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Volume 2 | Issue 7 | ` 100 July - August 2016 WE ARE LIVE!

Architectural Hardware Innovative, trendy and sustainable hardware solutions for façades & fenestrations

Face to Face

Jürgen Mayer H. Principal Architect & Founder J. MAYER H. und Partner, Architekten

Tech Talk

Post breakage Strength Testing for Point-Fixed Laminated Glass

Special Feature

Flanking Paths – Acoustics: Addressing Internal Sound Transmission Issues in Curtain Walling Systems

“Printed and Published by Amit Malhotra on behalf of M/s F & F Media and Publications. Printed and published at Thomson Press India Ltd,18/35, Milestone, Delhi Mathura Road, Faridabad-121007. Telephone: (+91 120) 4725400 Name of the Editor-Ms. Renu Rajaram”




Volume 2 I Issue 7 July - August 2016 Special Feature: Flanking Paths – Acoustics 06 Exploring new directions in terms of façade lighting

Challenges Faced During High-Rise Façade Construction

On acoustics performance-limiting factors in lightweight curtain walled buildings

Creating Sculptural Architecture 11

Risks and hurdles associated with high rise façade construction

Contemporary Architectural Hardware Solutions

Interview: Jürgen Mayer H., Principal Architect & Founder, J. MAYER H. und Partner, Architekten

Key trends that are expected to affect the building industry


The Perforated Façade 21

Selecting Right Hardware for uPVC Windows & Doors

95 Punjab Kesari Headquarters by Studio Symbiosis Architects

A Cutting Edge School Design 103


The Green Acres Academy, Mumbai by Tushar Desai Associates

On selection of hardware and its maintenance

Post Breakage Strength Testing for Point-fixed Laminated Glass

Industry Speaks 58

Co-Founders: Syed Ahad Ahmed Amit Malhotra Sarvesh Bagla CEO: Arun. R

Project RED, Pune by Onus Design

Emerging Trends & Technologies in Architectural Hardware

Methods to assess the post breakage strength


Exploring Materials 17

On safe, sustainable and cost effective hardware solutions


Published by: F & F Media and Publications C-55, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase - 1, New Delhi 110 020 T: +91-11-42576205

111 Interview: Rajeev Antony, Managing Director, Schueco India

Technical Panel: Mahesh Arumugam - Director, Meinhardt Façade Consultants KR Suresh - Regional Director, Axis Façade Consulting Ar. Ravindra Kumar - Principal, Pragrup YP Singh - Treasurer, UWDMA Sharanjit Singh - Chairman, GSC Glass Editorial: Renu Rajaram +91 9312864830 Esha Sharma +91 98119 86040 Marketing & Operations: Kapil Girotra +91 9560925255 Studio Design: O Positive Communication Pvt. Ltd.

Cover Credits: Tushar Desai Associates DISCLAIMER: With regret we wish to say that publishers cannot be held responsible or liable for error or omission contained in this publication. The opinions and views contained in this publication are not necessarily those of the publishers. Readers are advised to seek expert advice before acting on any information contained in this publication which are very generic in nature. The ownership of trademarks is acknowledged. No part of this publication or any part of the contents thereof may be reproduced in any form or context without the permission of publishers in writing. WRITE TO THE EDITOR Please address your suggestions to: The Editor, Window & Façade Magazine, C55, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase – 1, New Delhi, 110020 or email Please provide your full name and address, stating clearly if you do not wish us to print them. Alternatively log on to and air your views. The opinions expressed in this section are of particular individuals and are in no way a reflection of the publisher’s views.

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RNI: DELENG/2014/57870

Emerging Trends in Façade Lighting

EDITOR’S NOTE We have seen builders’ stocks dwindling in the recent past with projects getting stalled or cancelled. Their hopes have been given a fillip by a double strike with the pay commission implementation for central government employees being announced and the much touted GST Bill seeing light at the end of the tunnel. The GST bill has been long awaited by the real estate sector and construction industry. Seen as a major reform in indirect taxation towards one country one tax regime, the industry is optimistic that the bill will have a positive impact on the real estate sector and its 250 odd ancillary industries. We hope that GST will indeed reduce tax burden and ease the interstate flow of construction material.

Renu Rajaram

Turning back to façade and fenestration. Hardware not only allows us to navigate through spaces in a building but also reflects its character. Wrong choice of hardware could ruin a project, but, if chosen with care, they could act as embellishments adorning a project and bestowing the place with distinctive sparkle. Architectural hardware constitutes a meagre 1-3 per cent of the building cost. However, studies have revealed that maximum issues arise due to hardware malfunction. The industry for architectural hardware related to façades and fenestration is estimated to be more than 30,000 crores, and is growing at a rate of 25 to 30 percent annually. This edition focuses on a small part of buildings– architectural hardware for façade and fenestration. In India, the focus on architectural hardware and specification of doors/ Windows is less than desired at the design stage of the building. Our cover story, brings to you the ‘what, why and how’ of choosing and installing hardware and latest technologies available in this sector. In addition, we present a few basic tips from experts on what to look for while shopping for hardware. Other Interesting features in this edition include technical articles on “Acoustic implications and performance of the closure of curtainwall systems” and on “Post breakage strength of laminated glass construction”. We also present a few interesting projects showcasing innovative materials and technologies used in building facades. As we aim to keep our readers up-to-date with the latest in the industry, our website too helps to keep you informed. You can now receive your industry news updates from Please step inside our website to find out more.

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Façade Lighting

Emerging Trends in Façade Lighting About the Author:

Yoshiyuki Kato Director - Lighting Anchor Electricals Pvt. Ltd.

Yoshiyuki Kato joined Panasonic Corporation in 1991 and worked as a Lighting Business Unit Head for nearly 20 years. His current assignment with Anchor as Director- Lighting makes him responsible for spearheading the lighting business under Anchor as well as Panasonic Brands. He intends to enable Anchor to occupy a majority market share in the lamp business. His next focus area would be on marketing quality lighting fixtures & energy-saving products for the commercial premises (Striplight fixtures, T5 luminaires and LED lighting under Anchor as well as Panasonic brands). His extensive focus area would be to enable Panasonic to increase its overseas lighting business.

For centuries, the humble façades have stood tall with their archtypes in the overall aesthetic as well as technical performance of a building. While the Façade Engineering has evolved by itself as a science placing an impetus on solving aesthetic, environmental and structural issues of a construction, the industry is exploring new directions in terms of lighting up these spaces as well. From the humble incandescent bulb to the state-of-the-art LED lighting to Laser lighting, the evolution of the light sources itself is a scintillating story to tell. With the world coming closer and spaces getting denser, the majestic façades have also received a face-lift with the changing times. The latest trend in façade lighting includes that of a Media Façade, which refers to a mode of

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Candi Prambanan is a 9th-century Hindu temple compound in Central Java, Indonesia

Candi Prambanan Temple façades were lit by Panasonic Corporation

lighting by which lighting and light sources in particular are integrated into the front surface of architecture. So it is a lighting method that borrows from the digital media format to display graphics, text, and even video images.While the physical design of the building is mainly expressed during the day, this lighting method visually transforms the building in the evening, so it is being recognized as a new field in visual and spatial art that overcomes the structural limitation of ‘rigid ’ architecture with the colours of light and enhances the value of the architecture.So the architectural façade forms a synergy with art and is effectively used as the canvas to display media and digital arts on a large scale. Today Panasonic LED is exploring new possibilities with changing the way façade lighting operates

for various spaces especially in the commercial and landscape segments. The world heritage project undertaken by the company lights up the historical monuments. The Prahmbanan Temple Premises have been lit by Panasonic LED. The Prahmbanan Temple Compounds in Indonesia were lit by Panasonic Corporation a while ago that stand a witness to its technologically superior product range relating to façade lighting. This temple is noted for its distinctive pointed pinnacles and is one of the largest Hindu temples in the region. The Prambanan Temple Compounds were previously lit with HID (high-intensity discharge) lamps, but with rising electricity costs, there

LED façade lighting heighten the appeal of Prambanan, boosting tourism

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lighting patterns and also optimizes power saving due to LED.

Façade lighting with 3D video mapping at “I Light Marina Bay 2014”

was a need to transition to more energy-efficient lighting. It was also expected that new, improved lighting would heighten the appeal of Prambanan, boosting tourism and contributing to the economic wellbeing of area residents. Panasonic proposed the introduction of LED as a replacement. Among its advantages are the ability to select from multiple lighting patterns (termed “silver,” “platinum,” “gold,” etc.), as well as an approximately 30% reduction in power consumption compared to the existing HID floodlights, more impressive illumination of the site (better colour tones, sharper shadows on the reliefs), and a significant decrease in maintenance work such as replacing lamps. The process of introducing LEDs entailed major obstacles in terms of preservation. As it is not possible to intervene in the sites’ surrounding environments, LED floodlights had to be mounted on the bases for existing light fixtures, and existing wiring had to be used as well. Achieving optimum illumination under restricted conditions was a task similar to solving a puzzle. Panasonic performed repeated early-stage simulations and on-site demonstration experiments, completing floodlight angle adjustments and determining lighting pattern settings before delivering the LED. The temple premises thus got highlighted with three different

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Another trend in façade lighting is 3D Video Mapping that involves the projection of images to highlight the particular object. Asia’s only sustainable light art festival, “i Light Marina Bay 2014” showcased innovative content, the intelligent use of lighting as well as an international line-up of creative talents. The festival featured 28 innovative and environmentally sustainable light art installations from around the world. The Marina Bay waterfront was transformed into a magical space of light and colour for the public to celebrate both public spaces and creativity. Panasonic projectors were used to create this effect. Global Lighting Designer President LEM Lighting Studio Japan, Shiho Nagamachi says, “Listen to the Voices Unique of the Places,” as her design ideology behind lighting. The façade lighting trends will keep evolving as architecture and building materials evolve further, Panasonic LED intends to stretch the boundaries further and explore new possibilities through their LED products for the Indian and overseas markets.

ARCHI LUMINAIRES FROM PANASONIC Panasonic has a history in developing the lighting technologies and light sources. Being the third largest lighting company in the world, its contribution to lighting arena is unparalleled than any other. Dr. Isamu Akasaki – one of the Nobel Prize winners of 2014 for the invention of Blue LED had worked for the Panasonic Tokyo Research Center, and his activities in that period contributed to the invention of the blue LED chip. Panasonic Corporation has introduced its world-class range in India through its wholly owned subsidiary Anchor. The Smart Archi range of architectural luminaires particularly forms a synergy with the requirements of architecture and even for façades.

High-Rise Façades

Challenges Faced During High-Rise Façade Construction About the Author: Chandra Shekar is Senior Manager – Application Engineering and IT at FunderMax India Private Limited and has been associated with FunderMax since last 8 years. He is a Mechanical Engineer by profession and has been in the Façade Industry since the past 14 years. He has trained internationally with prime focus on System Design. In this article, Chandra Shekar elucidates on risks and hurdles associated with the construction of façades for high rise buildings and few solutions for the same.

Chandra Shekar, Senior Manager, Application Engineering and IT, FunderMax India Private Limited The race for high rise buildings began in the nineteenth century in New York and Chicago, as demand for land far outstripped supply. As engineers continued to make breakthroughs in construction methods and technology, the race for making taller buildings never stopped. High rise construction has become shorthand for ambition, success, prosperity and technical achievement. Cities that have built high rise buildings have their own recognized silhouette, whereas other cities are seeking to create their own iconic skylines with a startling range of ever taller, more daring structures. Along with the height of a building, the risks associated with its construction have also grown manifold. These risks can be categorized into five key components: the groundwork, the frame, the cladding, the mechanical and electrical systems and the lifts. To mitigate these risks, a rigorous command over logistics is required.

Jain Heights, Bangalore, India

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Fig 1: A residential project near Paris, France

Out of these five key components, the façade is by far the most significant. As the primary barrier between the occupants and the elements, the façade system must be strong, fire, water, and wind proof and energy efficient to support a LEED, BREEAM or Green Star rating, all on top of looking good and unique.

system comprises of HPL panels mounted onto a prefabricated aluminium frame. Most of the system components are assembled in a plant under controlled working conditions. This promotes quality assembly and allows for fabrication lead-time and rapid closure of the building.

However, façade system setup in a high rise building poses a lot of challenges. The main issues that must be addressed relate to the logistical problems faced while installing the façade system and the stability of the façade system under trying conditions.

The Unitized system is assembled on the building as panels. The panels are installed in single fashion, starting either from the bottom or top of the building and going around each floor until the whole building is dressed up.

One of the ways to offset the logistical issues is through the implementation of a Unitized façade system. Unitized façade installation systems entail serial production and factory fabrication, and assembly of panels. These completed units are then hung on the building structure to form the building enclosure. This permits rapid and economical implementation for buildings of any size, whilst simultaneously enabling creative diversity and a delicate appearance. The Unitized system is the most cost effective, high quality and quick installation exterior façade system available. A Unitized HPL

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The Unitized system offers many advantages with respect to quality assembly and speed up the site construction time. By design, the system allows for waste reduction in the building process: façade installation is decoupled, and can thus progress separately from other trades’ work, while itself proceeding in a continuous flow process. Various kinds of waste are reduced, for example: ∙ Inventory: No on-floor staging will be needed since façade elements are transported via the system directly to the elements’ installation positions or to their dedicated staging area, thereby not affecting space on the ground or inside the building.

Fig. 2: Exterior walls made of any material must withstand the ravaging effects of nature

∙ Transportation: On-site transport will be minimized by lifting the façade elements directly from the truck onto the system and forwarding them to their installation positions, without any interim on-floor staging. This avoids internal transportation.

individually or more often in combination, but to understand their impact on design requirements the effects of each should be separately examined. The façade system must prove itself to be extremely stable to all external conditions faced by high rise buildings.

∙ Waiting: Installing the façade system independently of the site crane and hoist, and freeing up floor space area for others, reduces the waiting time for the façade installers and for other contractors. ∙ Defects: Risks of damaging the façade elements will be reduced given that no onground or on-floor staging is necessary and that there is full control over on-site transports using fully integrated equipment. ∙ Motion: The system will have equipment that handles the material flow through the whole process; from factory to installation point. Thereby, contractors will not be subject to unnecessary handling or reliance on potentially unsuitable lifts. All exterior walls, of whatever materials, are subject to, and must withstand the ravaging effects of nature. These nature forces are sunlight, temperature, water, wind and gravity. All of them must be considered, and their effects provided for, in all locations. They may act upon the wall either

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Fig. 3: Wind load plays a significant role in dictating the structural strength

the introduction of new cladding materials for building high rises. Compact Laminates is one such material that can withstand the external load pressures and provide adequate thermal performance due to its sustainable and robust properties while at the same time maintaining the aesthetic look of the building.

Fig. 4: Another tall residential project with FunderMax exterior

For overall façade design using a Unitized façade system the following general parameters should be considered: ∙ Architectural requirements/restrictions ∙ Thermal performance to be achieved (U-value, g-value, layer temperatures) ∙ Flexibility (adjustable performance)

Designing a façade system today encompasses structural engineering, building physics, materials science, weatherproofing technology, architectural detailing, production engineering, construction management and buildability. The façade also accounts for a significant proportion of project costs, so the engineer’s role is to balance visual and performance requirements to create an economically viable solution that can be built safely. High-rise façades are becoming even more complicated as architects abandon the glass box in favour of ambitious multifaceted forms. Engineering high-rise buildings is half art, half science – an artful application of science empowered by experience. If done correctly by mitigating the risks involved at every stage, it gives you an enjoyment that you may not have in other fields of endeavour – you can see the results.

∙ Interaction strategy with HVAC systems (extract rate, natural ventilation) Apart from these parameters of a more general nature, the following more specific parameters have significant impact on possible design and, therefore, façade performance: ∙ Loads ∙ Maintenance (interior or exterior) ∙ Investment vs. running costs (integrated view) For high rise buildings in particular, the wind load plays a significant role in dictating the structural strength and in determining the thickness of the cladding material and the support structures used. All of these parameters must be considered and their impact calculated prior to the fabrication of panels in a Unitized system. Before using any specific cladding material, a thorough testing must be done as per the ASTM standards. All of these requirements and strict quality norms have led to technological innovations including

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Fig. 5: Compact Laminates can withstand the external load pressures & provide adequate thermal performance


Contemporary Architectural Hardware Solutions About the Author: Massimiliano Palumbo is the Commercial Director of Schlegel International EMEAI. During the last 15 years, he held different positions in GSG International and developed his carrier in different roles as Branch manager, Country Manager and Group Commercial Director (Sales & Marketing). Since March 2016, he manages the Europe, Middle East, Africa & India (EMEAI) commercial organization for both company brands: GIESSE Hardware and SCHLEGEL Seals.

Massimiliano Palumbo Commercial Director, Schlegel International EMEAI

Significant trends are emerging in the window and door industries. The new trend in fenestration industry and contemporary architectural solution is heavily involving aluminium envelopes, from façade to casement windows for residential projects. With the emerging trends, contractors, developers and building owners have to deal with various issues pre and post construction. Some architects and manufacturers of doors and windows are monitoring the customers evolving tastes and have identified the following key trends that are expected to affect the building industry in the coming years.

daring. Large openings are in trend together with narrow profiles and stylish accessories with low aesthetic impact.

Minimalist Trend In recent years, ‘minimalist’ trend is strongly affecting the world of buildings. The architects are redefining the rules of urban planning by designing more and more slender buildings. Constructive design has become increasingly modern and

NP Supra Asia Handle

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Chic Hinges

When it comes to windows, many are opting for large casement windows or direct-glaze options, offering unobstructed views. Others are seeking large sliding windows that feature unobstructed openings and wide open spaces. Beyond expansive views, homeowners also desire a seamless transition between the homes’ inside and outside, making a dramatic connection with the outdoors. More people are seeking ways to integrate their open interiors with spacious exteriors and with this trend comes growing demand for larger windows and doors. Flexibility Interior designers are pushing more and more on customized hardware with better finishes, demanding hardware manufacturers for customized products along with better finishes, and flexibility in colours and materials. The colour rather than the shape is the new priority for specialists of interior design. Offering a range of finishes wide and high quality, both in aesthetics and in corrosion resistance, is a key requirement for door hardware manufacturers if they want to position themselves at the high end of the market. The corrosion resistance is an element which is very much in demand in the project specifications outlined by architects and consultants. They specify materials such as stainless steel and anodised aluminium, to

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prevent surface corrosion, pitting and areas of discoloration. Installation Among the different types of fenestration installed inside a house, the door requires a very high level of security and reliability all the time. A high quality door is the door that once installed, should be forgotten. Materials Use of high performance profiles and proof glasses leads to realise mobile sashes increasingly heavy that require robust and reliable accessories.

Opened Sash

Schlegel Sealing Systems


Giesse Hardware Systems

WE ARE YOUR GLOBAL HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLUTION PROVIDER Schlegel brand is known as a quality supplier of window and door components. With manufacturing plants in the UK, Spain, Germany, Italy, China, Australia and Brazil the company is in a position to serve local markets with high quality products and exemplary customer service under the Schlegel brand for seals and the Giesse brand for hardware. The Schlegel seal range includes foam, brush pile and extruded seals. Whatever the application there is a product in the Schlegel range to suit. In addition to the extensive seal range, Schlegel offer Giesse hardware for aluminium windows and doors. Giesse means Quality, Innovation and Italian Design, with a wide product range for sliding doors, Tilt&Slide systems, Side Hung and Tilt&Turn mechanism, window and door handles and hinges. As always, the Schlegel and Giesse products are unique in terms of high performance, high quality and unbeatable design.

Find out more at GSG International S.p.A. - India Branch Office | D-362, MIDC, TTC Industrial Area - Juinagar Navi Mumbai - INDIA 400705 Giesse’s names and logos and all related trademarks (including ‘GIESSE’, ‘GIESSE symbol’, ‘C.H.I.C.’, ‘Giesse NP’, ‘NP symbol’, ‘GOS’ and ‘QID’), trade names and other intellectual property are the property of Schlegel Acquisition Holdings Limited trading as Schlegel International and cannot be used without its express prior written permission. All rights reserved. © Schlegel Acquisition Holdings Limited trading as Schlegel International 2016

Stylish Concealed Hinge

NP Supra Design

Aluminium is certainly the material that allows to best match the aesthetic needs of the market with the excellent mechanical and performance properties, typical of this material.

design principles demand the flexibility in glass, its future is truly shining.

Largest glass surface is associated to highest performance, including thermal (low emission) and noise insulation. In the last few years, glass has become the most evolved technological material.

The hardware installed on the aluminium windows and door (hinges, locks, handles, etc.) must satisfy higher level requirements in terms of maximum achievable load, resistance to cyclic fatigue, corrosion resistance, burglar resistance and suitability for use on fire resistant doors, following the increasingly stringent requirements present in project specifications.

Glass has continuously been redefining the way we look at construction. Aesthetically superior and functionally outstanding, there are multiple reasons why glass is driving the new wave in construction practices. As the focus is fast shifting towards faster and sustainable construction, and new


Wide range of components that are available in the market allows to choose the most appropriate, depending on the type of application and on the required performance.

