the task in hand, such as the hour of the day, the seasons, the weather etc. Today, there is a vast scientific literature demonstrating both the negative impact of poorly day lit and view-less spaces on day-to-day mood, job satisfaction, and even health, and alternatively the

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benefits of daylight and associated views in most building use types. Studies cover all building use types, such as hospitals, schools, offices and even retail spaces. A recent report from the World Building Green Council (2014) has shown that there is an “overwhelming evidence” that demonstrates the design of an office significantly impacts the health, well-being and productivity of the employees. It reveals that unadapted indoor temperatures could result in a reduction in performance by 4 to 6 per cent, and that workers with windows sleep an average of 46 minutes more per night. Moreover, since the employees’ salaries and benefits can be responsible for 90 per cent of an organisation’s expenditure, designing “green”, day lit and comfortable spaces has also become a real opportunity for owner-occupiers, developers and tenants for value creation. A Real Design Challenge Given the findings described previously, one understands the importance of putting humans at the core of one’s design strategy.

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Green building certifications such as LEED, BREEAM in the UK, HQE in France, all recognize that a sustainable design is not just about energy efficiency and all the integrated sections related to indoor environment quality. Those include, for example, access to natural light, quality views through windows, protection from glare and thermal comfort. However, all those criteria could be very difficult to achieve at the same time through a conventional static building envelope that cannot adapt to the changing exterior conditions. Today, interior shades, mostly manually controlled, are often used to protect occupants from glare; however, their effectiveness in preventing overheating issues is very limited. Plus, using manual blinds can also be detrimental to the space’s energy and human factors performance, since they usually remain lowered long after the initial disturbance has gone. In that case, the space can no longer benefit from passive heating nor daylight harvesting, resulting in higher heating and electrical lighting needs and the needed views and daylight exposure for occupants are also lost. Many studies have shown that people are not active blind users and blinds are moved infrequently and are often left pulled, covering the majority of the window


area over the last few years. And with the target set by 2010 Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) to achieve nearly zero-energy buildings by 2020 in Europe, the pressure for energy efficiency use has never been so strong, and hence the impact on glass use. The recent research findings regarding non-visual effects of light has risen back awareness on the importance of daylight and views for people, and pushed designers and builders back to consider daylight and views as key design parameters. Some European countries have already introduced a daylight factor and minimum glazing requirements within their national construction regulations such as UK and France. However, the debate still continues, even when it comes to defining standards on daylight and lighting in buildings. area, especially the top of the window which is the most effective for daylighting. Automated, exterior blinds constitute the state-ofthe-art dynamic solution to protect from both, excess of light and heat, and because of automation can help optimize the trade-off between glare control, daylight admission and energy performance. Yet, once in the down position, the potential benefits of daylighting and views are offset. In addition, those system cannot be used in certain weather conditions and require on-going maintenance. In addition, the role of windows, and more importantly the amount of glass that should be used, has been questioned back along with the increasing stringency of building energy efficiency targets in Europe and indeed globally. Due to their lower insulation performance and higher solar heat gain compared to an opaque wall, windows are indeed often seen as the weak link in the building envelope, leading to an increasing trend to reduce window

Considering all the factors described above, creating energy efficient and comfortable day lit spaces could thus be a significant design challenge, schematically represented in Figure 1.

Fig. 1: A pictorial representation of the Green Building Challenge. The challenge is how to optimize both energy efficiency and daylight and views without compromising occupant comfort.

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Fig. 2: Graph of visible light transmission versus solar g factor which demonstrates the heat gain and light transmission range of EC glass compared with examples of standard static glass

An Elegant Response to the Sustainable Design Challenge An elegant solution in response to that design challenge is the Electrochromic (EC) glass, which enables to control the amount of visible light and solar heat gain entering a space, over a large range that varies between 60 per cent and 1 per cent in visible light transmission and 0.40 to 0.05 in solar g-factor, as shown in Figure 2. The modulation of light and heat can be controlled through building automation system, or at the touch of a button, so as to dynamically adapt to the external climatic conditions and occupants’ needs, with no moving parts. EC coatings can be integrated in double or triple glazing units, with a second low emissivity coating to meet the specific insulation requirements (see Figure 3). With such specificities, EC glass can have a significant impact on reducing the energy bill. During the heating season, EC glass reduces the need of heating by providing passive solar gains when clear. During the cooling season, it minimizes the cooling loads when tinted. It also allows optimum use of the daylighting during all year long, limiting the use of electrical lighting. Past studies done for the European climates have shown that the EC glass could save up to 34 per cent in cooling loads and 29 per cent in electrical lighting use. Note that automatically continuously dimming lighting controls should be used in combination to EC glass to achieve maximum savings.

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Fig. 3 All ceramic thin film electrochromic insulating glass unit

In terms of occupant comfort, EC glass is also able to manage efficiently glare issues without using blinds. Indeed, past studies have shown that 1 per cent visible light transmission is required to be able to control extreme glare situations effectively. However, the view and connection with the outside world is preserved, providing the occupant an enhanced indoor comfort. As previously mentioned, the quality of light is also part of the equation of our satisfaction with the visual environment, which implies a good colour rendering. That aspect is also key to defining the atmosphere of a space. Although EC glass tends to appear blue-grey coloured when tinted, studies have confirmed the empirical observation that the light in spaces equipped with EC glass is essentially


Fig. 4 Transmission spectra of light coming through EC glass in the fully clear (green line) and fully tinted (blue line) states

the same as in spaces glazed with clear glass, as long as a small proportion of the glass is kept in the highest transmittance state. Figure 4 shows the spectral power density of the light coming through EC glass in the fully clear and fully tinted states. As can be seen, the flat nature of the spectrum of light coming through the clear state demonstrates that the spectrum of daylight is not significantly altered. However, light transmitted through the fully tinted state takes on a blue hue, as shown by the peak at around 450 nm.

a)

The conservation of colour neutrality when the EC glass is appropriately zoned can be explained by the fact that the EC glass area in the clear state is responsible for the majority of the light coming in the space, since it transmits 60 per cent of the light, while the tinted state only transmits 1per cent. Since light passing through the clear state remains essentially neutral, and assuming good light mixing, the overall illumination of the space appears essentially neutral. Figure 5a shows the resultant spectral power densities of light coming through combination of differently tinted EC zones. Figure 5b shows pictures of the office room where the study was conducted and the resulting light colour. In contrast to static facades with mechanical alternatives, by using EC glass, the benefits of daylighting are not outweighed by the problems of overheating and glare. This, thus allows designers to use more glass to reach the daylight harvesting potential, maintain exterior views, and meet their aesthetics and design desires, without energy or comfort penalty.

b) Fig. 5a: Combination of one EC glass pane set to clear and eight set to full tint. The majority of the visible transmittance is that due to clear glass, resulting in dominantly neutral light in the space Fig. 5b: Photos of the room facing the EC windows and the wall opposite the windows, showing that the colour of the light is essentially neutral at al positions of the room. The colour rendering index (CRI) measured was 93, which is generally accepted good colour rendering

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from to match their project colour aesthetic (see Figure 6) ∙ Improved reflected colour characteristics ∙ Visible light transmittance down to 1per cent in the fully tint state, for effective glare control ∙ New geometric shapes (e.g. triangles, see Figure 10), giving architects additional design freedom ∙ Ability to control independently up to three different areas of a single EC glass pane as different segments (see Figure 7)

