Page 1 Volume 3 | Issue 4 | ` 100 January - February 2017

SKYLIGHTS & ROOFING Choice of Right Materials & Technology

Project Watch

The Opus Business Bay, Dubai

Face to Face

Ar. Karl Wadia Senior Associate Architect Architect Hafeez Contractor

Fenestration Feature Noise Control through Proper Fenestration Installation








Brilliant inside, perfect outside The ideal combination of sealing and hardware systems for the window of the future Schlegel provide the ultimate in high-performance energy-saving seal technology for aluminium, PVC and timber framed windows and doors.

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Poly-Bond Brush Pile Seals:

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Q-Lon PU Foam Seals: proved and tested for almost 50 years

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� Unique seal made from PU foam in PE foil � Low / no stretch gained by glass fibre internal cord or insert � Low compression forces

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� Multiple applications in all slot and pocket types � Nominal thermal conductivity 0.041 W/mK � Outstanding acoustic performance � The widest operating range -60 °C to +70 °C | GSG INTERNATIONAL S.p.A. – India Branch Office of Schlegel International Copyright © 2016 Schlegel International. All rights reserved.

Schlegel International

“Printed and Published by Amit Malhotra on behalf of M/s F & F Media and Publications Pvt.Ltd. Printed and published at Thomson Press India Ltd,18/35, Milestone, Delhi Mathura Road, Faridabad-121007. Telephone: (+91 120) 4725400 Name of the Editor-Ms. Renu Rajaram”




Volume 3 I Issue 4 January - February 2017 Cutting Carbon & Cutting Energy 56 Discussing few effective routes to reduce the carbon emissions and energy usage

On some of the 08 complex design elements, which were merely a concept sketch by an architect, engineered and executed in reality

Trendy Window Treatments

Procuring Materials for Building Facades


On material 14 procurement planning, which plays a key role in successful implementation of any project.

Industry Speaks

Enabling Innovative Designs - The Evolution of Powder Coatings On design flexibility, durability and environmentally friendly benefits of powder coatings

On multitude of treatments defining functions of windows

Interview: Jean-Marc 68 Luvisutto Managing Director, Sapa Building Systems - Middle East & India


Face to Face

Noise Control through Proper Fenestration Installation

Interview: Ar. Karl Wadia, Senior Associate Architect, Architect Hafeez Contractor

Points to be taken 24 care while designing and installing fenestration to achieve optimal noise reduction

Cover Story - Skylights & Roofing

Window – The Silent Hero – Behind the Curtain

96 The Opus, Business Bay, Dubai

Project Watch 52

Co-Founders: Syed Ahad Ahmed Amit Malhotra Sarvesh Bagla Technical Panel: Mahesh Arumugam - Director, Meinhardt Façade Consultants KR Suresh - Regional Director, Axis Façade Consulting Editorial: Renu Rajaram +91 9312864830 Esha Sharma +91 98119 86040

Project Watch

On choice of right 29 materials, correct installation practices, types of glazing, maintenance and safety & security

An outlook on right branding


Published by: F & F Media and Publications Pvt. Ltd. C-55, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase - 1, New Delhi 110 020 T: +91-11-40623356

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Cover Courtesy: Architect Hafeez Contractor (Image for representation purpose only) DISCLAIMER: With regret we wish to say that publishers cannot be held responsible or liable for error or omission contained in this publication. The opinions and views contained in this publication are not necessarily those of the publishers. Readers are advised to seek expert advice before acting on any information contained in this publication which are very generic in nature. The Magazine does not accept responsibility for the accuracy of claims made by advertisers. The ownership of trademarks is acknowledged. No part of this publication or any part of the contents thereof may be reproduced in any form or context without the permission of publishers in writing. WRITE TO THE EDITOR Please address your suggestions to: The Editor, Window & Façade Magazine, C55, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase – 1, New Delhi, 110020 or email Please provide your full name and address, stating clearly if you do not wish us to print them. Alternatively log on to and air your views. The opinions expressed in this section are of particular individuals and are in no way a reflection of the publisher’s views.

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RNI: DELENG/2014/57870

Facades Today – A Story of Art and Science

EDITOR’S NOTE Façade aesthetics are constantly evolving. From ordinary concrete facades in the earlier days, we have come a long way to high tech media facades today. Design strategies such as shading devices, living walls, personalized ventilation, solar chimneys, displacement cooling, natural lighting, and mirror ducts are used to moderate the interior environment and manage energy consumption. However design strategies and controls are not universally applicable and need to be developed for each building uniquely. The design industry is racing to reduce energy consumption and meet the goal of achieving carbon neutrality by 2030.

Renu Rajaram

The cover story this time is on ‘Skylights & Roofing’, the two essential components of building envelopes which help in improving energy efficiency. The key factors to consider while designing and installing skylights and roofing to achieve glare-free light, ample ventilation and daylighting have been articulated. Environmental noise causes stress levels to soar when it rises above 55dB and therefore needs to be controlled. There is a great rise in demand for noise control in building design and this has been the driver leading to improvements in fenestration materials and technologies. The article authored by Mario Schmidt, Managing Director, Lingel Door & Windows Technologies explains how the noise levels can be controlled in buildings through proper design and installation of fenestration products. More interesting articles on cladding design and engineering, innovative use of powder coatings, latest trends in window treatments, etc. are also featured in this edition. While buildings take pride of place, our inclusive notion of architecture also has not wavered. We continue to rejoice the profession’s inner geek, disseminating latest designs and technologies, and the projects & products showcasing the same. As journalists, we are by constitution, inclined to scramble for covering latest news in the industry, hottest new projects and most awe-inspiring technological advances. We still investigate and encourage smart and healthy design strategies and promote champion innovation and emerging talents. We invite articles that impart valuable lessons, expert advice, or any purposeful topic that would help our readers to do better business/ work. We also invite our readers to respond to published articles and suggest new features. We believe that a little effort from all of us in educating people and voicing opinion will make a significant difference in the world of façade and fenestration.

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ACP Panels

Facades Today – A Story of Art and Science About the Author:

Ar. Reema Jain Director, Alpro Industries & The Rishabh Winpro Pvt Ltd

Reema Jain did her B.Arch from School of Planning and Architecture and Masters in Renewable Energy from TERI University. She is the Director of Alpro Industries and the Rishabh Winpro Pvt Ltd – a leading organization offering turnkey design and build solutions for aluminium as well as uPVC doors, windows and facades. The company has one of the largest production capacity under single roof for production of doors, windows and façade panels in its state-of-the-art manufacturing plant in Haridwar. Reema Jain has avid interest in green design and new materials. She is also a visiting faculty at the School of Planning & Architecture.

The design of façades in buildings today has become a complex exercise. Façade has always been a design statement of a building. With the evolution of glass facades, the installation of continuous glass itself was considered as a marvel. Thereafter, it further evolved with the introduction of other cladding materials like ACP, HPL, other metal sheet claddings, etc. Today, the design and execution of façade has moved beyond the client requirements, and designers are looking at it as a piece of art which can be appreciated by someone in fast moving car as well as an onlooker who is standing and experiencing it. They are willing to experiment so that the building stand unique amongst the others. At the same time the basic performance science factors of structural stability, air and water permeability resistance, thermal and acoustic performance have to be

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maintained. We take pride in executing some of the complex design elements that were engineered and executed in reality after it was merely a concept sketch by an architect as a desired element.

Hotel Crowne Plaza in Greater Noida – The installation on façade was created with multiple shades of ACP panels in different sizes and planes


Water Resistant

UV Proof

Termite Proof

Borer Proof

Weather Proof


EN 438 CertiďŹ ed

Flame Retardant

Presenting Exterior Grade Compact Laminate (EGCL), a range of self-supporting compact grade HPL (High Pressure Laminates) that keeps your exteriors beautiful for years.,

The Sangam Theatre in R.K. Puram, New Delhi – The façade showcases a double skin system with glass and CNC cut aluminium sheets

In one of our earlier projects at Hotel Crowne Plaza in Greater Noida, the architect had planned for a big piece of art to be done on one of the walls of the building. The budget provided by a professional artist was way beyond the affordability of the project. Our design team then sat with the designers and engineered a solution for their liking which was well within their allocated budget. The installation was created with multiple shades of ACP panels in different sizes and planes. For it to be in sync with the façade, glass was also integrated in the design. Another striking feature was integration of LED lighting on the façade which itself was a very nascent concept around the time the project was executed. Vertical fins were fabricated in SS composite panel in a complex shape that was in a gradient with varying sizes. Then LED was concealed in a U groove created in front of the fin. Another project which was interesting as well as iconic, goes somewhere way back in my childhood -- the Sangam Theatre in R.K. Puram, New Delhi. The new façade of the building beautifully accommodates all the modern design elements of façade design today. A double skin system with glass and CNC cut Aluminium sheets along with integrated LED lighting has been a good engineering design concept. The signage system for the building was designed as a feature element with aluminium perforated sheet providing flexibility and ease of installation with a walkway designed in the back. The signage

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Another view of the façade The Sangam Theatre in R.K. Puram, New Delhi

space was a smooth marriage of design and functionality that has made easy for any new tenant in the premises to easily install the signage without disturbing the functionality of the mall or blocking the space with an ugly scaffold on the facia. The design on the CNC cut sheet was carried as a central theme on other installations in the building – be it with the ceramic fritting on the atrium and main entrance glasses or the grooving and cutting on the false ceiling panels in the atrium. The fire escape staircases added in MS, later after building was up at DLF Mall of India project executed in Noida, was designed very intelligently, for them to become featured elements of façade and as signage opportunities. The colour scheme of the logo of the mall was used in the form of ACP panels that were illuminated with LED concealed in specially designed and extruded aluminium channel for the project. The colour scheme then extended into the main entrance tubular ACP fins. To maintain the exactness of the colour, the tubes were PVDF coated in the same colours instead of being powder coated. Another interesting element used in the project was expanded mesh. The pattern, design, pitch and elongation of the same was finalized after multiple iterations and submission of the samples. The product was also installed as a mock-up first, to be seen and for approval of the fixing details in real, instead of just on the

paper in the form of shop drawings. A second mock-up was done after incorporating some of the observations by the architect from the first mock-up. The actual installation was taken up after the second mock-up was approved. All this is possible with an involved client and architect with whom it’s always a pleasure to develop design intent to reality. The key to any innovation is to think beyond boundaries and material restriction. Many a times a design concept is shot down by saying that this practically is not possible to be executed. But we have our experiences where with hard work, time and effort it can be made to happen, the solution can be engineered. As a couple, we always have this interesting debate where I shall be pushing Nikhil (Nikhil Jain is the author’s spouse and Managing Director at Alpro Industries) to ensure that the challenging design intent communicated by the architect is transformed into an actual visible product which reminds of the great works of legendary architects in the form of iconic buildings recognized by the world today that motivates us to be part of their development journey. Another project that we are currently working on is very interesting where we are trying to create the effect of prismatic glass without using a prismatic glass. We have been working patiently

Another view of the façade of DLF Mall of India, Noida

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DLF Mall of India, Noida: Colourful ACP fins and panels that were illuminated with LED concealed in specially designed and extruded aluminium channel

with the international as well as local architects along with the client to create a beautiful glass box with a jewel effect. Many more features in the project, be it the canopy being designed, aesthetic fin profiles, etc., are all being developed progressively and patiently. All this is being achieved with multiple samples developed from time to time. Behind each sample on site lies multiple samples and prototypes developed in our factory in Haridwar. We are thankful to the client for showing confidence in us. To see the project from design stage to extensive façade and material engineering, and now going through the installation, weaves into a beautiful story of hard work, design and engineering. We shall love to share the details of the project one day when the same is completed.

Special Feature

Procuring Materials for Building Facades About the Author:

Arshad Khan Assistant Vice President, Omkar Realtors and Developers Pvt Ltd

Arshad Khan, having more than 16 years of experience at various levels in India and Middle East, has worked with majors like Permasteelisa Group and Dorma before joining Omkar Realtors. He has been involved with various projects, leading entire faรงade process cycle from concept design, liaising with architects, material selections, procurement, contracts management, vendor selection, fabrication, logistics, testing of faรงade, benchmark mock-ups, installation, commissioning till handover. Khan has worked as one point contact between client, PMC, faรงade consultant, design consultant & factory, ensuring that execution of projects as per tender, drawings and specifications, coordinating and resolving design and other technical issues. His expertise in identifying the bottlenecks and providing solution and action plan for timely completion and within budget, has helped in carrying out many landmark projects very successfully.

Material procurement planning plays a key role in successful implementation of the project. Normally the decisions are delayed and once the procurement starts there is a mad rush to complete the project, which results in overlooking many key aspects which eventually further delays the project. 1. Technical details: a. Glass: Glass selection is the most time consuming item. It need a thorough detail working. i. Selection parameters should be clearly defined viz colour, U value, light transmission etc. ii. Look for ideal combination of DGU or laminated or both. iii. Select proper interlayer film depending upon usage internal or external. iv. Select glass processing as per requirement viz tempering, heat strengthening, heat soaking etc.

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Alta Monte Project by Omkar Developers

v. Selection of face to be fritted in case of frit glass b. Aluminium: Following points to be considered during finalizing extrusion i. Alloy & temper selection depending upon usage & bending ii. Powder coating specs 2603 / 2604 / 2605 depending upon location of use. iii. Clearly define the acceptable dimensional tolerances criteria c. Steel: Consider the following points for steel: i. Define grade of steel ii. Specify the coating required viz galvanizing, sand blasting, PU coated with minimum dry film thickness expected. iii. Specify the dimensional tolerances expected. iv. Ensure all critical weld test are witnessed by professional third party QC v. Get a sample approved for external finish of architectural exposed steel works. d. ACP: Always consider proven brands for external application of cladding works. Sizes should be optimized prior to ordering, else wastages will be high e. Anchor: Consider SS anchors for all externally exposed anchors and fasteners. GI can be used for internal concealed application. Ensure minimum embedments are carried out as specified and if civil structural is having big tolerances than better to have longer lengths be ordered in proportionate quantities. f. Stone: Following consideration to be done while placing stone order:

Omkar Meridia Project

v. Ensure criteria for tolerances in holes & grooves are clearly defined g. Gasket: Specify the hardness and elongation criteria for the gasket. Prefer EPDM over PVC gasket. Ensure the dies are checked with respect to extrusions and are approved from the designer. 2. Sizes & Quantities: a. Always get all the sizes for glasses / stone before placing an order. b. Ensure the sizes are within normal range else will lead to extra time and cost.

i. Ensure the entire materials are supplied from a single block

c. Minimum order quantities should be agreed upon before placing the order.

ii. Veins should be in one direction.

d. Include quantity for wastages / breakages / attic stock etc.

iii. Colour variations in natural stone should be benched mark with acceptable and rejected criteria. iv. Emphasis to be given on getting smooth edges.

3. Delivery Period: a. Different items have different lead time. Do materials planning in such a way that all the materials are received just in time. Consider the

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previous experience of the supplier in finalizing the plan. (please refer to the table ‘Materials Lead Time’).

d. Go into the details of supplier’s line of action. If no monitoring is done that chances are there that delays are bound to happen.

b. Divide the project into lots and sub lots. Set intermediate delivery dates for lots. Don’t go by the words of supplier that all the materials will be delivered in so and so weeks; instead track it week by week. (Please refer to the table ‘Dividing Project into Lots’).

4. Hidden Costs: while finalizing the commercial ensure that hidden cost are identified and sorted out earlier as in later stage it will badly effect the budget. Consider the following: a. Try to order glasses in final sizes. Wastage consideration clause should be eliminated.

c. Early deliveries will block cash flows and logistic space where as delays will cause stoppage in production.

b. In case of laminated sentry / pvb glass define the sentry / pvb layer sizes and get the final

Materials Lead Time Prio rity



System Type


LOT 02 Curtain wall system Procurement



















LOT 02 Curtain wall system Procurement



LOT 02 Curtain wall system Procurement



LOT 02 Curtain wall system Procurement

Alum & GI sheets


LOT 02 Curtain wall system Procurement

Steel Brackets


LOT 02 Curtain wall system Procurement
















LOT 02 Curtain wall system Procurement



LOT 02 Curtain wall system Procurement

Anchors & Fasteners


O 1

LOT 02 Curtain wall system Procurement



LOT 02 Curtain wall system Production



LOT 02 Curtain wall system Installation




Dividing Project into Lots WBS (1st level in SAP)

SUBLOT (2nd level in SAP)

SUB-SUBLOT (3rd level in SAP)

- L01 Unitized Facade Tower -01

EWS01 EWS01A and EWS01ACP _ 2nd-9th Flr Quantity =





- 11 EWS01 - 01A _ 10th-13th Flr


- 12 EWS01 - 01A _ 14th-17th Flr




- 11 EWS11 _ 3rd-9th Flr


- 12 EWS11 _ 13th-16th Flr




- 11 Typical Units


- 21 Untypical Units


- 31 Special Units


- 11 Typical Units


EWS05B Quantity =

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- 12 EWS01 - 01A _ 6th-9th Flr

EWS05A Quantity =


- 11 EWS01 - 01A _ 2nd-5th Flr

EWS11 _ 3rd-16th Flr Quantity =



EWS01 EWS01A and EWS01ACP _ 10th-17th Flr Quantity =





-21 Untypical Units


- 31 Special Units


Panel Coding

rates per glass. Avoid per square meter rates. c. Get clarity on minimum order quantity required for securities of dies. d. Extra over tolerance for extrusion should be minimized. 5. Logistics: Ensure all documentation required for overseas consignment are agreed upon and no delays are noted while getting materials cleared. Select supplier which can give benefit of taxes, transport & time. Product code should be clearly defined to get identified by end user. (See table ‘Panel Coding’). 6. Delivery Sequence: Inform clearly to supplier not to proceed with next lot until the earlier one is completed. Optimization priorities differ at both ends. When each lot has big quantities, communicate to supplier to ensure he supplies all the items in the lot proportionately as in most case 99 per cent is considered as ZERO. 7. Rates: Negotiate and finalise the rates in early part of the project as you have the options and time to look for alternatives. Once we are in the mid of the project and ordering a new item with fixed supplier then he tends to bargain for higher price. Communicate all specs and requirement of the project clearly to the supplier to ensure arguments

Another project by Omkar under construction

are avoided. Fix the rates by avoiding escalation in due course of the project by setting out project completion dates. 8. Warranties: All materials should have same warranties as required by the project. If any one of the supplier is giving lesser period warranty than the entire warranties will fall off. Ensure that the warranties are project specific and not generic in nature. 9. Packing: Define standard packing procedures at the time of order. A little more investment might be helpful at later stage than damaged quality of products. 10. Testing: All needed test as per the specification should be taken seriously and carried out in accordance to it. Considering all the above mentioned points before finalizing any contract will be beneficial for all the stake holders. Hence a thorough study of the project requirement at the start of the project is very much needed. By following correct procedures putting materials on hold, rejection of materials, transit breakages, arbitrations, rate escalation, billing variations etc., can be avoided which normally consumes lot of energy and time of project management team.