Giesse NP Technology Giesse has designed a technology to satisfy the new market and major player’s requirements (system houses, windows makers), who have to face the new and stricter regulations always. Giesse NP technology minimizes machining operations on the profile, making assembly quicker and simpler. Thanks to their notably compact dimensions, all handles with the technology are installed without any need to machine the inside of the profile, which means profile sections can be streamlined and glazing surface areas can be increased. Giesse offer a complete range of engineered components for the fenestration systems which enhance the performance and utility of various systems when applied in doors, windows, curtainwalls, facades, etc. Their products are crucial to the quality of the final product and contribute to a safe, comfortable, no maintenance and stylish living as well as working environment. The standard of the final products that they deliver reflects their commitment to quality of design, performance attributes and installation improvements that exceed regulatory requirements. On 7th March 2016 Giesse became part of Schlegel International, global supplier of sealing systems based at Bologna, Italy. Customers are now offered the full range of Giesse accessories, together with Schlegel door and window seal components including watertight foam and brush weatherstrips, as well as extruded profiles: Visit their site to find out about the full range of Giesse solutions:

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Emerging Trends & Technologies in Architectural Hardware About the Author:

Tanuj Sharma, National Head – Commercial, Kinlong Hardware (India) Pvt Ltd

A novel design or use of material in one instance, becomes commonplace after repeated use over time. The basic morphologies, materials and processes that comprise the technology are well tested and of known performance validated from use. Concurrently, a proliferation of highly visible structural glass façades in the built environment has resulted in the dissipation of perceived risk among the building community and the public, and an increasing acceptance of the innovative technology. As a result, interest in utilizing structural glass façade technology is increasing among architects and their owner developer clients. The next tier of adopters is primed. Structural glass façade technology is poised

Tanuj Sharma, heading the Commercial Sales at Kinlong Hardware India, is associated with Kinlong hardware for over half a decade. Kinlong Hardware has been serving the industry for the past 35 years with its ever-growing range of products, hardworking labours and abundantly strengthened factories, which provide the customer the freedom to choose and customize their products in unmatched surface finishes. Kinlong Hardware is one of the largest hardware producer of its kind in the world. In India, Kinlong Hardware is present in all major cities with local stock availability to cater the minutest demands of their valuable customers.

Kimpenski Hotel, Munich Airport

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Hilton, Indonesia

Turn & Tilt Windows

for significant potential growth, but barriers remain. The demands on building systems have increased in many respects over the past several decades. Nowhere are these demands greater than with the building skin. Architects are demanding more design control and more diverse aesthetic possibilities out of the available cladding options. At the same time, as energy costs rise and rapid climate change emerges as a looming threat, developers, architects, and increasingly, government and regulatory agencies are mandating improved thermal performance in building façades. Of course, as long as the industry keeps on limiting themselves to the common systems which in fact are limited. Yet, there are solutions which indeed are better in terms of safety, sustainability and cost effectiveness. A few of which shall be covered in this topic.

recently, with the increased popularity of residential high-rises the question has arisen how to make generously dimensioned outdoor spaces available to the residents that can also be used when there are strong winds, inclement weather, or low temperatures. A) Turn & Tilt Windows The turn-and-tilt-lift window contributes to the perception of spaciousness, because all of the profiles are hidden from view. The major advantage being the openings are restricted to two angles and are not unidirectional. If the desired opening angle is less, then the tilt function of the window can be used and by turning the handle this state of tilting can be changed to a fully opened window. B) Lift & Slide Doors

Fenestration: Door & Window Systems In designs for façades of residential buildings in city centres, conflicts of interest often arise. On the one hand, the residents want an adjoining outdoor space, and, with the prospect of greater demand and higher prices per square meter, it is in the investors’ interest to fulfil this desire. On the other hand, the cantilevers and cut-outs accompanying balconies and loggias disrupt the homogeneous appearance of the façade and the urban character of the city. In particular, most

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The lift & slide door system offers three significant advantages over conventional sliding doors. The doors run on two multi wheel carriages engineered to provide maximum support and incredibly smooth movement. Superior sealing capabilities engage when the door is in the locked position. Dual weather seals at the top, bottom and sides actually become tighter with increased door size. Lift & slide doors are sill-supported and designed to resist air and water infiltration better than other sliding

Lift & Slide Doors

Parallel Opening Windows

door options. Multiple operable door panels slide and overlap each other, opening up amazingly wide spaces. Operable sliding panels combined with fixed panels result in a remarkable number of size and configuration possibilities, including corner units with no post. C) Parallel Opening Windows The leaf or louver is moved outwards and downwards in an Arc. As a result, the advantages of a circulating and safe ventilation function are combined with an increased ventilation cross section in the projecting element. The new system is based on solid stainless steel opening levers, which replace the stay technology that was used up to now. This system enables the air free flow, regulating the temperature.

Sliding & Folding Doors

application is considered to be any installation involving individual door weights of up to 100 kg. Door weights higher than 100 kg are required to use industrial gear. Doors/windows to be supported with on bottom rollers depending upon the building structure and permissible loadings. Faรงade: The Cable Supported System Structurally, a cable is a non-rigid member that takes only tension and has no rigidity. A cable sagging under its own weight takes a catenary

D) Sliding & Folding Doors This system was developed to enable almost any object to slide or fold. The gear systems are available as straight sliding or folding systems or be used in stacking doors/windows, pocket doors/windows or multiple grouped folding doors/ windows. The system can also be used for wardrobes, cabinets, cupboards, interior doors and room dividers (partitions). The residential gear

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The Cable Supported System-Kempinski Hotel

around 60 meters, 1 single cable per panel from top to bottom supports the whole façade. The glass clamps and cable net made the 2400 sq mts area possible to stand on. The vertical cables are 36 dia and the horizontal ones 16 dia. Why Cable Systems?

Shanghai Diamond Building

shape. When uniformly loaded, it is usually assumed to take on a parabolic shape. From these basic assumptions, equations can be derived that relate the sag, tension and change in length. One curious aspect of the analysis is that it is analogous to an arch in pure compression and the basic equations are essentially the same. Loads suspended in tension provide an alternate paradigm for building. Instead of stacking a structure until it reaches its apex, as most buildings are constructed, cables allow a structure to be hung from a mast or armature. Other aspects of the design that should be considered are corrosion protection and in-service inspection, effects on the structure due to removal and replacement of cables during the lifetime of the structure, vibrations and dynamic loading, fire resistance and fittings. Some examples of the fittings include swaged and socketed fittings, clamps and, in the case of some cable net glass façades, custom steel castings have been used with great success. ∙ The classic project done at Munich Airport in 1993 known as the Kempinski hotel (now Hilton), uses the world’s first cable net. The elegant looking façade is as tall as 20 meters in height and around 22 meters in width. ∙ The Shanghai Diamond building is yet another landmark cable net system with a height if

Think about intent to have a sleek yet transparent façade, indeed point fixed support systems have been fitting the frames. Driving such intent of luxurious, transparent and elegant looks is the supporting structure, and none the least is the budget, but to what extent and what system? And most importantly, one need to consider the sustainability for the long run. Such cases have led a lot of project being held for long time, intent changes, and internal collisions in the industry; As a result, the urge for evolving of the technology is no longer largely comprised of experimental structures. It has been tried and tested in a considerable diversity of built form; structural systems have been adapted to façade applications; specifications and methods have been developed, tested and disseminated; practitioners have built hundreds of highly innovative façade structures in a variety of applications; development costs have been absorbed. An infrastructure of material suppliers, fabricators and erectors has developed in response to increasing project opportunities. Of the supporting system, the industry tends to follow the general trends. Commonly used are the MS pipe/beam and glass fin supporting structures, certainly with limitations. For Example, to construct a façade using point fixing system with a height of more than 12 meters a) In case of MS pipe/beam as the span of façade increases vertically, the diameter of the pipe increases and so does the thickness thereby shooting the costs sky high. b) In case of glass fin, the width and thickness of the glass increases at the same time. So where is the transparency and sleekness of the structure?

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Are We Limited to Use Stainless Steel Cables Only? Well, the answer is no, there are options such as the galvanized iron cables, whose costing are as low as 50 per cent to what a SS cable can cost. These cables are called the Galfan cables with a special coating called as the epoxy zinc rich prime. Introduction on Zinc - 5% Aluminium-Mixed Rare Earth Elements Coating With the gradual worsening of air pollution, the corrosion on wire and cables become more and more serious. The results show that most of the corrosion on wires and cable in nature happens due to electrochemical process, so the study and search for new anti-corrosion coating is an effective measure to prevent and inhibit the steel products from electrochemical corrosion. The current anti-corrosion technology has been developed greatly and anti-corrosion work has been developed a wide variety of coating structure, even has its own characteristics. The Zn-5%Al-AE alloy coating is the most extensively represented as Galfan common worldwide. This kind of coating developed in the early 80s of last

Hot-cast screw adjust type anchor Model: JL01

century is a new type of hot-dip coating used to coat steel wire or other steel products. This alloy has been developing rapidly in application of coating steel since its advent, from steel plate, steel strip, and steel pipe to steel wire. Galfan is a kind of eutectic alloy combined with 95 per cent zinc, 5 per cent aluminium and plus trace rare earth alloy element. The patent of this kind of new-style technology belongs to International Lead and Zinc Research Organization(ILZRO).The mass fraction of eutectic-Al is 5.2 per cent, and the melting point is 382°C which is even 37.5°C lower than that of pure zinc(419.5°C). 1) It has high corrosion resistance, which is 2-3 times higher than ordinary galvanized. Whatever severe environment, in the lab, outdoors, in wet conditions and marine climate, the corrosion resistance of Zn-5%Al-Mixed rare earth alloy coating is superior to ordinary hot-dip galvanized and electro-galvanized. 2) The ductility and variability of Zn-5%Al-Mixed rare earth alloy coating is extremely strong, even exceeds its protect steel base. Compared with ordinary coating, it does not produce the brittle Fe-Zn alloy interlayer, but the Fe-AL-Zn alloy formed at the cross interface of Zn-5%AlMixed rare earth alloy coating and the steel base. The Fe-AlModel: JT01 Zn alloy has very good ductility and adsorption with steel base is strong, so it can stand strong under the conditions of winding deformation process, bending test, without having to worry about the cracking and shedding.

Galvanized iron cables are much cheaper than Stainless Steel cables

C ≤≤0.50

3) The Zn-Al structure in Zn5%Al-Mixed rare earth alloy coating provides excellent

Chemical Composition of Cable Swaged-End (Galfan Cable) Chemical Elements content (%) Si Mn P S Cr Ni Mo ≤0.60 ≤0.90 ≤0.035 ≤0.035 ≤0.35 ≤0.40 ≤0.20

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Cu ≤0.40

surface uniformity. Compared with other coatings, the alloy coating itself is an excellent pre-adhesive substrate and daub adhesive, which can be applied to improve cracking corrosion and blistering after the daub. What’s more, this kind of coating steel wire, steel strand and wire rope can be further coated. Surface Finish for Cable Swaged-End: Epoxy Zinc Rich Prime Epoxy zinc rich prime corrosion resistance system is recommended, reasons are as follows: 1) Epoxy zinc rich prime is very easy to match with finishing paint, good adhesion, and excellent physical mechanical property, have good glue strength to finishing paint at the same time, easy desiccation under normal temperature, not colours bleeding to finishing paint. 2) Partial coating scratched and impacted usually occurred, when steel tension rods are transported or installed, it needs partial touchup. 3) Steel structure need spray coating when it is constructed before acceptance inspection. Steel tension rod can spray coat together with them, keep the construction style the same. It can avoid wasting of production cost because of repeating spray coating.

LED Integrated Railing solutions

interior environments – providing in excess of along the path of egress. ∙ A weatherproof High CRI LED light strip with waterproof adhesive for easy installation ∙ Innovative Feeney light diffusing lens ∙ Connection and installation accessories ∙ 24 Volt DC Constant Voltage 35w, 60w, or 96w: (Optional AC power cable available) ∙ 24 Volt DC Constant Voltage Dimmable Driver 40w, 60w, or 96w ∙ This remote controlled dimmer system is designed to work easily with LED kits to helps create the perfect level of lighting.

Post Railings: LED Integrated Railing Solutions


To compliment the balustrading handrails, there is finally a method of incorporating the latest in LED technology in a slim line, unobtrusive method that adds style, beauty and elegance to your home. LED-based handrail, that delivers functional illumination. Two intensities may be specified: standard output and high output. The standard light output version delivers luminance levels appropriate for exterior applications as well as for dark interior environments with low ambient illumination levels (e.g., themed environments, theatres and residential areas). The high output version delivers luminance levels applicable to

In conclusion to the article, as the market is growing by the day, construction materials sector has a lot potential in the coming years. At this point, do we understand the importance of the process for choosing the hardware ? Are we enlightening ourselves to understand the recent market trends. The hardware we consider are small in size and few in quantity but very important and powerful in functions. Without the hardware the system can’t withstand and function well. Time for us to look and investigate more details, dig out the best with proper comparisons for a fruitful and deserved results.

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Selecting Right Hardware For uPVC Windows & Doors About the Author: Jignasa Pravinbhai Suthar has over 6 years of experience in façade industry. She has been closely working with McCoy 8m hardware division for technical support since 2015. Currently she is responsible for new business development opportunities in projects for McCoy Soudal in Delhi/NCR. After completing her graduation from Sardar Patel University, Gujarat in 2007, she started her career in façade industry working as Estimator

Jignasa Pravinbhai Suthar, Manager – Technical and Business Development, McCoy Soudal Sealants Adhesives & Foams Pvt. Ltd

at Perfect Glaze (India) Pvt. Ltd. Later she worked at Reynaers Aluminium NV as Design Engineer & Estimator, and at Kawneer (an Alcoa company) as technical support engineer. After finishing her MBA in Marketing and HR from Gujarat University, she joined McCoy in 2015. She has in-depth knowledge of window and door systems.

In today’s time, uPVC windows and doors are more in trend because of their properties like low maintenance, toughness, durability, thermal comfort and energy efficiency. They are also rot resistant and are resilient to salt erosion. Moreover, they are safe & secure, cost-effective and eco-friendly.

important components is the selection of doors and windows hardware for uPVC system. In residential projects, most important factor is security and energy efficiency. One must look for multi-point locking system for uPVC system windows and doors which will provide high

uPVC system has so many advantages, but selection of wrong hardware can totally destroy the window function. So, for that reason, we can say that hardware of any window or door is the back bone of the system. While it comes to selection of hardware for uPVC system, use of good quality hardware in window is of prime importance for a bunch of reasons: They should be extremely functional, maintenance free and complement the attenuated clean lines of modern design.When it comes to residential projects, one of the most

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Hinges, friction stay and rollers are window’s invisible functional hardware

security and insulation. Quality and durability of locking need to be tested. Selection of Hardware Handle, hinges, friction stays, door locks, cylinders, multipoint locks, rollers, threshold, and door closers are major hardware used in uPVC windows and doors. Handles are the key hardware of window or door. For selection of handles, one should keep in mind the aesthetic look and function of handles. Quality, design and colour of handle is more important in uPVC system. There are standard material used like Aluminium, ZAMAC or ZincAluminium alloy die cast. Quality of powder coating of the handle vary from brand to brand depending upon its price. Hinges, friction stays and rollers are window’s invisible functional hardware like heart in the body. Major functional life of windows or doors depend on the hardware. To select correct hinge or friction stay, one should focus on window or door panel/ vent size and weight. Many a times, operation of window fails or sagging of window happens due to wrong selection of friction stay or hinge. Material grade for friction stay used are SS304 and SS202. Quality and durability of stay depend on its material grade. Hardware companies should provide right hardware for window and door to clients.

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Have secure front door locks

Same as hinges, selection of sliding roller is crucial. Selection of rollers should be done considering sliding panel weight and size. There are various materials available for rollers like nylon rollers, copper rollers etc. Even with the most advanced home security system, your home will not be fully secure and complete if you don’t have proper locks for your doors and windows. A good lock is a fantastic first step to make sure that the bad guys can’t get into your home. Have secure front door locks. The door should have deadbolts in addition to keyed door locksets. Look for deadbolts with a 1-inch (2.5cm) throw bolt and an interlocking frame. Don’t choose a dualcylinder device – the kind with a key for both sides. These can trap your family inside in case of a house fire. If you have one now, replace it. Burglars look for the easiest way in, and in most cases they head for the windows and balcony doors. Old windows offer only a low level of burglary protection and without any window locks they can be entered by burglars in a matter of seconds. Use of special burglary protection, especially for windows that are easily accessible, is recommended. This can be in the form of lockable window handles or, in the case of balcony and terrace doors, using a variety of locking handles that prevent forced entry.

Security is an important aspect

With the right hardware, you ensure easy installation

Multipoint locking window help prevent burglary and also it will help in window insulation.

they can add to the attractive appearance of the rooms.

Using good quality of hardware gives more confidence, aesthetics and peace of mind.

Even if the hardware seem little more expensive, one should not get discouraged from going for quality products. The windows are one of the most important component of a house for all residents and quality windows will pay out later the money, which has been invested.

Maintenance of Hardware uPVC windows and doors are fitted with high quality hardware. In order to make it work properly, all the moving parts should be checked at least once a year and lubricated if necessary. In addition, the tilt and turn mechanism might have to be adjusted occasionally. Developing new and successful products is not an easy task. New product development follows a product from assembly to sales. There is a long and complicated process to product development – but like all great things, it begins with something simple. All new products begin with a concept. This idea usually comes from a product development or research team, which uses marketing trends and research to propose new product concepts. With the right hardware, you ensure easy installation of the windows. Nevertheless, they become much more secure and reliable. This is the main reason why the windows fitting are so popular among numerous users. By buying quality and reliable hardware, one can get comfort. And

Undoubtedly, with quality hardware, one can give final touch to the house interior, as the windows will be more effective in executing their purpose. We already know about the importance of the windows, but we still are not familiar of the importance of the hinges, locks and other parts of windows, which make the difference. A difference, which is hard to see, but so easy to feel.

McCoy 8m Multipoint Locks McCoy 8m multipoint locks are available in White Zinc Plating & Chrome. It has 3 Passivation Coating to prevent from corrosion and provide high security and insulation to window with different size of multipoint lock options. Starting from development to sales, McCoy 8m involves their highly experience team to deliver one of the best products to customer. In McCoy 8m, they have a team of experienced engineers which supports the uPVC system companies and fabricators starting from the selection of right hardware for window or door to assembly of products.

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Architectural Hardware ‘Less is More’ is the Latest Trend

Right choice of architectural hardware is one of the key elements to success of a project. Knobs, hinges, latches, levers and locks are gadgets which allow us to navigate through buildings. Use of high end technologies has increased many fold, enabling improved hardware design and production with requisite quality and sustainability. In this article, we will explore the practical aspects of architectural hardware – the ‘what, why and how’ of choosing and installing hardware, latest in technologies in this sector, hurdles faced in selection, and the future of business. In addition, some basic tips from top architects, builders and brands on what to look for while shopping for hardware.

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Railing in stair way - Designed by Ar. Dipen Gada

Cover Story

Windows & doors are one of the most important elements in a building. Investments in quality windows and doors yield rich dividends. Quality hardware gives the finishing touch to windows and doors for a better look and for more effectiveness. We know the importance of the features of doors and windows. But we are not very familiar with the significance and properties of hardware used which has an equally important role to play. The difference is there to feel. Hardware: Salient Features Selection of hardware is generally done with the value perspective. The choice of hardware depends on its performance, quality and certification, says Ankit Parikh, Director–Projects (South Asia), ASSA ABLOY. Once these criteria are satisfied, the aesthetic parameter comes in. The overall trend is to have visually minimalistic hardware delivering maximum performance. While choosing hardware, function, durability, design and quality should precede

Ankit Parikh, Director - Projects (South Asia), ASSA ABLOY

Casement Door by Encraft with contemporary hardware

cost, states Pramod Rao, Area Manager-Western India, Deceuninck. One can get good quality, functional hardware at a reasonable price. But to expect the best of everything at a very low price is impossible. At the same time, the best quality hardware may also fail if it is not compatible with the profile, he adds. Compatible hardware is the key to better performing windows/doors. Choosing the right hardware is about ensuring that all components meet stringent standards, and their working together effortlessly, notes

Pramod Rao, Area Manager-Western India, Deceuninck

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R. Srinivasan, Founder - Managing Director, Mantralaya Impex

R. Srinivasan, Founder & Managing Director, Mantralaya Impex. Hardware should be chosen carefully for their reliability, technical performance, aesthetic appeal and value for money, he adds. It is natural that aesthetics gets importance along with the functionality and durability of products. Abhishek Bhaskar, Product Manager –Architectural Hardware, Hafele points out that wrong kind of hardware not only will render the door/ window inoperative but will also result in losses in terms

Abhishek Bhaskar, Product Manager Architectural Hardware, Hafele

Karan Shah, Partner, PEGO Hardware

Rishi Gupta, Managing Director, Kolf Safex

Nitin Agarwal, GMArchitect division, Gulshan Homz

of cost and time. While there could be specific factors that have to be considered for the selection of door and window hardware, three factors common to both are as under: ∙

Type of application

Dimensions or specifications of the door or cabinet – weight, height, width and thickness

Material and finish of the hardware - this is important as the hardware should suit the environment in which it is supposed to operate.