Fig. 6: Examples of different exterior colour aesthetics in EC glazing (from top left to bottom right: Classic, Green, Blue, Grey)

New Developments in Dynamic Glass Since its first commercialization in the U.S. market in the early 2000s, electrochromic glass has undergone significant developments, especially in the last couple of years. These developments have allowed architects higher design flexibility, while providing the optimum balance between energy performance and comfort. Among the key improvements are: ∙ Increased size availability (up to 1.50m x 3.05m) ∙ Availability of a range of exterior colours (neutral, green, blue, grey, bronze) for architects to choose

The latest so-called in-pane zoning characteristic is essential in the case of façades using single large panes to span most or all of the floor to ceiling height in order to effectively co-optimize glare control, daylight admission, light colour quality and energy performance. Indeed, effective glare protection requires the glass to tint at 1%T, however this could be counter productive in terms of daylight admission and light colour quality, if the whole façade is fully tinted. With the ability to tint several zones within a pane to different transmission states, glare can be managed through fully tinting one fraction of the EC glass, while allowing sufficient daylight admission and managing colour quality by leaving the remaining parts in intermediate and clear states. With this new in-pane zoning characteristic of EC glass, optimized performance across multiple parameters can thus be achieved, without the need of adding mullions in the framing system.

Fig. 7: Example of one of the new developments in EC glazing: in-pane zoning. This shows EC glass installed in a refurbished building in Switzerland with the top of each pane in a tinted state and the bottom in a clear state. ©Vetrotech Saint-Gobain.

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Conclusions EC glass has the potential to provide a steep change in the way architects design buildings. While sustainable design codes and certifications increasingly highlight the importance of providing daylight and views, yet doing so often requires a trade-off between energy performance and occupants’ thermal and visual comfort. Dynamic glass provides the ability to adapt the incoming heat and light to the occupant’s needs, while simultaneously maintaining access to views and a connection to the outside world, freeing the architects from the constraints enforced by the conventional building envelopes when balancing architectural design with occupant comfort and energy efficiency. They allow designing well-day lit spaces, by achieving energy efficiency goals without continuing down the path of reducing window area.

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The new developments in dynamic glass aesthetics and functionality described here, such as the capability of providing higher volumes of glass for larger building applications, improved exterior colour aesthetics, and in-pane zoning, as well as the case studies presented, demonstrate that EC glass can provide a really elegant façade solution to meet the “green building challenge”, i.e. achieving high energy performance, daylight harvesting and views, without compromising occupant comfort or the aesthetics of the façade design. With the increasing stringency in energy efficiency targets and the progressive integration of “human” centric aspects in the sustainable construction standards, the interest and adoption of EC glazing technology is growing rapidly, and is on a path to becoming a standard sun management solution in the market. Contact: Eloïse Sok, Vetrotech Saint-Gobain, France, Eloise. Sok@saint-gobain.com


Case Study

Swiss International Scientific School, Dubai, UAE

The Swiss International Scientific School in Dubai

The Swiss International Scientific School in Dubai is home to over 2,000 students, including 350 international boarding places, and has made their well-being a priority. The design of its eco-friendly campus has been developed by experts in energy optimization of buildings. Filled with natural light, its spacious classrooms, libraries and laboratories are all designed to engage the children and encourage learning. The Swiss International Scientific School in Dubai has been constructed with the aim to provide students with a comfortable and healthy interior climate which would support the students through

Electronically tintable glazing SageGlass used on the faรงade

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“With this dynamic glazing on the façade of our building, we’re setting the precedent for environmental responsibility in an educational environment, and SaintGobain and SageGlass are an integral part of our vision.” Joe Barchini, Partner and COO at the Swiss International Scientific School of Dubai

their learning journey, and help them achieve their best. Moreover, the school wanted to obtain MINERGIE label, a renowned Swiss certificate for the pursuit of sustainable standards, and maximize the potential of its location by maintaining the stunning view on the Dubai skyline. Electronically tintable glazing SageGlass was selected for its ability to answer all these needs. By managing the sunlight and heat that enter the building, the tintable glazing significantly reduces energy consumption and the need for HVAC, while improving people’s comfort and well-being. It provides the occupiers with a space that connects to the natural environment, which has been shown to boost productivity and satisfaction in the workplace. QUICK FACTS Project: Swiss International Scientific School, Dubai Location: Al Jadaff, Dubai Client: Swiss School Architect: DSA Architects, Dubai Materials used for façade& fenestration: SageGlass Classic with Reynaers Aluminium profile. Commencement Date: May 2014 Completion Date: December 2015 Area: 440 Sqm Electronically tintable glazing managing the sunlight and heat that enter the building

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Product Watch The Soudal Window System of sealants, membranes (several kinds), adhesives, liquid flashing, PU-foams. When properly installed, SWS offers: ∙ Airtightness and vapourtightness on the inside ∙ Optimum thermal and acoustic insulation in the centre ∙ Weather and wind protection on the outside SWS is therefore active on 3 levels. For more information: www.soudalwindowsystem.com The Soudal Window System (SWS) is one of the most complete systems for the closing and watertight installation of windows. Soudal, based in Belgium, is Europe’s leading independent manufacturer of sealants, construction foams and adhesives. The professional window-joint system, SWS, is a combination of several products which provide the seal between exterior joinery and the structure of the building envelope. SWS can be used in new construction or for renovation, in several kind of constructions (solid brickwork, concrete, timber frame, Passive House constructions), and in conjunction with all sorts of exterior joinery: aluminium, wood and PVCu. SWS has been officially tested in conjunction with various parameters and in various setups. Product combination can consist

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The company, Soudal, established in 1966 by Mr. Vic Swerts, is 100 per cent family owned. Soudal offers innovative products, providing solutions to most bonding, sealing, waterproofing and jointing applications. Their products are used in three principal market segments: construction, industry and DIY/hardware. In 2011, Soudal was named “Enterprise of the Year” in Belgium. The Soudal group, now, has a worldwide staff of more than 2500 employees. Soudal worldwide operates in more than 54 countries and exports its products to more than 110 countries worldwide. In 2016, their estimated turnover is approximately EUR 670 million. For more information on Soudal please consult the website: www.soudal.com.


Brand Watch Dow Corning Opens Second SAHAYOG Building Solutions Center building technologies such as Dow Corning® Transparent Structural Silicone Adhesive (TSSA) for fixed-point exterior glass façades, Dow Corning® PanelFix System and Dow Corning® 121 Structural Glazing Sealant. The Center will also showcase the Dow Corning® portfolio of innovative silicone adhesives and sealants for building façades, silicone hot-melts, silicone-based water repellent coatings and additives to improve the sustainability of building materials, as well as the range of silicone solutions for infrastructure.