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Powder Coatings

Enabling Innovative Designs The Evolution of Powder Coatings About the Author:

Monesh Aidasani Regional Specifications Manager - Middle East, India & Africa (MEIA) Jotun Powder Coatings

Based in Dubai and working with Jotun for the last twelve years, Monesh Aidasani is responsible for the regional business development for Powder Coatings in the building and construction industry, supporting the company’s growth and profitability ambitions. Monesh has a strong background in the coatings industry and holds a Chemical Engineering degree. Key achievements during his role with Jotun include securing major landmark projects across the MEIA region by advising local and international architects on the requirements of aluminium finishes suited for the harsh weathering conditions across the region. Monesh’s focus is on developing and obtaining business growth in the Middle East, India and Africa, and closely cooperating with the product management, technology and the industrialisation teams within Jotun Powder Coatings.

Today, the advancement in technology and innovation has turned our once simple cities into beautiful landscapes and skylines that are the epitome of architecture and design. No more does the term concrete jungle apply to our cities; they are now instead an artistic display of twisted and twirled sheets of steel and aluminium façades. India is known for its beautiful structures and monuments such as the Taj Mahal, Red Fort, Qutab Minar, India Gate, Mysore Palace and more, that are worldrenowned for their beauty, but most of all, they still stand tall as they were made to last. Innovative architectural designs have transformed our cities with aesthetically pleasing materials such as glass, steel and aluminium, favoured by many architects for their design flexibility. Following this transformation, powder coating became a popular choice for architects, both big and small. Many of the architectural masterpieces we see today were made possible due to powder coatings.

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Powder coatings, a dry finishing process, has become an increasingly well-known procedure since its introduction in the late 60s and early 70s. It was mainly introduced as a more sustainable substitute to the industrial finishing process, as it involves a technique that eliminates the need for any

The Masdar Institute of Science and Technology in Abu Dhabi

Louvre Abu Dhabi: Jotun Powder Coatings, which is heat-reflective, protects the cladding from the harsh climatic conditions

solvents unlike liquid paint. Initially, powder coatings were created using epoxy resins, and later using epoxy and polyester together to create more stable coatings. At this stage, powder coatings were used for a small number of metal-made indoor objects. Following advancements in technology and once chemists began to experiment with pure polyester resins, they discovered the true potential of this technology. The main difference between a conventional liquid paint and a powder coating is that the powder coating does not require a solvent to keep the binder and filler parts in a liquid suspension form. The coating is applied electrostatically and is then cured under heat to allow it to flow and form a “film�. Architectural grade powder coatings are thermoset polyester; this is usually used to create a hard finish that is tougher than conventional paint. Architects and contractors were keen to accept this new technology due to its design flexibility, durability and environmentally friendly benefits. In addition, the popularity of aluminium extrusions added to the growing demand for the powder coating process. Powder coatings also offered a wider range of colours, finishes and appearances such as matte, metallic and wood look, unlike the anodising process which was limited to a few colours, was not ecofriendly or durable. Many contractors also consider powder coatings to require an easier application process when compared to wet paint and anodising.

These qualities convinced the entire architectural community on the benefits of powder coatings making them confident when specifying powder coatings as the finish of choice on architectural metalwork over all other competing technology. The powder coatings market has matured due to growing technological advancements, new and creative innovations, and a rising need for sustainable solutions. Compared to liquid coatings which is known to be more popular, powder coatings have several advantages in terms of sustainability and ease of application, and in the long run, can be the most effective and efficient solution. In addition, architectural powder coatings are lead and chromiumfree and have no solvents, bringing them to the forefront of the green building revolution.

Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi: Jotun Powder Coating for innovative architectural designs

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Today, powder coatings represent over 15 per cent of the total industrial finishing market. According to a new study by Global Market Insights, the global powder coatings market is estimated to exceed 3,800 kilo tons by 2023, growing at a CAGR of 6.8 percent. The analysis predicts revenue of $15.58 billion by 2023. This process has become popular due to its high-quality, durable finish that allows for maximized production, improved efficiencies and sustainable solutions. Powder coatings are often used for both protective and decorative finishing purposes, and are available in an almost infinite range of colours and textures. Powder coating finishes can be found on thousands of products that we come across every day, from the roughest, toughest machinery to our everyday household materials. In addition to providing superior durability, powder coatings also ensure an attractive finish when compared to their liquid counterparts. Items that are coated using powder are more resistant to depreciate due to moisture, chemicals, ultraviolet light, and other extreme weather conditions, and are also protected against scratches, chipping, abrasions, corrosion, fading, and other wear-and-tear issues. The pioneers that created the powder coating technology probably never dreamed that their innovation would be used for the far more complex needs of the architectural and construction industry. For over three decades, the world has been using architectural grade powder coatings for the aluminium extrusion industry. Polyester Powder Coatings Class 1 gained rapid popularity due to its recognition in the European markets. It is widely acknowledged as the premium option for powder coatings due to its ability to provide a high-level of protection against harsh weather and corrosion. The demand for a powder coating finish in these regions grew as it provided a good alternative to anodising, and soon other markets such as the Middle East and South East Asia also began adopting Polyester Powder Coatings. However, due to the harsh climate in Middle Eastern, India and South East Asian regions, the need for upgraded Polyester Powder Coatings grew as this could provide better

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The Beach JBR: Powder coatings that bring out the aesthetics of real wood

weathering performance. To cater to this need, continuous R&D has been conducted to provide Super Durable – Class 2 powder coatings that could not only last longer but also provide improved resistance to weather. The advent of hyper durable technology based on fluoropolymer resin truly pushed the barrier of powder coatings technology. This was a breakthrough where powder coatings could not only match the weathering requirements of solvent based fluoropolymer PVDF coatings but could add the numerous benefits that powder coating technology provided like solvent free, single coat and user friendly. Hyper durable powder coatings – Class 3 are now being used on a number of landmark projects worldwide replacing traditional PVDF solvent based coatings. Over the years, powder coatings have evolved to fit the requirements of the architectural industry. Due to the strict regulations that are being constantly outlined for the building and construction industry, powder coatings are becoming an increasingly popular process. In addition, other factors such as cost, ease-of-application, higher utilization rates, etc. are further pushing the growth of the powder coating segment. Innovations and developments within the powder coating industry has pioneered façade design and made possible what would have been considered unimaginable 40 years ago.

Fenestration Feature

Noise Control through Proper Fenestration Installation About the Author: Mario Schmidt is the Managing Director, Lingel Windows and Doors Technologies Pvt Ltd. A German based veteran and one of the leading manufacturers of high quality doors and windows, Lingel entered Indian Market in the year 2006 with Mario Schmidt at its helm. After completing his education in Mechanical Science in 1994, Mario realized that he had great interest for fenestration and decided to learn more about it.

Mario Schmidt Managing Director, Lingel Windows and Doors Technologies Pvt Ltd.

Mario is the President of uPVC windows and doors manufacturers association or UWDMA. He is a voracious reader and an orator who can speak on varied topics related to the industry. In a short span, the company has received various awards including Design Wall 2016, Prestigious Rising Brands and Magppie Estate Awards.

Noise is a variety of unwanted sounds, especially loud ones that disturb people’s peace. Pollution of various kinds has affected the environment and humans for a long time. Noise pollution has its own effect on our health and wellbeing. With life getting more stressful and strenuous, one looks forward to spending some quiet time, be it at an office or at home. The presence of excessive sound or noise breaks down the tranquil environment and brings harm to human as well as the health of animals. Noise pollution can especially be experienced by people living in metros. Noise caused by vehicles, industry, construction and blaring music is not only annoying but also creates serious health issues like deafness, cardiac disturbances, sleeplessness, headache, irregular blood pressure, and tension.

here are some ways to achieve the expected noise reduction.

Noise, to a certain extent, can be controlled in the house and office through proper installation of windows and doors. The question arises, whether it can be achieved or not. This is very technical and

Points to keep in mind:

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Key requirements: 1) The window fabricator has to understand the customer demand. 2) The definition on an exact decibel level to be achieved should be agreed by both parties. Practical advice: Never talk about percentage of noise reduction without the following a) Specifying the exact noise reduction to be achieved and b) The usage of a decibel meter. 1) Be aware that the noise reduction in decibel provided by the glass industry are parameter tested as per EN 717-1

2) Make a practical site visit and check the actual/ typical noise surrounding with a decibel meter 3) Make your final proposal of the right glass/window combination after considering all those points. Point 1 Why percentage will lead you into trouble? It will be always as per the opinion of the customer. Maybe your personal hearing loss is already there due to whatever reason where the customer will hear sharper than you and your personal feeling of less noise or an achieved good reduction is not as per the feeling of the customer. Two different opinions without decibel measurement cannot be evaluated and at the end we have to reach the satisfaction level of the customer. Point 2 During the actual Noise test as per EN 717-1, the test is done at a testing institute or even at

Noise test as per EN 717-1

a site with a specified equipment and for the complete frequency from zero Hz to 2000Hz and a pre redefined noise curve. Wherever the line is crossing at 500 Hz the decibel level of noise reduction is fixed (at this particular curve it is 43decibel of noise reduction). According to the test result, the glass industry specifies the noise reduction Rw at their technical

The noise reduction Rw at their technical glass data, specified by the glass industry Glass Dimension Rw (C, Ctr) Ug in Light Weight ThickL T in % 2 2 W/m K Transmission in % in kg/m ness in EN 673 mm EN 410 (Âą 2) 6 / 15 Ar /:4 8 / 15 Ar /:4 4.4.2 / 16 Ar /:4

36 (-2, -5) 37 (-1, -5) 39 (-1, -5)

1,1 1,1 1,1

81 80 80

62 61 58

30 30 30

25 27 29

10 / 16 Ar /:4

39 (-2, -6)






VG 44.1 / 16 Ar /:6 VG 55.2 / 16 Ar /:8 VG 44.1 / 20 Ar /:8 VG 44.1 / 16 Ar /:10 VG 66.2 / 16 Ar /: VG 44.2 VG 44.1 / 24 Ar /:10 VG 66.2 / 20 Ar /: VG 44.2 VG 88.2 / 20 Ar /: VG 44.2 VG 68.1 / 24 Ar /: VG 44.1 VG 88.2 / 16 Ar /: VG 66.2 VG 86.2 / 24 Ar /: VG 46.2 VG 108.2 / 29 Ar /: VG 66.2

42 (-2, -6) 43 (-2, -6) 44 (-3, -8) 45 (-2, -7) 47 (-2, -6) 47 (-2, -7) 49 (-2, -7) 50 (-1, -6) 51 (-2, -6) 51 (-1, -5) 52 (-2, -6) 52 (-2, -6)

1,1 1,1 1,1 1,1 1,1 1,2 1,1 1,1 1,1 1,1 1,1 1,2

80 78 79 78 78 78 78 77 77 75 77 75

58 56 58 58 55 58 55 52 54 52 53 51

35 47 40 45 50 45 51 52 56 72 62 62

30 35 36 34 38 42 42 46 46 46 49 49

l JAN - FEB 2017 WFM 25 l

Chennai Fortel Hotel (in front of railway station) - outside 110 dB, inside 37dB

AC Noise Level 50dB

glass data. For a window fabricator and a consumer, it will not be of any practical use since both (customer & fabricator) may not be able to understand how it had actually reached the certified noise reduction. Further, it is also of no value since the customer will expect a predefined noise level at his room. Both data can`t be added or subtracted. For example: Using the first glass of the attached glass list 6/15Ar/4 with Rw 36dB, and considering for a particular project with an outside actual noise level of 76 dB, this above specified glass combination will never provide a 36dB actual noise reduction reaching to 40dB noise level inside the room. Since as already clarified, the frequencies tested as per EN717-1 and the actual noise frequency at the consumer building are surely not same. Practical site visit needed 1. We all have smart phones now and decibel meters are available as an application free of cost. This freely available tool will protect both parties - sellers and buyer, because we can predefine an approximate a. Inner noise level which we would like to reach and l 26 WFM JAN - FEB 2017 l

Fan Noise Level 50dB

b. We can check the current (typical) maximum outer noise. Based on this result /understanding, the right glass and window combination can be chosen. To make a customer aware, we can further give a comparison of the noise level of other products. It will be understood by a customer that if the internal room noise level created by an AC or sealing fan is close to 50 / 55db, it will not be necessary to invest a heavy amount in reducing the outer noise level coming via the windows, since it is much lower that the noise created inside the room. But, for northern areas of India, it is essential to inform the customer that during the winter months, when no ACs or fans are running, the

noise from road will be of the same dB level of 50 / 55 dB, in case the noise reduction was agreed up to this level. It is important to understand the fact that the right choice of glass does not guarantee the performance of the overall window system. Always it will be the combination of the following points which assure the desired effects: 1. Glass 2. Frame material 3. Design of the window 4. Sealing (gasket) between frame and shutters



Gasket sealing & PU Foam Filling

5. Sealing between wall and window frame (PU form and tapes) Apart from the above-specified points, the following design /specification / surroundings mistakes has to be avoided.

Points to be taken care while proposing the right design to achieve the agreed noise reduction Sliding Windows No countable noise reduction Sliding windows with Insulated Better glass combination will not improve the overall performance glass since Sealant Brushes are not stopping the noise Doors Have to have multipoint lock and bottom profile Floating Mullion

production/locking has to be very precise otherwise there will be always a big risk that the proposed noise reduction will not be achieved Slide and Fold production/locking has to be very precise; otherwisethere will be always a big risk that the proposed noise reduction will not be achieved Coupling Joints couplers to be avoided/ mechanical joints to be avoided/Noise bridges are there between all the coupling joints Weak points at site Window AC installed inside a wall, Wooden doors inside the room next to our windows, Structure or curtain wall glazing next to our windows, slim brick walls of around 4 inches While taking care of all the above-specified points, great acoustic performance was actually achieved.

Leela Gurgaon - outside road Noise NH8 up to 85dB; achieved 36dB inside the room

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Cover Story

Skylights & Roofing Glass roofs are a vital source of daylight, reducing the need for artificial lighting. In recent years, installation of a skylight has become one of the most common choices for home and office lighting. A skylight provides daylight, ventilation and a view of the night & day sky. When properly selected and installed, skylight can help minimize heating, cooling, and lighting costs. Before selecting skylight for a project, the type of skylight that would work best is to be determined as also its positioning to optimize contribution to building’s energy efficiency. WFM called upon leading domain experts across various sectors of the industry to understand what they viewed as the most important factors while designing and installing roofing and skylights. We discussed a variety of topics on skylights and roofing including choice of right materials, correct installation practices, types of glazing, maintenance, safety and security, energy efficiency, and common problems in roofing and sky lights.

Skylights Zarokha to Skyroof … emitting the glow I pushed open the skylight and dangled my arms out in the starlight. There was another roof window half open just across the street, and even though no melancholy arms slithered out from beneath it I could see the light from within, and hear a faint musical beat beat beat… Skylights can soak a room in natural light, making it bright, cheerful and cosy, completely changing its dreariness. Skylights are literally windows in the roof, allowing you to bring a bit of blue sky into your home and display the splendour of the stars and the moon. In addition to the primary role of protection against outdoor environment, skylights help in cutting down the need for artificial light and air conditioning.

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©Vector Design

©Vector Design

Dome at Amanora Town Centre, Pune

“The beam of light through a glass tile amidst other tiles in a country tile roof, would fill up the room with divine light. This small little source of light would make a room lively even on a gloomy rainy day! My childhood memories of skylights are associated with this little tile that would let in the ethereal light on a full moon night and also the first beam of sunlight in the morning like a wake-up call….” So beautifully expressed by Dhananjay Dake, an expert in new age architectural engineering and the Creative Director, Catalysers, Pune. In a way, natural light through a roof has always been magical and adds great value to the space below. Considering the climatic conditions in India, surface area of a skylight and its location plays a vital role in creating appropriate quality of light and cross ventilation for habitable spaces. Sandeep Roy, COO, Nelson (a global architecture firm) cites

Dhananjay Dake, Director, Construction Catalyser

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Sandeep Roy, Chief Operating Officer, Nelson

Skylight at ONGC building, Delhi

that primary objective of incorporating skylights in any design is to bring natural light into the inner sanctum, which is probably difficult to reach through peripheral vertical openings. Skylights improve energy efficiency of a building. Harnessing solar energy with skylights to fill a space with diffused light is more efficient than using vertical windows. But if not installed properly, skylights can make a room uncomfortable through unwanted heat ingress, which make the air conditioner work harder in summer or allow precious heat to escape in winter. Skylights can let in almost four times the amount of heat as a standard window. Heat gain is to be managed effectively to optimise between air conditioning load and lighting requirements. Energy experts estimate that a 2-foot by 4-foot skylight made with a single pane of clear glass increases air conditioning load by 240 kilowatt hours per year.

Arijit Ghosh, Principal Architect, Studio 4th Dimension

Ashish K Jain, Partner, AEON Integrated Building Design Consultant LLP

Akhila Anantharaman, Director, Geodesic Consulting Pvt Ltd

Abhishek kumar Sinha, Project Architect, Turner Construction Company

Rajan Govind, Director,BES Consultants Pvt Ltd

it renders special character to the space it covers. Most great examples of skylights we see around us are beautiful, not because they add to the skyline of the city but because they create wonderful spaces under them, points out Sandeep Roy.