Agreeing with Bhaskar, Karan Shah, Partner, PEGO Hardware also opines that right choice of hardware is very critical to distinguish a good window system from an ordinary one. For example, rollers are most critical for sliding windows & doors. Correctly load tested rollers compatible with the profiles will make the entire system functionally optimal, durable and easily usable. Rishi Gupta, Managing Director, Kolf Safex points out that selecting right hardware

Sunny Gupta, Cofounder and Managing Partner, De Frames

Ashutosh Mukherjee, Principal Architect, Metamorphosis Architecture

comprises the following factors: application – 60 per cent; aesthetics – 20 per cent and brand – 20 per cent. Brand is an important concern as it guarantees quality, safety and durability. Nitin Agarwal, GM - Architect Division, Gulshan Homz is very sure that he would go for a brand that is tried, tested and recommended by relevant consultants. They should be sturdy and maintenance free and easy to operate, he adds. According to Sunny Gupta, Cofounder and Managing Partner, De Frames, along with design-oriented hardware preferences, one needs to see practical functionality and choose hardware by judging warranty and company performance. Profile of fabricator is also an important factor. Ashutosh Mukherjee, Principal Architect, Metamorphosis Architecture, observes that the industry is becoming increasingly designorientated with a growing number of companies coming

Joseph Fernandes, Head - Sales, Q-Railing India Pvt. Ltd

up with solutions that are practical, sound and technically advanced, yet aesthetically appealing. Technology behind the product is also evolving, defining quality of the product in the eyes of the end user. Choosing a right product supplier over the available range of suppliers is easy, if the criteria is based on the quality and safety, points out Joseph Fernandes, Head – Sales, Q-Railing India Pvt. Ltd. The selection process would be easier if the products are tested and certified by recognised organizations. The right kind of hardware must be chosen to protect the building from the climatic effects as also for safety and aesthetics of the building, says Ar. Dipen Gada, Principal Architect, Dipen Gada & Associates. He also notes that the criteria to select the right products are its durability, sustainability, texture, corrosion resistance, economical and design orientation. Choosing the right hardware should be influenced by the expected

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Ar. Dipen Gada, Principal Architect, Dipen Gada Associates

Robert Hoellrigl, President-Research Development - Design, Encraft India Pvt Ltd.

longevity and durability of the product. It is a fair assumption that any fenestration product, regardless of frame material, will last at least 40 years when correctly maintained! One needs to differentiate between visible items (design orientated hardware) and nonvisible items (the necessary mechanics). Handles and hinges, the visible parts, are more appealing nowadays in terms of styling, ergonomics and finish, says Robert Hoellrigl, President-Research Development & Design, Encraft India Pvt Ltd. In the buying process, consideration must be given to those who would be operating the frame. The initial saving of a few thousands is soon forgotten and the daily operational struggle will remain, if the right one is not chosen!

Debjyoti Bose, COO, Saya Group

arise due to malfunctioning of hardware, which can result in accidents and revenue loss, says Ankit Parikh of ASSA ABLOY. Hence, selection should be based on its quality, performance and longevity. Compatibility is what defines the right hardware, says Karan Shah. It is the convergence of lot of variables; functionality, profile compatibility, durability, geographical location, load capacity and variable utility. For example, the utility of casement door hardware for a balcony door is very different from shaft door or kitchen utility exit door. Hence, the

type of hardware to be used for all three would be very different even though they all are casement doors in the same apartment with the same profile. One needs to create a checklist, specific for each types of doors & window. Along with using the right products, it is also very critical to ensure that they are installed properly, adds Shah. Debjyoti Bose, COO, Saya Group states that the hardware used must be functional as per design. The durability depends on the selection of the material of the hardware. They are also used for safety purpose which should be technically advanced and when these hardware are fixed, they should satisfy the aesthetic need of the building. Easy to use, easy to fix and appealing designs set a trend in the market. The common materials preferred for architectural hardware are Aluminium, metal, UPVC and wood. Sunny Gupta advices consumers to buy the doors

How to Choose Right Hardware? Hardware constitutes a meagre 1-3 per cent of the building cost. However, over a period of time, maximum issues

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Wide Openings - a project by De Frames

& windows from reputed companies, who give warranty for the complete systems and not the profile alone. According to Pramod Rao of Deceuninck, the key factors to consider are compatibility with the profile, corrosion resistance, cycle performance backed by proper testing and certification. “Being part of the UPVC Windows Doors Manufacturers Association (UWDMA), we are working on a guideline for selection of various hardware which should be out by end of this year. Currently the Guideline for Fabrication of UPVC windows and doors stresses on choosing products as per EN 13115 and EN 12217”, adds Rao. Joseph Fernandes of Q-Railing explains that while selecting railing hardware, he would look into aspects like complete technical support from the manufacturer; indoor/outdoor application; locations like Staircase/Balcony/Atrium etc.; loading criteria with respect to footfall; wind load criteria; whether it is coastal area; maintenance requirements and provision of safety certificates from the supplier. Robert Hoellrigl from Encraft advices that all hardware items should have at least the equivalent corrosion resistance of EN 1670:1998, grade 4 (240 hours) when subjected to neutral salt spray testing in accordance with EN ISO 9227.

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Casement Door by Encraft contemporary hardware

Although, there is no direct correlation between a given number of hours salt spray testing and real-time natural environment exposure, it is good indicator in the selection process. Higher levels of corrosion protection i.e. EN 1670 grade 5 (480 hours) or austenitic stainless steel hardware can be specified for coastal or heavily polluted industrial environments. It is a good practice to use critical hardware components for domestic applications like hinges, handles, rollers and locking devices which have been life cycle tested in accordance with EN 1191 (Windows and doors - Resistance to repeated opening and closing -Test method) and have achieved at least 20,000 (ten thousand) operating cycles (i.e. opening and closing) without deterioration, failure or excessive wear. Consideration shall be given to the required operating strength of windows and doorsets.

uPVC fenestration can be designed with ergonomics and ease of operation in mind. In hardware for façades, the most popular glass system in structural glass façades is the bolted version. The glass panel requires perforations to accommodate specialized bolting hardware. Cast stainless steel spider fittings are most commonly used to tie the glass to the supporting structure, although custom fittings are often developed for larger façade projects, says R. Srinivasan, Mantralaya Impex. According to Abhishek Bhaskar, Hafele, the preference of the customers is shifting towards the use of concealed hardware that ensures minimal visibility and adds greatly to the aesthetic appeal of the interiors. The predominant material used in India is Stainless Steel 304. In coastal regions, people prefer using Stainless Steel 316. Zamac is still one of the preferred materials especially among the

Railing with LED Liner lights from Q-railing

price-conscious sector. Pramod Rao, who is experimenting in corrosion resistant hardware, too recommends SS 304/316 material. Globally, clients want betterperforming, aesthetically pleasing façades and these requirements have to be delivered quickly and costeffectively. Hence the criteria for selection of hardware should depend upon the characteristics of the material. The availability of local service is an important criterion. Availability of skilled labour is essential for a good final finish, says Ar. Dipen Gada. We can conclude that following aspects to be considered while selecting the right hardware for windows doors and façades (Based on the inputs from Profine India Koemmerling): ∙ Aesthetics and design compatibility performance ∙ Weight and height of doors & windows

∙ ∙ ∙ ∙ ∙ ∙ ∙ ∙ ∙

Wind pressure Integrated security features Durability Easy installation Low maintenance Corrosion resistance Span of windows/doors Height of the building Acoustical properties

Better customer service

Emerging Trends Hardware designs and technologies have evolved and come a long way. Hardware manufacturers have invested in R&D to come up with hardware that is not only technicallyadvanced but adds value to the looks of windows and doors. Advancements in technology have enabled improved designs and given precision to products with quality and sustenance. The transparent building trend has been taking over in metropolitan areas over the past few decades, says Ar. Ashutosh Mukherjee, fuelling the designer’s interests to continue to push the boundaries of what is possible with lighter support structures, taller unsupported façades, and less hardware/connection points. Highly reflective glass and punched openings for buildings are thing of the past. Architects look for the hardware which is concealed, agree Rishi Gupta, Nitin Agarwal and Robert Hoellrigl. At least they should be sleek

and flexible. R. Srinivasan points out that the two main types applied in the industry for achieving transparency are tension rod façade s and cable net walls. Tension façades use high tensile cables or stainless steel rods to impose the loads of the façade on the main structure. This decreases the amount of solid structural elements visible on the project, therefore increasing the transparency of the façade. The real trend is going minimal. Architects and customers alike do not want to see “bulky” hardware on their buildings/ doors etc. Less is more – is the latest trend yet delivering superior safety, security and convenience for the designers and users alike. There are various categories of architectural hardware for various building types. In large commercial buildings, semiunitised and unitised Structural/ Curtain Glazing system with toughened glass is increasingly used for large open façades. In high-rise residential towers, the external doors and windows of the apartments are mostly in Aluminium or UPVC frames with clear float glass and in retail shop fronts toughened glass (without frames) with Stainless Steel patch fittings and door handles are in vogue, observes Debjyoti Bose. Sleeker patch fittings and door handles, are more in demand for better through visibility without infringement. For

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residential applications, neoclassical and other hybrid styles are making a comeback, and in alignment, varied styles of hardware for aldrops, tower bolts, mortice locks etc. are being used. An interesting trend is a combination of pure metallic finish with designer powder coating in hardware. Sunny Gupta observes that D-handle & L- handle are being more used by architects as they are more durable and practical. Ar. Ashutosh Mukherjee notes that the difference in choice of hardware is not in technology but is in design. While some spaces are content being functional, others evolve into aspirational art forms. Hardware is generally preferred to be engineered for long life cycles with low maintenance. Hardware manufacturers cannot restrict themselves to the traditional aspects like functionality and durability, opines an expert from Koemmerling. In order to compete in the market, hardware manufacturers are differentiating themselves through value-added items. According to Robert Hoellrigl and Ankit Parikh, the materials employed are mainly mild steel, Aluminium die cast and Zinc die cast for locking devices. A major breakthrough came with the use of injection moulding compounds, improved corrosion resistance and advanced

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finishing technologies like PVD-coatings (Physical Vapour Disposition).Visible hardware items can now cater for ultramodern fenestration and also for the traditional fenestration like typical, traditional Indian casements Talking about railings, Joseph Fernandes of Q-Railing observes that innovative glass patches or glass holders have been an interesting component of the railing design. However, very few companies have the safety certified components, which should be the main criteria of selecting railings. The most common material in railing industry is Stainless Steel Grade 304 /316 and glass. Demand for Aluminium is increasing due its light weight, structural strength and high quality finish while being economical. Evolving Technologies The role of windows and doors has changed to a large extent to provide water resistance, sound insulation, thermal insulation, energy efficiency, wind resistance, eco-friendliness, termite resistance etc. According to specialists from Koemmerling, all these roles can only be achieved by installing right hardware of latest technology. The essential hinges, door closers, rollers, handles, locks and other accessories when installed, enable such roles to be achieved in the true sense of functionality.

New innovations would focus on providing automated solutions. A project by Ar. Dipen Gada

Hardware manufacturers have been engaged in developing technologies that improve the functionality of windows and doors. Traditionally hardware products are manufactured by die casting, forging & extrusion processes. According to Karan Shah, though the basic process remains the same, the alloy used as raw material is evolving with better choices available. Other processes like powder coating and assembling are also going through substantial changes with more involvement of machines and less human interface. With advancements in manufacturing of products, more innovative ways are getting used to test various aspects of the products. Experts from Koemmerling find a fully reversible window hinge with a unique patented

dual function restrictor as a latest innovation. It offers dual functionality and seems to be the ideal choice for reversible residential and commercial upper floor windows. This hinge can be switched between anti-blowback and easy close functions depending on customer requirements. According to Ar. Ashutosh Mukherjee, good products take into account not just the physical aesthetic but the very important kinaesthetic. Rishi Gupta of Kolf Safex observes that hydraulic products such as door closers and floor springs could be guaranteed up to 10 years, with improved technologies. Moving Towards Digitalization Ankit Parikh spots that hardware is also moving towards digitalization. Atomization, monitoring, remote accesses and management are the latest requirements driving innovation. Security alarms integrated within window handles and connectivity to central security systems is picking up in Europe, observes Pramod Rao. It would trickle into India very soon though basic contact based security solutions are available. Robert Hoellrigl too agrees that electronics have become part of fenestration. Operating windows or doors via telephone apps is not uncommon anymore. Electronically controlling and monitoring

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the living environment like opening/closing of windows and shadings; detection of smoke, gas, water, glass breakage, motion, etc. are some features which can be incorporated in today’s fenestration. “But it will need a major paradigm shift. People need to view today’s fenestration differently because modern fenestration has become a lifestyle choice!” adds Hoellrigl. Abhishek Bhaskar is also certain that the advancements in technology will pave the way for complete home automation in future, which is seen only in hotels and commercial spaces today. Digital door security systems ensures complete safety and optimal functionality with digital door viewers and high-security digital locks that can be configured to multiple techniques of access control including RFID (card readers), Biometric (fingerprints) and Numeric (password entries).

Architects: The Trend Setters Architects not only give focus on the functionality of the hardware but also on how it will resonate and provide aesthetically good looks to the building as a whole. The view and approach of an architect is very different from that of a fabricator or a hardware manufacturer, says Karan Shah. Ar. Ashutosh Mukherjee points out that architects tend to start from appearance rather than function, whereas product designers tend to work from function back to appearance. For an architect, window & door is just one part of the complete jigsaw puzzle in the house or a commercial building, while for window maker or a hardware provider that is the only thing he has to look at. To satisfy the architect’s needs, window maker or a hardware provider starts focusing on the bigger picture - on ‘how they can ensure that their

Shading System Mantralaya Impex

product satisfies the theme and utility desired by the architect’. Abhishek Bhaskar of Hafele agrees that architects often tend to concentrate on the design and finish of the hardware together with its functionality and hence require a lot of customization. Rishi Gupta and Sunny Gupta too agree that the suppliers must respect architects for their out of the box creations and thrive to give solutions for their needs by customising products. Architectural hardware manufacturers are bound to make customised hardware to architect’s needs, at the same time add value not just limited to functions of windows and doors but also to the interior of the house without compromising on quality and specifications. Thus architect’s inputs have led to innovative developments which will continue in the foreseeable future, notes Robert Hoellrigl. For example, the trend towards bigger openings with less frame and more glass necessitated the development of heavier profile systems and upgraded hardware to cope with the resulting weight increases. It is the vision of modern architecture that drives fenestration development and forces change! Though there are a variety of aesthetically pleasing products, there is enough room for improvement in terms of finishing quality,

Hardware from Deceuninck & Kolf Safex

product innovation and design considering Indian climate, wherein controlling heat transmission and humidity without compromising on light transmission would be very important, states Debjyoti Bose. This will, in turn save energy to a very great extent Criteria for Choosing Hardware for Renovation Projects A renovation cum maintenance project works within a defined scope and options. Since the installation of window/door has already happened, the options become limited, says Karan Shah of PEGO. It is important to focus on existing products already used in the door & windows since new products will have to cover the routing already done for the old ones. It is also important to note that the new product should not involve lot of onsite fabrication work. In renovation projects, the main emphasis is ergonomics and

durability, observes Hoellrigl. Prices are less sensitive but product finish and ease of operation are sometimes the deciding factors. On a one off basis, it is much easier to outline pros and cons and features beneficial to an individual customer. Whereas in volume project market, cost is the overriding factor. Modularity and retro fitment play a bigger role in renovation projects. According to Ankit Parikh, renovations usually have faster turnaround times and hence universal fitting solutions are highly desired. Renovation projects are currently focusing on addressing the need of noise and thermal control. Every renovation project is unique and a general rule may be not be applicable. However focus again is on durability and performance tests, which are very important. For railings, conventional designs must be replaced with modern, aesthetically elegant and safety certified railings.

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early failures. Standardization of replacement hardware components will reduce the size and cost of the inventory that should be maintained. Hurdles Faced by the Industry

Hardware from ASSA ABLOY

Less anchoring to the floor or using fascia mount railing may increase area of usage. Glass railings are good option with desired safety for outdoor railings. The Common Mistakes Before one can even begin the hardware selection process, it is important to understand the factors particular to the installation which will affect their long-term performance. For most applications, these include life-safety, emergency egress, loss prevention and security for building occupants. Each of these factors should be examined for each application to determine the door’s performance level. An important aspect to consider is the type of facility where the door is being installed. For example, doors installed in educational facilities, such as middle schools or high schools, will be subjected to an entirely different type and level of use

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and abuse than doors installed in a typical office or retail building. One of the biggest mistakes involving door installation is the use of lightweight hardware on heavyweight or oversized doors. Undersized hardware will wear more quickly, resulting in misalignment of the door, difficult operation and security compromises. Doors constantly exposed to high moisture levels, such as in facilities located in coastal areas, should have finishes and hardware that are highly resistant to corrosion. Without proper protective finishes, doors installed in this type of environment can fail in as little as five years. Door hardware that is not resistant to corrosion can stick and bind, making doors difficult to operate and eventually damaging the door, the hardware, or both. In dusty environments, dirt can load up on hinges and other door hardware and interfere with door operations, resulting in

According to Pramod Rao of Deceuninck, absence of standardization is a major hurdle in the industry. Everything else can be controlled if we bring in Standards for fabrication, installation and maintenance. Joseph Fernandes of Q-Railing too observes that lack safety standards and awareness among the clients as the major hurdles. Understanding codes & compliances is a battle, says Ankit Parikh from ASSA ABLOY. R. Srinivasan of Mantralaya Impex dwells on logistical

Hafele Hardware for larger projects like Hotels

challenges. Installation of façade systems in high-rise buildings is a critical task with cascading challenges arising as a result of materials damage, nonavailability of transport at site and weather. According to Robert Hoellrigl of Encraft, general availability and the reluctance to hold stocks of European hardware has become a major obstacle in India. It is widely accepted that ‘specials’ like lift & slide, fold & slide gearing etc., need to be imported. It will need only ‘one’ visionary European hardware supplier to demonstrate his commitment and stock and even manufactures fenestration hardware in India, adds Hoellrigl. One of the challenges faced by Architectural Hardware brands is how to strike a balance between customization and cost effectiveness. Customization has a direct influence on the economies of scale thereby increasing the cost of manufacturing, spots Abhishek Bhaskar, Hafele. Keeping up with the fast-paced volatile market in terms of product design is another challenge, he adds. Therefore the stocks of these products need to be managed carefully. Rishi Gupta perceives unorganized industry as a major hurdle. According to him, other obstacles are local importers, local manufacturing hubs, lack of standardised products and governing authority, lack

of regulations or norms on products usage and application, etc. Sunny Gupta finds Chinese suppliers selling products at low costs as a challenge. He points out that there is a need for government subsidies and benefits to encourage more people to introduce themselves to this industry. Karan Shah from PEGO says that it is difficult to convince people about quality of Indian brands. Despite a variety indigenous brands, customers still go for imported products. Another problem is wrong installation of hardware by fabricators who are not technically equipped or trained, which results in below par performance of products. To address this issue, trained professionals should visit project sites to check the installation of hardware. The same will help to educate all the stake holders involved and in R & D of new products.

Future of Architecture Hardware Industry The Hardware Industry has been growing steadily in the last decade. Rishi Gupta of Kolf Safex estimates the architectural hardware industry for façade s and fenestration to be more than 30,000 crores. “We thrive to be an important part of this industry though it is ruled by the major international players. Our industry is growing by the rate of 30 percent annually giving a boost to the GDP,” he adds. In the early 2000 there were only one or two players, but today almost all leading global players are directly or indirectly present in India. In the next 5 years we can see many more quality players coming to India and a few starting to manufacture locally to control the logistics cost of import, says Pramod Rao, Deceuninck. Robert Hoellrigl of Encraft also agrees that the growth is

Hardware from Hafele

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more transparency in the buildings, bigger, wider and larger openings and the vertical expansion (high rises) all are the great drivers for the industry”.

Hardware used in Koemmerling doors & windows

rapid. “India is a dream for any designer because traditional window and door designs change every 500 kilometres!” he adds. According to R. Srinivasan of Mantralaya Impex, with the green building concept being given utmost priority, is increasing demand for hardware ensuring efficient façade and fenestrations systems that have thermal and acoustic insulation as well as aesthetic appeal. Joseph Fernandes of Q-Railing is sure that in near future, the need for stainless steel and glass railings will grow along with light & strong structural aluminium railings. Standard certified systems will be accepted more over the uncertain customized railings. Green products will be more preferable in building industry, as in other sectors. Karan Shah too finds the future bright. But this comes with lot of caution of using the

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right specs. It is important to educate clients, developers, consumers about the right hardware, correct choices, criteria, says Shah. There is a need for holding discussions and practical hardware installation sessions with various stakeholders to provide more awareness. A practical touch and feel experience, dummy door and window samples with all the necessary hardware inputs makes for easy and immediate understanding of products. He further adds that, with focus being on smart cities, there is big scope to concentrate on the untapped market which will be next step. Programmes like “Make in India” will give enthusiasm & motivation for small players to reach new heights & new business opportunities for the new emerging entrepreneurs, says Sunny Gupta. Ankit Parikh of ASSA ABLOY points out that the future is always subjective. “All I can say is that the trend to have

Ar. Dipen Gada feels that constant R & D is needed in the hardware industries to provide solutions. Fortunately, it is happening in tandem with growth of the industry. New innovations would focus on providing automated solutions. He hopes that this would redefine the entire way of looking at door & windows, with more technological options it seems within reach. The Indian Façade and Fenestration Industry is currently in an evolving state in terms of technology, size and installation capabilities, says Debjyoti Bose. Its growth is directly linked to the growth of construction industry which is around 20 percent. Also, there is an enormous space and extent for growth, given people in tier 2 and 3 cities are increasingly getting exposed to better products, apart from rapid urbanisation happening in vicinity of metropolitan cities. The future is bright and the focus needs to be on innovation and adaptation to requirements of the customer as also on sustainability and quality.

Hardware Fittings are Getting Sleeker and Minimalistic is generally given by the architect. This needs to be further developed by using various types of hardware. Type of hardware is selected as per the structural requirements of the façade, for example structural load, wind pressure etc. Grade of hardware is selected as per weather conditions of region/location. Rajan Aggarwal, V.P., Design & Development, Ozone Overseas

WFM: What are the criteria for selection of Architectural hardware for facades and fenestrations? Rajan Aggarwal (RA): With more number of design & options available, right selection of hardware for the windows, doors and facades has become very important. While selecting the hardware, functional need and safety should be given priority and they shouldn’t get superseded by aesthetics requirements. One should check the certification for number of usage cycles, weight and load factors at the time of selection of hardware. After taking care the above, one should select the design as per the need of design of the façade perceived by the designer. Main concept with aesthetic requirements of façade design

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Ozone offers a wide range of façade spider fittings along with allied accessories in number of design options suiting to varied needs. These spider fittings and hardware are made available in stainless steel grade 316 & 304 for different weather conditions and in PSS & SSS finishes for varied aesthetic needs. WFM: Please elaborate on trends in architectural hardware products? What are the common materials preferred for architectural hardware? RA: What’s visible is aesthetic and what’s functional is technology, and todays’ trend is that both should come in a single package. Hardware industry has also advanced with time and able to deliver as per the modern day functional necessity & aesthetic need. It has started giving various design options of a type of fitting delivering same function.