Dow Corning, one of the global leaders in silicones, silicon-based technology and innovation, is expanding its India operations with the opening of the SAHAYOG Building Solutions Centre in Mumbai. Dow Corning, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Dow Chemical Company, had opened its first SAHAYOG Centre at New Delhi last year. The SAHAYOG Building Solutions Center is developed in collaboration with their channel partner, Allarch India Pvt Ltd, a well-known distributor of self adhesives tapes, silicone sealant & architectural hardware in Maharashtra. The focus of the Center will be on the performance, safety and durability of buildings constructed using Dow Corning silicone materials. It will provide comprehensive project support, industryleading technical training and hands-on skill-building workshops. It will also offer enhanced technical support and customer service to Indian customers, serving industry professionals across the value chain. SAHAYOG will enable visitors to see and experience the company’s wide range of high-performance

Launching the SAHAYOG Building Solutions Centre, Sudhir Shenoy, CEO of Dow Chemical India said, “We see the opening of this customer experience Center in Mumbai as an expansion and added investment in our India operations. This will enable us to serve our Indian customers more effectively, as well as demonstrate and deliver our technical and materials expertise within the region.” The event also celebrated the 15th birthday of Allarch. Marking both the occasions, Rakesh Ghai, Managing Director, Allarch India Pvt Ltd, assured continued support from Allarch team in their ventures. On the occasion of opening of the SAHAYOG Centre, he congratulated the entire team from Dow Corning and Allarch for their mutual trust and collaboration.

Sudhir Shenoy, Dow India Country Head, inaugurates the SAHAYOG Center

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Sudhir Shenoy, CEO of Dow Chemical India

Rakesh Ghai, Managing Director, Allarch India Pvt Ltd

This facility, he added, will endorse their belief that putting their clients first is the best way to do business. Dharmesh Shah, India Commercial Manager, Dow Corning, said that his company is very excited about the launch of Dow Corning’s second SAHAYOG Building Solutions Center in India, in collaboration with Allarch India Pvt. Ltd. Shah pointed out that this Center will help to expand their reach to stakeholders across the value chains in India. He further added that the company is committed to providing their customers with the best in class technical support and customer service. Now that Dow Corning Corporation is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Dow Chemical Company, this would give them the opportunity for newer product offerings, increased geographic reach and expanded R&D power to bring innovations to their Indian customers faster. Shah appreciated the efforts of the Allarch team, whose expertise and experience within this industry helped them in setting up the SAHAYOG Centre. Sonali Bedre, Director Operations Alumayer India Pvt Ltd, one of the most preferred façade contractors in India, who graced the occasion, said that Alumayer is very happy to be associated with this Centre and hopes to work closely with DC team to improve technical competence. “SAHAYOG Centre will help our company to interact and train our people at this facility to improve our internal skills and knowledge towards the silicone technology and it’s application,” added Bedre. Alumayer has wide spread experience in India and in various countries across the world specially in high rises and complex structures.

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Dharmesh Shah, India Commercial Manager, Dow Corning

Dow Corning has been the preferred supplier of silicone sealants for them, since its inception in India and they continue to work with DC team for the current projects. Alumayer is presently executing two of the tallest facade buildings in Mumbai, i.e., The Trump Tower - an 80 storey building with Lodha Developers and ICC Tower with the Wadia Group. They are also executing the most iconic tallest residential towers in the world - the World Towers. The SAHAYOG Centre will enable access to the company’s Project Management System, helping enhance the safety, quality and success of structural silicone glazing projects, as well as the Quality Bond™ program, a global knowledge-transfer program for project partners that offers training, inspections and quality management systems. In addition, the Center will provide a platform for the Centre for Construction Expertise, a Dow Corning-sponsored program, providing training tailored to the needs of India’s construction industry.

Dow Corning and Allarch teams at the SAHAYOG inaugural event


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Industry Speaks

“Market Share of uPVC Windows Will Exceed 50% in 20 Years” Over the past two decades, uPVC has taken over other traditional materials for making doors and windows in a significant way all over the globe. Presently, it is the preferred material for door and window profiles due to its various features that improve quality of life, i.e. energy efficiency, recyclability, low maintenance and light weight. Globally, the segment was valued at USD 27.5 billion in 2015, and would reach USD 47 billion by 2024.

Farid Khan, Director & CEO, profine India Window Technology Pvt. Ltd and Dr. Peter Mrosik, Owner and CEO of profine Group

The Indian window and door (all material) market was around INR 13,000 crore in year 2013-14 and the market share of uPVC windows and door profiles was about 6-7 per cent. As per report by Ken Research, Indian window and door market is expected to reach over INR 15,000 crore by FY-2020 in terms of the revenues and out of that, the uPVC segment is expected to contribute at around 8-10 per cent approx. i.e. 1500 crore.

profine GmbH – an international profile group – is a leading manufacturer of PVC-U profiles for windows and doors and a renowned provider of shutter systems and PVC sheets. With its KBE, KÖMMERLING, and TROCAL brands, the group, having a payroll of 3,300, supplies its products to 70 countries and has an international standing at 29 sites in 22 countries. profine Group has production facilities in Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Russia, India, Ukraine, the USA and China, and its head office is located in Troisdorf, North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany. WFM had an in-depth discussion with Dr. Peter Mrosik, Owner and CEO of profine Group, on fenestration market in India and the progress of uPVC windows in the market. We also discussed about profine Group’s products, its USP and on the company’s future plans for India. Mr. Farid Khan, Director & CEO, profine India Window Technology Pvt. Ltd also shared his views on certain subjects. Here are the excerpts…

WFM: When did you start the business in India and tell us about your journey since then. Dr. Peter Mrosik (PM): We started the business in India in the year 2005 and have now been here for the past 11 years. But the real progress in business was observed after 2013. I have been owning the profine Group since 2012. Our first factory in India became operational at Vadodara (Baroda) in 2013. Farid Khan can talk much about the brand’s history in India since he has been with the group for a longer time and is permanently looking after the business

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in India. As an emerging market, India is in profine’s focus. Farid Khan, as the head of Indian Market and as the Director & CEO, has been communicating with all our dealers and clients. It is very important for me to be here twice a year and it is a bliss to meet the Indian team. WFM: Mr. Farid khan, could you please add few lines on profine’s journey in India? Farid Khan: It has been a great journey. When I started my venture with profine GmbH in 2007, I was sure that the company would be on growth mode along with the


Koemmerling’s current extrusion facility at Vadodara

existing u-PVC profile manufacturers, and here we are growing and going places at the same time. Initially, in 2013, we started Indian manufacturing facility with 3 extrusion lines having manufacturing capacity of 3,000 MT of u-PVC profiles and now in 2017 we have expanded the capacity to 5000 tonnes with 5 extrusion lines & 1 foil lamination line which is likely to go up to 12,000 tonnes with 10 extrusion lines in coming years. This has been a result of overwhelming response for the brand “Koemmerling” from the Indian market. We have successfully reached every corner of the country through our channel partners and we are happy to see the numbers growing.

Koemmerling’s upcoming extrusion facility

WFM: Please tell us about the fenestration market in general. How can you compare the market for UPVC windows in India to other developing countries like China?

sector, uPVC is a product which is a perfect fit for the Indian market. The fenestration market in India is still at a very early stage – probably in a scale of 10, it is still in stage number 2 or 3, which is just the beginning of a huge development of the uPVC sector for windows in India.