Key Factors to Consider While Designing and Installing Skylight Skylight becomes one of the important elements of a building envelope once it is conceived by an architect. Daylight brings along heat and glare, intensity of which depends on geographical location, orientation and positioning in the building. Here are few key factors to be considered while designing and installing skylights.

There are two schools of structural aesthetics in skylights – one which makes for a pattern/rhythm in the structure itself and another that expects the structure to be minimal and celebrates the glass. Skylights are one of those parts of the building where true structural aesthetics could be showcased.

While optimising energy efficiency is a primary requirement, an important factor in designing and installing skylights is aesthetics, i.e., the looks of the skylight from inside as well as outside, says Arijit Ghosh, Principal Architect, Studio 4th Dimension. One should consider nature of the space where light is to be drawn into as also intensity requirements.

The key factors that influence the design of skylight include functional requirement of the building/space in question, its floor to roof height, quantum of daylight penetration, visual comfort, thermal comfort and energy efficiency, points out Ashish K Jain, Partner, AEON Integrated Building Design Consultant LLP. The most important aspect to consider while designing any skylight is to achieve glare free light


The aesthetics of skylight is only occasionally external but almost always internal, in the sense that

Dome for a project at Mysore


Manish Banker, Founder and Principal Architect, TAO Architecture Pvt. Ltd

An Office Building at Pune

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©Vector Design

IBM Food Court, Bengaluru

and ventilation, says Manish Banker, Founder and Principal Architect, TAO Architecture Pvt. Ltd. While designing and installing skylights, one must consider the sun path in conjunction with the layout of the building, observes Akhila Anantharaman, Director, Geodesic Consulting Pvt Ltd. Sun path study takes into account the time of day, date of the year, orientation of the building, the latitude and longitude of the site, roofing and cladding materials used, usage of the building and layout of the space. “Skylights are added to buildings mainly to increase daylighting within the building, in-turn reducing energy costs and improving comfort by using natural sources of light. But if not designed properly, the same skylights can become a burden on the energy consumption by increasing radiant heat and in-turn air conditioning loads with increased glare from direct sunlight creating unfavourable working conditions in the building,” says Akhila. The sky-lit area requires to be weather-proof, advises Sandeep Roy, otherwise it might as well be kept open to sky. The functional objectives of skylights is therefore self-explanatory – that it has to bring in light and prevent rain or unwanted sun. There are some broad aspects to be observed while designing skylights for execution, says Abhishek kumar Sinha, Project Architect, Turner Construction Company. Installation details vary with the kind of material selected for skylights. Other governing factors to decide on the right skylight is safety (with

l 32 WFM JAN - FEB 2017 l

respect to fire and fall hazard), structural integrity, acoustic requirements, thermal conductance and light transmittance, says Sinha, who is also an architect associated with GRIHA (GRIHA-Evaluator) and LEED (a LEED Green Associate). Agreeing with Sinha on said safety aspects, Rajan Govind, Director & Façade Specialist, BES Consultants Pvt Ltd also notes that skylights should consider human safety and maintenance loads in addition to standard design criteria. Appropriate glass and safety compliances are primary aspects of skylight designs. Rajan Govind notes that incorrect glass specification may lead to very high cooling loads and discomfort to occupants. The installation of skylights is typically the last activity while closing building envelope and hence requires a coordination with other trades since inception of design. The drainage of rain water and interface with wall and roof assembly are the most critical details that can create challenging aftereffects if not dealt with due diligence while detailing and installation, notes architect Sinha. Acoustic and thermal properties of the glass used are also equally important. Heat loss through skylights is inevitable considering the convection currents set in due to hot and cold air temperature difference, explains Dhananjay Dake. Such a condition is not comfortable for cold regions; but in India, except for the northern region, skylight with vents are very effective to set in convection currents for escape of hot air and replacing with cool air.

How to Choose and Install Correct Skylights: Span, shape of roof opening and economics are the three prime determinants for design of skylights. In some situations, when the glass needs to be accessible and walkable above (like a glass floor), a flat skylights can be designed. In principle, such a skylight is designed simply as a horizontal curtain-wall which can take the load of whatever is happening on top of it.

©Vector Design

Selection of Location for Skylights: The selection of location of skylights is based on the sun path study. Small changes based on this study can go a long way. For example, results from the study can be used in design to ensure that diffused light from skylights on work benches or desks. After determining the appropriate location of skylights, two main aspects are considered namely glazing material and supporting system or assembly. Raja Bhoj International Airport, Bhopal

The design of skylight should be based on the type of building application too, says Ashish Jain of AEON. For example, skylights for an industrial building will be very different than for an atrium in a retail or commercial building.

of glazing could let in dangerous ultraviolet (UV) rays, which could harm people and fade interior finishes too. Though glass glazing for skylights is comparatively expensive, it is generally preferred to plastic due to its durability, better looks and the fact that it doesn’t discolour over time. Glass also provides wider options to achieve the balance between daylight and energy efficiency. Therefore a glazing that can achieve a balance between day light for visual comfort, heat gains for energy efficiency and of course safety and aesthetics should be chosen.

Skylights typically are constructed with either plastic or glass, and the choice depends on several factors, including climate, location within the building and budget, states Ar. Jain. Plastic glazing for skylights is less expensive than glass glazing and yet it is fairly durable. However, plastic is more susceptible to wear and will scratch, discolour or warp easily. Unless the plastic is coated with a special film, adds Jain, this kind

There are two major classifications on selection of skylights, says Abhishek kumar Sinha: one is based on design requirement for daylight within allowable limits of heat gain (through heat conductance and specific heat gain) and other is based on material. At present, the material choices available for skylights are Safety glass, Polycarbonate sheets and FRP (fibre reinforced plastic) Panel. Each of these materials has its

Material Glass

Light transmittance 50% for an ordinary 5mm thick tinted glass


Order of performance

Thermal performance 5.4 w/m2k

Order of performance

20% for 4 mm thick multi 3.0 w/m2k wall polycarbonate sheet FRP Panels 5-10% for an insulated 1.2 w/m2K FRP Panel The values are based on very wide range of general products and can vary up to huge extent depending upon some special configuration.

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The supporting system or assembly design should be done considering factors such as available sizes of glazing material, span, structural strength of assembly, ease of installation, maintenance and pleasing aesthetics.

The supporting system or assembly design for glazing

own advantages and disadvantages and require specific skills for installation. All materials have different performance characteristics with respect to light transmittance and heat conductance per unit area exposed to external environment. As a thumb rule, with better thermal performance of a skylight material, the light transmittance is reduces. Selection of Glazing: The term “glazing” has a very wide range of meanings in architectural vocabulary, including transparent, translucent and even opaque material in its range, says Sinha. Low maintenance glass is only a commercial term; there are coatings available commercially which reduces the dust accumulation on glass surface and thus require less maintenance with respect to cleaning of the glass. The market has a variety of options of glazing materials ranging from plastic to glass, says Akhila. This selection should be done considering the following facts: ∙

The direct sunlight diffused through the material or transparency

The amount of light that comes through or visible transmittance

The amount of radiant heat transmitted through the material measured by solar heat gain coefficient

The amount of heat from the air that will pass through the material unit measured by the U value of the assembly

l 36 WFM JAN - FEB 2017 l

Based on what we described above, a glazing material with a low Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC), low U value, high visible transmittance, and appropriate transparency based on location and layout would be ideal for design of a space, observes Akhila. Other factors to consider are strength of the glazing material, maintenance levels, resistance to breaking or cracking, and how the material will age over time, she adds. In India, a major problem with skylights is the potential greenhouse effect in the space enclosed, rather than heat-loss. Along with orientation of skylight, heavy tinting of glass or polycarbonate glazing also reduces daylight, contradicting the prime objective of having a skylight. During selection of glass or poly-carbonate glazing, it is critical to optimize light vs heat gain characteristics, adds Roy. Arijit Ghosh too agrees with Roy. According to Ghosh, glazing should be primarily of Low E Glass (low emittance). Any tinge in it would get you a desirable colour of daylight to enter. DGU (Double glazed units) with thermal barrier are a must in extreme hot conditions. Ceramic fritting, staining are other kinds of treatments are also opted for by designers for façade glazing. Glass installation too should be done skilfully. Thermal stress glass breakage occurs when there is a temperature variance in different parts of the glass, says Akhila. It is most common in large pieces of sealed insulating glass with heavy heat-absorbing or reflective coatings. The outside of the glass heats up more than the inside as the coating converts radiant heat from the sun into sensible heat. The outer glass expands and bends and when held in place in a rigid assembly cracks. As this breakage is not covered by most glass manufacturers’ in warranties, it should be considered in the design stage itself.

Covering Large Volumes: Glass Atriums & Membrane Structures Glass Atrium covering large spaces in commercial or public buildings are advantageous. The entrance foyer with a glass atrium spreads good quality of light and also helps to grow healthy interior landscape in large volumes that makes the space livelier. Such large volumes can be covered with laminated glass, supported by light-weight structure. Laminated glass filters UV & IR light that protects the occupants and furniture from being exposed to hazardous radiation. Safety is of topmost priority for any habitable area and atrium skylights are not exceptions. Ideally a doubly glazed unit of toughened heat strengthened glass sandwiched with PVB layer should be suggested .Toughed glass should be used for exterior surface considering its property of breaking into smaller pieces in case of an accident.Laminated glass for interior surface will help to keep the sheltered glass pieces which will prevent injury to the occupants in case of accidental impact. Such atria with large volumes are difficult to reach for everyday cleaning and hence there is a need to provide for low maintenance glass. The surfaces of these glasses are designed such that they do not need to be cleaned very often, but can be done sporadically. These are especially useful for flat glass roofs in difficult to reach locations. The chemically treated glass prevents contaminants bonding to the surfaces.

(As told by Dhananjay Dake, Creative Director, Catalysers, Pune)

Design of skylights and their actual performance must be validated by using computer simulation tools. Computer Simulations must be carried out to analyse and quantify both these aspects for finalization all the design parameters of skylights including their size, location, form and material. Heat Loss/Gain through Roof & Skylights The heat loss or heat gain through roof and skylight is an important issue since both together constitute a major portion of building envelope. While, the heat gain or loss is dependent on climatic condition where building is situated, material property is equally important in either condition, points out Architect Abhishek Kumar Sinha.

i-Lab Shell Building, Hyderabad

ŠVector Design

Any building that has a need to cover large volume with diffused light could be covered with translucent PVC polyester membrane. These roofs can span across large volumes with lighter supporting structure and elegant forms. This material could be put to use in combination & composition with other materials like glass, metal sheet, concrete and also with bamboo or wood. Membrane roofs have advantages over other rigid building materials because of being flexible and leak-proof.Depending on the need of the volume to be enclosed, membranes are available in a wide choice of colours, meshes, translucency, and opacity. Varied materials like Teflon Coated Fiberglas (PTFE) fabrics and High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), etc., can be used. The erection of membrane structures is clean, easy and fast compared to other construction materials. All membrane fabrics are maintenancefree, completely recyclable and fire resistance to meet building codes.Membrane being a versatile material can be adopted for various types of structures from dam walls/godown to an umbrella / a tent for a single man!

Heat gain or loss is directly dependent on thermal comfort of inhabitants resulting in more consumption of energy to maintain designed inside conditions. It is a common practice to run a simulation to assess building energy consumption based on selection of material and that provides guidance to arrive at desired empirical values required to choose correct material for skylight and roof. While in case of roofing material, it is the thermal performance that is a governing factor, in case of skylights, thermal performance, light transmittance and specific heat gain all together become important. The judicious juxtaposition of all these criteria plays a vital role in selection of right skylight material. It is to be noted that heat gain is not only

l JAN - FEB 2017 WFM 37 l


Innovative roofing and skylight: a project

pertinent for skylights but is applicable for overall fenestration of the building. The heat from the sun is transmitted into a building as radiant heat and the quantum is a function of chemical structure of the glazing material. Various materials react differently to different portions of the sun’s spectrum. Some wavelengths will be reflected, some will be absorbed, and some will be transmitted. If most of the wavelengths in the infrared and ultraviolet portions of the spectrum are also largely transmitted, then the glazing material will allow almost all of the sun’s radiant energy to pass through into the space below. As far as the thermal properties of a glass or sheet is concerned, the factors governing the same are the U value – the heat loss performance of the skylight assembly & SHGC – Solar Heat Gain Coefficient. These two factors work together. To explain further, SGHC is the heat gain from sun alone. On the other hand U value also includes thermal gain or loss due to the conditions inside including human body temperature, heat generated from HVAC and other services, heat generated from various equipments that are at work inside, etc. So, in summer conditions, a lower SGHC is more important. While in winter, a lower U value is more important with a justification of higher SHGC, says Arijit Ghosh. Safety & Security Skylight Safety should be considered for both scenarios i.e., for the people below the skylight

l 38 WFM JAN - FEB 2017 l

and also for the people working on the roof for maintenance or cleaning etc., says Ashish Jain. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) considers a rooftop skylight to be hole on the roof surface. A skylight that is accidentally stepped on or fallen onto can break and cause a fall from a fatal height. If skylights are in the vicinity of any work area or walking surface, they must be protected with the appropriate screens or guardrails. Hence, selecting a tempered/laminated glass skylight that is covered by a skylight screen (wire mesh) /guardrail at the top can be a good combination to prevent accidents. According to Rajan Govind, as a basic requirement, glass must comply with “safety glazing” i.e., use laminated safety glass. Furthermore adequate drainage provisions and roof slope should be considered for compliance with maintenance aspects. The prevalent safety threats to skylight are design loads (static, snow, wind and seismic), fall hazard and fire hazard. Heavier the material, more the hazard. Safety is always of utmost concern and if the installation locations make it prone to hazards, the most secure option is to go for a material which is lighter and has robust framing system, a material that can sustain fire and external loading and does not disintegrate, says Ar. Abhishek Kumar Sinha. One of the safety issues with skylight is potential accumulation of smoke in case of fire within the premises. It is recommended to have provision of smoke venting (which can also double up for heat venting) either through natural or mechanical means. Types of Skylights Any glazed assembly that admits natural light through a roof can be called a skylight. Some manufacturers use the term ‘roof window’ to describe a relatively large skylight placed low enough that you can see out to the landscape. Roof windows are generally big enough to qualify as means of egress in case of a fire, says Ashish Jain.



Skylight at Delhi Airport Terminal 3

Skylight at Hyderabad Airport

Skylights are available in a variety of shapes and sizes. They can be flat, domed, fixed, or vented. Fixed skylights cannot be opened, unlike vented skylights, either manually or remotely. Tubular Daylight Device (TDD): Tubular Daylight Device capture sunlight using a rooftop dome, then transfer it indoors through a reflective tube that runs from the roof to the ceiling. From there, the light is evenly dispersed into the interior space using a diffuser. These models, and in-tube solarelectric system collects energy to power a Nightlight that automatically comes on after dark. Tubular daylighting devices are sometimes referred to as “tubular skylights,” “sun pipes” and “light tunnels”. These are high-performance devices that use patented optical technologies to significantly improve the way daylight is harnessed and delivered to interiors. In future, the daylighting would be tapped and channelised to produce high performance interior lighting. This is an innovation which architects are really excited about. We would

like to see designers interacting more with the lighting vendors to come up with these. Difference between Roof Windows & Skylights: Roof windows and skylights both have the function of introducing natural light into the interiors and brighten up the space. Roof Window is a sloped application of a fenestration product that provides for in-reach operation. They are also used for emergency escape and rescue. Though, a translucent panel mounted at higher level on an opaque façade also termed as skylight, the same cannot be said to be a roof window as it is not mounted on roof. They are widely used in areas where it is not possible to introduce light through windows especially in areas like atriums, corridors, attics, store rooms etc. They can be confused with each other; however, the characteristics which distinguish between the roof windows and skylights are the following: ∙

Roof Window is an outward opening window in the roof which allows both lighting and

Fixed vs. Vented skylight ∙

∙ ∙ ∙

A fixed skylight will be virtually leak-proof since they are sealed during manufacturing. The stark majority of leaks with fixed skylights are due to improper installation and usually due to poor flashing techniques. Always ask for riveted and soldered flashing kits custom made for each curb size. They wrap the corners to seal once and for all. Vented skylights can certainly present opportunities for leakage because they are not sealed shut, however the makers of vented skylights have made vast improvements to their products to prevent leaks. A vented skylight can be left open by accident and allow rain and debris to get into your house. To solve this problem, there are skylights available that will close automatically if they senses raindrops. Vented skylights let built-up moisture escape from kitchens and bathrooms. You can also vent out excess heat, an option not available with a fixed skylight.

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Roofing Space Frame with Glass

ventilation of the interiors. Skylight is a fixed window in the roof and only allows light into the interiors. ∙

Roof windows are larger than skylights.

Roof windows allow access to the roof for any kind of maintenance work while skylights are fixed. Roof windows give beautiful views of the exteriors specially when used in sloped roof and bring a lot of nature and sky views from the interiors. Skylights do not provide any natural views.

Roof windows provide direct light while skylights provide diffused light into the interiors. Square or Tubular skylights are used to bring a consistent quality of natural light throughout the interior space.