Hardware fittings are getting sleeker and minimalistic, with lesser use of material and better design techniques. It is also getting leveraged by better production technology and hence durability. Therefore we keep on innovating newer designs to be able to offer choices to clients for achieving better aesthetic yet meeting escalated functional needs. Latest among these are Metal Sheet Spiders from Ozone which are offered in designs inspired from nature such as petal, dew drop, butterfly & solar series of façade spider fittings. WFM: Please tell us about the latest technologies in hardware products? RA: New technologies in investment casting and CNC machining have increased the speed and quality of the hardware, and also enable the brands to offer numerous

Butterfly Spider Series

Audi Gurugram - Innovative spide fittings

design options with customization. Various kind of software helps in faster designing and converting your imagination into reality. You can further get the 3D model by a 3D printer to give you real view of final product. All these were very time consuming & expensive earlier. Automatic conveyors and availability of special purpose machines have increased the speed and quality of final delivered product. Global connectivity due to internet has further helped the users to use the spare machine capacity available at various manufacturers. We are equipped with most advanced CNC machines, tools & software enabling it to deliver hardware products as per international standards of quality & safety. WFM: Please give us a brief note on your latest façade /fenestration hardware product. RA: Ozone introduced Rhombus - Glass Clamp Patch Fitting, a point fixed facade fitting specially designed for double glass glazing (DGU) facade projects yet it can be used for single glass glazing too. With this Glass Clamp Patch Fitting, no need to have cut-outs on the glass for fixing, which makes it suitable for DGU facades and also saves installation time & cost. It bolts & holds the glass panes at their corners, providing strength to the glass, meeting all structural requirements such as dead weight of the glass, wind load & differential expansion due to temperature fluctuations. This newly developed product is crafted in rhombus shape adding diamond like geometrical touch to the façades and is available in stainless steel grade 304 & 316; it is tested for structural integrity, safety and stability. Another latest offering from façade fittings

One of Ozones’ innovative projects

range of Ozone is Metal Sheet Spider fittings. These are manufactured using investment casting technique enabling it to offer numerous design options such as petal, butterfly, dew drop & solar spider fittings. WFM: Tell us about the future of Architecture Hardware industry? RA: Glass, Aluminum and SS hardware are the main products/fittings of facades & Fenestrations. Indian façade industry has upgraded a lot from 2000 to 2016 in terms of shape, size, design & functionality. Further it will be getting more technical in terms of energy conservation, better insulation, solar façades etc.; façade shapes are going to be more versatile and organic in nature. In future, facades will not just conserve energy, indeed they are going to contribute to energy generation. Façade will be easy to maintain, fast to assemble at site with modular in nature design & construction without negotiating on aesthetic & functionality. With all these expected changes, hardware will also have to change, innovate and become more versatile as per changing trends. New grade of stainless steel with better strength will come in play in making hardware fittings. Use of software in designing and ST analysis is expected to integrate and help to produce productive solutions. Foreseeing these upcoming trends, Ozone’s research, design & development team is empowering itself with thorough knowledge of the subject so that in times to come it can match the standards.

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Hardware Supporting Energy-Efficient Building Elements is in Dire Demand appeal of hardware. Designs of hardware - the colour, texture and finish chosen - can be altered and redesigned based on demand. Ideally hardware product manufacturers should aim for products to perform, be durable and have aesthetic finish, all balanced together. Overall quality of hardware matters because whether concealed or visible, sub-standard hardware fittings provide poor functionality and look cheap as well. WFM: What are the criteria for selection of Architectural hardware for façades and fenestrations? Hiten Sethi, Founder, Hiten Sethi & Associates

WFM: Please comment on the need for choosing right kind of hardware for windows, doors and façades? Hiten Sethi (HS): Architectural hardware is becoming increasingly design-oriented. Any architectural hardware shall ideally provide the highest level of performance, security & safety without compromising on aesthetics. Hardware used for doors, windows and façades influence overall look of any architectural project, hence choosing the right ones are of utmost importance! Selection criteria should be based on firstly, level of performance which means satisfactory operations and durability. Secondly, no compromise shall be practised about visual

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HS: Architectural hardware for façades & fenestrations shall be chosen majorly on their aesthetic value, with least structural interference. A façade being the exterior face of a building, it is crucial to choose visually appealing hardware which also compliments the overall character and nature of the building. Façade designs are based on contextual climatic conditions and need supporting hardware. No two projects will have same design solutions. Giving creative freedom to architects in choosing innovative hardware for new façade design is crucial. WFM: Are there enough products available in the market which would satisfy the needs of architects/developers? HS: Products available in Indian markets are satisfactory, yet more variety is welcome. Especially hardware supporting energyefficient building elements is in dire demand considering the new

IDBI (extension) Annex Building , Belapur, Navi Mumbai

wave of Green buildings in Indian architecture and real estate world. Also increase in transparency in building façades is bringing innovative materials in use which further demand supporting hardware. WFM: Please give us a brief note on your latest project in which façade /fenestration hardware product are used innovatively HS: IDBI (extension) Annex Building (Site Area: 1, 30,000 sq. ft., Project Area: 1, 30,000 sq. ft., Location: Belapur, Navi Mumbai): IDBI extension is a G+10 ongoing building with state-of-the-art façade design. It is a winning design competition entry by us, whose main façade feature is a glazed hemisphere projecting between 5th-9th floors. Instead of regularly used mounted brackets, the faceted sphere surface is supported by bent hollow rectangular mild steel sections which provide double glazed unit system. Navi Mumbai Municipal Headquarters NMMC (Site Area: 3, 58,000 sq. ft., Project Area: 3, 58,000 sq. ft., Location: Belapur, Navi Mumbai): It is a prestigious gold rated green building with an efficient building envelope with high performance glazing. The glass used in double glazed structural/curtain glazing, which is selected as per energy simulation in the local climatic conditions. Sustainable material like Glass reinforced cement

(GRC) and manufactured stone are used for dry cladding. WFM: Tell us about the future of Architecture Hardware industry for façades and fenestrations? HS: Façade and fenestrations are the first impression/ experience of any building hence importance of their hardware will remain constant. Hardware selection should become an integral part of façade design and hence both industries should work in cohesion. Manufacturers should understand demands and designs of architects and in turn architects should update themselves with latest hardware technologies for their optimum use. WFM: Please point out few challenges faced by you while choosing hardware for your projects? HS: Following are few usual challenges while choosing hardware during designing the façades or windows: ∙ The type of window, how well it goes along with Interior finishes. ∙ Window frame sizes which are slightly bigger in size usually do not go well with aesthetics. ∙ Locking Mechanism: you want to make sure that you have thought about several other areas where a durable locking system has to get

installed. Think about places such as your garage doors and windows. ∙ Water Seal tight: What material is your window made of? Windows cannot effectively be retrofitted to be wet-rated (The outside is wet-rated of course, but the inside is not, because it was never designed to be). Tiling the jambs, painting with marine varnish etc. may help, but they’re not going to create a good long-term barrier against moisture. ∙ The quality and its durability matters a lot for the long term usage of window. ∙ Quality of hardware: we choose hardware in such a way that once the window or façade are installed we need not worry about the maintenance (locks, screws, rubber gaskets, rubber seal and adhesive). ∙ Sound Proof: “Soundproof Window” is absolutely essential. They make the house much quieter, they have dramatically cut heating and air conditioning costs, and they have added significantly to the value of your property. ∙ Heat Resistance: Type of glass used (single or double glass units), property of glass & UV value of glass maters a lot. ∙ Others type of façade/ window - noise resistance, dust proof, termite resistance & weather proof.

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We need to Bring in Regulations & Standards WFM: What are the criteria for selection of architectural hardware for facades and fenestrations?

Atul Anand, Head Representative, Roto Frank Asia Pacific Pte. Ltd.

AA: There are various types of openings possible e.g. sliding/slide and fold/ lift and slide / Tilt and slide/ Tilt and turn etc. The hardware components vary depending on the dimensions of the openings, the weight of the sash, type of profile material used (aluminium/uPVC/wood etc.) to make the windows & doors, wind load and water tightness desired, the kind of opening desired, etc. Companies like Roto, through their experience can help choosing right components done over permutation and combinations, in order to reach the correct solution. If we are involved in design stage itself, the clients can benefit immensely through knowledge sharing. WFM: Please tell us about the latest technologies in hardware products?

WFM: Please brief on the importance of right hardware for windows? Atul Anand (AA): A window is basically made up of glass, profiles, gaskets and hardware. In some countries there are safety standards that the windows should meet - for example in Germany they have the safety standards RC1, RC2, RC3 etc. Hardware is used to create multipoint locking which makes the windows safe and to meet such standards. It is through the hardware that correct gasket compression is controlled. It ensures that the sash has the right pressure so that the window is sealed and yet compression iWFM: s not so much that it affects the life of the gasket. In case the window is not sealed properly, there will be air, sound and water leakages.

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AA: The latest technologies can be summarised as follows: a. Locking cam versions - ‘E’ for gasket compression adjustment cam, ‘P’ Gasket compression adjustable security cam, ‘V’ Height and gasket compression adjustable security cam. b. NT security concept. Roto NT is equipped with basic security on the bottom horizontal sash plane. This offers AhS tested hardware combinations for higher security requirements, meeting the requirements in accordance with RAL - RG 607/3. Highest burglary inhibition results are achieved with simple combinations for security windows in accordance with the new DIN V ENV 1627-1630. This norm includes an overall test of all singular window components. c. NT striker concept. All strikers in this category have identical screwing axes. This concept renders pre-fitting the sash with security cams possible and a later frame retrofitting with security strikers.

Roto Inowa - a unique sliding system

The locking control for Roto Inowa windows

d. Surface finish. That is approved by EN ISO 9227 / EN 1670 Class 4. WFM: Architects come up with various hardware requirements for their projects. How do you satisfy their needs? AA: Architects do put our technical capabilities to test; their out-of-the-box thinking makes us explore all the possible solutions to satisfy their demands. We have a huge basket of products - around 80,000 components, with more than 5000 patents. So we can offer various combinations in several colours and shapes/hardware components, e.g. concealed hardware. We do design and deliver tailor made hardware for projects. So we actually go back to the drawing board to make hardware which are project specific. Of course we need sufficient time to deliver such solutions. WFM: Please give us a brief note on your latest hardware product? AA: Roto globally has a turnover of around Rs 5600 Crores and we operate through our 15 factories in Europe and USA. In this year’s Fenestrebau in Nuremberg, Germany we introduced our latest offering - Roto Inowa. This is a unique sliding system where in the sash moves as it would in a normal sliding window. But when it locks, the sash moves in a perpendicular direction. There are two sets of rollers - one that takes the sash in front (just like in regular sliding) and the other which makes the sash move at the side. (Vertical rollers set and horizontal roller set). The locking control is on the handle - by turning the handle, the sash locks on the interlock. Thus 100 percent sealing in sliding too is possible. This also means better security as locking points are on interlock too. We have packaged this with our brand Roto I and are offering it for Aluminium window projects in India. WFM: What is the future of architecture hardware industry for facades and fenestrations? Where do you see it in the next 5 years? AA: With almost all leading global players present in India (directly or indirectly), it is a clear signal

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that there is an opportunity for all to tap. Also the industry is looking out for new proven options to treat an opening. Change is happening and everyone in the industry, especially the fabricators, are accelerating this. The demand for good hardware is limited due to lack of knowledge of what a good hardware can deliver in terms of cost Vs the benefits. Many of the project owners are under pressure to just complete the projects and this forces staff to purchase the cheapest solution and close the project. Hardware in India is still just a piece of metal. It is not given the importance that it deserves. Due to lack of regulations, everyone is free to put in whatever hardware he thinks is correct. Façade and fenestration failures - sashes falling off, windows not operating or closing properly in very prestigious projects, etc. are sometimes the turning point for some clients to use good hardware. This will continue to be a tiny specific market which may change if the government decides to do something about the regulations. WFM: Please point out few hurdles faced by your company and the industry? AA: When China was growing vertically at a very fast pace, the developments made companies in the building construction industry grow exponentially in China. Many European companies today have this as the background when they try and find information about the Indian market, many of whom had missed the China bus. However, the reality is different here. In India, growth will be consistent as our government till now does not have a very aggressive plan for building construction industry like China had. India is a very price conscious market, and when it comes to large projects the compromise is maximum. We need to educate the players and clients of the benefits of good hardware even in large projects. If the architects, owners, fabricators and consultants walk the talk and do not succumb to pressure, then good products will definitely get acceptance in the industry.

Tech Talk

Post Breakage Strength Testing for Point-fixed Laminated Glass About the Authors: Ingo Stelzer is the Technical Service Senior Consultant and Head of the Global Consultancy Team, Kuraray Europe, GmbH, Germany. He has more than 15 years of professional experience in glass structure & facade engineering. After obtaining engineering Degree from University of Hannover, he worked with many companies like SEELE, DuPont, later Joined Kuraray in 2014 and became the head of the Global Consultancy Team in 2015.

Ingo Stelzer (Kuraray Europe, GmbH, Germany) and Malvinder S. Rooprai (Kuraray India, India)

Malvinder Singh Rooprai is a Technical Consultant for Kuraray Interlayer Solutions (KIS) business in the Asia Pacific region. He has provided consulting reports on structural performance of laminated glass for many iconic projects like Shanghai Tower and World One. He has worked as a Structural & Façade Engineer for nearly 6 years with well-known companies in India. He did his Masters in Structural Engineering from Thapar University, Patiala, India.

Design and structural performance of laminated glass in over-head glazing applications like canopies and skylights is very critical as it has an impact on the safety of occupants of a building and its maintenance workers. For such applications, post breakage strength of laminated glass construction is of utmost importance. Pre breakage strength can be predicted with reasonable accuracy by FEM technique (Finite Element Method) based software packages, which allows the user to input mechanical properties of viscoelastic interlayers along with glass. This helps in interlayer based differentiation of pre breakage structural strength and design optimization. However, post breakage strength of glass is still a little known area as analytical models for this are inconclusive so far and thus destructive testing is the only reliable solution. This article will present impact and load testing, simulating the accidental fall of a

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maintenance worker. It was done to assess the “fall through” resistance of point fixed laminated glass constructions having varying interlayers, like Standard PVB (Polyvinyl butyral), Ionoplast Interlayer (SentryGlas®) and Stiff PVB. In addition, medium duration (30 mins or more) post breakage strength tests driven by the new requirements set in place by German Standard pr DIN 18008-6 were conducted at sub-zero (-20°C), room temperature (+21°C) and at elevated temperatures of +50° Celsius. Introduction Laminated glass is commonly used for applications involving a potential risk of injury to humans. A typical laminated glass construction consists of two or more glass panes bonded together by an interlayer such as Standard PVB, Ionoplast Interlayer (SentryGlas®), Stiff PVB or

EVA (Ethylene-vinyl acetate). Laminated glass has become a major interest in structural applications after the adoption of “Effective Thickness Method” by ASTM E 1300 in 2009. Now, more and more structural and façade engineers are becoming aware of the viscoelastic behaviour of the interlayers. Thus, now they are considering temperature and load duration as one of the important factors which influence the structural performance of the laminated glass construction. FEM technique based software like SJ Mepla can model the laminated glass as a composite material by incorporating the time and temperature dependent properties of the interlayers. This allows the engineers to differentiate between the structural performances of laminates with various types of interlayers. However, for post breakage strength, they still have to rely on destructive strength testing methods. Post breakage strength is a result of some complex parameters which are hard to model analytically so far. An attempt has been made to compare the qualitative residual strengths of laminated glass panels through destructive impact testing for a canopy application. Laminated glass has a significant improvement in the post breakage strength over a monolithic layer of glass. The glass fragments adhere to the interlayers so that a certain remaining structural capacity is obtained as the glass fragments ‘arch’ or lock in place. This capacity depends on the fragmentation of the glass and increases with increasing fragment size. Therefore, laminated glass elements achieve a particularly high remaining structural capacity when made from annealed or heat strengthened glass that breaks

Fig.1: The “Wet Blanket” Effect

into large fragments. The post breakage behaviour furthermore depends on the interlayer material. The most common interlayer is PVB whose mechanical properties are heavily depended on temperature and load duration. At room temperature, PVB is soft with an elongation at break of more than 250 per cent. For higher temperatures and load durations, the shear transfer is greatly affected1. Low stiffness of the PVB interlayer results in “Blanket Effect” (Fig. 1) as soon as the glass breaks even for vertical applications because of the self-weight of the panel, especially with large panel sizes and minimal supports. SentryGlas® Ionoplast Interlayer, from Kuraray (originally invented by DuPont), was developed with the aim of achieving higher stiffness, temperature resistance, and resistance to tearing in point fixed rotule applications. This helps in achieving a superior post breakage strength and design redundancy. Table 1 gives a comparison of the mechanical properties of SentryGlas® Ionoplast Interlayer with PVB.

Table 1: Comparison of Mechanical Properties of SentryGlas® Ionoplast and Standard PVB Interlayer Type Ionoplast (SentryGlas®) Standard PVB (Butacite®) Stiff PVB (Trosifol® EXTRA STRONG)

Poisson Ratio

850 Kg/m2 1070 Kg/m3

Young’s Modulus@ 50°C, for 1 hour load 12.6 MPa 0.16 MPa

1081 Kg/m3

1.20 MPa


0.5 0.5

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 12.5 x 10-5/°C 2.2 x 10-4/°C

34.5 MPa 20 MPa


1.6 x 10-4/°C

32 MPa

Tensile Strength

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Table 1 gives a comparison of the mechanical properties of SentryGlas® Ionoplast and Standard PVB interlayers. Post breakage strength is significantly affected by the breakage pattern of the glass layers, support conditions, and temperature. Breakage pattern of glass can be a big variable even for the same type of glass and this makes analytical modelling of its post breakage strength a near impossible task. Thus engineers have to rely on destructive testing for this. Post breakage strength can be categorized as follows.

Testing carried out:

Code Requirements for Post Breakage Strength for Overhead Glazing Constructions

Structural performance of laminated glass in frameless point-supported overhead canopy applications is very critical because of high stress concentrations at the fixing points. In these applications, glass elements are held in position to sustain the imposed load without any structural framework running along the edges. Instead, the panels have metal patch plates or point fixings called rotules or spider fittings.

pr DIN 18008-6 Standard and former GS Roof Glazing Guidelines (Maintenance workers on the roof) are valid for different overhead glazing constructions like framed or point supported designs when access for maintenance or cleaning activities will be allowed. In Germany, the overhead glazing that is accessible for maintenance and cleaning should be tested for post breakage strength. The impact body is a standardized soft body impactor weighing 50Kg. After impact testing, the specimen has to be loaded with a single load of 1.0 KN, applied to an area of 200 x 200 mm. This should represent a single person standing on the glass surface. After breakage of the uppermost glass sheet, the whole glazing element must stay on its supports for at least 30 minutes. After this, the impact body must be dropped from a height of 900 mm and has to hit the specimen on locations that cause maximum glass and support damage. The test is successful if the specimen does not slide from the supports, the impact does not penetrate the laminated glass and no dangerous glass fragments fall down2.

1. Immediate Post Breakage Strength against “fall through” 2. Medium Duration Post Breakage Strength Testing (More than 30 mins. as per prDIN 18008 – 61) Separate tests were conducted for both types of strengths and same have been presented in this paper. Structural Glass Analysis Pre Breakage

In these types of applications, the flexural behaviour of the panel is very different from the one for a framed glass panel as large stress concentrations are observed around the rotule fixings. Structural analysis for one such application was performed in SJ Mepla software. Table 2 gives a comparison of structural performances results in terms of induced deflections and stress levels in a glass panel of size 1194 mm x 1500 mm subjected to point load of 50 Kg for a duration of 1 hour. The analysis has been performed on following glass constructions. a) 6 mm Tempered + 0.89 SentryGlas® Ionoplast + 6 mm Tempered b) 6 mm Tempered + 1.52 Standard PVB + 6mm Tempered

Table 2: Structural Calculation Results Laminated Glass Construction 6mm FT-Glass+ 0.89 SentryGlas® Ionoplast + 6mm FT-Glass 6mm FT-Glass+ 1.52 Standard PVB + 6mm FT-Glass 12 mm Monolithic FT-Glass

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Stress 66.47 MPa 154.67 MPa 64.62 MPa

Deflection 14.68mm 28.74 mm 14.93 mm

c) 12 mm Monolithic Tempered Glass ( Control Sample)

Immediate Post Breakage Structural Performance through Impact Testing

Control sample of 12 mm monolithic tempered glass panel was analysed for comparing the extent of coupling provided by the interlayers. Table 2 gives the numbers for deflection and stresses in the panel for the same load and boundary conditions.

Impact tests were done at Intertek ATI Inc. York, Pennsylvania by dropping a soft bag weighing 100 Kgs (typical weight of maintenance working along his tools and tackles) from a height of 1.20 m at a test temperature of 50ºC. The test method simulates potential loading from installation and /or maintenance workers in distress. The panels were conditioned at 50°C for 1 hour before the test. The test set up was enclosed with insulated panels to ensure there is no variation in test results due to temperature. The insulated panels were removed just before the impact.