PM: Window and façade segment is an emerging industry and is growing at a fast pace. Within the

Compared to western countries or North America, the fenestration market in India is very different

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Products from profine India Window Technology are installed in this innovative and modern project

because it is highly price sensitive. At the same time, it is also a quality and brand sensitive market. But it is different in China. The construction sector in China is purely a price sensitive market, though in the future it is going to be more quality sensitive. But it never had been in the past. It might turn around (but not so far) when new buildings are going to be substituted by renovation. The Russian Market is quite similar to India. About 25 years ago, we started our business in Russia, as we entered 10 years back in India. The development here at present is similar to what it was in Russia a few years back. It started slowly with the building of warehouses and progressed with production and sales of customised products for the market. WFM: You said you have over 70 partners in India. What has made you one of the biggest brands? PM: Our products are quality-wise the best available in the market. Traditionally we have a structured way of moving forward, considering the marketing measures.

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profine Group is the founder of uPVC windows. We invented it more than 60 years ago and introduced in the global market. So there is a long tradition of high quality and branded products. Koemmerling is the most well-known brand in terms of uPVC windows worldwide. It is a success story around the world which is mainly due to the best team we have, including our Indian team headed by Mr. Farid Khan. He is an experienced director in the field and ‘Mr. uPVC’ in India. Everyone in the industry knows him. WFM: Mr. Farid Khan, please add a few lines on your group’s key strategies which helped the brand’s growth in India? Farid Khan: We have organised various conferences/ architect’s meets over the years to create brand awareness in the Indian market. We have been participating in fenestration specific exhibitions like ZAK, Fensterbau Frontale India and our channel partners are also contributing individually by showcasing Koemmerling brand & product range in various regional level exhibitions and architect meets. Apart from above, we are actively reaching the masses through digital media thereby enhancing our brand value.


The installations at various projects from prestigious builders and developers are showcasing our presence and strength in the market thereby living to the statement “seeing is believing”. WFM: Please tell us about world-wide operation of profine Group? PM: profine Group is a company which has a revenue more than 700 million Euros. We are present in more than 70 countries all over the world and Koemmerling is our top brand. The focal countries in terms of mature market includes Russia, Germany and North America. But in terms of emerging markets, our main focus is India. Besides window profiles, we are producing extruding sheets which are normally used for the construction sector. WFM: Please tell us about few of your products which you have introduced worldwide recently? PM: After I took over the company, we invested heavily on new products and introduced many new systems world wide. One of them is the well-known 76 system which was introduced in December 2016. The Koemmerling 76 double seal system offers all the benefits the modern windows can give. It’s five chambers and 76 mm construction depth offers a fascinating combination of modern design and perfect profile proportions. It is a window profile system, which is best in quality with efficient u-value. The system is such an innovative design that it can take modern triple glazing or special functional glazing with panes up to 48 mm thick. We offer our customers a variety of colour solutions. Koemmerling 76 is available with the new innovative surface technology pro Cover Tec in 22 colours. In addition to providing aesthetic value, the surface technology helps cool down the profiles. We have bespoke solutions for certain markets like India and South America. In addition to that, we are launching many quality products globally. All these products will be available in India sooner or later, depending on the maturity of the market. We started with 58mm system and modern bespoke colour solutions in India. However, the market is

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One of the bespoke window systems by profine

still at an ascent stage (stage number 2 now in the scale of 10, as I mentioned earlier). Countries like Germany or Austria are the topmost in market maturity, may be in number 9th or 10th position in the scale. Frame value requirement for Germany is much higher than that for India. Since the needs are different, we need to provide bespoke solutions to different markets. Our approach to Indian market is customised. WFM: In India, uPVC window market size is only 8 to 9 percent of the total market for windows. What are the steps taken for improving the market for uPVC windows in India? PM: We further support the product in terms of marketing, educating about the value of the product, conducting conferences and discussions with architects, real-estate developers and contractors. We invite them to confer the advantages of uPVC window systems and discuss the challenges faced by them in choosing/ installing window systems. We explain the need for adhering to quality and standards, and make them aware of the difference between the right and wrong products.


Window systems from profine at Anusandhan Kendra, SASTRA University

We also promote the products in events like ZAK exhibitions and conferences. Such events help to spread awareness. We participate every year in this exhibition and find it as a great platform to spread awareness on the product and to discuss with various experts in the field who are present at the exhibition. Such events are very helpful in order to bring the market forward. In Germany, for example, the percentage of uPVC windows is exceeding 70 percent and in every mature market like Austria, Russia, & North America the figures are almost the same and they mostly use uPVC. I bet that from 20 years from now, the market share of uPVC in India will exceed atleast 50 percent. We will see a growth in development which is very interesting. WFM: What is the percentage of unorganized market share for window profiles and window systems? PM: The market for window systems and profiles is in the range of 12 to 15 thousand crores. About 70 to 80 percent of window produced is from the unorganized sector. Only 20 to 25 percent is

produced by the organized sector, out of which the share of uPVC is much more, whereas aluminium, wood and steel windows/ profiles are produced more by the unorganized sector. There are very few aluminium profile manufacturers in the organized sector (e.g. companies like Shueco, Alcoa or Reynaers). WFM: Please tell us about your manufacturing plant at Vadodara. PM: Our first plant built at Vadodara, Gujarat, became operational in May 2013. At present, we have installed 5 extrusion lines and 1 lamination/ foiling line at the facility. We do have a training centre too at the plant. Offering quality profiles alone is not enough. One needs to get trained in making quality windows, followed by installing the windows in a proper way. Our workers are well trained in making quality windows. We train our customers and clients in all the three aspects – choosing the right material, checking the quality of the product, and the right installation methods. We are also training our fabricators in installing windows in the best possible

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Another project showcasing window systems with sophisticated technology from profine

way. This is how we help our customers in getting the best product and service. Architects in India say that getting the window properly installed is a challenging process. We have realized this and are successfully training our fabricators. WFM: What is your USP? PM: We are innovative and leaders in the respective market. We invest heavily in every market as we have done in India. We are a ‘no nonsense’ company and we work towards the progress of the industry and make it happen. This is what makes us reliable. Our customers trust us immensely. They know that they will get the best products and service from our brand. In addition, we make it a commitment when we say we are sincerely working towards ‘Make in India’ mission and we do not make products in Germany for Indian market. This was the main aim behind opening the factory in India. This commitment is well understood by our customers. Our products are customized for the Indian market. All Indian customers value the right product.

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WFM: What are your future plans for India? PM: Further growth! This is a very clear answer. We want to see the Indian market developing like that of Russia. We would be opening a new factory in Vadodara this year with more extrusion lines. In the first phase we will have 10 extrusion lines, which would be expanded to 20 in the future. We are planning to start production in the new plant in this year itself. Now our extrusion plant is well equipped with stateof-the-art manufacturing facilities. It has a production capacity of 5000 MT from 5 extrusion lines and 1 lamination/ foiling line. In a couple of years’ time, profine India will be geared up for 10 extrusion lines and 2 lamination/foiling lines in its new facility which will have a production capacity of 12000 MT p.a. of uPVC profiles. We chose Vadodara for the factory since it has great economic surroundings or zones. The location for the business zone has been taken up by the Prime Minister, Mr. Narendra Modi himself. We have everything necessary for smooth running of our


factory in this zone. There are no power issues and this is one of the best regions in India to go for.