©Creative Group

Skylight- Adding daylight to Raipur Airport

Roofing system is a combination of roofing material that forms a skin cladded over framing system intertwined with the structural system of the building. It is an important part of the building envelope that is intended to essentially provide shelter and protection from rain, heat and wind. Depending on the type of building, roof designs vary and so do roofing materials, says Ashish Jain from AEON. Other concepts which govern the selection of roofing system is behaviour of its components against weathering, thermal properties, ratio of span vs weight, cost and construct ability, adds Abhishek Kumar Sinha from Turner construction. Each kind of roofing system requires a framing system to support various loads including dead load of roofing material transferred safely to foundation system. Selection of Roofing System: Once the design and selection of roofing system is identified as per project requirement, the cost and durability of the material are major consideration for choosing the right roofing material, says Sinha. The roofing system has huge range starting from conventional Flat/low slop RCC slab, Composite deck slab, sloped roofing of steel sheet, sloped roofing of thatched roof, shingle roofing, roofing with terracotta tiles, glass roofs, etc., adds Sinha. A cost benefit analysis based on the anticipated service life of building, is what one should look at to select appropriate material. For example, Aluminium alloy roof sheeting has more life than Galvanised coated steel sheet, but latter is cheaper. Types of Roof Systems: The span of a roof with or without intermediate columns should be the designer’s and structural engineer’s first governing factor, observes architect Arjit Ghosh. Concepts of roofing are categorized in terms of accessibility – accessible & non accessible. Derivations of many forms of roof come from the second category. An Accessible Roof is usually flat with insulation and waterproofing. Insulation is done by expanded or preferably extruded polystyrene. The slope for waterproofing is done in PCC (Plain Cement

l JAN - FEB 2017 WFM 41 l

Concrete) and waterproofing should be with membrane preferably. The life of membrane should be seen before selection. However, there are other traditional forms of waterproofing with lesser life. For Inaccessible Roofs, sloped and curved forms in various geometric forms are available. The structural part is done in either RCC (Reinforced Cement Concrete), metal truss, space frames or wooden truss. Sheeting materials are shingles, metals like aluminium or PPGI (Pre-Painted Galvanised Iron). Installation of these are vendor specific after the structural component is in place, points out Arjit Ghosh. In addition, there are materials like clay tiles which are smaller in size, shingles made of tar, metal sheets, stone slates etc, which can also be used for roofing. Corrugated metal and cement sheets in long lengths are mostly used for industrial structures, points out Manish Banker. Then there are unconventional materials like thatch and bamboo. Flat roofs are normally covered with china mosaic made of broken glazed tiles which are vastly used for their waterproofing and heat insulating characteristics. Also we have Tensile Structures where we can attain some extremely dynamic forms like saddle shape or hyperbolic or paraboloid ones that is double curves. The materials are fabricpolyester or fiberglass with coatings. It has the quality of allowing some amount of light to pass through and can be installed with ease using light weight structural systems, observes Banker.

For small span roof structure where dead load is not a governing factor, concrete slab over RCC framed structure is most prevalent choice. A composite deck slab (RCC slab resting on Steel deck as permanent form work) is also another option for fast track projects. Concrete is a naturally well insulated material but sandwich roof slabs have an improved U value and they improve the thermal performance of the building. For large span roofs, the most prevalent roofing system is sloped metal roofing system, where metal roofing sheets are laid over secondary framing material on the primary structure (trusses or portal beams) of the building. In such systems, choosing right materials is very critical since metal roofs, unlike RCC, are not forgiving systems and require specialized skills and labour. The choice of material for metal roof is primarily limited to galvanized/galv. alum. steel, aluminium alloy and zinc (Very recent). Metal roof build-up consists of several layers of different materials placed together to achieve specific performances and functional requirements. Hence the designers should have good understanding of all these materials and performances, notes Rajan Govind of BES Consultants. Installation of roof requires specialist skills such that the completed roofs lasts much longer without major maintenance. All these materials offer better corrosion resistance with increase in cost of basic material and coating system.

Tensile Structures can attain some extremely dynamic forms like saddle shape or hyperbolic or paraboloid ones that is double curves

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PERFORMANCE TESTING OF BUILDING FACADE Testing of curtain walls, windows and doors systems for water penetration, air leakage, structural performance and seismic loading


SERVICES Curtain walls Exterior windows & Doors Storefronts & Sloped Glazing Systems Skylight Building Facades Weather Louvres Field or On-site testing Third party witness Consultancy Inspection Services

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Cool Roof Solutions

An important selection criteria in the metal roofing system is, explains Sinha, the kind of insulation, the system offers pre-insulated panels as well as on-site insulation where single span roof sheets are required. The roofing assembly consists of sandwich layers of top sheet, insulation (for thermal and acoustic insulation), and vapour barrier and bottom sheet. The geometry of crest and trough for both sheets are also dependent on various factors like annual rain fall data, snow load, slope of roof and the span of purlins. The use of galvalume sheeting without insulation could make spaces very uncomfortable and double skin sheeting with use rock wool insulation is recommended. An alternative to this option is insulated PUF panels which are readily available in the market, advises Akila Anantharamn. There are new age technologies of rolled metal sheets which can take any shape and are available in many sizes for covering roofs used over buildings having large footprints like airports, stadiums and railway stations. Another important factor to consider in the selection of roofing material is its thermal performance. The U value of a material measures this and determines comfort, ambient temperature and air conditioning load within the space, says Akhila Anantharaman of Geodesic. The key factor to consider in the supporting structure for the roofing is the span and usage of the building. Large column free spans are a requirement in many projects and the most economical solution

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for such cases is space frame structures. These structures are much more efficient in comparison to conventional framed buildings. To conclude, roofing materials should be chosen such that they perform efficiently on following aspects: ∙

Water tightness

Air tightness

Low heat ingress

Low Surface temperature

Low maintenance

High strength

Trends in Roofing Latest trends in roofing include developing solutions that can achieve a balance between human comfort, energy efficiency and energy generation, comments Jain. Roof, being the topmost surface, receives maximum solar radiation that leads to higher heat loads and space cooling requirements on top floor of the building, which means higher energy consumption and lower human comfort. Additionally, in today’s world of limited site areas, roofs have become more than a shelter and are used for landscaping, recreational activities and even renewable energy generation while allowing lesser heat dissipation to the floor below. Some fast growing concepts of roofing include Insulated roof, Cool Roof, Green Roof and Solar Roofs, adds Jain. Insulated and cool roof solutions have been developed to a reasonable

level. However, Green Roof technologies that are low cost and need low maintenance will be a great advancement in today’s age where roof spaces have become more valuable and habitable. According to Ar. Sinha, the prevalent material for roofing is standing seam metal roofing (SSMR), where a single length metal sheet covers the entire length offering a seamless puncture less roofing sheet. The length of sheet can go up to 200 meters. Adjoining panels are seamed together using a male-female configuration, allowing a puncture less joint, negating the chance of leakage unless a situation arises which is taken care by virtue of roof’s high slope. Further, the sandwich configuration allows addition of more layers between top and bottom sheets, and thus can be customized as per requirements for thermal insulation and acoustics. Certain roofing materials are yet to achieve commercial success. These materials do not require a secondary support system since the material itself has innate capability to withstand the required span and loads. Inbuilt solar panels, vegetative roofs, reflective colours to reduce heat gain are another innovations.

level. However, Green Roof technologies that are low cost and need low maintenance will be a great advancement to watch for, he adds. In the modern day context, complex geometric forms are what designers are experimenting with. 3D design softwares have opened up a whole new world for the designers to detail their designs much faster and easily than ever before, observes Arjit Ghosh. As such, space frames with sheets – glass and polycarbonate, and tensile roofs with fabrics are trending today. His personal favourite for roofing is glass on trusses / space frames. Rajan Govind also agrees that complex shapes and interesting architectural forms and geometry in roofing are the latest trends. New generation design requires roofing design to be integrated well with building geometry. Most Common Problem Spots in Roofing & Sky Lights

Manish Banker points out that waterproofing and the need for water proof/weatherproof joinery is also a key issue. Further, installation with incorrect


For Ashish Jain, the favourite roofing materials are – Insulated roof tiles for non-habitable roofs and blend of vegetated and light coloured surface materials for habitable roofs. Insulations and cool roof solutions have been developed to a reasonable

Abuse of material is biggest problem area in roofing and skylights, says Abhishek Kumar Sinha. Overuse and unjustified selection of materials to a particular context possess huge threats. It also maligns the image of such system and causes prejudice to the public in general.

Green Roof

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ŠVector Design

Glass Dome for temple at Kudal, Maharashtra

material /incorrect method also causes major problems. Poor maintenance, primarily attributed to lack of access path for maintenance, becomes problematic. Ashish Jain suggests that integrated contracts of complete installation and maintenance of roof systems can be a solution to overcome these challenges.

Conclusion Energy efficiency, water tightness, sound reduction and other factors such as load and wind resistance are important considerations while choosing design and materials for skylights and roofing. Explore additional options such as shading, UV coatings and ventilation Modern roofing and skylight could become the future of smart homes by improving indoor climate through technology. Studies reveal that 90 per cent of our time is spent indoors and poor indoor air quality and lighting could affect productivity drastically. Hence it is essential to educate oneself with above mentioned helpful tips before selecting the design and installing skylights and roofing.

ŠCreative Group

Malfunctioning of roofing and skylights are generally found to have source in workmanship and design rather than failure of material to a greater extent, adds Sinha. Ashish Jain and Rajan Govind too agree that poor workmanship in the installation of insulation/cool roof, especially with waterproofing as the key challenge. Arijit Ghosh too points that lack of knowledge on the part of the designers in terms of choosing material with optimal specifications and bad detailing on part of the execution team & the vendors as key problems. This shall be addressed with enhanced and well

trained roofing implementation agencies and uses appropriate techniques at the building site, opines Govind.

Skylight and Roof at Vadodara Airport

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Sustainable environment Potable water Sanitation 24x7 clean energy Mobility: EVs/HEVs Connected / Autonomous vehicles Urban mobility Traffic control rooms Smart parking Digital India

e-Governance Green/ Smart buildings Urban planning Safety, security and surveillance Disaster management Smart health Smart education Make in India Smart aerotropolis Geographical information systems (GIS)

Cover Story

Skylight Systems About the Author: Mahesh Pandit is the Founder Director of Tisya Building Products Pvt. Ltd., a Pune based company engaged in manufacturing high quality custom made as well as standard skylights of all kinds. Having a presence in India for over 14 years now, they have installed skylights at many places all over the country, from Srinagar to Chennai. Mahesh has experience of over 20 years in skylight designing and installation.

Mahesh Pandit, Founder Director, Tisya Building Products Pvt. Ltd.

Skylights in India Traditionally, skylights have been a European concept, where natural light is a scarcity. India is a country full of natural light. With more than 300 bright sunny days a year, why would we need a skylight anyway? However, in the recent past, the design trends have changed. The living patterns have changed. More so, to accommodate the western style of architecture and living. Contemporary designs are more popular now even in India. So, why not fancy skylights?

proper skylight customised to the Indian climatic conditions, it might be a disaster and one might be living in an ‘oven’ practically. Choosing a proper design along with material that are more suitable for local conditions is the key while incorporating a skylight into your building.

However, if we do not follow certain aspects of designing a

The very purpose of installing a skylight is to bring natural light

Skylights are an excellent source of natural light

into a building. However, while doing so, we also bring in a lot of heat. Hot air has a tendency to travel upwards. Hence, any skylight would create a hot air pocket at the top just below the glass surface. Which would not only make the area below practically unusable unless you are spending huge on air conditioning. Both ways, it is a loss. In our country, we do not

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have the problem of ‘heat loss’ due to skylights. Because, there are hardly any buildings with heating facilities here. We use air conditioning (cooling). So, with a combinations skylights and hot summers, we would be facing loss of air conditioning (cooling), if not designed properly. We should consider the following key aspects while designing any skylight in Indian conditions. 1. In case of an all fixed skylight, please make sure to use a low E laminated safety glass, that would bring in a minimum possible amount of heat without affecting the incoming light much. This glass selection is very important because, if we select the one with more reflective coating, the whole skylight would turn into a mirror during nights and it would be a disaster. Moreover, having a laminated safety glass would also take care of the safety aspects against intrusion as well as damages due to unforeseen glass breakages. 2. Shades – another option of having a fixed skylight and still arresting the heat is to have fabric shades. These could be either manually or electrically operated depending upon the position of the skylight as well as the budget. Preferably, such shades should be installed on the outside of the glass in order for the heat to be completely blocked during the high summer time. However, in places where the air is full of dust, it is advisable to have it below the glass surface in order to avoid frequent maintenance and cleaning.

For Indian climatic conditions, best option would be to have skylights that open

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3. If the budget permits, the best option would be to have skylights that open. Depending on the design, size, space availability, etc. these could be manually or electrically operated. However, the best part is, it would take out all the heat from the top, thereby cooling the area below. This could work fantastically if other openings within the vertical walls below the skylight are designed appropriately. An open skylight above and open windows below would create a natural air draft. Design Principles A variety of factory manufactured skylight shapes exist for sloping or flat roofs. Most include shafts (also called light wells) that can potentially exert as much influence over the energy properties as the skylight itself. Sky-lighting may also take the form of general glazed areas such as roof lights for atria, attached conservatories or sunrooms. In this form, they are less likely to be factory manufactured and more likely to be custom made. Skylights are a good alternative when you are restricted by the size of windows that you can use, where there are privacy issues, or when you want to create a different architectural outlook. The ‘right size’ skylight admits just enough light for the job and no more. Several methods can help to decide on the size and spacing of skylights. The size of the skylight impacts on its solar heat gain and its conduction gains and losses. Typically for roof windows and skylights, a 3–5 per cent floor to skylight area ratio is used and for some high performing tubular skylights 1–2 per cent is sufficient. If multiple skylights are to be used in the same room, spacing between the skylights should be 1.5 times the height of the room. Some examples where skylights could be effectively used are public areas like atriums,, kitchen (to free up valuable wall spaces), internal courtyard with garden below, living rooms, bathrooms (by completely avoiding windows in the vertical walls), study & working areas, and libraries.


Window – The Silent Hero – Behind the Curtain About the Author: Satish Kumar is the Country Manager - India, Deceuninck - a Belgiumbased company. Deceuninck is one of the top three profile companies in the world producing uPVC Profiles and Window systems with a global turnover exceeding € 670 Million in 2016 through its 14 extrusion plants and 22 warehouses across the globe. Kumar holds a Degree in Mechanical Engineering and has been in the façade and fenestration industry for the last 17 years holding diverse responsibilities. He is widely accepted as being responsible for automation and entry of

Satish Kumar Country Manager Ege Profil - Deceuninck India Branch

CNC machining centres in the Indian market during his 9 year stint at Elumatec. Since 2013 Deceuninck India has grown year on year under his leadership offering the widest range of uPVC profiles in white and colour in the projects and renovation segment through its 40 authorised channel partners across India.

Recently my boss asked me,“Who is our biggest competitor?” While I was contemplating, he made several suggestions, the normal suspects – Veka, Koemmerling, Rehau, Fenesta, Aluplast, or Chinese – Lesso, Kinbon, Shide, Konch! After considering all his suggestions and evaluating our own strengths and weaknesses, I realised that even though these were our competitors, they were also faced with the same objections like us. So then who is our biggest competitor? Aluminium window brothers who tried their best to put down uPVC as plastic, fire hazard and what not? (I was one of them a decade ago).Those have been passé, as many aluminium window producers have today realised the advantage of uPVC windows and themselves have ventured into it. Many uPVC Window producers too have added Aluminium Window lines. So, again the same question- who is our biggest competitor?

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My boss prodded further, “What is it that our competitors are doing which we aren’t?” Ok, we aren’t advertising, we aren’t participating in

Bi-fold doors from Deceuninck

Lift and Slide Door from Deceuninck

exhibitions, we are not into events, but sure, we have grown year by year through our network. Focussing more on building the network, and training them to deliver good windows. Still a long way to go but what do we do to increase the overall market share of uPVC Windows and our business? Nearly a decade back, Parryware started a revolution – ‘No more bathrooms, only glamour rooms’. The advertising industry created several icons in the Bathroom category – Hindware, Cera, Jaguar Bath Fittings and many more which changed our views on the once often neglected room constructed in one corner of the house. We have Shah Rukh Khan – the Baadshah of Bollywood, going into the bathroom repeatedly just to admire the Hindware Sanitary ware! Really? I jumped up and said, “That’s what we need! A bold commercial which will glamourise the windows – who cares if the window profile is tested for UV resistance for 8Gj/m2 for 8000 hours and resist impact? We need Virat Kholi or Dhoni smashing the cherry on the window – whack – no crack! Who cares if the window can resist Vardah storm! We need Geeta Poghat pushing against the Deceuninck window to show how strong it is! Why did we test them for proof load of 2.4kPa!

Casement System from Deceuninck

We imported a test rig to do our own tests in the future. What a waste! We need a Maserati or Ferrari to show how smooth our rollers run. Perhaps we can rope in Priyanka Chopra sashaying down the red carpet to show the smoothness! A Hinglish tag line ‘Deceuninck Windows Slide like Makkhan’! Hey, how about Deepika matching her room colours with the wonderful colour laminated finishes of our window and in walks Prakash Padokone.Or a locked in husband (Ritesh Deshmukh) struggling to open the door to snuggle up to their smouldering hot neighbour girl. In walks Genelia – ‘Keep the heat out with Deceuninck Doors!’ Alia Bhat reading a book (seriously?) while the whole world is bursting crackers and celebrating India’s World Cup victory outside. Deceuninck Windows – ‘Shut out the noise’. Poor girl walks in a restaurant the next day asking, “What happened to the match last night?” Only she can pull this off naturally! Lot of things rage in my mind. Buzzing with new energy, ready for the next one on one with big boss, I pick up the newspaper to catch on some real news. The Nation wants to know …..Deceuninck Windows - shut the noise, read the

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Zendow 70mm Casement System from Deceuninck

news snaps to my mind. I pick up ipad to jot down all the crazy ideas which have been popping out since last night. I heard my wifey talking to her friend the other day, “Did you see the advertisement of Shah Rukh and Gauri? Window Technique. It looks wonderful nah!” What? Shah Rukh in a window advertisement? Who, how, someone stole my idea? I know better than to interrupt my wife while she is on the phone. After nearly an hour of cryptic clues overheard by walking into the room couple of times to help my wifey clean up, I gather it is in the newspaper. I start looking page by page and wham there it is – Shah Rukh and Gouri advertising Curtains – DDécor.

fashion. Once to match the interiors and upholstery of our furniture. We spent a lot of time going through the different schemes, colours, fabrics, fittings, operators and what not. When I calculated the cost of the curtain per square meter, I realised we had spent nearly 5 times or more every time we changed them. I realised the glamour attached to the curtains, the show rooms which displayed the curtains, curtain rods, automatics…the whole industry was flourishing. They had huge show rooms in expensive malls, areas just selling these Purdahs.

I immediately write to my boss – “Our biggest competitor is Shah Rukh Khan. Need to rope in the Sena!”

I gather sadly that we don’t think of our windows the same way as we think of other things we buy for our homes. Windows are behind the curtains, performing the best they can, some better than others but nevertheless unseen. We, as an Industry (aluminium/wood/ uPVC), have failed to create this value for Windows as a whole.