Laminated safety glass produced with high strength, high stiffness Kuraray interlayers is considerably lighter than laminates produced with standard polyvinyl butyral (PVB), as the comparison shows. The SentryGlas® Ionoplast interlayer is approx. 100 times stiffer and five times stronger than Standard PVB, the transmission of load between the two sheets of glass in the laminate is almost perfect, leading to a rate of deflection that is less than half of that achieved by laminates using PVB of the same construction. Consequently, the laminate can either be used to bear greater loads or – as in the case above – reduced in thickness and weight without compromising safety. Above results conclude that even at an elevated temperature range of 50ºC, SentryGlas® Ionoplast interlayer provides an efficient coupling to the glass layers to match its structural performance with an equivalent monolithic glass whereas PVB interlayer because of inefficient coupling lags behind in structural performance as both stresses and deflections in PVB laminates are around 100 percent more than those in SentryGlas® Ionoplast laminates. In order to remain within the deformation limits, the laminated glass panels with Standard PVB should have had to have been considerably thicker than those made with the SentryGlas® Ionoplast interlayer. Their weight would also have been correspondingly higher. In order to ensure required safety levels, a much more substantial supporting structure would have been required than the intended lightdimensioned point fixing system designed for the glazing. The use of such a structure would have spoilt the desired transparent effect of the glazing, particularly when illuminated from above. Following intensive laboratory testing confirmed the FEM calculations of the simulation by physical strength testing.

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Laminates made from SentryGlas® Ionoplast interlayer provided a barrier against the impactor. The impactor was removed after 15minutes without any tearing of interlayer observed at the rotules. Whereas laminates made from EVA, Standard PVB and Stiff PVB collapsed as soon as the impactor strikes, and failed to act as a barrier. Next level of test programs shall be aimed for knowing the minimum interlayer thickness that is required for glass panel for passing the post breakage strength requirements set by standards with temperature as the key variable factor. A. Post Breakage Strength Testing (30 Minutes or more) German Standard pr DIN 18008 – 61, (Glass in Buildings – Design & Construction Rules – Additional requirements for walk-on glazings in case of maintenance procedures) in February 2015, has made the post breakage performance test necessary. The new regulation requires a laminated glass construction to sustain the weight of 100 Kg for at least 30 minutes after breakage of top layer of glass. First, the panel is subjected to an impact made by dropping a twin tyre impactor which weights 50Kg from a height of 900 mm. This is followed by imposing a load of 100 Kg for 30 minutes on an area of 200 x 200mm. After breakage of the uppermost glass layer, the whole glazing element must stay on its supports for at

Fig.2: Test set-up before impact, installed in a climate chamber

Fig.3: 400Kg load on SentryGlas® Ionoplast laminate at +21°C

least 30 minutes. The test is successful if the specimen does not slide from the supports, the impact does not penetrate the laminated glass and no dangerous glass fragments fall down2. Testing Post breakage strength tests on point supported glass panels (1500 mm x 2000 mm) for a typical canopy application were conducted at University of Armed Forces in Munich4, Germany. 9 glass panels with each of 4 different interlayers: SentryGlas® Ionomer (1.52 & 0.89mm), Stiff PVB (1.52mm), and Standard PVB (1.52 mm) were prepared for testing at 3 different temperature scenarios. (Table 3) The objective was to know which interlayer type laminate construction can pass the requirements set by pr DIN 18008-6 at 3 different temperatures (-20°C, +21°C and +50°C). 3 panels were tested for each temperature scenario. As soft-body impactor the EN 12600 Pendulum Test “Double-Tire“ impactor in a

Fig.4: Collapsed Standard PVB laminate with 100Kg at +21°C

new vertical position will be used. An attempt was made to know the ultimate capacity of the laminates. However, the test apparatus had a limitation of applying a maximum load of 400 Kg. The laminates were conditioned for at least 3 hours for each temperature scenario. The test chamber (Fig. 2) had a temperature control mechanism (AC-System) for a temperature range of -25°C to +50°C. The laminate construction with all different types of interlayers was strong enough to withstand the impact against any breakage. Therefore the upper layer of laminates in each case had to be broken manually with a centre punch. It was followed by placing a 100 Kg concrete block on the glass panel for 30 minutes. The test was aimed to know the ultimate post breakage performance limit so load was ramped up to 400 Kg in increments of 100 Kg, with a 15 minute time interval between each load increment. Laminates with SentryGlas® Ionoplast and Stiff PVB interlayers sustained this load of 400 Kg without collapse at -20°C and + 21°C temperatures (Fig. 3) Whereas in Fig. 4, Standard PVB laminate could not sustain the

Table 3: Glazing Constructions Dimension of the Specimen: 1.500 mm x 2.000 mm Supports: PAULI & SOHN Rotule System 751260 VAM M16 (not fully motion restricted) Laminate Construction 1 Laminate Construction 2 Laminate Construction 3 Laminate Construction 4 2 x 6 mm FT-Glass 2 x 6 mm FT-Glass 2 x 6 mm FT-Glass 2 x 6 mm FT-Glass 1.52 mm Interlayer 1.52 mm Interlayer 0.89 mm Interlayer 1.52 mm Interlayer ® ® ® Trosifol Extra Strong SentryGlas Ionoplast SentryGlas® Ionoplast Butacite PVB “Standard PVB” “Stiff PVB” “Ionoplast” “Ionoplast”

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B. Deflection Measurements for Estimating Modulus of Broken Laminate Deflection measurements were made during the test for all three temperature scenarios to make an estimate of the post glass breakage strength of the laminate constructions. At –20°C the 1.52 mm Ionomer laminate demonstrated the lowest deflection after 30 min (Fig. 7), whilst at +21°C both SentryGlas® Ionoplast laminates (1.52 and 0.89 mm) outperformed the PVB laminates (Fig. 8). Fig.5: Broken Standard PVB laminate collapsed at +50°C

Fig.6: Broken Stiff PVB laminate collapsed at +50°C

100 Kg imposed load at +21°C as it collapsed in few seconds when load was placed due to tearing of the interlayer at the rotules. At elevated temperature of 50°C, broken laminate construction with Standard PVB & Stiff PVB interlayers could not sustain their own self weight as they collapsed (Fig. 5 & Fig. 6) soon after breakage of both layers. Whereas, the laminate construction made with 0.89 mm SentryGlas® Ionoplast interlayer sustained a weight of 100 Kg for more than 30 minutes and collapsed when load was ramped up to 200 Kg. Similarly, 1.52 mm Ionomer laminate could sustain a load of 200 Kg for more than 30 minutes after breakage and collapsed when load was ramped up to 300 Kg.

Fig.7: Deflection vs Time Measurements @ -20°C Butacite® = Standard PVB, Trosifol® ES = Stiff PVB, SentryGlas® = Ionoplast

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Conclusions 1. At -20°C, laminates made from the 4 interlayer candidates i.e 0.89 mm SentryGlas® Ionoplast, 1.52 mm SentryGlas® Ionoplast, 1.52mm Standard PVB, 1.52 Stiff PVB pass the post breakage strength requirements of the new German Standard pr DIN 18008 – 6. 2. At -20°C, all 4 candidates had their ultimate strength more than 400 Kg as there was no collapse of the panel due to tearing of the interlayer at rotules. 3. At +21°C, SentryGlas® Ionoplast and Stiff PVB laminates pass the post breakage strength requirements of DIN 18008 – 6 but Standard PVB laminate does not (for this type of construction). 4. At +21°C, 0.89 mm & 1.52mm SentryGlas® Ionoplast laminate had almost similar post breakage strength till about 45 minutes from the breakage.

Fig.8: Deflection vs Time Measurements @ +20°C Butacite® = Standard PVB, Trosifol® ES = Stiff PVB, SentryGlas® = Ionoplast

5. For tropical climate regions where the ambient temperature is more than +45°C, SentryGlas® Ionoplast interlayer laminates meet and exceed the requirements of pr DIN 18008- 6 Standard as the only interlayer material. Please note that the findings are valid for pointfixed fully tempered glass and the described testing set-ups only. Glazing construction using heat strengthened glass, annealed glass and / or different fixations systems could show a different performance. Further testing and research will be conducted to get a better understanding of the post glass breakage behaviour of laminated glass and to develop appropriate design methods. Modern construction without laminated glass is no more an option to meet the architect and specifiers need and at the same time meet codes and regulations in place. At the same time global challenges of the industrial world are calling for some new glazing solutions. Interlayer suppliers have been able to address some of these challenges through innovative products and will continue to do so in the coming years. More recently, new requirements have added challenges to the performance of laminated glass: ∙ UV filtration performance ∙ Acoustic performance ∙ Larger glass panes and minimally supported glass. ∙ Post breakage performance ∙ Enhance glazing system performance for: ∙ Blast and ballistic resistance ∙ Very high wind load and debris resistance for hurricane sensitive areas ∙ Concerns about the safety performance of tempered glass ∙ Durability and performance in open edge and silicone sealed applications. ∙ Changes is colour and transparency/ translucency ∙ Material inclusion and combination with glass coatings

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Laminated glass is also increasingly challenged to help meet the energy control requirements imposed on new and retrofitted buildings. These requirements have led to a dramatic increase of interlayer solutions. At the beginning some of these challenges were met through modification of the original “automotive” PVB: Interlayer thickness ranging from 0.38mm up to 4.56mm or more, sheet size increase and introduction of colours for architectural applications including translucency. However, as the architectural laminated glass market was maturing, the original PVB recipe proved to have its limitations for architectural applications. This led to the modification of the PVB recipe for applications such as enhanced acoustics, and the development of other polymers such as SentryGlas® Ionoplast and EVA. This summary illustrates that the use of advanced interlayer, thanks to their stiffness and retained transparency - even after many years of use, presents new opportunities for architects and engineers to carry out cost-effective modernization projects and innovatively adopt laminated safety glass in construction. Such glass is already being used on a large scale for architectural projects such as glazed balustrades, floorings, staircases and pedestrian bridges – bringing with it additional benefits in terms of the preservation of valuable resources. References [1] Draft Standard / DIN prEN 18008-6, BeuthVerlag, Berlin ]2] GS-BAU-18, Merkblatt ZiE-Nr. 3A [3] ANSI Z.97 Standard / Safety Glazing Materials Used in Buildings - Safety Performance Specifications and Methods of Test [4] Test Report Nr. b-03-14-08 / Universität der Bundeswehr, Munich

Special Feature

Flanking Paths – Acoustics About the Author:

Mike Carrick, Technical Officer – Acoustics, Siderise Group

Mike Carrick is the Siderise Group Head of Acoustics. Mike has worked for the Siderise Group for over 28 years. He is one of the three qualified acoustic engineers within the group and is a member of the Institute of Acoustics. He works closely with noise consultants and architects at the design stage to ensure that robust compliant solutions are developed to meet the project criteria and particularly enjoys complex acoustic challenges. During his time with Siderise he has helped to develop innovative acoustic solutions which have been used on some of the most prestigious projects in both the UK and overseas including 2012 Olympic Athletes Village, The Warner Brothers Studios, and One Hyde Park.

They have become the façade of choice across the globe, however, lightweight aluminium curtain walling systems can present specifiers with a host of internal sound transmission issues that need to be addressed to ensure the well-being, happiness and productivity of building occupants. Mike Carrick AMIOA, Head of Acoustics at Siderise Group, looks at the common sound transmission paths in lightweight curtain walled buildings and the performance-limiting factors when considering the flanking sound transmission performance both vertically and horizontally. With the extensive use of specialist criteria, complex jargon and the many ways of referring to the humble ‘decibel’ - Rw, Dnf,w, DnT,w, Dnc,w - to name but a few, the world of acoustics can be confusing to those who are not involved in the subject. This can lead to misunderstandings, or worse, the misapplication of materials needed to

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achieve good acoustic standards or to solve sound transmission issues. When considering ‘floor to floor’ sound performance, overall performance is effectively controlled by the ‘weakest link’. This means that very careful consideration should be given to potential weak points to ensure that they do not become the ‘limiting factors’ in overall sound transmission performance. The curtain wall together with movement joints should be considered as potential weak points and thoroughly assessed accordingly. A Route to Compliance Whatever the building type whether it be an office, hotel, school or apartment building, the client requires a sustainable building that is fully robust and compliant to all building regulations and design criteria.

When considering the vertical transmission of airborne sound energy (floor-to-floor), the applicable criteria (regulatory or otherwise), will usually be in ‘dB’ in one of the following forms:

test specimen and therefore any sound energy that passes from one chamber to the other is considered to have travelled through the test specimen (Direct Sound Transmission).

DnT,w - a Final Site Measured Value

Dnf,w - A Laboratory Tested Value For A System

A DnT,w is a final site measured value and will be controlled by both the ‘Rw’ value of the floor slab (direct sound transmission) and the Dnf,w value of the façade (flanking sound transmission).

A Dnf,w value is a laboratory test value for a system, such as a curtain wall system, raised access floor or suspended ceiling system.

Rw - a Laboratory Tested Value for a Component An Rw value is a laboratory test value for a component or construction, such as a concrete floor slab, partition, window, door etc. The laboratory comprises of two fully isolated chambers, defined as the source room and receiving room, with an aperture between these 2 rooms. The sample material or construction is fitted into the aperture and the test is carried out. The acoustic performance between these chambers is very high, at least 10dB at all frequencies higher than the

As with the laboratory configuration for the aperture testing, it comprises of two fully isolated chambers, but the apertures are adjacent to each other, rather than opposing. The sample construction is fitted across both apertures and the test is carried out. The acoustic performance between these chambers is very high, at least 10dB at all frequencies higher than the test specimen and therefore any sound energy that passes from one chamber to the other is considered to have travelled through the test specimen (Direct Sound Transmission). It is essential to understand the important and significant differences between these in order to validate or otherwise

prove potential compliance. In general, site measured values cannot match those recorded in a sound laboratory. The difference will vary depending on the method of test and actual performance levels, but as a guideline 5-10dB minimum practical difference is commonly quoted. The 5 Common Flanking Paths for a Standard ‘Stick Curtain Walling System’ The Dnf,w value is a total flanking sound transmission of the façade system. It does however comprise a number of individual sound transmission paths with the 5 main path elements being: a) the glazing element, b) the transoms, c) the structural element of the mullion, d) the hollow of the mullion and e) the movement zone. A number of factors directly affect the overall performance, including the span between the mullions and transom, the stiffness, number of façade brackets, type of glass, glass orientation, twin or single mullion or transom designs and importantly the use of façade acoustic enhancement products. A) The Glazing Element This transmission path occurs when sound energy in the source room hits the glass and becomes structure borne by inducing vibrations in the glass. These vibrations travel

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into the gasket of the transom, into the transom itself, and then back into the spandrel panel via the second gasket. They then travel into the next transom (based on a twin transom design) and into the glass area which is remote from the original source, finally re-radiating into the adjacent room. Positive Factors Twin Transom design Split Transom High Performance Glass Negative Factors Single Transom Design Un-split Transom Low Performance Glass B) Transoms This transmission path occurs when sound energy in the source room hits the transom, travels through the frame into the spandrel zone, past the floor slab. It then travels

through the next transom (based on a twin transom design) into the adjacent room above or below. Single transom designs are generally significantly lower performing than twin transom designs. Use of high mass materials in-between the transoms, which can be incorporated into the fire seal specification, or use of specialist acoustic inserts inside the transoms can be particularly effective in reducing sound transmission via this path. Positive Factors Twin Transom design High mass treatments High Performance Fire Seal Negative Factors Single Transom Design Light Weight Hollow Aluminium Poor Performing Fire Seals C) The Structural Element of the Mullion This transmission path occurs when sound energy in the source room hits the mullion and becomes structure borne by inducing vibrations in the aluminium. These vibrations travel easily up or down the façade and then re-radiates

into the adjacent rooms. Test data suggests that this causes the most issues in the 500Hz – 1000Hz range of frequencies, which is also where the human ear is most sensitive. Continuous mullions past the floor slab are one of the main potential ‘Performance Limiting Factors’ in façade design. The splitting and then re-joining of mullions with a joining spigot at the floor line show a large increase in potential overall performance, while fully decoupled mullions/framing at floor line show further improvement. Positive Factors Decoupled Framing Split Mullions Damping Materials Negative Factors Fully Connected Framing Continuous Mullions D) The Hollow of the Mullion This transmission path occurs when sound energy in the source room hits the mullion, passes through into the hollow of the mullion, a highly reverberant area, then travels up or down the building and breaking back out again into adjacent rooms above or below. Use of specialist acoustic

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baffles, either thin baffles based on high mass materials or purely absorption with a greater depth can be particularly effective in reducing sound transmission via this path. Positive Factors Baffles in the Mullion at Floor Line Negative Factors Hollow Section Continuous E) The Movement Zone The movement cavity is a potential weak point when considering floor to floor performance and is often not included when façade testing is carried out in laboratories. Quite rightly, system manufacturers are there to test their system and not a proprietary fire stop, but when designing buildings these cavities are included and therefore it is important to recognise the potential for this to reduce the overall Dnf,w performance of the façade.

Commonly, interior linings, such as plasterboard ceilings, steel plates, floor screeds, raised access floor systems, are present and provide the additional mass required, but where ‘acoustic holes’ are

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present, such as roller blinds, air ventilation systems, recessed lights, lightweight suspended ceilings, lightweight aluminium closure plates etc, then the acoustic properties of the fire seal and acoustic upgrades are important. Overall Performance The overall performance is a combination of all these path elements and can only be established by full façade testing in an accredited laboratory, which can be time consuming and very expensive. It is possible for a project noise consultant to look at specific project details at the slab edge, compare the design with known library data and assess the possible overall performance. However, this would not necessarily offer any guarantee of compliance. When assessing any design, it is important to understand that the overall performance would be wholly controlled by the weakest path element, referred to as the ‘Performance Limiting Factor’ and therefore any design change or acoustic enhancement should only be considered if all other path elements are capable of meeting the same value or being upgraded to meet the value. For example, if a continuous mullion (Path ‘C’ above) is only able to achieve a

maximum of 48dB Dnf,w then there is little point in improving the performance of ‘Path B’ to 55dB as, overall, it would still only be 48dB due to ‘Path C’ being the ‘Performance Limiting Factor’. Therefore, unless an improvement can be made additionally to Path B, for example, by splitting the mullion, there would be no benefit in upgrading any other path elements to above 48dB. Performance criteria for commercial developments generally range between 40dB Dnf,w to 53dB Dnf,w, whereas residential developments range between 55dB Dnf,w to 65dB Dnf,w. Sometimes however, for various reasons, values outside these ranges may be required. As such, it is essential to establish the precise project requirements and determine if +Ctr is applicable. This can usually be found in the project acoustic report.

Library Data (Vertical Sound Transmission) Test data from various system manufacturers can help in understanding likely performance limiting factors.

The values given below are based on library data and are for guidance. However, project specific details should always be assessed individually and designs approved by the project noise consultant based on actual laboratory data or assessment by an acoustic engineer.

enhancements). Overall performance has increased due to the mullion being split. This type of enhanced detail is likely to be acceptable for residential developments, and may be acceptable for commercial developments without enhancement.

Single transom, continuous mullion values range from 35dB Dnf,w (un-treated) to 46dB Dnf,w (with acoustic enhancements). This type of detail is generally not ideal for residential developments, but may be acceptable for commercial developments.

Twin transom, split mullion, fully decoupled frame, values range from 50dB Dnf,w (un-treated) to 65dB Dnf,w (with acoustic enhancements). Overall performance has increased significantly due to the fully decoupled frame. This type of detail enhanced is likely to be acceptable for almost all residential developments. Twin transom, continuous mullion values range from 42dB Dnf,w (un-treated) to 46dB Dnf,w (with acoustic enhancements). Overall performance is being limited by the continuous mullion. This type of detail is generally not ideal for residential developments, but may be acceptable for commercial developments.

Library Data (Horizontal Sound Transmission) The values below are for guidance only.

Twin transom, split mullion re-joined with a joining spigot, values range from 50dB Dnf,w (un-treated) to 55dB Dnf,w (with acoustic

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Twin Mullion configuration, partially boxed in, fully boxed in, partially boxed in with acoustic mullion inserts values range from 50dB Dnf,w (un-treated) to 65dB Dnf,w (with acoustic enhancements). This type of detail enhanced is likely acceptable for almost all residential developments.

Single Mullion configuration, untreated/empty, treated/acoustically enhanced, values range from 44dB Dnf,w (un-treated) to 53dB Dnf,w (with acoustic enhancements). This type of enhanced detail is possibly acceptable for residential developments, but if empty it is unlikely to be acceptable for commercial or residential. Siderise MI6 insert in the Transom Siderise MI6 inserts in both Transom

Twin Transom Designs Faรงade Product Enhancements SIDERISE, manufacturers of acoustic and fire insulation products for over 40 years, offers a large range of tried and tested product enhancements specifically developed for the faรงade industry. The product range, designed to reduce vertical and horizontal sound transmission in curtain wall buildings, includes a choice of effective and proven sound reduction solutions that deal with all common sound path problems and are frequently used to assist in reducing flanking transmission between adjacent internal areas.

Siderise MI6 mullion/transom inserts in a twin transom design can increase the potential performance when high mass floors and ceiling abut the transoms, without the need to enhance the slab edge fire seal. Mullions (Central to the Room) Site test data suggests the use of the Siderise MI5 foam baffle in mullions central to the room can increase the site measured values by a potential of 2-4dB overall.

Single Transom Designs

Single Mullions (Abutting Partitions)

Use of the Siderise MI6 mullion/transom inserts in a single transom design can increase the potential performance from circa 35dB Dnf,w to the maximum possible, 46-50dB Dnf,w depending on the precise detail.

The installation of the Siderise MI6 mullion/transom inserts in a single mullion design can increase the potential performance from circa 44dB Dnf,w to the maximum possible, 51-53dB Dnf,w depending on the precise detail. The detailed product between

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Siderise MI5 inserts in the mullions adjacent to the partition

the facade’s cyclic movement, a proven fire performance (both integrity and insulation) when abutting deforming structures, provision of an effective smoke seal, resistance to moisture/water and ability to provide a flexible closure limiting possible flanking transmission.