WFM: What are the major challenges you face in the Indian market?

WFM: Where do you see the façade and fenestration industry in India from 10 years from now?

PM: Different taxes for various regions of India is a big challenge. The skill and knowledge of fabricators is another issue. To be honest, the quality of work is not at par with what we see in Western Europe or other developed markets, in spite of choosing the best available fabricators. We have to train them for the best output.

PM: I guess the construction sector in India will grow further. The Government has been taking necessary actions for the same. We see a hard period right now, particularly after demonetization. Policies like equalization of VAT rates will certainly help the economy to grow. Along with it, the construction sector will grow too. Looking long term, the situation is very positive. I see an over proportionate growth in construction sector in the coming years. And there is a big chance for uPVC sector as well. WFM: Please tell us about the company’s R&D plans for India? PM: We do R&D in all our factories around the world. Our permanent control and innovation team is working round the clock, firstly on quality issues, and secondly on innovative products. We invest heavily in our R&D team because we think we have to offer typical Indian solutions in terms of colour, profile depth or energy conservation. It all depends on how the market in India is developing.

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Our Indian team is organizing required training sessions which are tailored for the Indian market. The team is very selective about the customers. They are equally selective in choosing the fabricators too. Choosing the right customers and fabricators is essential to hold the Koemmerling brand name high. The customer base of Koemmerling is second to none and this, I guess, is the most positive sign for us. Profine is one of the largest window profile extrusion companies. As the owner of the company, my decision making process was made much easier by Farid and his Indian team. We honour our customers very much. Nearly all our customers are privately held fabricators and window makers, who have been in this field for generations, similar to the brand Koemmerling. We maintain great relationship with our customers.


Project Watch

Black Box on Whitefield About the Author: Siddharth Yog and Sumi Gupta lead the design and development team at Virtuous Retail South Asia.Together, they have established new design paradigms for lifestyle centres in the country with their extensive experience in global real estate and infrastructure business. Siddharth Yog is the Founder and Chairman of Virtuous Retail South Asia, a retail real estate company that has a development/ operating portfolio of approximately 5 million sq ft of community focused retail space across major Indian cities.

Siddharth Yog, Founder and Chairman of Virtuous Retail South Asia Sumi Gupta, Director – International Marketing & Product Development at Virtuous Retail South Asia

VR Bengaluru, popularly known as “Black Box on Whitefield Road” is located in Whitefield, one of the fastest growing business districts in Bengaluru. The centre is a mixed-use development covering an area of 9,00,000 Sq ft spread across a 4.5 acre plot. A unique community centric, integrated lifestyle destination, VR Bengaluru plays host to a multi-level premium retail arcade with an extensive portfolio of 114 leading global and Indian brands, a nine-screen multiplex that includes an IMAX and India’s largest Gold Class cinemas, a 54 key boutique hotel & residences – The Waverly, collaborative communal work spaces for start-ups and entrepreneurs – The Hive, phenomenal dining options including several pubs, cafes and restaurants and an upscale food court.

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Sumi Gupta is the Director – International Marketing & Product Development at Virtuous Retail South Asia. Her role involves conceptualisation, planning and designing of Virtuous Retail’s lifestyle centres across India.

VR Bengaluru - a mixed use project


Front view of the facade - VR Bengaluru

The overall façade comprises of the following four key elements: ∙ Curtain Wall glazing ∙ Atrium Skylight ∙ Textured walls ∙ Punch Windows, Eastern and Nodule Glazing These key elements have been played in such a way that there is a combination of light transmittance, reflectance and energy efficiency based on the demands of the space that they envelop. A. Curtain Wall Glazing: Clear glass of about 3 meters height has been used at the main retail entry towards the southern side. The façade for the entry has been treated with clear glass, to make it stand out from the otherwise tinted façade and therefore creating a clear access route for the customers to walk in. Also the entry façade doubles up as a backdrop for outdoor events such as live music concerts, art festivals, curated food walks, etc.

center for smooth customer movement. Covering an area of about 8000 Sq ft, the atrium acts as the congregation point for events, promotions and other branding activities. To reflect grandeur and showcase seamless integration of the outdoor and indoor areas, the atrium’s skylight provides sufficient natural light that illuminates the building across floors. The skylight is made of 10 mm energy-efficient, fully tempered glass. The atrium also has exhausts to vent hot air and thus reduce the HVAC load. C. Textured Walls: There is a clever mix of black textured paint along with energy efficient low e glass to create an illusion of a black box that literally catches one’s eye while driving past on the Whitefield Road. The height of the

B. Atrium Skylight: The atrium has vertical transportation, comprising of two elevators and two escalators, planned in the

Back view of the facade - VR Bengaluru

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parapet on the roof top is such that it ensures that the outdoor HVAC units, energy efficient chillers and other service equipments placed on the terrace are concealed. The black textured paint was selected because of its key properties as listed below: -

Water repellent

-

Resistant to mildew

-

Has good breathing properties

- Has an effective reinforcement of synthetic fibres so that crack formation is minimised -

Ease of maintenance as it does not gather dust

-

Cost Effective

D. Punch Windows, Eastern and Nodule Glazing: Ample fenestration had been provided across the internal and external faรงade to capitalize on natural light as well provide relief in the faรงade design. The Waverly Hotel & Residences and The Hive are located on the fourth, fifth and sixth floors respectively, and Food Box (the food court) has been planned thoughtfully to guarantee a right mix of both natural and artificial light. The Nodule is an organic shape of about 3200 Sq ft that adjoins the almost square shaped floor plan across the seven levels. Considering the shape that it takes, the glazing for the nodule has been designed in both toughened and curved manner, therefore offering architectural creativity and versatility.

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www.brijdesignstudio.com


Some of the features of the low e performance (KT 255) glass are listed below: - Energy saving glass that has effective light transmission and low solar factor; therefore resulting in economical use of air conditioning -

A lot of careful thought and planning has been invested to design, implement and maintain the overall faรงade as that is the primary element that sets a precedent to the plethora of attributes that VR Bengaluru has to offer.

Improved visual comfort by reducing glare, while keeping natural light

- Double glazing unit, once assembled, is up to 5 times more thermally insulating than a single clear glass panel Faรงade Lighting & Signage: The faรงade signage has been integrated seamlessly into the design of the overall faรงade to position the center and the brand VR as well as to highlight the brands at the centre. LED lights have been used through the faรงade to minimize the usage of power.

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QUICK FACTS Project: VR Bengaluru Location: Bangalore Client: Virtuous Retail South Asia Visionaries: Siddharth Yog & Sumi Gupta Consultants: RSP Design Consultants Pvt. Ltd. Materials used for facade & fenestration: Clear glass Commencement Date: May 2010 Completion Date: Aug 2015 Area: 4.15 acres


Project Watch

Dynamic Forms & Patterns Unilever Headquarters, Jakarta, Indonesia About the Author:

Gautam Bhasin Regional Manager – Inhabit Group, India

Gautam Bhasin (Regional Manager – Inhabit) is an architect by training and a building enclosure specialist by trade. His work experience spans the building industry across three countries. He has successfully delivered engineering solutions across Hong Kong, Macau, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Myanmar, Middle East and India. Gautam’s specialist skills include complex geometry rationalization to arrive at cost effective solutions that are optimized for manufacturing, and environmental performance optimization which enhances occupant thermal comfort and natural daylighting in enclosed spaces. With a team of 230 specialist designers and engineers across 18 international offices, he is delivering multidisciplinary specialist advices which includes façade engineering, façade maintenance, building physics, lighting and applied sight and sound to leading developers, architects and fabricators across the region.