In the last few years, we changed our window curtains couple of times to be in line with the latest

Just thinking aloud, “Isn’t the body more precious than the expensive clothes that adorn it?”

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not exist

A SUMMIT LEGEND The New Legend Series, with 80 mm width and 6-cell structure, offers superior heat and sound insulation of windows and doors even under the toughest weather conditions with the Legend Series, comfort is no more an urban legend.

Ege Profil Tic. ve San. A.S – Deceuninck IN 523, B Block, Mannur Village, Sriperambudur Taluk, Chennai – 602 105, INDIA T +919600111788 •

Green Talk

Cutting Carbon & Cutting Energy About the Author:

Andrew Pack, Global Technical Support Manager, Kingspan Insulation LLC, Dubai, U.A.E.

Andrew Pack is a building industry professional with over 25 years of experience in the building science and insulation industry. Taking his expertise to the next level, he offers first class technical building advice to architects, consultants, designers and contractors in areas way beyond insulation and thermal solutions and has helped lead Kingspan to becoming the household name across Europe for insulation solutions. This subsequently led to Kingspan’s entry into the global building and construction arena with a strong emphasis on the emerging markets and by leading regulatory reform measures. These comprise of markets such as India, the Middle East, Iran and Turkey. His current designation as Global Technical Support Manager allows him exposure into these exciting emerging markets.

Recent studies have estimated that by 2025 India’s construction market is expected to be the third largest in the world and this could lead to the primary energy demand growing by 2.3 times in the next two decades. Residential and commercial buildings currently account for over 35 percent of the total energy demand, however, the demand of the residential sector is predicted to rise by at least 8 percent annually. With this rapid growth in mind, it has become vital for low energy buildings to become a mainstream part of India’s development to reduce its impact on our planet. Air Conditioning, and other forms of heating and cooling, account for approximately 45 percent of an Indian building’s total electricity consumption. So, surely, an effective route to reducing the carbon emissions and energy usage of the nation is by decreasing the heating and cooling demand of these buildings. Now a study from global

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The Fold in Sidcup, UK, insulated with Rigid Thermoset Phenolic Insulation

Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Glasgow, UK

engineering, management and development consultancy, Mott MacDonald, has shown that improving the U-value specifications in buildings will reduce building energy consumption and carbon emissions by a considerable amount. Furthermore, they found that increasing the U-value of a building façade was comparatively the most effective way to reduce energy demand. So, could we be doing more to make our building façades more efficient?

Wall insulation solutions can easily achieve low U-values and help save energy and carbon emissions

residential, low-rise commercial, high-rise residential, high-rise commercial and hotel. The study looked at two build-ups within the building façades, one using an insulated cladding façade and one using an External Insulation Finishing System (EFIS) or otherwise commonly known as a render system. The firm then compared the effects of improving U-value specifications, through the use of additional

“The greatest reduction in both annual electricity demand and peak cooling demand was achieved when wall U-values were improved” – Mott MacDonald Understanding the Real Value of U-values - Mott MacDonald’s Study For its study, Mott MacDonald modelled six buildings, which were representative of common building types - a house, low-rise

Kingspan Kooltherm K15 Cladding Board was installed on Kingswood Academy, Hull, UK.

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insulation on the external walls of the buildings, by modelling the buildings in Sefaira Systems Software. The models considered a wide range of physical and environmental characteristics such as building size and use, energy consumption, HVAC operation timings, HVAC system and different environmental profiles. For each of the scenarios, an energy consumption comparison was made between two different U-value specifications to assess the energy savings and carbon emissions reductions. Mott MacDonald used a U-value of either 0.45 or 0.52 W/m2.K as a baseline U-value for the building façade. They then improved this value to 0.30, 0.29, 0.22, 0.20 and 0.18 W/m2.K and measured the energy consumption of the building model. In total, 100 percent of the calculations showed energy and carbon emissions savings when the U-value in the façade was improved. Showing that in every instance, we could be reducing the carbon footprint of the Indian building stock. The Results An example Mott MacDonald looked at was a new, high specification, 16 storey hotel modelled in a hot climate. The building was modelled using concrete blockwork walls which utilised an insulated cladding façade, insulated with rigid thermoset phenolic insulation, a concrete slab floor insulated below and a concrete deck roof insulated above. The U-values of the roof and the floor did not change throughout this study. The energy use of the building was then calculated for the differing U-value specifications. Moving the façade U-value from 0.45 W/m2.K to 0.30 W/m2.K gave energy reductions of over 17,000 kW•h/year and carbon emission reductions of nearly 13 tonnes CO2 / year. Furthermore, increasing from 0.45 to 0.22 W/ m2.K saw energy reductions of over 26,000 kW•h/year and nearly 20 tonnes CO2 / year. A substantial additional saving, which, in fact, provided an increase in energy reductions of over 50 percent. If this was employed nation-wide, it

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Wall Insulation solutions, installed on a hotel was calculated to produce significant energy savings of up to 26,000 kW·h/year.

could provide substantial energy reductions and, in turn, provide energy cost savings for the hotel operator. Another example Mott MacDonald looked at was a new, medium specification, 9 storey commercial building also modelled in a hot climate. The building was modelled using concrete blockwork walls which utilised an External Insulation Finishing System (EIFS), insulated with rigid thermoset phenolic insulation, a concrete slab floor insulated above and a concrete deck roof insulated above. Again the U-values of the roof and floor did not change. Using this model, which was much smaller than the hotel model, moving the wall U-value from 0.52 W/m2.K to 0.29 W/m2.K gave energy reductions of over 5,000 kW•h/year and carbon emission reductions of over 3 tonnes CO2 / year. Furthermore, improving from 0.52 W/m2.K to 0.20 W/m2.K saw energy reductions of over 7,000 kW•h/year and over 4 tonnes CO2/year. In terms of carbon reduction, this more stringent U-value would be the equivalent to removing 1 car from our roads. With India’s Energy Conservation Building Code putting façade U-values in commercial buildings at 0.44 W/m2.K in the hotter climates, Mott MacDonald’s study shows tremendous energy saving potential for going over and above these regulations.

Residential Buildings There is also a lack of regulations for residential buildings across the whole of India. However, the study showed that increasing U-values had more impact on residential buildings than those used for commercial purposes. A 5 storey residential building was modelled, which had a wall area of 2,800 Sq m, 24 percent smaller than the 9 storey commercial building, showed even better results. Moving the U-value in the façade, which also incorporated a render system, from 0.29 W/m2.K to 0.20 W/m2.K gave nearly double the energy reductions than calculated for the commercial building, despite the smaller wall area; at 3,418 kW•h/year for the residential building as opposed to 1,778 kW•h/year for the commercial building.

“The study demonstrated that increasing the insulation thickness and thereby improving the U-values of wall, roof and floor elements has the greatest impact on the energy consumption of villas and low-rise residential buildings” – Mott MacDonald. Increasing Returns The current and future building stock can be much more efficient just by employing more stringent U-values. Furthermore, our building façades offer the greatest potential for saving energy and reducing carbon emissions through improving U-values. So, to answer the initial question, yes, we most definitely can be doing more to make our façades more efficient and the answer isn’t as complicated as we might think. For further information please contact: Kingspan Insulation Pvt. Ltd. Gat No. 457/458, Village Shindewadi - Shirwal, Sub Dist Kndala Dist Satara near Pune, India 412801 Email: Tel: +91 (0) 2169 244061 Website:

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Kingspan Kooltherm insulation solutions deliver premium levels of thermal performance, helping to reduce the thickness of wall constructions.

Window Treatment

Trendy Window Treatments About the Author: Nishtha Chahal Puri aims to initiate design sensing as a mind-set through her varied involvements in the field of built environs, ranging from conceiving to executing built settlements through her professional works undertaken under the aegis of Sattva Dezign Studio, Gurgaon. She earned her B.Arch. from New Delhi in 1999 and completed Masters Specialisation in Urban and Rural Planning from a leading State University where she was honoured with the gold medal. In India, having worked with a leading Real Estate group like Unitech Ltd. has

Nishtha Chahal Puri Second Principal, Sattva Dezign Studio Architect, Planner, Educator

allowed for the practice at Sattva Dezign Studio, to undertake large scale architectural and interior design works, armed with delivery skills gained by interactions with proficient international brand names in architecture. Her global building industry trends have been strengthened by working closely within the Australian building industry.

“Don’t stare at the closed door too long, you’ll miss the window opening.” – Anon. Windows are fenestrations whereby our shell spaces integrate with the outdoors. These cut-outs, whether big or small, full length or sitting on a cill, adorning a living space or ventilating an attic, offer a multitude of treatments defining their function. Where trendy becomes the defining theme along with functionality, the markets flood with endless treatments which do not only adorn the window in a home but also render it fruitful for the enhanced purpose of its light and ventilation intake, acoustics control, visibility or views, security etc. This article shall discuss features and trending materials for windows which through innovation or sometimes going back to traditional adornments assist in amplifying the window with that extra edge of purpose or function.

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Modern window with intricate shaped design

Picture windows

Sea front window

Windows may be treated within, around, over or on…hardly any inch left out, and it can be trendy and funky. Here are a few aspects:

indirectly lit spaces, the focus remains on provision of windows towards the north side so as to avoid all sun glare.

Window treatments within: The size and placement of windows define the views it offers with control over the amount of natural light and ventilation filtered. It is important to mention here that if the aspect of window sizing and setting is cared for during the design and execution phase, it is budget friendly and allows for cost saving on window installations.

Full glass, fixed shutter, picture windows are relevant where lighting is the key not ventilation. Ventilation permitting windows may be designed as sliding shutters, slat jalousie styling or simple casement windows. The commonly used materials for such windows are wood, aluminium or poly resin.

Window specifications like shutters, glazing properties, material, transparency index, etc., can be customised to provide picture perfect views, security, temperature control and accessibility. Fusion welding, double and triple glazing with weather stripping options add to energy efficiency in window designs. Sea front beach house windows to valley view windows to high-rise apartment’s skyline view windows…the list is endless. Oft the sensitivity of a client to enjoying the amount of sunlight filtering through windows becomes prime. An elderly client had specifically asked our firm to design the property in a way to catch the winter sun. Summer cooling air conditioners were installed but the focus was to trap the low southern sun in winters and enjoy a sun bath in the privacy of a home. Alternately while designing art galleries and

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Infill glass block windows are accents added to sections of the home to add naturally lit daytime light patches. They are most commonly frosted

Infill glass block windows

Valance - framework placed above a window

Window ledge

or with designs built into the glass to provide light while also offering privacy. These are trendy takes on translucent lighting spaces. Glass blocks can be substituted with frosted glass, enamelled glass or glass with film. Window treatments around: Window framing aspects include the pelmet or cornice, the cill or ledge and the border or moulding. Pelmets and valances are frameworks placed above a window, used to conceal curtain fixtures. Contemporary pelmets run as channels embedded into the false ceilings with the aim to have entire wall spaces juxtaposed into viewing windows. Valances offer the evergreen choice for the traditionalist. It is a form of window treatment that covers the uppermost part of the window and can be hung alone or paired with window blinds, or curtains. In recent years there is a shift from valances to exposed drapery rods and now to embedded channels. From plush to minimal… the shift is suggestive of an urban society needing low maintenance ideas.

Bay Window

borders are effective for a rustic, mountain cabin feel. The trend of cornice is making a comeback. Cornices highlight the window with an inbuilt framing and may be designed with intricate carving or straight lined patterns as per choice. The latest fad is to run concealed lighting through the cornice to have a halo glow around the window and create the impact of a focal point.

Window treatments over or on: Window Dressing Window blinds, shades, curtains and drapery being the key words here, what comes to mind are the words of a designer who says,” Windows to rooms are like eyes to the face. A little mascara and eye shadow will make a face glow, just as dressing a window will make a room softer, brighter or dramatic.” While blinds, as the name suggests, essentially blind the observers view, shades on the other hand are fabrics which roll, stack or fold, opening to a view when the shade is rolled up or allow a view through with a range of material options. Metal blinds have seen a comeback in recent years due to the love for stainless appliances and matched décor.

A bay window with a cill expanded into a seating ledge still holds virtue for the avid reader or dreamer. Alternatively cills may be designed as ledges with stone copings or wooden bands to accommodate a single potted green or one of your favourite curios. Wooden mouldings around windows work like frames of a painting. Thick moulded wooden

Honeycomb window shade

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Metal blinds

The trend towards more eco-friendly materials has given impetus to woven wood shades made from sustainable materials including: grasses, sisal, reeds or bamboo. There is a growing trend towards multi layering in window treatment. Various layers are added for depth and dimension to the rooms. Energy efficiency and privacy is catered to through blinds, roller shades, bamboo blinds or shutters in windows. Then a layer of fabric covered cornice board is added in say a floral styling pattern and the look is complemented with drapes in striped patterns or bold solid colours like yellow or olive. An eclectic choice undoubtedly but with the ability to showcase the window as a thematic imprint. Decorative hardware like bold black steel rods with designed finials can be juxtaposed here for further highlighting.

Blackout blinds with sheer

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Multi layering in window treatment

Also when in contrast, the move in society is towards minimal and simplistic, window dressing trends reflect upon this ideology to remove the extras and focus on the basics. Sheers, both functional and decorative are back. No hard texturing with polyester sheers, it is now the age of unexpected materials in dramatic colours, shimmering tones and embossed copper or gold patterns. Earthy hues of stone and coffee colour in block out shades combine well with linen sheers in natural white and silver colour or brighter toned linens in lime or coral. Such combination window dressings are in vogue and allow the user to control light amounts into the room. Currently trending is also the use of unconventional materials like burlap and chamois in draping the windowed wall. Summing up this feature, it is undeniably important to give due weightage to window treatment design as it has the ability to make or break a space!

Industry Speaks

Our Customers Are Our Biggest Asset

Jean-Marc Luvisutto Managing Director, Sapa Building Systems Middle East & India

Jean-Marc Luvisutto is the Managing Director, SBS (Sapa Building Systems) - Middle East and India. He is associated with the company for the past 38 years, spearheading various divisions including technical, marketing and communication, from various locations (France, Portugal, UK). He is a civil engineer (MSc) from ENSTIMA (Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Techniques Industrielles et des Minesd’Ales) in France. He Joined Technal in Toulouse (France) in 1979 as a product development engineer in the R&D department. From 2000 to2008, Luvisutto managed the entire R&D activity for the Technal Brand. In 2008, he moved to Bahrain to manage Technal Middle East. After the merger between Orkla/Sapa and Hydro in 2013, he took over the management of Sapa Building Systems (SBS) Middle East, and its two additional brands: Sapa Building System and Wicona. Since July 2016, he is as well managing SBS India, with the objective of creating more synergies between Middle East and India.

WFM: Please shed some light on the evolution of Technal in India and the inspiration behind it? Kindly tell us briefly about the company’s journey since its establishment in the country? The company was first established in India with the brand Domal in the year 1996, in Kolkata, and has been in India for over 20 years. Later, the company moved to Bangalore, and until 2013, Domal in India was belonging to Hydro

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©Keventer Projects

In an Interview with WFM, Jean-Marc Luvisutto talks about the brand Technal, their products, projects, values, their goals and aspirations, and the company’s journey to success. He also discusses the growth and future of façade and fenestration industry in India, and the challenges faced by companies in the façade business. Here are excerpts from the Interview:

Keventer Crosswinds, Kolkata

Building Systems Private Ltd. In 2013, after the merger of extrusion and building system activities of Hydro and Orkla, the company became Sapa BS India Pvt Ltd. Today, Sapa BS India Pvt Ltd – India (SBS India) is the only company that is marketing and selling the Technal brand and Technal products in the Indian market.

However, SBS India also has access to all the products available in other SBS brands (Wicona, Sapa Building Systems, etc.) if needed. WFM: As you said, Technal came to India through Hydro building system. Hydro started off with Domal in India and later on launched Technal. How has been the product acceptance for both the brands in India? Altair, Colombo

Domal name has been synonymous with Aluminium windows since a very long time and will continue to be so in market like India, considering it is a very cost effective solution for basic-medium performance requirements.

Agree that Technal is not yet well known in India but it is a leading brand in Middle East and thus very synonymous and appreciated by the Indian fraternity, consultants, contractors and metal builders working there. There is a sense of trust and goodwill already established, this certainly is an advantage for Technal in India. We have started introducing Technal more and more since past two years, considering the increasing demands in terms of performance by our customers, and the wide range of solutions available within Technal to meet almost any technical/architectural requirements, and this has been very well accepted by the market, and this is clearly evident in some of our recent orders. WFM: How many verticals fall under Technal’s ambit? What are its complete product range in India?

The Indian market has been evolving day-by-day and there is a lot of awareness both from builders/ real estate developers to the end users, in terms of creating value, by using high quality products (windows/doors) in residential & commercial projects. This is also driven due to increasing demands for high performance and aesthetics. This makes system companies like us the most obvious choice. From our side, we also do our bit to constantly keep updating the stake holders of all latest developments and possibilities within Technal with our complete product range and capabilities. WFM: In India, the last few years have seen glass becoming the hottest design statement. Please elaborate how mature is the façade and fenestration market in terms of understanding the products and their proper usage keeping the climatic condition of the country in view? The fenestration industry in India has gone through a sea change in the last few years. The Indian fenestration and curtain wall industry

WFM: India is a challenging market for international aluminium systems. How has it been for Technal in convincing the client to opt for tested aluminium systems over local aluminium systems?

ŠGodrej Properties

We have broadly seven verticals, which include sliders, windows, doors, interior solutions, curtain walling, shading & barrier systems, and bullet proof systems.