Siderise MI5 Baffle in the Mullion

Perimeter Barrier Fire Seal (Acoustic Enhancements)

the partition and the mullion is the Siderise FIP panel, with a performance of 46dB Rw and up to 1 hour rating. Perimeter Barrier Fire Seal There are many fire seal products available claiming compliance to common fire standards. However, other equally important characteristics and properties of the seal should be considered when selecting the product: sound transmission performance, ability to expand and contract with

Siderise CW-FS fire stop between the slab edge and the reat of the facade

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Siderise CW-FS fire stop with the CW-AB acoustic overlay and CVB/C below

In addition to the fully tested acoustic properties of the Siderise CW-FS system, the Siderise CWAB acoustic overlay and Siderise CVB/C10 lower barrier are fully tested with exceptionally high performances suitable for almost any criteria. In a world where we are experiencing increasing noise levels, occupant complaints and dissatisfied clients, acoustics in the built environment has become a concern to society and a challenge to designers. It is all too common when considering the specification of the seal between the slab edge and the facade, for product selection to be based exclusively in terms of compliance to the relevant fire regulations. For façade engineers, architects and their clients, it is essential that due consideration is given to both the acoustic implications and performance of the closure arrangement, ensuring any potential weak point in curtain walled buildings is controlled. The use of performance enhancing products will mitigate against these issues.

For further information about SIDERISE or for technical advice visit or call +44 (0)1656 730833.

Face to Face

Creating Sculptural Architecture Jürgen Mayer H. is a German architect and artist and the founder of the well-known architectural firm J. MAYER H. und Partner, Architekten. Founded in the German capital in 1996, the design studio is known for its considerable body of work and the way in which it transcends the boundaries of disciplines through its expressiveness and creative interpretation of a brief. The studio’s portfolio spans from numerous exhibitions and installations, to large-scale urban planning schemes and public buildings. Mayer H.’s architectural language is heavily influenced by art and sculpture, as well as the small details in life. The studio’s recent projects include Metropol Parasol, the redevelopment of the Plaza de la Encarnación in Seville, Spain; the Court of Justice Jürgen Mayer H. in Hasselt, Belgium and several public and infrastructural projects in Principal Architect & Founder Georgia—for example, an airport in Mestia, the border checkpoint in J. MAYER H. und Partner, Sarpi, and three rest stops along the highway in Gori and Lochini. His Architekten work has been published and exhibited worldwide. Architect Jürgen Mayer H. was kind enough to sit down and answer a few of our questions regarding his style, design, and recent projects. Here is the excerpts from the exclusive interview.

WFM: Are you doing any project in India?

© Nikkol Rot Fotografie for Holcim Foundation

Jürgen Mayer H. (JMH): We are doing a project in India in collaboration with Mumbai-based architectural firm - Collaborative Architecture, headed by Architects Mujib Ahmed and Laita Tharani. We shall reveal the details of the project later. Intense discussions are going on for finalization of this Indian projects. I have travelled to India 5 times and have seen many projects here. My trips were always very interesting and exciting and I look forward to work here in India. WFM: Could you please tell me about your ongoing projects? JMH: We do projects from very small scale ventures to large scale projects. Large scale

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Metropol Parasol, the redevelopment of the Plaza de la Encarnación in Seville, Spain

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The perfect solution for achieving all of the richness and beauty of wood without the maintenance.LoomCLAD is aluminum cladding available in a wide range of woodgrain and solid colour finishes. The wood grain and solid colours applied to LoomCLAD are warrantied for upto to 15 years, this gives our finishes superior resistance to weathering in the critical areas of color and gloss retention.

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© Beka Pkhakadze, Jesko M. Johnsson-Zahn

© Jesko M. Johnsson-Zahn

Rest stops Gori-Georgia

projects include high rise buildings, especially those done in Germany. All these projects have relationship with the skyline, their elevation and the urban fabric around them and they activate downtown parts. All these projects are very innovative and interesting. It will ensure advantage to our clients in giving them something very different. At the same time we want our projects to be economically successful too. I am working on an infrastructure project in Georgia, also doing two highway rest stop projects coming up. It is important to show that infrastructure projects are very much a part of Architecture. We are doing residential projects - a villa in Georgia and another one in Russia, in the outskirts of Moscow. We are doing few artistic projects too. For example a facade project in Miami, in the design district. This s a concept for the facade for a parking garage. It is a highly developed project. It is of 16 floors. It has commercial space in the ground floor and four to 5 floors of parking above. The visual concept for the garage was called a Collage Garage. It is a large scale high-rise project which is breaking it down in terms of, let’s say, ‘‘architectural voices’’. It gives a different kind of scale to the urban context. It is a very unique organic facade with super graphic art. It certainly pays to the urban surrounding which is otherwise mundane and gives a sculpture quality

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Police Station in Mestia, Georgia

to that part of town. Moreover, this freestanding building is being built near two museums. WFM: By now you might have visited few cities in India. How can you compare the design of building facades in India to those in other countries? JMH: The facades for high-rises in India is like everywhere else. I do not see any specific language. The relation or the link between innovative part of building typology, and the culture and tradition of this country is missing in them, though many projects are well designed. I think it is very potential to push a little more to create something that is more related to urban development or the urban fabric. It may be easier to make facades with glass. But there is a lot of potential to think beyond that, even if it is a high-rise. WFM: One can find extensive use of glass in facades in India too. Do you agree with it? JMH: This trend is found not only in India, this phenomenon is seen everywhere, whether it is Iran or Dubai or Fareast countries. There are different technologies which are applied to glass facades. It is not just about the material. Glass has different reflections, R values, coatings, surface qualities, thickness, etc. There are Green layered glass

Š Jesko Malkolm Johnsson-Zahn, Beka Pkhakadze

Sarpi Border Checkpoint, Sarpi, Georgia

available for construction. They have super insulating qualities and are used in many buildings in Germany. We use thinner or thicker glass based on the surroundings and weather at the location. Intensity of sun would be much more in Saudi Arabia than Frankfurt. So the type of glass used varies. There are double skin facades and triple skin facades for better internal environment. We like double skin facades because of it creates a different kind of fineness from outside and push the thermal qualities more towards inside. It has more substance, more than an element which separates inside from outside. Facade is not just a sheet of glass separating inside from outside. It is a whole space which negotiates the conditions inside the building. It could even generate energy in future. Or in some cases, it needs to be explored more for more uses than just as a building element separating inside from outside. WFM: Talking about materials for buildings, how do you choose them for your projects? JMH: We develop a concept for the building and find the right material that supports the atmosphere. For example, one of our project, an 18 storied, smaller high-rise project, has got timber

on its facade! This is quite unique considering the height of the building. We design facades and decide on material looking at nuances like fire and security. Many of the facades are built with exposed concrete, or glass. We are quite open to all kinds of materials and we explore them. The important aspect is that the material should support the design of the project. WFM: What are the key factors you consider when you design a facade for a building? JMH: Facade design is not the starting point. The starting point is to think about the programme, to think about the economic reference of the project, the context, and see what is specific to the context, etc., and from all these we conclude on the look of the project or the facade design. We go step by step. Of course the first thing we see of a building and hence a lot of emphasis is given on the design of the facade. WFM: The public space - Metropol Parasol you created was very interesting. How did you arrive at that design? JMH: The shedder was the main element of design and it is built in a very hot area and in an open. We

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have created a roof giving it different geometries in order to make it look relaxed in the urban context. The project “Metropol Parasol” - a redevelopment project at Seville in Spain has become a new icon for the place. Since the place is of archaeological importance, we had to place the foundations at very specific places. WFM: When you go for glass facade, we have to look at certain quality control aspects like the thermal insulation, acoustics etc. Could you please explain on this? JMH: One project where we have used lot of different forms of glass for facade is the shopping mall project at Berlin named Volt. We have used stained glass or coloured glass which has got print on it. This makes the glass opaque, providing protection from inside and privacy from outside without having a blind on it to cover. We had set few areas which needs to be more colourful, and again transparent at night, but during day it would provide enough protection from sunlight. We worked on different levels of transparency, heat protection and insulation, and the colour quality of glass.‘ WFM: Please tell us about the thermal insulation and acoustics of your projects? JMH: In our projects, acoustics are usually handled by sealing and wall panels. We may add a perforated layer in front of facade which will reduce the noise penetration. In terms of insulation, we do not need separate insulation since the glass used itself is quite thick (about 8cm thick). This is one of the latest technology in glass. WFM: Could you talk about of some of the technologies you have used which can be adopted in India? JMH: I think the timber technology in construction used in few of my projects could

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be used in India too. The same method can be followed in India. The lamination and coating used on timber gives it all-weather protection. Hence it is a very good idea to go for such construction technologies. WFM: Talking about fenestration, in India, we culturally go for open windows. What is your view on these kind of designs? JMH: It is very right. There are some parts in this world where the climate is extreme and where we cannot have open doors and windows. But for saving electricity or energy, countries like India should design fenestrations intelligently in order to have maximum comfort inside and at the same time save resources. Fenestration should provide more flexible indoor outdoor relationship. The facades should not cut off exteriors from interiors, rather provide an extension of space. Good insulation and close circulation systems with fresh air would be very suitable for Indian climate. WFM: What advice you have for the young architects in India. JMH: Indian architects should work in collaboration with architects from abroad to learn more on technology. We learned a lot in Germany, inviting a number of international architects, especially in Berlin, after the reunification. The transformation was great. Learning from technologies applied in other countries and transferring it here in India would improve the quality of architecture. India has a great history and fantastic monuments. The architectural culture from history is not reflected in contemporary architecture. There are fantastic contemporary architects in India, and they should go for more projects like mass housing, with the help of expert architects from abroad. Such collaborations will help greatly.

Case Study

Metropol Parasol Metropol Parasol, the redevelopment of the Plaza de la Encarnacíon in Seville, designed by J. MAYER H. Architects, already became the new icon for Seville, a place of identification and to articulate Seville’s role as one of the world´s most fascinating cultural destinations. Metropol Parasol developed the Plaza de la Encarnación to become the new contemporary urban centre. Its role as a unique urban space within the dense fabric of the medieval inner city of Seville allows for a great variety of activities such as memory, leisure, and commerce. A highly developed infrastructure helps to activate the square, making

Metropol Parasol, Seville, Spain

it an attractive destination for tourists and locals alike. The Metropol Parasol scheme with its impressive

Panorama terrace on the very top of the parasols

timber structures offers an archaeological museum, a farmers’ market, an elevated plaza, multiple bars and restaurants underneath and

The impressive timber structures

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One of the largest and most innovative bonded timber constructions

inside the parasols, as well as a panorama terrace on the very top of the parasols. Realized as one of the largest and most innovative bonded timber constructions with a polyurethane coating, the parasols grow out of the archaeological excavation site into a contemporary landmark, defining a unique relationship between the historical and the contemporary city. Metropol Parasols mixed-use character initiates a dynamic development for culture and commerce in the heart of Seville and beyond.

Detailing of the facade

Detailing of the bonded timber

QUICK FACTS Project: Metropol Parasol (Redevelopment of Plaza de la Encarnacion, Seville, Spain) Function: archaeological site, farmers market, elevated plaza, multiple bars and restaurants Structure: concrete, timber and steel Principal Exterior: timber and granite Principal interior material: concrete, granite and steel Construction period: 2005-2011 Renderings: J. MAYER H. Site area: 18000 Sq m Building area: 5000 Sq m Total floor Area: 12670 Sq m Height of the building: 28.50 m Building/Cost: 90 Mio Euro Photographs (For all photographs Copy right - “Nikkol Rot Fotografie for Holcim Foundation�)

Mixed use character of the structure

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Project Watch

Exploring Materials Project RED, Boat Club Road, Pune About the Architect: Neelesh Chopda is the Founder and Principal Architect at Onus Design, Pune. Neelesh, a graduate (B.Arch) from Pune University, worked with Ar. Bijoy Jain, Ar. Aijaz Hakim, later starting his own design firm in 2001. Over the last decades, he has excelled at the master planning and design of buildings that have left a significant marks.

Ar. Neelesh Chopda, Principal Architect & Founder, Onus Design

Neelesh’s early projects set a precedent for the criteria that would reveal the practice’s design approach: structure, space and skin. His celebrated works led to his meteoric growth leading to projects nationwide. While the company’s portfolio covers various sectors, it is proud of its well appreciated expertise and substantial experience in bringing to fruition residential projects, transport projects, retail and commercial complexes, educational facilities, industrial sector construction, largescale arts and leisure schemes and master planning.

Espree Realtors wanted an eye-catching façade one that was radical in appearance. Niranjan Kataria, (Partner-Espree Realtors) wanted Architect Neelesh Chopda of Onus Design to think out-of-the-box. In his brief, he was clear that the façade had to be the identity of his commercial building. After much thought the architects concluded on a flamboyant red façade. The Location The affluent boat club area has always been upper crust and is synonymous with the glitz of glamour - a high profile residential and commercial hub. The street, dominantly lined by boutiques and showrooms, was the premier cerebration of conceiving the design idea. The project required to be glamorous and exhibit an attitude. It is designed in compliance to the targeted end users which are jewellers, brand stores

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Red - Completed façade

developed were worked out using a combination of Sketchup & Rhinoceros software. Selection of Material After much technical debate and introspection the raw material of construction was finalized as Mill finish Aluminium sheets of 3 mm thickness. No other material offered the following advantages. ∙ Low dead weight ∙ Good workability Aluminium sheets on CNC Turret Punch Press Bed

and corporate houses. It needed to portray a sense of attraction with systematic architectural understanding to create strong visual connectivity with exploration of different materials, solid colours and state-of-the-art finishes. The structure evolves itself as a sculpture enhancing its face value and scale. The Design Concept RED is fashion, RED is flamboyance....Faceted in solid aluminium, the façade of the project is a mammoth ruby set on a black pedestal. Palliated with a veil of green – The bold union of extravaganza and class. A precious stone with its irregular facets yields a non-rhythmical pattern giving a dynamic expression....along the colours red and black. Thus evolved the design persuasion. As the design development advanced, polygons were divided into multiple triangles and elevated to various levels giving rise to a single module...Each polygon was then extruded to three different levels and composed into a geometric system. Diverse compositions were tried to attain variable design patterns in turn making the façade more impulsive. Colour code models were developed showing different panels and number of repetitions. Technical drawings of the proposed panels thus

∙ Long lasting final finish (powder coating with long warranty) ∙ Custom colour shade choices (the project required a specific shade of red) ∙ Aluminium is 100 per cent recyclable ∙ Non-flammable ∙ Non-toxic in case of fire The Process RED façade is the spectacular facial expression of the conceived thought process...constructed from customized factory made aluminium modules. 2D sketches of the whole façade received from the architect’s office were analysed and the different pieces were translated into 3D models using Sketchup software. In total, there were 90 unique geometries to be developed. Every piece was created and assembled virtually first. We then used Rhinoceros software to unfold the 3D model of each piece to obtain the blanking patterns. The blanks had to be cut from standard Aluminium sheets available in standard size of 8 feet by 4 feet. To reduce wastage, the blank shapes were nested on the proprietary cutting software of the Turret Punch Press manufacturer. Using CNC turret punch press, mill finish aluminium sheets were cut out in requisite shapes and the pieces were then transferred to a CNC press break for folding. Leftover material was sent for recycling. Folding the pieces posed quite a challenge. Different pieces, each with a minimum of 4 sides and maximum 7 sides, between 3 and 6 folds of varying angles, were essential. The necessity of having negative folds in some pieces

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Red faรงade powder coated pieces on shop floor

The cluster formation Pre-trial

added to the complexity. Since majority of the 90 different designs were repeating only 2, 3 or 4 times, the manufacturing efficiency was very low. The setting times for every fold had to be factored. In spite of using CNC press break for folding, each fold required up to 3 operations, as the spring-back of the raw material during folding operation could not be predicted accurately. Once the folding was completed and approved by quality control, the final open edge of every piece was aluminium welded by a skilled and experienced welder, the pieces were buffed and handed over to a Akzo Nobel approved powder coating unit, where they were pre-finished by chromatising and then finished with exterior grade powder coating in Ruby Red colour (RAL 3003). A 3M protective film was then applied on every powder coated piece before it was dispatched for ready for pre-assembly. The entire faรงade was broken down in clusters of between 5 to 9 pieces and pre-assembly of clusters was carried out. The innumerable different planes of the faceted pieces meant a high degree of complication in attaching these pieces to the subframe. During the pre-assembly, the fabrication team was trained by Onus Design to execute the specific requirement of the complex sub-frame supports demanded by the design. A fine gap was maintained between every piece to provide for expansion due temperature rise. Research labs like Henkel were used to test the efficacy of the glue at 120 degree temp for 6 hours used to

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Red 1st Cluster of 6 pieces taken for installation

Red cluster assembly work in progress

withhold the faรงade. The faรงade, which was glued to the base structure with the recommended grade of structural glues. The team was guided through the process of cluster formation. All clusters were tagged alphabetically and ready for installation clusters were brought to site from the warehouse nearby on 2 separate flat-bed trailers alternately in a specific sequence. The installation commenced one morning, work progressed through the day and after about 21 hours, in the wee hours of the following morning it was completed.

Cluster assembly work progressing at night

Red Team at completion of installation

Green façade comprises of thin retractile metal wire frame work on which creepers form a thick screening. The green veil bays from the terrace leading down to the parking along the sides of the building brackets the office spaces in a refreshing green. The veil defends the side glass façade from excessive sunlight and kindles environment inside the building creating an ‘inside-out’ façade. Interconnection with nature forms for a revitalizing, more cheerful work environment. The thick green screening substantially reduces overall running cost of air-conditioned office spaces.

The facade before removing protective film

During removal of protective film

The red facade & the Green facade

QUICK FACTS Project: RED Location: Boat Club Road, Pune, 411001 Client: Espree Realtors, Niranjan Kataria Architect: Ar Neelesh Chopda (Onus Design) Façade Manufacturer: Meridian Architectural Systems, Mumbai Material used for façade: Solid Aluminium 3 mm Thk Commencement Date: July 2014 Completion Date: February 2015 Area: 225 Sq m Cost: 55 lacs

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Project Watch

The Perforated Façade Punjab Kesari Headquarters About the Architects: Amit Gupta has been involved in projects of various scales and sectors ranging from hospitality, commercial, residential, mixed use and master plans. Graduated from Architectural Association school of Architecture, London, he has been looking at creating robust and efficient forms of designs with sustainability embedded in them.

Amit Gupta & Britta Knobel Gupta, Founding Partner, Studio Symbiosis Architects

After graduating from Architectural Association school of Architecture, London, Britta Knobel Gupta worked in London as lead architect for Zaha Hadid Architects for a period of five years involved in a number of key international projects such as Abu Dhabi Performing Arts Centre, Broad Art Museum in Michigan, Dubai Opera House, etc. As co-founder of Studio Symbiosis Architects, she is involved in projects of various scales.

The Punjab Kesari Headquarters, currently under construction, recently received the International Property Awards for Best Office Architecture India 2016-17. Sustainability is at the epicentre of the project embedded in form of optimized natural lighting, cross ventilation and reduction of heat gain. Designed by Studio Symbiosis, the design for the 18,000-square-meter office space is a “Fusion” of traditional Indian architecture and contemporary office space. The main objective is to reduce heat gain and optimize façade opening ratio, ensuring no artificial lighting is required on a typical day. An animated façade is designed as an outcome of different façade opening ratio depending on the orientation. The building is wrapped in a beautiful perforated facade that evokes traditional “Jali” screens and serves to maximize natural light while minimizing heat gain.

Located at an urban corner in Delhi NCR the project looks at integrating with the surroundings with two bold gestures. A sense of invitation with an urban lobby is created whereby the landscape flows inside the building creating

The Punjab Kesari Headquarters - View from the street

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Front elevation, night time

Front elevation, day time

seamless movement trajectories extending into the central atrium space. Being an office space, the building is seen as an interaction zone by creating moments allowing informal interaction. A central atrium connects the various floors creating a diffused boundary condition and a visual porosity between people working on different floors. Since the design looks at no artificial lighting, it makes the user feel closer to nature. The office floors are dividable into smaller units to achieve flexible units ranging from 500 to 2000sqm.

achieved in the building at a workstation height from each floor plate, along with a daylight factor of 2 over 80per cent of the floor plate; this is done to ensure that artificial lighting is not required inside the building on a normal day.

The inspiration was to translate a traditional Indian façade pattern by using digital simulations into an iterative processes to create a responsive built form. This traditional “Jali” screen creates culturally a sense of belonging. Lux level of 500 has been

A hexagonal pattern was used as a base and through iterative process various porosity patterns were generated from it to create different light conditions. This resulted in a variable opacity condition in the façade that had a dual purpose of creating performative architecture and also created variable openings on the façade in various orientations generating a design for the façade that is animating and has an inherent meaning. This resulting pattern morphs from 81 per cent opacity on the north façade to 27 per cent opacity on the south façade, with an intermediate opacity of 54 per cent on East and 62 per cent on west façade respectively.

Urban corner view towards entrance

Main entrance - closeup

The Façade Design

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North Elevation

South Elevation

West Elevation














Facade perspective





Facade Shading Diagram



Ventilation diagram

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Atrium view

Atrium view from corridor

The Jali faรงade is made of Glass Reinforced Concrete panels. In terms of construction tolerances a system has been adopted whereby through computer numerical control (CNC), milling, a mould will be created for the faรงade pattern and this mould will be used for casting the faรงade panels. The curvature of the entrance will be also casted using this process whereby by using digital fabrication of mould a higher accuracy in the design is achieved. The double jali screen reduces the outside air temperature in front of the glass. The colder air is going in and pulled into the atrium through the chimney effect of the atrium space and resulting in natural ventilation and reducing the indoor air temperature naturally so the cooling load for the air conditioning is reduced.