With the advent of digital design documentation, the last decade has witnessed a significant departure from patterned linear geometries to more irregular and abstract building forms. Since the building façade is manufactured, and manufacturing efficiency governs the time frame and cost of the building, the key to successful implementation lies in the review and optimization of the building design to achieve a cost effective solution while mitigating large adverse impacts on the building aesthetics that the designer and the owner have committed to. In 2014, Unilever Indonesia envisioned to consolidate their operations across Jakarta into a single building owned and operated by them. Inhabit was approached to provide façade and BMU Engineering,

Unilever Indonesia Headquarters: Fins and the nosing as shading features on its facade.©Henry N.

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Unilever Indonesia Headquarters, Jakarta. ©Henry N.

lighting design, green building consultancy and acoustic/audio visual design consultancy services. The services were delivered seamlessly by Inhabit’s specialist teams based in Melbourne, Hong Kong, Singapore and Dubai. The building’s form was conceived as a perimeter office space with a hollow center, forming a large 5 storey day-lit atrium space with visually connected office spaces forming a multi-story community. The profile of each floor was designed to be dissimilar from the floor below or above creating an abstract ‘ground-scaper’, with internal overhangs forming balconies and external terraces providing landscape opportunities and external break-out areas. 1. Optimum Solar Performance: Jakarta lies 6 degrees south of the equator making the east and west solar exposure the most critical to the thermal performance of the building. As a feature on the building, the principal architectural intent of the fins and the nosing as shading features was optimized further by iterative simulation by Inhabit’s team of environmental engineers assessing the thermal performance, cost (shades and glass) and desired aesthetics to arrive at a 3-way optimized solution. The final solution was with a denser shading (11

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Central Atrium ©Inhabit / Gautam B.


Possible Tangent

Possible Tangent 1400 to 1450 Segmented glazed module Curved shading module

2 module wide cladding panel 4400

Curved cladding module

Sunpath showing shading strategy

Segmented corner and tangent principal

fins per floor) on the east and west, fading down to 5 fins per floor on the north and south elevations with the gentle fading on the north elevation to cater to north leaning sun in the months around winter solstice. The large 5 storeyed atrium was designed with 2 skylights providing natural daylighting at the ground level atrium and providing visual connectivity with the sky from a large public area while reducing heat gain.

glazing was designed using faceted panels leading to significant cost savings while the shading fins were designed to turn the corner in a bent profile, retaining the architectural intent.

2. Optimized for Manufacturing: Understanding the geometry and its desired complexity is the key behind drawing out strategies to optimize it without affecting the critical design features that define it’s visual identity. The change in shape between the floors was facilitated by the façade turning the corner with varying curved lengths leading to multiple tangent conditions forming the straight façade. With the budgetary constraints established, the corner

Skylight from inside, ©Inhabit/Gautam B.

The angle conditions between the corner panels were determined by equally dividing the curved length to a dimension close to 1400mm. While geometrically, this was closer to the architectural intent, it lead to multiple unique mullion sets for most of the corner conditions requiring multiple extrusion die sets. The team worked on the most optimum condition for the architects to reconfigure the corners, optimizing the design further for manufacturing. 3. Optimising the Envelope System: A key part of the architectural intent, the external envelope geometry, was organized to have vertically nonaligned glass surfaces with every floor shifting in relation to the floor below and above. A unitised window wall system was adopted to envelope the building which allowed the shape change between floors while offering the benefits of a factory finished modular façade construction. To respect the tight fabrication and installation program and the design intent of minimum joints on the shading fins, the fins were designed to sail over every alternative mullion, reducing the joints to half the number of panels and be site installed with receiving brackets which are a part of the factory assembled panel module. This allowed the building to be sealed in a shorter timeframe for interior fit

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2 module wide shading device

300

200

600 300 2 module wide Cladding Panel

Spandrel Backpan 4400

Min 75 mm Reqd for Accomodating ±25 mm Tolerance

Main Structure

Vision Glazing Site Installed Hook on Brackets Min 30 mm for ± 10 mm Tolerance

1400 to 1450

Prefabricated with Sub-frame hooked on to site fixed brackets

Main Structure (By Others) Tap-In Restraint Screws

Site Installed (Made to Measure)

Site Installed Bracket

Partial 3d showing unitised window wall façade build-up

Nosing Section Sketch

out to commence and improved the transportation efficiency. The nosing that separates the façade at every floor and allowed the façade plane shift was designed as a slab projection clad in aluminium. In order to reduce tolerance conflict, the shape of the nosing was designed in metal frame with cladding, and this unit was designed to be installed on a concrete perimeter beam.

application of the same concept was used to provide an illusion of a sunlit soffit and diffused lighting to seating areas below. In order to maintain the interior lighting levels on the ground floor which were largely facilitated by the skylight, the lighting engineers proposed a series of spot lights above the skylight designed to compensate for the reduced natural lighting levels during overcast sky conditions.

4. Signature Lighting Solution: Given the building’s strong architectural presence, Inhabit’s team of lighting designers worked on a scheme which helped accentuate the buildings geometry, highlighting the nosing features with indirect linear lighting features designed to visually enter the building’s 4 external atrium spaces. The interior lighting was designed using a seamless profile lighting solution, further accentuating the shape of individual floors. At specific locations, a larger

As the building design process evolves, it has become increasingly important for the specialists to work with a multi-disciplinary approach at the core of the design process. Unilever Indonesia is a great example of achieving a complex design, from initial concept to building completion over a 3 year time-frame with a team of specialist engineers and designers geared to understand each other’s trade and adding value by providing optimum integrated design solutions. QUICK FACTS Project Name: Unilever HQ, Indonesia Location: Jakarta, Indonesia Client: Unilever Indonesia Architect: Aedas (Singapore) Other Consultants: Royal Haskoning (PM), WTP (QS) Meinhardt Indonesia (Structure and MEP) Materials Used for façade and fenestration: Glass and Aluminium Commencement Date: June 2014 Completion Date: Mar 2017 Usable Floor Area: 35,000 Sq m

Profile lighting in a lounge space, ©Inhabit/Gautam B.

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Green Talk

Solar Window System to Reduce Energy Consumption About the Author: Masoud Valinejad shoubi’s extreme interest in green technologies in buildings encouraged him to research in this field. He has authored fifteen patents in Iran and the United States of America, in the field of kinetic façade of the building. He won the special award of the best invention from Korea Invention Promotion Association (KIPA) at the 4th International Invention Festival (4IFI) and also got the first place at The Best Idea Festival. He has authored fourteen scientific papers in the field of sustainable and green buildings.

Masoud Valinejad shoubi. Architect and Inventor, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch. Iran. (IAUCTB).

Masoud Valinejad shoubi earned his master’s degree in architecture engineering from Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran branch. His main interests are transformable buildings and sustainable technologies.