Godrej Platinum in Vikhroli, Mumbai

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Shristi Infrastructure Development Corporation India Ltd tied up with Westin Hotels & Resorts, a chain of hotels owned by the US-based Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide, to manage its upcoming five-star hotel and apartments at Rajarhat. The 330-room hotel, to be named after the Westin brand, was set up by Shristi at an estimated investment of Rs 800 crore. The sprawling hotel will be on one million Sq ft property, will have a helipad facility and a modern escape elevator security system. Working along with architects C.P. Kukreja Associates and metal builder Nitson Amitsu, Technal offered its exclusive range of architectural aluminium systems including its Topaze FB range with special clipping system. The system was designed to withstand 4.5 kpa wind load and had passed all the structural requirements successfully.

is in an emerging state with respect to technology, capability and size. The facade combines attributes of both appearance as well as superior performance, and the concept is fast catching up in India and apart from the aesthetics, they offer better natural lighting, better weather tightness and are in line with the increasing adoption of green and sustainable building practices. Today, many people associate ‘contemporary architecture’ with glass. With customers becoming increasingly aware of increasing costs on account of bad energy management, newer buildings have a higher percentage of glass on their facades. With technically superior glass that aids in energy management and leads to direct savings in terms of energy bills, the demand for glass as a building material will only increase. WFM: How does your products help in building advanced facade systems? How can we optimise solar & acoustic performance in glass facades?

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JML: In addition to the vast range of standard proprietary TECHNAL® products offered regionally, it also offers a limitless possibilities of bespoke solutions customised for projects that requires special solutions to meet the design criteria of the architect and fulfil specific high weathering, thermal and acoustics performance criteria. a. As mentioned earlier, TECHNAL® offers vast range of standard products regionally. Technal Middle East also offers unlimited bespoke solutions. b. We are also very open to new trends in architectural designs, for example minimalistic designs and slim visible structures. It is particularly true for sliding system and TME is already able to provide products (LUMEAL and ARTYAL) giving the maximum share of the surface to vision and glasses, and keeping the structure either hidden behind the wall or reduce to the bare minimum sightlines. c. Such principles have also been applied to casement applications with SOLEAL MINIMAL where opening sashes have been kept invisible behind the outer frame structure thus keeping

©Shristi Infrastructure Development Corporation India Ltd

Shristi West Inn Hotel& Resorts, Kolkata


both openable and fixed parts with same sightlines. d. One of the concerns in the building industry is related to acoustic performances and we are working in our R&D department in finding new solutions and products that could strongly enhance the acoustic performances of the building envelopes. We are not only working on passive solutions by improving the design of aluminium systems (tighter and better, managing vibrations) and incorporating new materials that have better acoustic performances, but also working on dynamic solutions, like in “noise cancelling headphones” that are analysing the external ambient sound and generating “opposite sound’ thus neutralizing big share of the incoming ones (even when windows are slightly open). e. We are also developing simulation tools (TecAcoustic) that should enable to correctly predict what should be the acoustic performance of the building envelope based on the aluminium system and infills that are used. Last but not least, aluminium is a tremendous material from the point of view of recyclability as we need only 5 per cent of the energy needed to produce it to recycle it (aluminium

material can be considered as an ‘energy bank’ as all embedded energy will remain in it). Unfortunately, many other components that are used by the window and façade industry are not as friendly when it comes to recyclability. We are thus also working in R&D with industrials partners to find suitable materials that could replace these ‘non-recyclable’ material with more environmentally friendly ones with the objective of being able to provide in a near future doors, windows and facades that could be 100 per cent recyclable.

©Ireo Developers


Hans Kunj Habitat - A scheme of weekend homes at Nal Sarovar

Ireo Corridors, Gurgaon

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Keventer Crosswinds, Kolkata Keventer Crosswinds is an upcoming project of Keventer Projects with a prime location in Hastings, Kolkata. This project will offer thoughtfully designed apartments. Its proximity to the market, hospital and various educational institutions will be an added advantage for residents. Working along with aCTA architects Singapore, Technal offered its exclusive range of Domal Windows and Sliding folding Domal Louvers. The aluminium wooden coated louvers are the highlight of the project, and have achieved the architects desire to have movable vertical louver façade concept.

WFM: Please tell us about your clients and ongoing projects in India? Kindly brief on few of the iconic projects completed in the recent past? JML: Our client is a mix of high-end residential, luxury villas, and commercial projects. We are proud to be associated with projects like Godrej Platinum Mumbai, IREO Corridors Mumbai, Raheja Vivarea Mumbai, Shristy Hotel, Urbana, Kolkata, etc. WFM: India is considered as a highly price sensitive market. How successful has Technal been able to optimise their prising with respect to the Indian mentality? JML: For me, every market is price sensitive, and no one pays anything extra unless they see a value. Technal, in line with our corporate principle, continuously adds value not only in our product, but also pays a lot of attention in entire process, thereby making it an overall good experience right from pre-sales to entire execution and goes beyond even after the product is installed. We also continuously work on cost optimizations with our suppliers without compromising on our brand quality. WFM: Technal is a part of SAPA group and SAPA has an extrusion plant set up in India. Does it help the business in anyway? Please elaborate?

©Keventer Projects

JML: Yes, this is a key factor in the success of our business today to have with us SAPA extrusion, which is world class facility, very well known in Indian extrusion market for its seriousness, reliability and quality, and which belongs to the same group. It surely helps with better leverage to turn around any new die in the shortest possible time, and overall product lead times. WFM: Technal has had several management changes in India over the past few years. Going forward, what are the company’s plans to stabilize with respect to their Indian operation? JML: I would say, things are much settled now. We have a good stable team with us in place now

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Urbana, Kolkata


Urbana is the tallest residential development in Kolkata. Urbana development is a joint enterprise of the government of West Bengal along with Shrachi, Emami, Sureka, MKJ, JB and Nahata Groups. Over the last couple of decades, these names have been associated with most of the city’s landmark buildings and complexes. For Urbana, these six legendary groups brought together some prodigious talent as well. Internationally acclaimed architect Stephen Coates from aCTA Singapore is the principal architect, who is best known for creating landmarks around the world, including the residential tower Fortune and Fortune Plaza in Beijing, Hong Kong’s Princes Building, as well as prominent projects in Kolkata, such as Rosedale Garden, Greenwood Sonata and Sunrise Point. Working along with aCTa, Technal offered its Topaze FB hinge window systems and Topaze GB Sliding systems Range. Technal’s aluminium systems met the tall towers structural performance requirements and provided natural daylighting without compromising the required aesthetics.

and feel that we are poised for bigger growth in days to come.

WFM: What are some of the challenges you face in India?

Our strategy is clear and is to focus only on the Technal Brand (although products of others Sapa brands can be available if and whenever needed).

JML: After spending so many years in different places, I feel the challenges are more or less the same, in every market. Viz. How do we add value

Technal is a very successful and leading aluminium system brand in Middle East and one of my main objectives is to create as much synergies as possible between Middle East and India as these two regions are having quite similar needs in term of products and services.

In conclusion, we want to keep working on good quality products of international standards, but specifically catering to Indian Market requirements, and we are well on our way to achieve that.

©K Raheja Corp

In addition to that, a lot of real estate/ contracting companies active in India are also active in Middle East and some of them are already our customers there.

Raheja Vivarea – Mumbai

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to our customers and serve them in most satisfied manner, meeting their requirements and at the same time, keeping some kind of competitiveness vs. the local systems at the end of the day, our customers are our biggest asset, and we need to serve them to their fullest satisfaction. India is an extremely high potential market, and some of the projects I came across are comparable with some I have seen for example in Dubai, London, New York or Singapore. Architects, consultants, etc. are often local ones but there are also the worldwide international practices we are already having relationship and working with in Asia, US or Europe.

1. Developing new products that will reduce the energy consumption (or even products that will enable generation of energy). 2. Developing new products that won’t produce waste materials that will be difficult to eliminate (100 per cent recyclability of doors, windows and facades components). But the biggest challenge will be to educate and convince all the building construction stakeholders, from governments to architects, metal-builders and consumers, not to go for cheapest solutions, but to look towards the most sustainable ones. They should consider not only short term benefits, but also the benefits for future generations.

ŠRunwal Group

Today every city in India is developing very fast and it is not restricted only to metros and one challenge if I have to pick would be how do we extend our reach and be present in as many of those projects in those places, and serve them to their complete satisfaction, with sometimes the limited resources that we have on hand.

In a world, where scarcity of energy and recyclability (waste management) are major issues, conservation will become more and more relevant and put more and more pressure on governments and authorities, we need to prepare for the future by:

Runwal Elegante, Andheri West, Mumbai

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Face to Face

Our Style is Always Evolving, Growing and Expanding Ar. Karl Wadia, Senior Associate; Architect Hafeez Contractor; has always had a penchant for design. He graduated from The Academy of Architecture, Mumbai in 2003 and completed post graduate degree from the Columbia University in New York. His humble beginning in the field of architecture started as a young intern at Architect Hafeez Contractor’s office. Karl, through hard work and dedication, now heads a team of approximately 70 Associates, Architects and CAD Team, popularly known as ‘Karl Group’ at AHC.

Ar. Karl Wadia, Senior Associate Architect, Architect Hafeez Contractor

Ar. Karl Wadia spoke to WFM about an array of topics including his firm’s design strategies, important ongoing projects, latest trends and technologies in façade and fenestration design, and safety & security aspects to be factored during design.

WFM: Can you describe the evolution of your work from when you began?

Right from the beginning we were fortunate to have a wide array of projects ranging from institutional, residential, office, IT, infrastructure; etc. We were never afforded the luxury of time to stop and process how quickly things were moving and progressing. To many this seems odd but we feel fortunate and truly believe that this approach

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(For Representation purpose only.)

Ar. Karl Wadia (KW): Personally, when I began at Architect Hafeez Contractor (AHC) as an intern, I was still in school. I was lucky to have entered the field of architecture at a time when drawings were done by hand and being an architect was all about the ability to design while thinking and drawing at the same time. I have since been able to experience progress through CAD and an array of software that throw up possibilities that probably didn’t exist earlier. This has been a wonderful journey.

Concept for residential development in South Mumbai

(For Representation purpose only.)

Concept for the 62nd floor Viewing Gallery, Cafe & Cigar Lounge for a high end Residential Development in South Mumbai

has helped us have a key influence to India’s frenetic growth. As the architectural landscape of the country evolves, clients visions and demands change and technology moves ahead; so do we. We believe that it is important to adapt ones ways and processes to the environment; much like architecture adapts to its context! This in its own unique way also helps us always stay excited about new work and new challenges. We at AHC have been very careful not to stereotype our architects into residential/office/ hospitality/ healthcare/infrastructure/aviation/ interiors/master planning, etc. etc. as our practice has always believed that ‘design is design’ no matter what the scale or type. I’ll quote one of my most respected clients who told me once - He said - “Karl, it is better to be proactive than re-active” I keep this phrase very close to my heart and remember it every time I need inspiration.

WFM: How would you describe your approach to design and what is your signature style? KW: For a design to truly succeed, it needs to go full circle starting with a sense of euphoria and curiosity for the designer and ending with a satisfied user. We do not believe in the concept of ‘signature style’ or ‘philosophy’ because style and philosophy are subjective and unlike an artist who creates art to express his / her’s deeper feelings about a subject; Architecture is a public service that is driven by function, science, gravity and beauty. Buildings and spaces are inhabited by people for a specific purpose and therefore design should be a resultant of function and aspirations. And once both are met, buildings can often be the best canvases for artistic expression. Many a times, clients ask for a particular style, like contemporary or traditional, but we do not commit ourselves as often enough the function itself brings out the form or the expression.

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(For Representation purpose only.)

Initial concept for DB Orchid Crown Entrances for Tower A & B

(For Representation purpose only.)

Both are true - “Form follows Function” and “Function follows form” and with this we carry on our work without prejudice. We consider ourselves to be a very hard working and curious practice and our signature style if any is to always evolve, grow, adapt and learn as this keeps us excited about our work. WFM: It is an era of iconic buildings. How do you work in a system like this and continue to bring out thoughtful and meaningful architecture? KW: This is an oxymoron created by semantics. Iconic - Thoughtful - Meaningful all tend to mean the same thing. The same building is iconic for one, means something to another and can be thoughtful at large. Only in text books and architectural discourse do we continue to teach people that if wants to practice pure architecture, it should not be iconic, but rather meaningful. The best and most meaningful of architects have created the most iconic structures. On the same lines most of the iconic buildings worldwide mean something, symbolize something, and provoke thought. I’d like to leave it at that.

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Initial concept for DB orchid crown

WFM: Please tell us about few of your most important projects. KW: We are involved in 8 to 10 of the top high-rise projects in Mumbai (200 - 250 meters & more in height), and are all under construction. We are also involved in several mid size interesting projects like experience centres, bungalows, beach side villas, clubs, gymkhanas, etc. which we love and give us joy. We also do a lot of MIG & LIG housing spread over hundreds and thousands of acres. We continue to bid for airports, railway stations & urban scale community projects. We are highly motivated and love doing institutional work. We are doing large 300+ acre campuses across the country for BITS Pilani, Manipal University, RGIPT, Infosys, TCS, and several other.

We do mixed use projects. The two largest convention centre with residential & with hotel & office projects in India are being done by AHC, one in Mumbai and one in New Delhi. Doing the full spectrum of work helps us to stay in touch with reality and we are fortunate that a large percentage of our work is under construction and being completed. WFM: According to you, what is a Green building? What do you feel is the greatest challenge when it comes to designing for environmental sustainability? KW: A ‘Green building’ is a right mix of planning, use of material and technology; in the order mentioned.

Initial concept for 25 South, Worli - Day view

(For Representation purpose only.)

A truly Green project starts with planning, orientation and judicious use of land. At AHC, we believe when more mass is packed into a smaller foot print by going vertical, that itself is a Green approach because you save land, materials and use of concrete and steel, labour, etc. which somehow tends to be understood in the reverse way. We were the first to harp on this for several years. Even the Supreme Court now recognizes these values and hence the Environment Ministry has strict regulation on ground coverage and true Green (Green on Mother Earth). When it got

(For Representation purpose only.)

Green Buildings are often reduced to the selection of glass, or the selection of cladding materials; or the points you score on a prescribed rating system.

Initial concept for 25 South, Worli - Drop off area and Refuge Deck area

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(Concept image - initial idea for shopping area, for representation purpose only)

Our office participates and attends in exhibitions and conferences of new materials and we try and understand the process of manufacture too. Our first question to any vendor is always –‘Is this made in India?’ Once the answer is yes, we get very excited! WFM: What are the key factors to consider while designing a façade? View of Shopping area at ICC Tower Island City Center

passed by the SC, everyone started to follow it. At AHC we followed it decades ago as it was part of our philosophy to save land. Mr. Contractor has been advocating this since the past 35 years We have done many ‘Green Projects’ - low rise, mid rise& high rise. To name one, the Manipal University Campus at Jaipur has been awarded the LEED Indian- Platinum rating for Energy Conservation and Environment Design 2016. It has also received the LEED Platinum Certificate & Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment (GRIHA) award for water management. We worked tirelessly with an ambitious client to whom this was very important and an environmental consultant (Terravidis) who guided us well but the inception was the planning. We created a narrow street grid in the heat of Jaipur that provides 90 per cent natural shading and in this half the battle was won. We complimented this planning with the use of good materials such as insulated blocks, cool tiles, correct waterproofing, undulations, etc and finally technology such as sewage and water treatment, low flow fixtures, timely water heating systems, so on and so forth.

KW: The façade of a building is akin to the clothes you wear. The clothes you wear not only represent your aesthetic choice, your mood; they also show how comfortable you are as a person. It is a very simple logic. It is like wearing wool or wearing linen. We choose based on the weather and occasion. This is something that Architect Hafeez Contractor has always said in his conversations and we continue this ethos in our daily work. In a country like India, colours and accessories are very important. They represent our culture and values. Projects too call for accessorising in the form of colours, new materials, etc. How you plan and dress a building ultimately results in the façade. A façade can have many dimensions

KW: Selecting a facade is a very important responsibility for an architect because it directly affects the performance and appearance of the building, and the comfort and confidence of the user. We choose our materials based on project demands such as sustainability, cost, functionality, maintainability and very importantly aesthetics.

(For Representation purpose only.)

WFM: Talking about materials for facades, how do you choose them for your projects?

Initial Concept for ICC Tower - Day View

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(For Representation purpose only.)

because it follows the form and plan of the building, often flowing into and out of your building. From a technical point of view; we carefully consider aspects such as - U values, STC values, thermal insulation, light transmission; colour, aesthetics, maintainability and several other factors while selecting facade materials. It is a combination of all the factors and the above basic principles that form a facade. WFM: Could you please brief us on the important safety & security aspects to be factored while designing and executing façade for a high-rise building? KW: Safety and security is not only if prime importance but is an architect’s responsibility while designing and specifying. While considering façade design, one has to specify the kind of materials that meet minimum standards. If a building has floor-to-floor glass, then safety glass is always recommended. Typically we recommend a DGU with the sandwich panel of laminated glass for safety in floor to floor glass façades. If there is a transom at about 1m height, we recommend that only the lower half should be a crash glass or any other safety glass, whereas the upper part could be of single glass. Choice of façade material is a science that balances between aesthetics, functionality and safety. There are various types of Glass - Float Glass; Annealed Glass; Tempered Glass; Heat Soaked Glass; Laminated Glass & Crete Glass. Each one has different properties & strengths. Simple example, while tempered glass is stronger than heat soaked glass & even breaks in roundish pieces as opposed to sharp ones; the Nickel Sulphide content makes tempered glass unpredictable as it causes sudden shattering that is not detectable. It happened in my own home so I know this very well. For this reason we tend to specify heat soaked glass more than tempered. This discussion is endless.

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Concept of Residential tower at Jaipur – Elevation

Acoustics also plays a very important part in the selection process. As cities get noisier, a key issue is noise cancellation, because of which the selection of right façade materials becomes important to block external noise. Well-insulated glass not only provides good acoustics, but also good thermal insulation. It plays a vital role in comfort levels. It is a myth that thermal glass is very expensive. In the long run it reduces air conditioning loads and energy consumption and hence life cycle cost of the project. WFM: Please tell us about of some of the innovative technologies and materials which you have adopted for building facades? KW: Well I don’t know about innovative but recently, we had the requirement of using bullet proof glass in one of our hotel projects in Delhi for the façade that was facing the airport runway. After a great deal of research on available products, we used 50mm triple glazed, triple A rating glass. In many projects, we have proposed use of automated fenestrations that react to sunlight and time of day. But this dream of ours is yet to be realized and remains one major aspiration of ours. WFM: How does the façade design affect ‘workability’ of buildings? KW: The façade of a building has a direct impact on HVAC load, internal comfort, and the facade is the single connecting factor with nature and the outside world for occupants inside the building.