Office interior

The project design was commissioned in 2014 and went into construction in August 2015. The opening date for the project is January 2017. QUICK FACTS Project: Punjab Kesari Headquarters Location: Delhi NCR, India Client: Punjab Kesari Architects: Studio Symbiosis Architects Design: Britta Knobel Gupta, Amit Gupta Associate: Pranav Semwal Lead Project Architect: Akshay Kodoori Project Team: Isha Pundir, Manu Sharma, Dentisa Koleva, S. Adarsh Site Area: 5200 Sq m Built-up Area: 18,000 Sq m Foundation Stone Ceremony: 28th June 2015 Start Construction: August 2015 Actual Condition Site: First Floor is getting casted Image Credits: Studio Symbiosis Awards: Winner Best Office Architecture India 2016-17, International Property Awards


Optimized Facade As Per Solar Analysis

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Project Watch

A Cutting Edge School Design The Green Acres Academy, Mumbai About the Architect:

Tushar Desai Principal Architect Tushar Desai Associates

Tushar Desai is the principal of the firm Tushar Desai Associates (TDA). With strength of over 35 people, TDA is a 30 year old practice focused on creating high calibre architectural & interior design solutions. Tushar Desai studied at CEPT, Ahmedabad. He was trained under renowned architects like Padmashri B.V. Doshi, Ahmedabad; Christopher Benninger, Pune; Rajinder Kumar & associates, Delhi; and Gregson Batley King, Mumbai, before starting the firm in 1982. He is the creative head of the organisation and is involved in all aspects of the project right from conceptualising to execution. TDA has won Artists in Concrete Awards (AICA Asia Fest) in Educational Category, and also National Award from IIID, the Apex body of Interior Designers in India, for 3 consecutive years, each for a different category (Institutional, Commercial, Hospitality).

The client brief was to design a K-12 school in one of the Mumbai suburb’s. The key challenge was to provide for constructing the building in three phases and to ensure a non-rigid environment. The fact that the school was going to be built in a phased manner over 5 to 8 years, presented an opportunity to design a building that grows. The very high land rates in Mumbai coupled with regressive building regulations made it very challenging to introduce un-programmed spaces beyond the design program. It also implied a vertical school building. The challenge was to create a horizontal feel within the vertical environment.

Fig.1: Innovative facade design with exposed RCC, Silver Anodized Aluminium & coloured glass windows

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the informality of the space. The fact that a staircase is free of FSI in Mumbai, helped generate the additional space required for 5 divisions per standard to make the financial model viable. Strategically widened corridors, created pauses that further encouraged unplanned interaction.

Phase 3 June 2019

Phase 2 June 2017

Phase 1 June 2015

Fig.2: Diagram showing phases of development

The Design Concept A child enters a school as a toddler and leaves as a teenager. It was important that the design remains valid for generations of children. It was also important that a school went beyond the 3 dimensions of space and catered to the 4th dimension of time. The central block was conceived as column free space that housed the common facilities like laboratories, library etc. allowing flexibility to adapt to changing functional

requirements. For the left and right wings the column structure followed the classroom grid. Together it ensured minimal cost of structural design. Further a split level was created by staggering the central bay level by 4’-0. This ensured two floors of classrooms could access common activities. The connecting staircase was planned not just as a means to access the levels but also allow children and teachers to pause, sit and synergize in an informal manner. The playful design and the colour treatment emphasized

Fig.3 & 4: South Façade

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For an education building, the minimum clear floor height as per the regulations was 3.6 meters. This allowed for providing for 3 toilets between two floors and allowing some freer floor space. Façade Concept Following the Principles of Passive Climate Control We innovated to balance environmental requirements with building bye-laws and created a striking design feature-length windows at different heights. The façade design concept was based on the principles of

O p e n i n g s

Puncture in RCC wall

Passive Cllimate Control

L a y o u t

Penetration of glare free natural light deep inside rooms, was achieved with the help of light shelves at three different levels. These light shelves are devised to protect from harsh Sun, while allowing Southwestern wing. The added advantage is that these light shelves were available free of FSI, unlike verticals elements features.


Ventilating and Lighting channel





We s


Aluminium divisions




Light sheleves wheter sheds fabricated using hollow aluminium box sections

Fig.5: Sectional drawings




s We

Wind Analysis

Sum Mouvement Analysis

Fig.6: Passive design

passive climate control to optimize the use of natural light and ventilation by scientifically capturing and guiding wind through corridors and natural sunlight through the light shelves. The light shelf directly improves illumination levels inside room by 10-15 per cent as compared to window without light shelf. The light shelves were an innovation that took advantage of the building bye laws that permitted only upto750mm deep horizontal projections free of FSI to reflect glare free sunlight deep into the classroom and provide a cost effective visual feature on the façade. The 3 bands of windows allow for bringing in the light and wind and offering views as desired. The light shelves enable natural light to penetrate deep inside the rooms. The ribbon windows made casting of RCC chajjas a cumbersome process. So four 6� long hollow box Al. sections were connected with tongue and groove joints to create the horizontal light shelves. A safety railing was worked out as an integral part of the window system. The double height windows were designed to enhance the perception of the volume. Opaque coloured glass was introduced in the double height volumes to reduce the area of clear glass and cut the amount of light penetrating in the interiors.

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Fig.7: Double height window panels

Fig.8: Color pallete

Fig.9: Ground floor double height stilt area

Exposed concrete, with its allusions to timelessness, ruggedness, neutrality and honesty of expression became the clear choice as backdrop. Silver anodized aluminium windows and light shelves complemented the exposed concrete. The entire colour wheel palette was selectively introduced in the interiors as well as on the façade as an inexpensive method of Infusing life and vibrancy. The double height windows were designed to open alternately to create varying rhythms when open. 30 per cent of opaque coloured glass usage ensured optimal light penetration as well as created an interesting pattern. Four different types of glass colours were used in the façade Classroom / academic area window – Asahi reflective glass – Enhanced lime (top pane); Enhanced aura (bottom pane); Enhanced down (Middle Pane). The three different shades of the glass were selected for each window at different level based on the reflection and UV value. The top level window was meant to enable maximum penetration of light and hence the glass was selected accordingly. For the corridor, staircase and other allied areas enhanced down shade was used.

Fig.10: Window Systems, seen from interior

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Fig.11: Window detail

We faced a lot of challenges in while finalizing the façade material palette. Exposed concrete was the first thing that came in our mind, but Mumbai rains and the quality of sand had to be sorted out before we could pin down on exposed concrete. The chemicals in concrete react with the rain water creating a thin moss like film. This happens only during the first rain. We located a transparent coating that could be applied to the exposed exterior concrete and prevent the chemical reaction. Sand issue was sorted out by getting specialized rendering agencies form Gujarat to clean and finish the surface post construction. For the Aluminium Chajjas, a number of options were considered, including ACP, high pressure laminates, solid Al. Sheet, etc. But eventually we settled for inexpensive and sleek aluminium chajjas. Four 6 inch long hollow box Al. sections were connected with tongue and groove joints to create the horizontal light shelves. Pivoted windows/using levers to operate the upper windows was a big challenge. Levers were introduced later due to the requirement raised by the operations team. Making corrections in our assumptions and incorporating the changes

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demanded by the users was one of the biggest challenges. Hi-wall split indoor units on inverter based technology were the most economical option for air-conditioning and the channels to run the piping were seamlessly integrated in the structural design. Similarly light grooves were introduced in the beams to house the lights so that the light fixtures became the integral part of structure. QUICK FACTS Project: The Green Acres Academy Location: Chembur, Mumbai Architect: Tushar Desai Associates, Mumbai Developers: Apurva Natvar Parikh Group Consultants: Services- Sheth Techno Consultants Pvt. Ltd; Structure- Multi Media Consultants Environmental- VK:e Environment Windows: Giriraj Fenestration Engineering Pvt. Ltd; Doors: Vinod Vishwakarma Materials for Façade: Exposed RCC, Silver Anodized Aluminium Windows, Chajjas - Silver Anodized Aluminium Windows, Glass – Asahi reflective glass, Paint for exposed RCC - Krisna concare – Acrylic TRS, Other Wall surfaces - Asian Paints Cost of project: 30 crores Commencement date: 2012 (Design Phase) Year of completion: Phase 1- June 2015, Phase 2- June 2017, Phase 3- June 2019 Photography credits: Photographix India

Over 100 million VEKA Windows and Doors fitted around the world is a strong testament to VEKA’s unrivaled leadership in design and manufacture of uPVC Profile Systems.

Industry Speaks

“Our Company is Currently in a Healthy Growth Phase”

Rajeev Antony Managing Director Schueco India

Rajeev Antony is currently the Managing Director of Schueco India Private Limited. Schueco is a global leader in aluminium windows, doors, sliders and facades system with India being one of the 80 countries where Schueco is present. As an Electronics Engineer with a postgraduation in Marketing & Finance disciplines Rajeev has been associated with the building construction materials and equipment industry for the last 20 years. He has wide experience working in senior management positions in European companies like Schindler Elevators and Monier Group working in India and Switzerland. He has also successfully worked on various management projects in India, Eastern Europe, Middle East and North Africa.

Based out of Mumbai - Schueco India Private Limited is the 100 per cent Indian subsidiary of Schueco International KG, Germany - a worldwide leader of building envelope systems.. The company has developed highly sophisticated façade systems with intelligent and efficient design and construction methods. Rajeev Antony, Managing Director, Schueco India in his candid conversation with WFM explains his company’s presence in India, their products and services, the challenges faced by the industry and few solutions which can be adopted. WFM: Please comment on the fenestration industry and the growth trajectory particularly for Schueco in India? Rajeev Antony (RA): My understanding of the Indian fenestration industry is based on the constant feedback from the market during the course of business and from marketing research that we do from time to time. I must say that it is an evolving market with tremendous potential. There are a lot of good quality fabricators working independently and with system companies. The builder / developer community is passing

Schueco sliding system at a private residence, Bhopal

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WFM: Does your company plan to explore tier 2 cities and venture in newer markets in India?

Schueco facade project, Mumbai

on great value to customers by using high quality faรงade and fenestration products, like ours, which are high in performance and aesthetic value. There is an increased level of awareness amongst end-users pertaining to the importance of quality windows and doors in residential and commercial projects. Schueco India is doing well in terms of business performance, surpassing the expected numbers. WFM: You have recently opened a new experience center and office in Mumbai and shifted to much bigger supply chain hub in Bangalore, are these indicators for a healthy expansion in India? RA: Yes, the company is currently in a healthy growth phase in India and the needs of the hour was to internally structure and equip ourselves to cater to our customers in a better fashion. In addition to the showroom in New Delhi, the recently inaugurated experience center in Mumbai serves its purpose of providing our customers an opportunity to see the products in person and help them choose better. The new warehouse and training centre in Bangalore is almost twice as big as the last one to enable us to maintain a bigger inventory and faster outbound shipments to various projects across India.

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RA: We are doing some luxury housing projects in smaller cities across in at least 2 to 3 locations in India. So in a way, we already are present in some tier 2 cities . In order to maintain quality, it is crucial that we work with only the best fabrication partners and this restricts entrance to a lot of smaller cities, so yes; we are very selective in that aspect. We do have some good fabricator partners who are doing commendable jobs in smaller cities. Furthermore, we keep on evaluating the possibility of newer markets within India. WFM: Schueco is the largest European systems company in India and enjoys good brand equity amongst the architect, builder/developer and fabricator community. Are there any challenges in particular that the market presents which is unique to India? RA: Every market is unique and presents itself with local challenges. The aluminium faรงade and fenestration industry is in the intermediate stage of growth in India and is growing approximately at the rate of 6 per cent. Challenges such as perceived notion (amongst end-users, developers) about price as compared to performance, standardisation in fabrication quality and set-up (for fabricators) are some of the challenges that the business faces. WFM: Does the company primarily focus on large projects in India only or retail household also? RA: As I mentioned earlier, a major portion of our projects in India are large projects (residential and commercial projects). However, that being said, some of our fabricator partners are focused on delivering high-end luxury housing in metropolitan cities as well as select Tier 2 cities. In fact we have executed some stunning luxury private residences (villas, bungalows, private homes) in India.

and other similar roadshows where there is a knowledge exchange and discussion on Indian façade and fenestration industry’s challenges and ways to bring it at par with the West. WFM: Being the Principal Sponsor for the ZAK events, can you comment on how important are these conferences and exhibitions are for Schueco India?

Panorama Design System from Schueco

WFM: Technical, design and service support is very crucial for a market like India where there is a lot of catching-up to do in terms of international practices and standards. How and what is Schueco doing in this regard to bring the International standards into practice?

RA: Exhibitions and customer events have always been an important part of marketing efforts by Schueco. Whether it is our flagship exhibition in Germany (BAU trade fair, Munich) or regional fairs / exhibition in other countries where Schueco is present, these form an integral part of the customer experience. The exhibitions not only give our customers a chance to see the latest product offering but also help us get a collective feedback from the local market in addition to the feedback received by our sales team. I am aware and appreciative of ZAK Group’s effort in bringing the Indian fenestration industry together and creating such platforms which we are proud to be a part of as Principal Sponsors.

RA: The brand Schueco differentiates itself from others by the quality and performance of systems for windows, doors, sliders and facades which is typical of a German engineered product. In order to maintain that quality there are standardisations and strict quality control that are done. We have a big team of technical managers, estimators and service engineering / after-sales service personnel in India who provide correct and speedy solutions to various project obstacles (pre and post sales). Our proprietary software - SchuCal helps our fabricators in all stages of the process and ensures that we maintain consistency with quality anywhere else in the world. We have put together a large team of engineers and technicians in our recently formed ‘Design and Engineering Centre’ in Bangalore working for the Schueco Group on various global projects and developments. In addition to this, we participate and encourage various platforms like the ZAK World of Facades

Schueco Unitised Facade System

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Thesis Proposal

Cost Efficient Fenestrations

Case Study: Slum Rehabilitation, Kathputli Colony, New Delhi About the author:

Pappal Suneja, Architect

Pappal Suneja believes that there are no boundaries or limitations to one’s imaginations and inventions. In these footsteps, he has contributed, so far, 21 publications in architecture and its allied fields. He has also served as Vice President of NASA, India in the year 2014. He has completed his Bachelors in Architecture from Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar in May’2016. His Thesis project was ‘Slum Rehabilitation of Kathputli Colony, New Delhi’. Whereby, his major thrust area was designing of the components in such a way so that they consume less resource in the construction and maintenance as well. At present, he is working as a freelancer architect and architectural journalist. He can be reached at

Kathputli Colony is New Delhi’s largest performers’ slums, home to magicians, dancers, puppeteers, acrobats and drummers whose families migrated here during the 1960’s and 1970’s from villages across India. An illegal settlement in a dilapidated northern pocket of the city, this place is a thriving paradox. Its denizens allure their audiences into a resilient world where everything is possible. This thesis is an exercise – not merely in affordable housing and slum rehabilitation schemes, but in the exploration of possibilities. The idea is to create a scheme that resonates with the people of Kathputli, allowing them to thrive

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View from Terrace with clearly defined sociography of blocks

Panel with Glass bottles embedded in concrete

Brick jali pattern with placement of brick at an obtuse angle

as artists. And on the other hand, exploring the larger perspective of amenities we must take up cost efficient architecture with special emphasis on treatment of fenestrations as our priority. Delhi climate is a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate with a very high variation in comparison of summers and winter. Summers begin in April with temperatures peaking in May. The monsoon season begins in late June, bringing heavy rainfall through mid-September. The moderate postmonsoon season lasts from late September through late October. Winters begin in November and are generally mild, with the occasional temperature dips below freezing.

insulation via the cavity in between the bond that helps in controlling the temperature of interior spaces by creating air between bricks thus helping to maintain better insulation from heat and cold. With this, the structure can carry 20 per cent more load than conventional Flemish bond and there is 25-30 per cent cost reduction as fewer bricks are used and also there is no mortar required in the middle of the cross brick thus, 40-50 per cent of cement and sand is saved.

A dense to moderately dense, low-rise built form with mutual shading is proposed for development in this type of climate. The advantage of low-rise development is greater contact with the ground which helps to balance internal temperatures. Protection of outdoor spaces, mutual shading of external walls and shelter from the wind during hot summer days and cold seasons, shelter from the dust and reduction of surfaces exposed to solar radiation are the other important aspects to be considered. Further, the desirable orientation of the dwelling units taken up is N-S and masonry adopted is Rat Trap Bond involves laying bricks on edge and not flat and also provides better thermal

A variety of outdoor spaces is important for various day to day activities to take place and since the courtyard type of built form is very suitable for thermal regulation, it is richly explored in the design scheme. Further, considering the most important aspect of fenestrations with cost efficiency as the main theme we must take up frameless doors and windows of construction is up to G+3 as in the proposed design scheme of the slum rehabilitation undertaken and then, the foremost cost efficient as well as environment-friendly technique is to use brick jalis in the walls with a vision of reducing the material quantity and at the same time infusing fresh air into transitional spaces reduces dependence on artificial ways of ventilation.. The prime beauty to this technique is that it can be played into recesses and projections pretty well and we could even erect the jallied opening at an

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Brick jalli pattern

obtuse angle to shield from the penetration of mosquitoes and other unwanted things at our ease, the famous application of this is done at Coffee House, Trivandrum which is one of the famous buildings of Ar. Laurie Baker. Besides this, we could take up embroidered jali patterns and also intermix jali with small glass panels or any other suitable texture for instance rubble masonry in few niches to not only create an aesthetic impact but also give a strong definition to the facade treatments. Then, the very vivid application in fenestrations world was glass beer bottles embedded in concrete to create a stained glass effect when the sunshine falls on it. This technique has been adequately proposed in the design scheme so that life is inherited in almost all the dead walls and there is ambient environment maintained. The only criteria is that, such effect is preferred at the rear wall so that mutual shading of buildings enhance the common areas and also in case the complete faรงade involves such treatment we must consider the stability concerns if the load bearing wall is adjoining the cantilevered staircase and also; the designed panel with different glass bottles embedded in concrete to formulate floral or any geometric patterns should be well tested for different loadings (Such type of facade treatment via fenestrations is successfully executed at Trainee Hostel Block of Institute of

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Play light and shadow via different fenestrations

Management in Government, Trivandrum). Besides this, another type of fenestration proposed is a bamboo louvered window that is the most cost efficient in practice as a variety of bamboo is readily available in our nation and few important ones with comparable tensile strength (Bamboo Tensile strength = 210MPa) as mild steel-250MPa are available in north India. All we need to do is to treat the bamboo well with natural reagents (a mixture of borax and boric acid in the ratio 2:3 with 45 liters of water to make a batch of 50kg) and bamboo could be either directly embedded in masonry or could also be bolted via hinges. Moreover, strictly speaking, fenestrations are an important key element in the passive cooling system of the proposed design scheme, thus, the orientation of the same is a major factor. For a place like New Delhi which experiences extremities in climatic variations it is best to orient the unit in N-S direction and avoid the larger placement of openable fenestrations in E-W direction and South wall, it is better to utilize these walls for glass bottle effect so that at least light could penetrate with a stained infused effect without direct glare during the daytime. Further, passive solar design strategies may vary with the location of the building and regional climatic differences, but the primary window guidelines remain the same- choose,

Bamboo window

Rear wall of Trainee Hostel Block at IMG Trivandrum

orient, and position openings to minimize solar heat gain effect in the summer season and maximize it in winters.

heat transfer during summers, and a high visible transmittance for good visible light during working hours of the daytime.

Also, the monsoon wind direction should be at priority while designing a habitable building since it is the worst condition for which we must provide the necessary ease and comfort to the occupants. Monsoon wind direction in case of New Delhi is SE and E; so we must incorporate techniques and preventive devices to cater to the protection of the facade treatment and as well as to the fenestrations provided in the building such that it aids in the well-being of the occupants rather than causing difficulties during sudden abrupt changes in weather. Moreover, in such climates, major glazing areas should generally face south direction to collect solar heat gain during the winter season when the sun is low in the sky. On the contrary, in the summer season when the sun is high overhead, overhangs or other shading devices could prevent excessive heat gain that comes up. Lastly, to be most effective in executing our proposal, worst south directional facing fenestrations that are major contributors to heat gain should have a solar heat gain coefficient of more than 0.6 to maximize solar heat gain during the winter. It should have a U-value of 0.35 or less to reduce conductive

On a concluding note, fenestrations shall perform their role only if adequate distance is maintained in between the buildings to not only take up mutual shading consideration as in this case but also take up the aspect of sick building syndrome and complimentary open spaces with sit outs and shaded trees shall enhance the play of fenestrations in the buildings all the more to achieve the desired ambience. Hence, the study provides design solutions for the selected site with a view to evolving a sustainable neighborhood model. Some of them include avoiding sprawl to limit the use of vehicles, allowing mixing of compatible uses, providing equal access to social and physical infrastructure, social inclusion incorporated in design by mixing of diverse income groups, street design to encourage pedestrians, building typologies encouraging social interaction and making streets safer by reducing thoroughfare and encouraging natural surveillance.