Renewable sources of energy such as sunlight provide opportunities for conservation of energy in various geographic areas. This type of energy coming from natural resources provides environment friendly energy. As the amount of reserves of fossil fuel decreases, production cost of fossil energy increases. On the other hand, with increase in world population consumption of fossil fuel endangers the environment with increased pollution and contributes to global warming. Increase in the amount of greenhouse gases is causing climate change. Solar energy is one of the cheapest and most available renewable energies. However, only 0.23 percent of the total world energy consumption is produced using solar energy. Solar window technology allows the balanced achievement of thermal comfort by heating air with renewable solar energy. This system can be considered one of the most affordable solar technologies. Using solar radiation for heating the

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surface of an absorber, transferring the heat to the fluid interface (air), storing the thermal energy, and using the stored heat in the building when necessary describes the complete workings of the system. Collectors are actually part of the building and they can be installed as a window or skylight. In addition to heat generation, this system also provides interior lighting. But the amount of sunlight that reaches the interior space is reduced by about 30 percent due to space between the two glasses. In this project, we increased the efficiency of solar energy collection by appropriately dividing the lighting levels. The proposed solar window consists of different layers. They are explained in the following section. 1) Glass (3 mm thick) with a Nano Coating: To achieve maximum energy absorption in solar collectors, the amount of light that passes through the glass must be increased by reducing the percentage of reflected light. Nano-technology has made it possible to achieve anti-reflection glass. It


Sample of solar window, which can be placed on the faรงade of a high-rise building

can be achieved by using a layer of anti-reflection (AR) coating composed of a very thin layer of silica with large pores. By using this method, we can improve the transparency of glass up to 98 percent and, in addition, the glass also has anti-static properties and

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the efficiency of the collector can be increased by as much as 15 percent. 2) Metallic, Energy-Absorbent Surfaces: For maximum solar thermal energy absorption and transfer


3) Concrete Container to Collect Hot Air: The container is made of concrete that was prefabricated in a factory. In the prefabrication stage, a metallic absorber is placed in the interior part of the container. The air inside the container is heated by the metallic absorber. When a substance is heated, it expands and its density decreases. Light air is transferred through the tube to the next container. The container, with its two layers of glass and the air between them, prevents the occurrence of annoying noises. Each container has two holes that hold the pipes through which the heated air flows. The holes are located at the top and bottom of the container.

Solar window system can be used in a villa

to the air inside the container, a layer of metal can be used on the inside of the container. A dark metal surface is used in the system because the dark surface will be about 39°C warmer than a reflective white surface due to the absorption of solar energy. We used copper as an energy absorber in our system. To prevent the loss of the collected energy, the absorber plate is covered with a suitable insulation material. Metal expands as its temperature increases, and this could cause damage to other components. To solve this problem, a gap was placed at the beginning and end of energy-absorbing, metallic surface. This gap separates the metallic surface from the glass and the steel frame. A flexible thermal insulator, such as a cork, is used to fill this gap. Since metallic surfaces that absorb solar energy do not transfer the heat to the concrete surface, insulation can be used between them to prevent the loss of heat energy.

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4) Cold Air Transmission Pipe: Due to the higher density of cold air, it is always located in the lower layers of the air. By putting the pipe at the bottom of the system, the cold air from the room is absorbed into the system through a suction caused by the warm air in the container. The PVC transmission pipes are covered with insulation and transfer the heated air from the absorber container to the thermal storage container. 5) The External Layer of the Storage: The storage tank is composed of two layers. The outer layer makes the rotation of the hot injected air easier, and the second layer keeps the gravel in the tank. The outer layer is made of PVC with an exterior layer of insulation. It is used to collect the air that has been heated by the absorbers and transfer it to the central storage tank. 6) Control Key: When there is no need to provide hot air to the interior space, this key can be turned to block the entrance space of cold air into the system, thereby stopping air circulation in the system. 7) The Way Hot Air Enters the Storage Tank: The reason for placing the entrance part of the warm air at the bottom of storage tank is that the heating process will be slow if we put it in the line of the last absorber container. This is because of the low density of warm air and the higher density of cold air, which would allow the input warm air to remain in the upper part of the tank and the cold air at the bottom. By placing the


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Solar window system helps to provide comfort place in cold climate

entrance part of the air in the lower section, we can improve the air circulation. The warm air that enters the bottom of the tank warms the gravels and mixes with the cold air as it moves toward the top of the tank. To create suction over the entire system, we used a small fan to make it easier to mix the hot air in the whole system. This fan acts based on the specific timing, which can be adjusted based on temperature of the air. At the indoor space, usually unpleasant airborne dust, toxic chemical fumes, harmful gases, microbes, viruses, and allergens, cause pollution and reduce the air quality levels. In this system, the next step after the fan is a filter that is used as an air purifier. The air is blown through

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the membrane filter by the fan, trapping the large contaminant particles. The membrane can be made of cotton, foam, fiberglass, or other synthetic fibers. For this membrane, an efficient barrier filter was used that has the ability to prevent the passing of 99.97 per cent of the pollutant particles larger than 0.3 micron. However, nanotechnology has played a significant role in the quality and efficiency of filters. Research Analysis The proposed solar window can be a kind of innovation in providing pleasant hot air for the building to increase thermal comfort of the occupants and reduce the use of non-renewable resources, such as fossil


Section of the proposed solar window

Overall structure of the proposed solar wall

fuels. Optimum usage of solar energy will reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases and help reduce the rate of stratospheric ozone depletion over time.

6. Due to its simple structure, the system can be built with little cost and used immediately.

The proposed solar window has the following benefits: 1. This system is based on two aspects of light and heat and has led to combining them. 2. A large portion of this system is prefabricated in a factory, and so, by observing and measuring components, the problems that occur will be diminished. 3. This product will prevent air pollution caused by the use of fossil fuels by producing pleasant hot air with natural renewable energy. It will help families financially and its resource conservation aspects will lead to the enhancement of the national economy. 4. The system can be used as a space heating system in impassable and deprived areas. 5. The system is part of the building and does not occupy additional space; also it does not require a lot of space for its installation.

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7. In the United States, air conditioning systems use more than 25 percent of the energy in commercial buildings and almost half of the energy in residential buildings. The proposed system, with its ability to heat, circulate, and filter air, can be used to eliminate a significant portion of this energy usage. 8. By changing the structure of the system, it can eliminate the need for metallic guards on the windows of houses for security purposes. 9. This system has a balanced division of openings in the whole wall that allows light to reach all of the enclosed space without being so bright that it is uncomfortable for the occupants. 10. The two layers of glass used in the system and the space between them minimize heat and noise transfer from outside to inside or vice versa and provide thermal and sound insulation.


Buzz Fenesta Launches ‘Same Day Replacement’ Service, Expands Retail Presence in NCR to the conventional wooden/ Aluminum or iron windows in aesthetics as well as performance.