WFM: Please brief us on some of the opportunities and challenges faced by your firm? KW: We are a large firm, and one daily challenge we face is how to transfer information or knowledge through the length and breadth of the office. A firm which grows in knowledge can always do better work. This has been a challenge for us and we continue to work daily to achieve this. We find great opportunity in our youngest architects. Freshness of the mind and readiness to learn always brings innovative ideas to the drawing board. Odd as it may sound, in most projects, during the concept stage our studio output is influenced by our youngest architects. We believe that their ideas are as vital as the experience of senior architects. WFM: Was there any particular influence early in your career? KW: Personally, my mentor and my leader is Architect Hafeez Contractor himself.

Working closely with a master such as him for all these years has taught me virtually everything I know about this profession. Besides, the various periods, styles, synergies, and processes found in architecture, nature and culture have also influenced me along with personal interactions with people from varied backgrounds and cultures. WFM: Tell us about one thing that sets you apart from other contemporaries. KW: This is not for me to ponder or judge, but I do believe in the continuous process of learning and evolving through our ideas, our designs and our people. We are fortunate that as a young group we have a body of work worth debating, at least we like to think so! WFM: Which is the most challenging project you have worked on? Tell us about your learning experience? KW: The most challenging project which I have personally worked on is a subterranean building for the Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, Rajasthan - New Academic Block (NAB) Building. This has been the most important and influential project in my career till date. The institute wanted to increase student intake from 3500 to 5000 students and also desired to modernise its existing facilities and infrastructure.

BITS Pilani NAB Building – Day views of the Rotunda and visual link.

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Construction of NAB has been envisioned and designed as a visual Link between the Grand Old Clock Tower, that sits atop the existing Academic Block on the north end of the campus, and the Saraswati Mandir that adorns the south end, forming the important visual axis. Between these important Pilani landmarks, lay a recreational ground of area 50,000 Sq m; this was the only large tract of land available for any meaningful construction.

(For Representation purpose only.)

The approach adopted was to avoid disturbing this important visual axis and hence, a subterranean building emerged as an option. We therefore deliberately placed the building in a subterranean way so as not to disturb this important visual axis that existed between Clock Tower and the Mandir for more than 50 years. The form emerged organically from the ground. New interlocking spaces were created with a central winding pathway leading from the Clock Tower to the Mandir. The terrace has large skylights at irregular intervals to provide natural sunlight as well as break the monotony at ground level. A Grand Rotunda (50 m dia) was created, housing 1500 students for gatherings. It forms a fusion between the traditional architecture of the Pilani campus through a narrative of arches along the Clock Tower and contemporary seating, with ramps along the new building. The only “above the ground” structures are four grand archways having Rajasthani style arches, which are symbolic with the existing architecture of campus leading down to the new contemporary building. All the work was carried out keeping in mind the harsh Pilani climate, which varies from 0 - 50 degrees centigrade, as also the culture, architecture and way of life in the campus. WFM: What is your ultimate goal when it comes to your work? What do you want to be remembered for? KW: More than being remembered, our ultimate goal is to make sure that whatever we do is meaningful in a way that it truly satisfies the person commissioning the work and ensures that the journey of design to debate to execution is enjoyable as a whole. This, I believe, is the essence of our profession along with personal learning and growth through each project and each challenge. WFM: What advice would you give to young designers? KW: Hey, I still consider myself a young designer! What are you implying here..... There are miles to go and volumes to learn and explore.

W54 - The Wadhwa Group Residential Development at Dadar, Mumbai

The only assurance one can give a young designer, is that ‘Change is the only constant’! And the only advice one can offer a young designer is to stay young and back yourself! WFM: What, in your opinion, is the future of design in India? KW: The future of design in India is going to be a very sensitive balance between what is ecologically correct and what is appropriate from a business and economical point of view. This is a tricky gap to bridge, because, building what is ecologically correct costs money. But getting the two to work together needs a combination of skill; learning from our past; being updated with the present and being curious about the future.

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The Dhirubhai Ambani Global Centre

The upcoming Dhirubhai Ambani Global Centre is located in the DIAL District - Asset 13 in New Delhi, India and is within 1 minute distance of New Delhi Aerocity Metro Station. This is a mixed use project in the true sense and even interacts with the public realm as it sits exactly opposite the Metro Station and has a public thoroughfare passing through the building @ Grade Level

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Initial Concept for DAGC, New Delhi

connecting adjoining properties in Aerocity. The Building consists of a 13,700 Sq m convention centre (single column less hall of approx. 5400 Sq m), and a large column less banquet room (of approx 4050 Sq m), a large business centre with meeting rooms & chambers (approx 4300 Sq m) and 03 multicuisine restaurants.

It is supported by a Five star rated hotel (approximately 1250 keys) making it India’s largest hotel. There is also a commercial office block of 58,000 Sq m that has separate access yet shares a common basement and connects seamlessly to the Convention Centre @ Grade. The project is currently under construction.

(For Representation purpose only.)

Project: Dhirubhai Ambani Global Centre (DAGC) Location: Asset Area 13, Hospitality District, Delhi Aerocity, New Delhi 110037 Client: Bamboo Hotel and Global Centre (Delhi) Pvt Ltd Principal Design Architect: M/s. Architect Hafeez Contractor Senior Associate: Karl Wadia, Associate:Apoorva Sharma Consultant Team: Structural Lead - Burohappold Engineering Structural Peer Review - Mahimtura Structural Consultants Pvt Ltd Façade - Facade India Façade Peer Review - Burohappold Facade Engineering (Hong Kong) LEED - Pankaj Dharkar& Associates AV Acoustics - BAi LLC Lighting - Klaasen Lighting Design Fire Engineering & Crowd Control Burohappold Engineering Interior Designer - GA Design U.K. Project Management Consultants Hanmi Global Landscape Design - PLA Architecture, Kuala Lampur (pls check) Commencement Date: January 2016 Completion Date: Under progress

(For Representation purpose only.)


View of the Inner Courtyard






Design Process Brief

Design Process For the façade of the DAGC project, M/s Architect Hafeez Contractor have worked in close consultation with Façade India (Facade Consultants) and Burohappold Facade Engineering (Hong Kong) and our client team.

During the initial concept phase, site analysis, wind pressure, sun-path; climatic studies and noise level studies were conducted for the site. Based on this, the design basis report was prepared, evaluating the impact of the proximity of the airport, acoustic, wind and noise etc. An important aspect

governing the facade design is the proximity to the New Delhi Airport which made the site extremely noisy. The design life of the building was considered as 50 years. New Delhi Condition Studies: ∙ New Delhi has extreme maximum and minimum

SUMMER SOLSTICE: Sun rays penetration in the East and West elevation is high during summer solstice.

WINTER SOLSTICE: Sun rays penetration in the South Elevation is high during winter solstice.

Spring Equinox: Sun rays penetration in the East and West Elevation is high during Spring Equinox.

FALL EQUINOX: Sun rays penetration in the East and West Elevation is high during Fall Equinox.

Extract of Sun Path Analysis

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temperatures. The solar path for the whole year – the summer solstice, the winter solstice and the spring and fall equinox- was prepared. ∙

In Delhi, the basic wind speed factored for the design is about 47 m per second.

An elaborate study on the topography, seismic zone category and many more factors were carried out.

All these were analysed very carefully before finalizing the façade design. Lighting Conditions: Daylight analysis for key parts of the project were carried out. Recommended lighting is between 300 and 700 lux. To help eliminate glare, the optimum Visible Light Transmission (VLT) for the vision glass was arrived at. In this project, because of the extreme conditions, the thickness of the selected double glazed system (DGU) is between 55 to 60 mm.

Performance Criteria: The performance criteria of the glass in the curtain wall took the following into consideration: structural load, air infiltration, dynamic and static water tests, structural wind load test, repeat static water test, proof load test, etc. These were spear headed by the Testing Lab we engaged. Deflection parameters of aluminium members supporting the glass are carefully considered which lead us to the specifications and gauge of the aluminium alloy members and MS brackets. All aluminium profiles, directly exposed to UV rays are specified to be PVDF finished. Typically, one glass sample, which satisfies the aesthetics, performance and pricing, is presented from any one manufacturer to the Client. From that point on the baton was handed over to Hanmi

(For Representation purpose only.)

For the Commercial Office Block, the glass thickness remained the same with lux between 300 and 700, and a VLT of almost 60 percent. We, along with the help of the Facade Team; conducted these essential studies based which specifications were finalized.

View of the Facade Cross Bracing

Global (Korean PMC Firm) to commence the procurement process for alternative glass samples and value engineering. Clear glass is generally suggested for facades. But often it is not possible because of cost and UV constraints. Thus a low E coating glass could be considered. Magnetically sputtered vacuum deposition (MSVD) coating is also used now-adays. Various Parameters for glass include light transmission to be between 40-70 per cent, light reflection to be 10-15 per cent, a good shading coefficient and a low U value.

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(For Representation purpose only.)

Hotel & Convention Centre; additional acoustic sealing to external noise levels created by a Boeing 737 to a Concorde are to be considered. This was the Operators mandate.

DAGC Landscape view

In this project, a bullet resistant glass is proposed in the west elevation, which is in line with European standards EN 1063 that gives protection from weapons like Rifle 5.56x45 plus a Rifle of 7.62x51. Fire Proofing: Materials used for cladding should ideally be non-combustible, should not emit toxic gases and should be environmentally friendly. A 2 Hour Rated fire stop between two floors of about 100 mm thickness with Rockwool insulation mandatory in all our Curtain Wall Designs. A smoke seal is also always provided. The NBC prescribes the code for all fire requirements, sometimes too stringent hence needing healthy debate. Acoustics: This Project is very close to the New Delhi Airport and thus acoustical solutions are necessary to increase the comfort levels within the building. Being a 05 Star Rated

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For the internal level of noise, the sealing needed is only in the range of 5 to 40 dbs. So the debate is on how to cut out the sound (50-60 dB), which is through the skin. The basic structure is proposed in steel, which is a good conductor of sound. Hence panelling from inside for better acoustics is proposed. The glass panel comprised 17.52 mm laminated heat strengthened glass with 8mm clear, 1.2 layer of PVB and another 8mm layer of clear heat strengthened glass, then a 25mm air gap followed by another 17.52 mm laminated heat strengthened glass. This helped to attain 45 dB reduction factor for acoustics. The DAGC is a Steel Construction & the Combination of Exposed Steel Structure - having part curtain wall, part window wall glazing, structural cross bracing, suspended glazing for convention centre floor, Steel Canopies with Glass extending into Facade; using of ceramic frit with acoustic and bulletproof glazing for various facades; skylight elements for 1000 seater All Day dining; as a total composition has led to around 25 overall solutions &

DAGC-Bracing Elevation

details for each facade types in this single building! In terms of faรงade, this project is probably the most complicated that I have personally been a part of. PROJECT SCOPE: -

480,000 Sq m BUA 1250 Key Hotel Public Areas: 1200 seater All Day Dining 02 Nos 80 Seater Specialty Restaurants 175 Capacity Loyalty Program Executive Lounge & Dining 500 Capacity Brasserie & Bar Gym / Spa / Treatment Rooms Outdoor Pool Deck 13,700 Sq m Convention Centre 58,000 Sq m Office & Retail Park 01 Level Convention Centre 02 Level Main Kitchens / Laundry / Hotel BOH 04/05/06 Basement Parking


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Project Watch

The Opus At Business Bay, Dubai About the Architects:

Agnes Koltay and Guillermo Fernandez, Koltay Facades, Dubai.

Agnes Koltay, Director at Koltay Facades, holds a Masters in Architecture (Hungary, USA) and a Masters in Façade Engineering (UK). She has worked with award winning architects and international engineering offices, before starting her own façade engineering consultancy, Koltay Façades, in 2011, which is now one of the largest specialist practices in the Middle-East region. She has been based in Dubai, UAE since 2005, and worked on numerous high-rise projects. Current projects include Sky View, Fountain views, and Burj Vista in Dubai and many projects in Europe and Asia. Koltay Façades has opened their second office in Singapore in 2016. Guillermo Fernandez is associate senior façade consultant at Koltay Façades office in Dubai. Obtaining his degree in architecture in

the Polytechnic University of Madrid, he has specialized in the technical and detailing aspects of façade design and developed a particular expertise in complex façade geometries. Guillermo has been involved in the design and site installation of several high-profile projects from world renowned architects in Europe and the Middle East.

In the heart of Dubai, halfway between the world’s tallest building (Burj Khalifa) and the newly opened Dubai Water Canal, construction is coming to an end on yet another landmark for the city: The Opus by Zaha Hadid. The Opus is a mixed-use 20 story building – hotel, serviced apartments and offices –which resembles a glowing cube that floats above the ground and has a freeform void in its centre. The building consists of two concrete towers connected by a steel bridge on top and

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Night visualization. Façade lighting emphasizes the glowing and floating effect

Street view of south elevation

a large steel supported atrium roof at the base, seamlessly cladded with glazed curtain walling. The external façades are built with transparent glazing with a mirror pattern, in contrast with the freeform inner “void” area which has dark blue glazing. Our job since the start of the project was to provide consultancy services on the building envelope engineering. From our main office located in the vicinity of the building site, Koltay Façades conducted the document review and site supervision during construction, with a strong understanding of the original design intent and the interests of the client, working to ensure the highquality delivery of the project. The Framing Systems The fully glazed skin of the building is constituted by a combination of various solutions. The external straight façades and the inclined and curved void façades are built with a female-female unitized curtain wall system, which was selected among many aspects for its good curving capabilities and drainage on inclined surfaces. The skylight and soffit areas are built with a back drained cassette system with a carrier frame to enhance shape control and offer protection of the edges during handling. And lastly, the recessed double-story podium glazing is supported by sleek carbon fibre

Mirror frit glazing on external façades

composite fins and includes an array of large size narrow-frame doors. In addition, a sophisticated lighting system is integrated into the void area façade. A matrix of lights was fitted inside the joints between panels (without blocking panel movements) allowing the void to glow and pulsate at night while remaining invisible during daytime. The External Façade Even though the external elevations are flat, their appearance is nothing conventional. The façade was designed by the architects with a pattern of dots of changing diameters, arranged in stripes for an overall pulsating effect. This pattern was envisioned as a highly reflective mirror-like coating, and finding a product that fitted the budget, matched the aesthetic requirements and allowed low-e coating on top was a long process that involved a large number of glass manufacturers. The final product was obtained through a similar process to ceramic fritting. A mirror ink was applied on the glass through silk screening and dried in a furnace prior to deposition of the low-e coat. The glass was then assembled to Insulating Glass Units (IGUs) with the patterned coated surface being in position 2, which gives the best performance in hot climates.

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Void surface quadrilateral modules are all unique in shape and size

The Central Void Façade The void façade geometry is a smooth compound of freeform curved surfaces that was analysed with parametric software, by checking panel sizes and offsets of the fourth corner in relation to the other three corners of a panel that define a reference plane. Values of around 80-90 mm were common, occasionally reaching up to 150mm on panel sizes averaging 1500 x 1950mm. This analysis was essential for assessing the different methods of producing curved glass explained hereunder.

Single curved glass production

of this method are that it is slow, uncontrolled and produces panels which are not tempered. Since thermal stress on glass is a big risk in a climate like Dubai, especially for a dark blue product having high solar energy absorption, the panels needed to be tempered. Chemical tempering was available, but it was very

Glass Forming Methods Though some areas consist of flat panels or single curved panels, the majority of the void façade is comprised of complex double curvature panels. Single curved glass, cylindrical and conical, is relatively easy to produce. This process takes only a few minutes and is done by special furnaces that have been available for years and are capable of curving and tempering at the same time. On the other hand, double curved glass is much more complex to produce. To fabricate this kind of panels, flat glass is placed over custom-fabricated moulds (adaptive moulds are still not a working reality) and heated up to approximately 700°C. As glass slowly softens, gravity causes it to sag and take the shape of the mould supporting it. The drawbacks

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Double curved IGU belonging to the skylight

Some high end projects are an awe to design and manufacturing. here are few that reflects the feel of europe. The high end exclusive window systems made with in-house designs of Glass Wall Systems and manufactured by premium manufacturers from Europe makes the product speaks for itself.






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Void Area Glass

Cold bending of flat glass onto a curved frame

expensive and suppliers did not offer long term warranties for a high sand abrasion environment. For these reasons, it was important to somehow reduce the number of hot bent panels to a minimum, so the decision was made to replace those with a small degree of curvature with cold bent tempered flat glazing. Cold bending is a costeffective way to shape glass which can be done in different ways: by bending glass only (shape forming with laminate), or by forcing the glass to take the shape of the frames. Finally, the second method was adopted and flat glass was cold bent while bonding it with structural silicone to the curved frames.

The next step was to find an appropriate glass build-up for the void. Knowing that thermal breakages were a serious threat to the glazing, we conducted a study to determine the amount of solar heat load each piece of glass would be exposed to, and the maximum energy absorption that can occur without thermal breakage. Once this was calculated, the search for a suitable product began. Initial options considered were a dark blue body tinted product and a blue colour PVB laminate. However, both options were abandoned due to problems with high solar energy absorbance and reflectivity as well as with colour variations between the skylight and soffit panels (having respectively the coloured PVB behind or in front of the low-e coat). Finally, a body tinted option was selected, but this time with two layers of a lighter blue glass which distributed the solar heat more effectively. Additionally, the low-e coating was placed on the inner lite, which is not ideal for a hot climate, but was a necessity in order to reduce the absorption on the outer pane. Moreover, silicone foam warm edge spacers were used in order to avoid temperature shock at the edges. To verify this solution, the final build-up was tested for thermal breakage by heating one half of the panel with infrared lamps while the other half was cooled with water mist, thus resembling a partial shading scenario. Manufacture and Assembly

Glass build-up analysis

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On this project, different components of the faรงade were manufactured and supplied from various countries around the globe. Mirror glass and curved glass was sourced from China, bent aluminium from Denmark, bent steel from The Netherlands, with assembly of panels taking place in Dubai. Ensuring these custom shaped parts fitted together was a great challenge, and in response to this the contractor developed a very detailed 3D model in order to obtain precise material dimensions and comprehensive tagging and labelling of each component.

was a few years ago, and will be even easier in a few more years’ time, when critical elements may be just 3D printed in situ. For such to happen we need projects like this to push the limits, induce progress and help to transform the “unique” into the “usual”. QUICK FACTS

View of the void area. Steelwork, aluminium and glass installation

All materials were checked several times, both at origin and in Dubai, and QA/QC checks for shape accuracy were done by measuring with stretched piano wire, digital 3D scan, or CNC-cut foam counter moulds.