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(This Thesis was submitted by the author to Dept. of Architecture, Guru Nanak Dev University in May 2016)

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Striking The Balance of Sustainability Through Responsive Façades Zak World of Façades 15th July 2016, ITC Gardenia, Bengaluru The elite conference from the house of Zak Group on façade design and engineering, successfully completed its 15th Indian edition in Bangalore. The second conference in 4th season, Zak World of Façades, Bangalore revolved around the theme of responsible façade execution to harness sustainability. The one day conference, held at Hotel ITC Gardenia, Bangalore on 15th July, saw a never before gathering of some of the most prominent and appreciated names from the construction industry in India and abroad, sharing their expertise and experience in order to achieve best façade execution practices. Cosmopolitan city of Bangalore has grown manifolds organically in the last couple of decades. The city is constantly striving to strike a sustainable balance between its ever-growing industry and residential population. Building façades play an irrefutable role in the functional-ity of a building and

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determine its prowess to provide for a comfortable accommodation while giving an exceptional experience. Needless to say, this edition exhibited some of the finest façade products and hosted some highly technical, but relevant to Indian context, façade talks. The event saw over 330 attendees who thronged the Mysore Palace (Ball room) of ITC Gardenia. The endeavour was to unite the ever expanding brigade of experts in the field of façades and building envelopes, to bring to fore the novice ideas and improvise the old and thereby enabling an adept and empowered façade industry. The conference doubled up as a unique platform for networking and enhancing business relationships. The 15th edition started on a positive note and Tariq Kachwala, Director of FG Glass, who was the Master of Ceremony for the event initiated the conference proceedings. Relating the past journey of Zak World of Façades, Syed Ahad Ahmed,

Jae Kim, Vice President, Callison RTKL

Ravindra Kumar, Director, Venkatramanan Associates

Mahesh Khaitan, Director, Salapuria Sattva

Director, ZAK Group, welcomed the audience and hence begun the much awaited technical presentations. The first session saw an informative presentation by Sourabh Kankar, Regional Manager Architectural, Modiguard, who took the audience ‘From Rendering to Reality’ and highlighted the ‘Principles of Glass Selection for Façades’. This was followed by another power packed presentation by Dr. Prashanth Reddy, Managing Director & CEO, FunderMax who elaborated on “High Pressure Laminates (HPL) as a Façade Material” while explaining their benefits and highlighting aesthetic & functional superiority of of HPL as a sustainable façade material. Next to present was the knowledgeable and stern Tapan Mozumdar, Senior Divisional Manager - Projects at ITC, who took the au-dience through a ‘Tale of Two Cities’, drawing parallel between the façades of two building in different climatic zones, and asserted that costliest is not always the best.

Tilak Thomas, Partner, Thomas Associates

Kavitha Selvaraj, Director, CRN Architects

the evolution of façade at macro level and drawing synergies for the Indian market, He also spoke about their product Panaromic façade systems Schueco FWS 35 PD. Antony John, Engineering Director, Schueco India joined Dr. Heusler in presenting the topic. As the day progressed, came the Keynote presentation of the day, which was given by Jae Kim, Vice President, Callison RTKL. He elaborated “The Art of Façade” and explained ‘How Building Envelope Enhances the Art in Architecture’ by means of texture, material etc., and the challenges and opportunities with respect to regulatory constraints. The second session concluded with the panel discussion on “Upcoming Trends in Façade Design”. Panel comprised of some of the most sought after names of their respective fields. They were Kavitha Selvaraj, Director, CRN Architects; Michael Cohen, Vice President - Projects, Embassy Group; Kamlesh Choudhari, Director, Glass Wall

Session 2 began with Vijay Sawant, Technical Head of Q-Railing, who explained that ‘Higher is Now Safer’ and if structural safety norms are adhered to, modular railings are a way to go. ‘Thinking Out of the Box’, Dr. Winfried Heusler, Senior Vice President - Global Building excellence, Schueco International shed the light on “Advanced Façade Design & Technology” where he explained

Panel discussion on “Upcoming Trends in Façade Design”

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Systems; Purushotam Palaksha, Project Manager, Global Façade Solutions; Geetha Pillai, Director, Hadi Tehrani Project Consultants and moderator Ravindra Kumar, Design Director, Venkatramanan Associates, deftly steered the discussion that revolved around façade performance objectives of mixed use developments, lifespan considerations and ventilation requirements for sustainable façades while debating on whether the engineered systems are a way for-ward to the responsible façade building. The conference adjourned for the networking lunch and the delegates thronged the exhibit area while eating or waiting for their turn at the buffet. Session 3 opened with an interesting presentation by Steve Swales, Chief Commercial Officer at Siderise Group, UK on ‘Perimeter Barrier Fire Stop Systems for Curtain Walls’. He elaborated on specification compliance while giving insight to current testing methodology and explained various installation methods and their associated risks. Presenting next was Dr. Bernhard Koll, Technical Marketing Manager, Kuraray Europe, who explained how one can achieve desired optimum noise attenuation by means of “Acoustic PVB Interlayers for Sound Damping Glazing”. Continuing the flow of technical discussions, the next presenter, Tanuj Sharma (National Head Commercial, Kinlong Hardware India) spoke on ‘Choice of Façade Hardware’ and explained how hardware is customised for each application and also casted the need and importance of using castin anchor channels in the minds of façade industry professionals. key highlight of his presentation was the case study on the tension rod façade structure at Godrej One, Mumbai. Next to present was S. Ravishankar, Manager - Application Engineering at Dow Corning, who delved on traversing the path from ‘Innovation to Sustainability by means of a Collaborative Approach’. He explained the concept of point fixed glass façade using seamless bonding technology and their concept of Quality Bond which is their means to build customer confidence beyond structural glazing.

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The power packed session was concluded with an equally powerful panel discussion on “Sustainable & Efficient Façades”. The moderators were Tariq Kachwala, Director, FG Glass and K R Suresh, Regional Director, Axis Façades, who moderated the panel comprising Tilak Thomas, Partner, Thomas Associates, Shyam Laxminarayan from Wipro, PV Varghese, Director & CEO, Sobha Developers (Glazing & Metal Works), Niraj Borikar, Head Project Sales, FunderMax India, Jatin Shah, Director - Development, Synergy Property Development Services, Rudresh KV, Vice President Projects at Bhartiya City Developers and Jawahar HH, Director, Glass Wall Systems. The Panel deliberated on the façade optimisation for occupants comfort, various combinations of glass and the ways to avoid over-designing. The panelists also talked about safety considerations and new concepts like double skin façades and shading technologies.

Panel discussion on “Sustainable & Efficient Façades”

Session 4 commenced with the presentation on ‘Building Envelope - More than an Ornamental Feature’ by Vikram Desai, Principal/Studio Head, CnT Architects Final presentation of this extraordinary conference was by Kapil Chikodi, Head - Business Development at Glass Wall Systems who spoke on ‘Façade Explorations’ vis-a-vis design evolution in residential high-rises and options in high-rise window designs. He also put for-ward a case study on The Capital building of Mumbai. The high octane day was concluded with the panel discussion on ‘Façade Engineering for Higher ROI’,

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Panel discussion on “Façade Engineering for Higher ROI”

where the panelists touched upon the key subjects of role of building envelope in pitching for a new project, on timelines and how it affects the final ROI and on form and performance of building in terms of ROI. Praveen Chaubey, Project Manager, Priedemann Façade Consultancy moderated this exceptional and interesting panel. Panellists included Sudhakar Pai, Director, Sudhakar Pai Associates, Mahesh Khaitan, Director, Salarpuria Sattva, Antony John, Engineering Director, Schueco India, Pankaj Keswani, Managing Director, Alufit, Vikas Gore, Director, DP Architects and Tejasvi Nagaraju, Associate Director - Design, RMZ Corp

Dr. Winfried Heusler, at the schüco FWS 35 PD façade display

by Kuraray. The display included high precision hardware from the houses of Cotswold, Kinlong, Lavaal and specialised adhesives and sealants from Dow Corning. Premium and high on safety Modular Railing Systems were exhibited by Q-Railing, Germany. McCoy Soudal displayed their silicone and adhesives and Siderise from UK exhibited their unique range of perimeter barrier systems for fire and acoustic isolation.

The conference was complemented by a unique display where some of the most fascinating façade products were showcased. Schueco displayed their Panoramic Façade System - Schueco FWS 35 PD while Glass Wall Systems showcased their exceptional façade building services. Modiguard was present with their high performance Sunguard range of glass and complementing that was the high strength and acoustic interlayer systems

Dr. Prashanth Reddy, Managing Director & CEO, FunderMax l 126 WFM July - Aug 2016 l

Vijay Sawant, Technical Head, Q-Railing India

Dr. Winfried Heusler, SVP - Global Building Excellence, Schuco

Kinlong team explaining their solutions

Antony John, Engineering Director, Schuco India

Tapan Mozumdar, Senior Divisional Manager (Projects), ITC

Post Event

C3 Seminar by CCMA A Grand Success

Construction Chemicals International Seminar branded C3 was held in Bengaluru on 2nd and 3rd June, 2016 at Grand Venue NIMHANS, and was well attended by about 400 Delegates. C3 - a unique seminar covering effective use of construction chemicals for enduring structures in the field of construction chemicals - was inaugurated by distinguished Chief Guest Prof. B.R. Srinivasa Murthy, Chairman, Taskforce, Quality Assurance in Public works, Govt of Karnataka, and Raj Pillai, Executive Director of Sobha Group was the keynote speaker. In a glittering inaugural session, Mr. Samir Surlaker, President CCMA-Construction Chemicals Manufacturers Association, welcomed all and invited delegates to play an interactive role. Nilotpol Kar, BASF introduced CCMA activities and ‘three decades journey of construction chemicals’, and convenors Jaswanth Sobhana of BASF and Soumendra Mishra of Sika, proposed vote of thanks. C3 was addressed by many international speakers from Sika, BASF, MC-Bauchemie, CHRYSO, Elkem etc. Construction Chemicals experts from National companies like Cerachem, STP, Apple Chemie, McCoy Soudal, Ardex Endura, etc. made excellent presentations. Dr. Radhakrishna from IIT Chennai covered Corrosion Inhibitors. The sessions were chaired by industry experts like Dr. Manmohan Kalgal- Chairman, A.T. Samuel, Umesh B. Rao, Dr. Ramaprakash, Ramesh Kulkarni, and Chandramouleeswar. In all 26 papers were presented. Late K.P. Pradeep, Editor-in-chief, The Masterbuilder, Convenor with Jaswant from BASF and Soumendra from Sika

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Lighting of Lamp: From Left to Right - Arijit Basu from Sika, Nilotpol Kar from BASF, Dr. B.R.S . Murthy- Chief Guest, Late K. P. Pradeep - Editor - The Masterbuilder, Dr. B.L. Maheshwari from Aquaproof Construction Chemicals and Raj Pillai -Executive Director of Sobha Group

were the cause of excellent management of seminar. M.L. Chandrashekar, Associate Vice President, McCoy Soudal Sealants Adhesives & Foams Pvt. Ltd. spoke about the ‘Benefits of Foam Application in Construction’ at the event. Expanding foam insulation is infused into empty space to stop the air from leaking through the walls. This type of insulation has benefits over other traditional insulations. CCMA is now over 60 members strong association to promote cause of spreading awareness and to focus on right use of right chemicals. CCMA aims at standardizing and marking construction chemicals products to give confidence to end users and construction Industry. They will introduce training programmes to build up skills of applicators. Five regional seminars C3R are planned for next year. Next C3 is scheduled in February 2017.

Product More Than Just A Façade High glass fronts panels and façades made of perforated aluminum sheets characterize the architecture of Audi showrooms around the world, thereby providing two important benefits: aesthetics and dynamism. Aluminum can be creatively formed into the most diverse shapes and exert a very particular technical fascination. In addition, the cladding on a façade protects the building from wind and weather and at the same time significantly reduces noise levels inside. For Audi there is yet another reason; as a pioneer in using aluminum in automotive manufacturing, Audi features the light metal with its matt silver sheen in its brand communications, which today encompasses the look and design of the showroom. Product Specifications: Project Details Alloy: Aluminum coil Aleris 55HX® (EN 5005-H14 EQ) Dimensions: 1.460 x 2 mm Product benefits: – Streak-free anodizing – Constant coloring (guaranteed color integrity) – Outstanding flatness – Very good shaping and folding properties – Weather, corrosion and UV resistant after anodizing – Robust and scratchproof Applications: Facades, paneling, ceilings, walls and roofs

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Audi Showroom with elegant perforated façade

The Audi Showroom with elegant perforated façade. Perforated Sheets in Aleris 55HX® aluminium provide unique brand experience. Audi is particularly demanding when it comes to the color of the finished façade elements. “There cannot be even the slightest variance across the entire façade of an Audi terminal,” explains HansUlrich Koch, Managing Director of Dillinger Fabrik Gelochter Bleche GmbH (DF). “So every single element must precisely match the required hue.” Aleris provides this high-level uniformity across different batches. 55HX® can be easily shaped, giving architects and designers the chance to create objects in various styles with a unique visual impact. “Aleris

55HX® is the perfect starting point, especially for subsequent decorative anodizing,” HansUlrich Koch adds, “55HX® offered us a technically irresistible proposition and outstanding value.”

QUICK FACTS Project: Audi Terminal Location: Bratislava, Slovakia Client: Audi AG Principal designer: Allmann Sattler Wappner, Plot size: 2400 Sq m Other processing partner: Dillinger Fabrik GmbH Materials Used for Façade: Aleris 55HX® perforated, Aleris 55HX® aluminum coil in 2 mm thickness, anodised aluminium sheets with folded edges Further processing: Cutting to size, perforating, flattening, folding several times, partial sawing and finally natural batch anodizing Concept Audi terminal: Allmann Sattler Wappner, Munich

Buzz New UWDMA Office Bearers Elected An open house discussion on activities of Upvc Windows Doors Manufacturers Association (UWDMA) was held on the 15th of July at New Delhi. Newly elected management team for the year 2016-2017 was announced and felicitated at the meeting. The following members were elected as office bearers UWDMA for the year 2016-17. President - Mr. Mario Schmidt (Lingel) Vice President - Mr. Farid Khan (Koemmerling) Treasurer - Mr. Amit Malhotra (McCoy) Secretary - Mr. Satish Kumar (Deceuninck) Marketing Head - Mr. Amit Malhotra - assisted by Mr. Y P Singh (Fenesta) Technical Head - Mr. Robert Hoellrigl(Encraft) - assisted by Mr. Ullas Guliani (Rehau) The meeting discussed various activities of UWDMA during year 2015-16. Various activities and programs participated / initiated by UWDMA during the year was presented. A booklet on UWDMA Fabrication Guidelines for Windows and Doorsets was formally released by UWDMA President – Mario Schmidt. WFM agreed to distribute it to their database of architects, developers, fabricators and industry professionals. Release version 2 by March 2017 was announced. An Installation Guidelines will be released by

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November 2016. UWDMA through Bureau of Indian Standards is working on a standard for the Indian market based on the EN 12608 with certain parameters adapted to suit the Indian climatic conditions and test ability. The profiles, besides being required to conform to EN 12608:2003 are also required that their class be specified by the manufacturer clearly printed on the profile so that the customer can identify the brand or original manufacturer and the standard followed. Discussion on other initiatives for 2016-17 UWDMA Training Center at Bhiwadi: The need for UWDMA Training Centre for machine operators, fitters, glaziers and installers at Bhiwadi was discussed and approved by Core Team. Curriculum and actual operation to be discussed with Glass Academy and things pushed forward. UWDMA Certification Program: It was discussed that UWDMA Certification Program will help control profile and fabrication

quality. Marketing team will reinitiate discussion with TUV or IFT. A copy of the Guideline will be given to them to prepare a Quality Control check list. Technical Team will guide them regarding the same. Technical Team will also work on a checklist for Profile suppliers/manufacturers. Sample of what was discussed in an earlier meeting attached. It was also decided that a new Governor would be appointed to monitor the day to day activities of UWDMA and to manage membership, revenue and interactions with different committees/ organizations. UWDMA is a non governmental organization formed by industry leaders to promote and propagate uPVC windows and doors and it's benefits to the Indian construction industry and general public at large. UWDMA is constantly thriving streamline the industry and instil trust in the minds of consumers. The association is aggressively driving membership, so that more and more stakeholders become part and voice of the booming uPVC windows and doors industry.

Fenesta Opens a New Showroom in West Delhi Fenesta Building Systems, one of India’s largest windows companies and a division of DCM Shriram Ltd. is expanding its retail reach in the country with the launch of its partner showroom ESCCON Sales Pvt. Ltd. at A-9, Saraswati Vihar, Outer Ring Road, Pitampura, New Delhi. Commenting on the showroom launch, Saket Jain, Business Head- Fenesta Building Systems said, “Fenesta is the only brand in India that is bringing alive the experience for the consumers through such showrooms across the country and we are confident that these will help our consumers to make better design choices and faster purchase decisions. It will also help the architects and interior designers to enhance their palette.”

The showroom showcases a range of products from Fenesta - windows, doors and various design and color possibilities which include wood colours like mahogany, teak and light oak. Providing end-to-end services, Fenesta controls the entire supply chain starting from making of UPVC that goes into making of the profile, to

installation of end product, as well as after sales service. The range of products is specially designed in UK and Austria to give consumers a wellengineered but contemporary style. The products at Fenesta go through stringent tests and quality check at every step to ensure performance in India’s varied and extreme climates.

Dip-Tech Launches Ceramic Premix Colour Guide Dip-Tech announced the launch of Dip-CMiX Ceramic Premix Colour Guide, which establishes the industry standard for matching colour in glass. It is designed to effectively communicate colours for printed glass in numerical codes, thereby standardizing each shade for all decision makers in the supply chain.Using the Dip-CMiX guide, glass processors can now demonstrate to architects and designers the end colour results

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they will see in Dip-Tech printed glass, before printing even a single pane of glass. Dip-CMiX simulates pre-mix colours created by mixing the wide gamut of Dip-Tech digital ceramic inks. The swatch book includes the most commonly used colours in the architectural industry. Each colour representation includes a CMiX number, the ink colour composition, and an indicator if

it references a RAL or Pantone colour. The pre-mix colours for digital ceramic printing will be available through Dip-Tech customers.

Ecube Windoors Introduces New Products Ecube Windoors, one of India's rapidly growing fenestration brand of Mantralaya Impex (MIPL), has announced innovative accessories to its uPVC Window Systems. Fly mesh systems to prevent unwanted insects, safety grills to maintain safety and avoiding accidental material damage, and shading systems for comprehensive energy efficient solutions are the recent innovations introduced by the company to enhance the utility of its efficient uPVC Window Systems. Fly mesh systems: They help to keep interiors well ventilated while keeping insects including mosquitoes away. Customers can integrate internal or external fly screens in to the uPVC Window Systems. Types of fly mesh systems available are: Sliding fly mesh systems and Retractable rolling window screens, which are simple and effective insect screens. Safety grills: Combined with right choice of glass, these safety grills offers sturdiness and resistance towards unwanted intrusion. The use of toughened or laminated glass ensures safety in case of large openings such as patio doors or French windows without compromising on the aesthetic requirements of the owner and designer.

Shading systems: Solar radiation needs to be controlled to restrict the unwanted heat entering the home. By controlling the shading system, the windows can be designed to allow the natural light for better illumination inside the home and reduces the heat gain thus minimizing the consumption of energy needed to cool the room. Types of shading systems available are: External blinds, Roller shutters, External screens, and Inter-glass blinds. uPVC Window Systems from Ecube Windoors are cost effective and offers better thermal insulation, and better sound insulation. Exclusively

designed in Germany for Indian sub-continent, these uPVC window systems are lead-free and fully recyclable.

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18-20 SEPTEMBER 2016

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Masonite Opens 1st Experience Centre in Delhi Masonite, The USbased company and a leader in moulded panel doors, launched its first experience center in India at District Center Saket, New Delhi, to give its customers an extraordinary look, feel and touch experience. With 90 years of experience in global market Masonite brings innovation & quality products to provide arresting beauty, lasting durability and timeless performance. Masonite Doors are energy efficient, sound proof, wind resistant and environment friendly. Masonite Experience

Centre unreels exciting concepts for various home applications including kitchens, wardrobes, panel products, and office furniture/partitions. Their products add to home interior aesthetics like wall paneling & roof paneling, wall moldings and furniture including TV cabinets etc. Rahul Sharma, Director – AsiaPacific & Middle East, Masonite said “We have a Pan-India presence with Sales offices and 3 world-class manufacturing facilities but the idea was to connect with the customer directly and so the Masonite Experience Centre. Masonite Experience Centre is a dynamic and inspirational space that offers the ability to envision,

feel and select materials while inspiring design with endless possibilities for homes and offices." He added that the company will roll out such experience centres all over the country on their own and through our 23 partners in India so that it can address the vast footprint of the tier 2 and 3 metros. The products are certified by the Bureau of Indian standards, ISO 9001:2008 and FCS.

The 4th Edition of Architecture & Design Summit in Delhi The Economic Times Architecture & Design Summit charmed Delhi with the second of its session on July 29, 2016. The summit had industry sleuths deliberate on new trends like “A new design thinking for new times and new generation”, where Ambrish Arora (Principal Architect, Lotus Designs) addressed the audience. A special informative case study was presented by Krishna Mehta, (Textile Designer & Creative Director on Elements Symbiosis); Lipika Sud (Founder& Director, Lipika Sud Interiors); and Sangeet Sharma (Principal Architect, & Principles of Design)on Principles of Design explained S.D. Sharma Associates) - came from different using texture. industries and professions who gave their feedback on texture and design through their industry point of view. The event also facilitated discussions on elements and principles of design through texture and impact of texture The summit was another episode among the other on built environment. Addressing the topic, industry scheduled across five regional markets, highlighting stalwart Abhishek Somany, MD, Somany Ceramics elaborated on the international best practices in the design the work from top designers in each region. The space and the impact of texture, which are the key drivers culmination event will be a grand finale in Mumbai which will showcase top designers from across the of the next phase of growth for the A&D industry. The globe. panellists - Britta Knobel Gupta (Founding Partner, Studio

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Window & Facade Magazine - July/August 2016 Issue  

F & F Media and Publications Window & Facade Magazine (WFM) is a technical journal published by F & F Media and Publications.

Window & Facade Magazine - July/August 2016 Issue  

F & F Media and Publications Window & Facade Magazine (WFM) is a technical journal published by F & F Media and Publications.