Fenista introduced one-of-its kind ‘ Same day Replacement’ service

Fenesta, a division of DCM Shriram, introduced one-of-its kind ‘Same day Replacement’ service in India. It allows change of windows in a single day without having to rope in multiple vendors and workers like masons and carpenters, painters and polishers¬.The service will be available in Delhi, Mumbai and Chennai in the beginning. Trained engineers from Fenesta ensure that the old window is dismantled and the new window is installed efficiently. The product is superior

Fenesta Building Systems launched its two new showrooms in Kotla Mubarakpur and MG Road, New Delhi. The showrooms

showcase a range of products from Fenesta - windows, doors and various design and colour possibilities. The range of products are specially designed in UK and Austria to give consumers a wellengineered, contemporary style. They go through stringent tests and quality check at every step to ensure performance in India’s varied and extreme climates.

Launch of Fenesta Showroom in Delhi NCR

Perkins Eastman to Design AIIMS in Nagpur The cornerstone-laying ceremony for the new All India Institute of Medical Science (AIIMS) in Nagpur, Maharashtra, was held on 14 April, 2017. The International design, architecture, and planning firm Perkins Eastman is the designer for the new campus. The 150-acre campus comprises healthcare, academic, and residential zones to create a holistic environment that reinforces AIIMS’s position as India’s premier medical sciences institution. Perkins Eastman, together with the India firm, Edifice Consultants, is designing

the entire development, estimated for completion in 2020. The Nagpur campus will be located in the MIHAN (Multimodal International Cargo Hub and Airport at Nagpur) project, establishing the first AIIMS presence in Maharashtra.

This campus is one of the three comprehensive AIIMS campuses Perkins Eastman is designing and planning in partnership with Edifice Consultants. The other two are AIIMS Kalyani in the state of West Bengal, and AIIMS Guntur in the state of Andhra Pradesh.

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“SKY” from FunderMax FunderMax launched a new exterior textured surface “SKY” with stone finishes. Available in two sizes, i.e., 4100x1300mm in 6mm and 8mm thickness, and a variety of traditional and contemporary shades, it could be an alternative to stone, ceramic and metal facades. The product enables designers and architects to effectively re-create stone and concrete like facades. This is suitable wherever stone cladding is preferred but couldn’t be considered due to constraints like high structural load and other risks associated with stones like high porosity, stain marks, etc. Also, some stones are soft, brittle and very susceptible to chipping,

developing cracks and breaking. The stone cladding is time consuming and labor intensive process which requires regular maintenance over the years and has to be polished periodically. Dr. Prashanth Reddy, Managing Director FunderMax India says that the product is designed ‘for people who create’, as it will allow professionals to achieve the very best in terms of visual depth and texture. As the surface design doesn’t have a grain, architects no longer need to worry about the direction of the cut during installation. FunderMax, owned by Constantia Industries AG, one of the largest

industrial companies in Austria, dealing in wood processing, manufacturing wooden High Pressure Laminates and other products used in the building and construction industry. Headquartered in Bengaluru, FunderMax India Pvt. Ltd. is a 100 per cent subsidiary of FunderMax GmbH, Austria.

Latest Façade Technology from Hueck Architectural aluminium specialist Hueck UK has added to its commercial offering, with the launch of Trigon GSP - a glasssandwich system that allows architects to create complex office and store facades quickly and cost-efficiently. Opaque glasssandwich panels and concealed mounting offers seamless glass looks without visible structural elements. Each surface can then, be individually printed with colored images and lettering, making complex office and store facades easily achievable. The system offers continuous glass lengths of up to 16 metres and can achieve U-values of up to 0.13 W/m2K in opaque areas.

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Trigon GSP is one of the four new products recently launched by Hueck to help architects unlock new opportunities in the domestic and commercial markets. “We believe that we have pushed the boundaries with Trigon GSP and are delighted to bring a product to market that will make the design and process of complex façade projects quicker and simpler,” said Leon Friend, Commercial Director at HUECK GmbH & Co. KG

Hueck is one of Europe’s largest manufacturers and suppliers of aluminium window, door and façade solutions, specialising in both, standard systems as well as bespoke applications. The company offers a wide choice of profiles, all of which are designed to integrate with each other.For more information, visit www. hueck.com.


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Transparence Competition: Winners Felicitated Saint-Gobain India, one of the world leaders in habitat solutions, in association with Ethos, conducted the eleventh edition of Transparence in Chennai. This competition for students of architecture and design, is Saint-Gobain’s annual forum to showcase student talent from the Colleges of Architecture and Design in India and gives them an opportunity to get mentored by the who’s who of Indian and global architecture. Transparence 2016 received over 200+ team entries for showcasing Design ideas under the theme SPACE IN MOTION for imagining and creating a Centre of Performing Arts at Pragati Maidan, New Delhi. B Santhanam, President and MD Flat Glass South Asia, Egypt and Malaysia Saint-Gobain India (P)

Ltd along with the jury awarded the National Winners. Kunal Jain and Shivani Agrawal of IPS Indore bagged the ultimate glory and emerged to be the National Winners of this year’s competition, followed by Aishwarya S R, Raghavvendra G V and Raksha Manohar Shetty of SIT Tumkur, who stood as National Runner's up-I. Rishab Arora and Rijul Nayal of Gateway College, Sonepat, along with Saurabh Sharma, Aishwarya Dwivedi and Aditi Rai of MNIT Jaipur were appreciated with Consolation prizes. As a part of the this year’s event, Saint-Gobain awarded Scholarships worth INR 1,00,000 each to 2 deserving recipients for their disruptive ideas on amphibious transit shelters and using bamboo as reinforcement.

Saint-Gobain is also evaluating two other projects on algae air filtration panel to combat pollution and of architecture for the scholarship. Along with the competition, a host of events were also conducted at the School of Planning and Architecture, Anna University. 170 select students from renowned institutions across the country attended these events. Transparence 2016 also hosted Archumen Pro - India’s largest quiz competition for practicing architects, which was well received by firms and architects across India.

NBCC Ties up with Polish Firm for Adoption of Energy Efficient Technology Berger Paints India announced that its wholly-owned subsidiary, Bolix, S.A. Poland and NBCC signed a memorandum of business exploration yesterday, 17 April 2017, in furtherance of a joint initiative to bring to India External Thermal Insulation and Composite Systems (ETICS), a proven solution for improving energy performance of temperature controlled buildings. ETICS is a very cost effective and efficient solution and much used in Europe. Germany and Poland are the pioneers in this technology

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though ETICS is now in use in over 15 countries in Europe. The agreement was signed in presence of Dr. Anoop Kumar Mittal, CMD, NBCC and Gerald Kenneth Adams, Chairman, Bolix SA. NBCC and Bolix will jointly promote, develop and facilitate the use of ETICS solutions ¡n building projects in India with the principal objective of reducing significantly the energy requirements for cooling or heating in these buildings which is expected to

result in gains in environmental sustainability. This partnership will help achieve medium to long terms goals set for NBCC and green buildings initiatives of India.


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Subscribe to Window & Facade Magazine by completing the form and sending it to F & F Media and Publications Pvt. Ltd., C-55, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase - 1, New Delhi 110 020 T: +91-11-40623356 For further queries write to: jasmeen@wfm.co.in


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Window & Facade Magazine - March/April 2017 issue  

F & F Media and Publications Window & Facade Magazine (WFM) is a technical journal published by F & F Media and Publications.

Window & Facade Magazine - March/April 2017 issue  

F & F Media and Publications Window & Facade Magazine (WFM) is a technical journal published by F & F Media and Publications.

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