Project: The Opus Location: Business Bay, Dubai (UAE) Client: Omniyat Architect: Zaha Hadid Contractor: Multiplex (Main), Alu-Nasa (Façade), Affan (Ground floor façade) Façade Consultant: Koltay Façades Materials used for façade & fenestration: Aluminium unitized curtain wall system, steel & aluminium skylight system, carbon fibre composite stick system curtain wall and high performance mirror fritted and blue body tinted double curved glass. Commencement Date: 2008 (on hold between 2009 - 2012) Completion Date: 2017 (1st quarter) Area: 185,000 Sq m

Conclusion In the past years of The Opus development we have witnessed a great advance in manufacturing techniques that allow to produce customized “each piece different” components in the exact same way and at nearly the same cost as repetitive items were mass produced in the past. There is no question that it is easier to build The Opus today than what it

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Project Watch

Library Block, Abdul Kalam Technical University, Lucknow About the Author:

Jitendra Kushwaha Partner, Ganpati Innovation

The proposed building for the Library Block of reputed state government technical university named Abdul Kalam Technical University (formerly Gautam Buddh Technical University) at Jankipuram, Lucknow, showcases an amazing multi-coloured and bright façade. The façade of the building is designed by Ar. Ritu Gulati and Ar. Vandana Sehgal. The building is located at the outskirts of Lucknow city in very calm locality. The project is one of its kind and will prove to be a milestone in the city’s architecture.

Jitendra Kushwaha is one of the specialist innovators with over 14 years of experience in construction of building envelopes. He has worked extensively on high value projects in the arena of glass the façade. He started working from the scrap and today he is known for the quality of his work. He has handled projects for leading names in Indian real estate industry, and continues to enjoy the trust and appreciation with projects that set pioneering benchmarks in architectural design. Jitendra is an innovator and notable entrepreneur. His creative mind is constantly in the process of exploring new thoughts and ideas, drawing inspiration from the ordinary to create something extraordinary.

Library Block of Abdul Kalam Technical University Lucknow

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Moleculare Sleve

Hermetically Sealed Space

Glass AS Selected

Aluminium Spacer Polyisobutylene Primary Seal Silicone Secondary Seal Details of Aluminium Composite Panel sheet

Details of material used in the project are provided below: Glass Details: The glass used in the project is security glass with coloured film pasted between glass sheets. Detailed description is given below: 6mm Clear Tempered Glass + 0.38mm Coloured PVB + 0.38mm Clear PVB + 0.38mm Coloured PVB + 0.38mm Clear PVB +6mm Clear Tempered Glass + 12mm air gap+ 6mm Clear Tempered Glass. This type of glass is specially designed to control the insulation and energy conservation of the building.

Front elevation side glasses-Model

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Details of Double Glazed Unit panel

Solar Glass: Solar Glass is a foray into the fastemerging solar glass segment in India. Given today’s situation of diminishing fossil fuels and increasing dependence on renewable power generation, the new Solar Glass represents an opportunity to pursue sustainability measures. With the National Solar Mission (NSM) in place and the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) pushing for widespread adoption of solar power by incentivizing private investments, the solar energy segment is projected to grow at an accelerated pace.

Rear side colour scheme-Model

Laminated Glasses PVB Interlayer There are two types of laminated glass: (a) PVB Limination (b) EVA Limination Glass A range of laminated glass with specialised PVB interlayers is used for building the façade

Laminated Glass: A range of laminated glass with specialised PVB interlayers to provide high level of intrusion resistance from burglar attacks. Benefits: ∙

Eliminates the need grills or shutters.

It gives the ability to see more without compromising on safety.

ACP details: The Material & Resources (MR) section in the LEED Rating Systems is to promote the use of environment friendly materials that is sourced from sustainable sources and are recycled. It also focuses on implementing proper construction waste

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management with storage, collection and reuse of recyclables and construction form work and waste. QUICK FACTS Project: Library block, APJKTU Location: Jankipuram, Lucknow, U.P. Client: UPRNN. Architect: Ar. Vandana Sehgal & Ar. Ritu Gulati. Materials Used for Facade & Fenestration: Laminated Double Glazed Glass with security multi-colour film-make AIS, Single Glazed Glass - make AIS, ACP Cladding - make Aludecor, Aluminium profiles - make Jindal. Commencement Date: November 2016 Completion Date: March 2017 Area: Single Glazed Glazing -1500 Sq m, Double Glazed Glazing -1350Sq m, ACP Cladding -1450Sq m.

DC 421 PBS

402-403, Tower C, NDM-2, Netaji Subhash Place, New Delhi-110034. Tel: ++91 11 47348888

Post Event UWDMA Technical Initiative, Wind vs. Windows In their continuous endeavour to bring in the best practices for the industry, uPVC Window and Door Manufacturers Association (UWDMA) organised a talk on ‘Wind loads on Windows’ by a leading façade and window consultant at Hotel My Fortune, Chennai, on the 3rd of February 2017. Mr. Amit Malhotra, Marketing Head – UWDMA welcomed the gathering and set the pace for the evening. The topic gained popularity as Chennai was battered by Vardah storm in December 2016 and the devastation was fresh in the minds of all. Who better than Mr. Mahesh Arumugam, Regional Director, Meinhardt Façade Consulting, with more than 2 decades of experience in South Asia, Middle East and India to address this complex topic. Mr. Arumugam enlightened the audience with his talk on various effects of wind and how the East coast is more prone to high winds be it India, Indonesia or America. Complex concepts of wind movement through and around buildings was simplified

Mr. Mario Schmidt, President – UWDMA addressing the gathering

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Mr. Mahesh Arumugam’s (Regional Director, Meinhardt Façade Consulting) presentation on ‘Wind loads on Windows’ organised by UWDMA

with diagrams and pictures. High velocity winds can go around a jut up a building causing a strong pull out force which can rip open windows. Wind rushing around or passing between adjacent buildings can cause tunnel affect which affects the corner windows. The Hyatt Hotel, corner ACP got ripped during Vardah due to the wind encountering a wide building front and going around it. In addition to wind, Mr. Arumugam stressed on water tightness as India has heavy monsoon areas. Water ingress can be due to gravity, capillary action or horizontal due to wind force. He illustrated the above causes and their prevention with interesting drawings. As UPVC is a green material and natural insulator, he suggested that UWDMA should develop an energy rating or UWDMA label as the BEE has failed to do so. The UWDMA label program would set a trend in improving

overall fabrication quality of windows, he suggested. Mr. Mario Schmidt, President – UWDMA, addressed the gathering on the various initiatives of UWDMA and welcomed the audience to become members and support the cause. The audience comprised nearly 45 UPVC window producers and a total strength of 70 guests from Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Telangana. Considering the enthusiasm and spirit of the audience, the organizers called for volunteers to take UWDMA forward in Tamil Nadu. Two members were nominated unanimously to head the Tamil Nadu Chapter –Mr. Veeramanikandan of SBP Windows and Mr Ramesh N of Green Windows. This will help window/ door producers to work in tandem with UWDMA as a platform for the growth of the uPVC industry.

Product Unitized Balcony Cladding Panel Scheldebouw has developed a unitized balcony solution for the project Greenwich Peninsula Plot 205 in London. It is a combination of a prefab balcony and a unitized faรงade panel in ONE. They install both the cladding panel at floor level and the balcony, combined, in one go. And all adjacent panels are locked in using their proprietary unitized gasket system. This means no more closures to be applied on site, no come-back works and no temporary solutions required to install a balcony. The unitized balcony cladding panel is prefabricated in the Scheldebouw factory. It is made out of structural aluminium beams and aluminium sub-construction. The balcony cladding panel is thermally broken and complies with condensation requirements. The deck and soffit are included when it leaves the factory. The glass balustrade is installed prior to installation. Large GRC clad panels will be installed on site to form the sides of the balcony. The light weight balconies are installed using standard concrete halfen channels, so no requirement for special cast-ins or steel provisions in the concrete slab edge. The balconies are installed within cladding tolerances. Founded in 2007 and based in Middelburg, the Netherlands, Scheldebouw B.V. engages in the project management, design, fabrication, and on site installation of cladding and curtain walls for buildings in the segment of the international construction market. Its products and solutions include various systems, components, and materials, such as active and interactive facades with ventilation, closed cavity double skin faรงade, sun shading systems, various types of glazing.

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Brand Watch Renson Opens its First Virtual Showroom with Nanopixel to develop the Experience Box: the first virtual showroom in Belgium and the world.

Renson officially opened its first virtual showroom. The “Experience Box”, developed by Belgian specialist in 3D visuals and virtual reality Nanopixel, is a box of 3 m x 2,5 m in which customers can discover, experience, select, and configure all Renson products in a real-time environment. With a portfolio of over 700 products, it is impossible for Renson dealers, who are located all around the globe, to display the enormous product range in their own showrooms. They also found that customers often had a hard time imagining how the products would look and work in their own home environment. Hence Renson teamed up

The Experience Box is a virtual showroom of 3 m x 2.5 m in which customers can discover all of Renson’s outdoor and sun protection products in 3D. Thanks to the numerous configuration possibilities, they get a chance to see the possible end result in real time, after which they can take a virtual tour of the space. The dealers no longer have to set up all of the physical demo models, and the digital product range is always up-to-date. Emphasising the importance of the Experience Box, Pieter Lecluyse, Renson marketing manager, says: “Using real-time rendering software, we simulate the integration of our products

based on the customer’s wishes. This is unique within our sector, but it is incredibly important for us because we want to be able to present the high-end products that we develop in a similar manner. Thanks to our Renson Experience Box, every Renson ‘Ambassador’ also has access to the biggest Renson showroom in Belgium”.Dietrich De Blander, Nanopixel CEO, explains, “The large screen ensures an incredibly intense experience. A lot of attention is paid to the impact of both natural sunlight and artificial light during the design phase. We have succeeded in creating a stylish environment that bring the Renson products to life. Plus, the design of the Experience Box is so compact that it can be quickly and easily setup and dismantled. This makes it great for worryfree use at trade fairs or other events.” All the Renson Experience Box solutions focus on the customer’s comfort. The customer can choose a style that best matches that of their own home from four pre-defined model houses. There is also a façade configurator for those who want to go into more detail; it can create minute dimensions. After the customer has explored and compared all the products, he or she can choose the desired product. This means that the final result is exactly what the customer wants.

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Buzz NürnbergMesse India to Partner with Zak Trade Fairs & Exhibitions In order to grow further, NürnbergMesse India and Zak Trade Fairs & Exhibitions have become partners in organizing trade fair and exhibition in Europe as well as in India. As a result, both the companies are optimistic of being able to move their growth in the Indian market further forward, said Sonia Prashar, Managing Director at NürnbergMesse India. Syed Ahad Ahmed, Director of Zak Trade Fairs & Exhibitions, believes that this strategic alliance can strengthen both the companies: “Our company is strong on the ‘Windows’‚ ‘Doors’ and ‘Facades’ themes – just like NürnbergMesse. FENSTERBAU FRONTALE in Nuremberg with around 800 exhibitors from 37 countries and about 110,000 trade visitors* is the world’s leading trade fair, we are proud to become trade fair and exhibition partners in Europe as well as in India,” says Ahad

Ahmed . The prime objective of the cooperation between both partners is to strengthen the market position for windowconstruction fairs in India and together to grow even more strongly in this segment. In India, the window and facade market is marked by enormous growth and, according to the sector experts, now has an estimated value of around 2.2 billion Dollars. In this context, aluminium products dominate the Indian window market with a share of around 50 percent, followed by wood, steel and PVC products. The “Make in India” state initiative in particular has resulted in enormous impulses for the domestic construction sector and at the same time increased the interest of foreign investors in India. The ‘Windows’, ‘Doors’ and ‘Facades’ themes are thus also representative of the dynamic upturn in the Indian construction sector.

The cooperation between Zak Trade Fairs & Exhibitions and NürnbergMesse India will become visible for the first time between 7th and 10th December, 2017 in Mumbai, at the Zak fairs “Doors & Windows”, “Glass Technology” and “Aluminium Extrusions”, which will be held in cooperation with NürnbergMesse India. “At the end of the day, it is in particular our customers who benefit from this strong platform, namely exhibitors and trade visitors with the focus on the ‘Windows’, ‘Doors’ and ‘Facades’ themes in India”, agree Sonia Prashar and Syed Ahad Ahmed. Zak Trade Fairs & Exhibitions Pvt Ltd is a leading congress and trade fair/exhibition organizer with the focus on the Asian market. Since 1994 Zak has organized over 520 Events in India, Singapore, Sri Lanka, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, the United States and Bangladesh. NürnbergMesse is one of the 15 largest exhibition companies in the world. The portfolio covers some 120 national and international exhibitions and congresses and approx. 40 sponsored pavilions at the Nuremberg location and worldwide. The NürnbergMesse Group is present with subsidiaries in China, North America, Brazil, Italy and India.

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Three Top Awards for Lingel Lingel has been bestowed with three esteemed awards in 20162017, namely The Design Wall 2016, Prestigious Rising Brands of India 2016-17, and Magppie Estate Award 2017. DESIGN WALL 2016 is an initiative undertaken by ACETECH to endorse and nurture latest technologies in architecture, building materials and design industry. It was a very prestigious moment for Lingel when Mr Mario Schmidt, gave his presentation on the Smart Lingel Windows in front of the esteemed jury. Ernst & Young were the official tabulators of this activity. The jury consisted of top-notch architects & developers of the country. Lingel Windows and

Doors Technologies aced by being the GOLD WINNER. The Prestigious Rising Brand award was held in Mumbai on 20th January 2017 and Lingel was awarded for the category –Infrastructure. The Rising brand is the most recognized listing of the notable brands that aspire to create the future embracing a combination of state-of-artproducts and services. The award is an acknowledgment of the brand's value, strength, and character. Lingel was also featured in the special section in the coffee table book of “Prestigious Rising Brands of India”. MAGPPIE Estate Awards was organized by FRANCHISE

INDIA on 28th January 2017. Lingel Windows and Doors Technologies was awarded the ‘Best Use of Technology of the Year’. The Estate Awards 2017 is the largest and most diverse Awards show of India and recognizes the highest levels of achievement by companies operating in all sectors of the property and real estate industry.

Fenesta Expands Retail Reach Across Country Fenesta Building Systems, one of India’s largest windows companies and a division of DCM Shriram Ltd. is expanding its retail reach in the country. The company recently announced the launch of its five new showrooms in the following cities: Jodhpur, Gwalior, Varanasi, Vijayawada and Rishikesh. The new showrooms would exhibit the entire range of Fenesta Windows including sliders, casements, tilt and turn, bays and combination windows that will be available in different design and colour. The showrooms will also change the way of buying windows and

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doors for the Indian consumers as the customers will be able to touch and feel the product before the purchase. Commenting on the showroom launches, Saket Jain, Business Head- Fenesta Building Systems said, “Fenesta is the only brand in India that is bringing alive the experience for the consumers through such showrooms across the country and we are confident that these will help our consumers to make better design choices and faster purchase decisions. It will also help the architects and interior designers to enhance their

palette.”The products at Fenesta go through stringent tests and quality check at every step to ensure performance in India’s varied and extreme climates. Fenesta products are popular for its noise insulating, rain proof, dust proof features without compromising on aesthetics.

The GRIHA Summit 2017 With the theme of "Transforming Habitats", The GRIHA Summit 2017 was held at India Habitat Centre, Lodhi Road, New Delhi on 2nd and 3rdMarch 2017. The GRIHA Council, organized the event in conjunction with the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), Government of India. The council envisages to double the green footprint in the country from 35 million sq. ft. to 70 million Sq ftin a span of three years. In this context, Rajeev Kapoor, Secretary, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of India launched the GRIHA rating for existing buildings and during the inaugural address said, “MNRE has been associated with GRIHA for over a decade and has supported this green movement. The distinctive aspect about GRIHA is that it is not only about the final product but also about the process of construction. There is a need to improve the entire ecosystem of urbanization, as sustainable 50 per cent of India will be urban in the next 15-20 years. Herein, lies the challenge in urban governance and political and economic system”. He also welcomed the new initiative of rating existing buildings, which will further spur the green movement and help gain momentum to achieve sustainable habitats. Congratulating the GRIHA team on this momentous feat, Dr Ajay Mathur, Director General, TERI & President, GRIHA Council, in his welcome address said, “This year’s theme of ‘transforming habitats’ becomes extremely important because there’s a sharp emphasis on how we manage our urban landscape through the smart city mission, and also how technology has attracted finances into green buildings. In the process of rapid urbanization that India is witnessing at present, if each building becomes greener than the one built yesterday then we have huge opportunity and hope for our country. For a sustainable future and in order to provide our citizens with a good quality of life, the need of the hour is to look beyond the conventional methods of building. Hence, GRIHA becomes important in

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meeting our national goals with respect to a sustainable society”. Sinhgad College of Architecture won the Trophy at the 59th Annual NASA Convention 2016-17. The GRIHA-NASA Trophy is awarded by The GRIHA Council under the aegis of The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) and the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), Government of India, in partnership with the National Association of Students of Architecture (NASA). The Summit witnessed deliberations on creating technology that is efficient, beneficial to health and socially affordable; a solution driven approach to tackle growing cooling demand, especially in developing countries; to showcase the water conservation strategies undertaken considering the highly unpredictable availability of water; and the urgency of going green to create a sustainable society.

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Window & Facade Magazine - January/ February 2017 issue  

F & F Media and Publications Window & Facade Magazine (WFM) is a technical journal published by F & F Media and Publications.

Window & Facade Magazine - January/ February 2017 issue  

F & F Media and Publications Window & Facade Magazine (WFM) is a technical journal published by F & F Media and Publications.