Volume 2 | Issue 5 | ` 100 January-February 2016
FIRE & SAFETY
Faรงade Design & Technology for Fire Safety in Buildings
Face to Face Jonas Upton-Hansen Principal Architect UHA, London
Anand Shriram Head - Special Projects Fenesta Building Systems
Faรงades of the Future Perpetuity to Prosperity Dr. Prem C. Jain, Chairman, IGBC
501, 5th Floor, Kailash Building, 26 K.G. Marg, New Delhi 110 001, India Ph. : +91 11 4236 8610 l Email : email@example.com www.koemmerling.co.in
profine India Window Technology Pvt. Ltd.
“Printed and Published by Amit Malhotra on behalf of M/s F & F Media and Publications. Printed and published at Aegean Offset Printers, 220 B, Udyog Kendra – 1, Greater Noida, UP, India 201306. Telephone: (+91 120) 4725400 Name of the Editor-Ms. Renu Rajaram”
Volume 2 I Issue 5 January-February 2016
06 Explaining the benefits of engineered wood as a renewable material
New-Age Hardware for Façade & Fenestration Systems
Perimeter fire 62 containment must provide a system that meets the building code requirements.
Perimeter Fire Barrier Containment 70
10 Numerous variables involved in the perimeter fire containment system
Discussing three major hardware systems for façades and fenestration
“Facade Designs & Materials are Constantly Changing & Evolving”
Façades of the Future Perpetuity to Prosperity
20 Fenestration’s role in energy efficient buildings of the future
Interview: Jonas Upton-Hansen, Principal Architect, UHA, London
“Fenesta Products Have Set the Standard” Interview: Anand Shriram, Head Special Projects, Fenesta Building Systems
The Glass Marvel 28
Cover Story: Fire & Life Safety
Post Show Reports 34
Façade design & technology for fire safety in buildings
Passive Fire Protection – Saving Lives 52 Emphasizing the need for installation of perimeter barriers and firestops
The Louis Vuitton Foundation - Art Museum & Cultural Centre, Paris, France
94 The 8th Artists in Concrete Awards Asia, The 7th GRIHA Summit, New Delhi and ZAK World of Windows, Kochi
Co-Founders: Syed Ahad Ahmed Amit Malhotra Sarvesh Bagla Technical Panel: Mahesh Arumugam - Director, Meinhardt Façade Consultants KR Suresh - Regional Director, Axis Façade Consulting Ar. Ravindra Kumar - Principal, Pragrup YP Singh - Treasurer, UWDMA Sharanjit Singh - Chairman, GSC Glass Editorial: Renu Rajaram firstname.lastname@example.org +91 9312864830 Esha Sharma email@example.com +91 98119 86040 Marketing & Operations: Kapil Girotra firstname.lastname@example.org +91 9560925255 Studio Design: Sanjay B.
DISCLAIMER: With regret we wish to say that publishers cannot be held responsible or liable for error or omission contained in this publication. The opinions and views contained in this publication are not necessarily those of the publishers. Readers are advised to seek expert advice before acting on any information contained in this publication which are very generic in nature. The ownership of trademarks is acknowledged. No part of this publication or any part of the contents thereof may be reproduced in any form or context without the permission of publishers in writing. WRITE TO THE EDITOR Please address your suggestions to: The Editor, Window & Façade Magazine, C55, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase – 1, New Delhi, 110020 or email email@example.com. Please provide your full name and address, stating clearly if you do not wish us to print them. Alternatively log on to www.wfm.co.in and air your views. The opinions expressed in this section are of particular individuals and are in no way a reflection of the publisher’s views.
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Perimeter Protection is Mandatory
Engineered Doors and Windows
Published by: F & F Media and Publications C-55, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase - 1, New Delhi 110 020 T: +91-11-42576205
The understanding of fire and its mechanism of spread in buildings no longer eludes us. However risk of fire in high rise buildings and facades that define their character has not been well studied. As many as 25 major fire incidents were reported from different parts of Mumbai in 2015, raising questions about precautions and safety measures adopted and implemented in buildings. It is obvious that the competition for taller and more iconic structures with complex design is a reason to review fire safety issues related to façade designs.
Though, technological advancements have seen introduction of fire resistant material in the recent past, concerns still revolve around the skill levels and issues like better engineering practices and awareness on fire stop mechanisms in buildings. Appropriate testing of façade materials and perimeter fire stopping systems are critical to ensure adequate performance of the façade system of a building in case of a fire. All fire performance components in a building must function as part of the fire safety strategy. Current test standards and code provisions applicable to fire safety systems should be reviewed in order to be at par with international standards and testing methods. With appropriate consideration and evaluation of risk factors, it should be possible to choose façade systems that meet both aesthetic goals and fire safety objectives. This edition focuses on fire and safety aspects of facades with a cover story on selection of standardized fire rated materials for facades and on correct practices of installation of façade material and fire stops. Other articles in this edition too point at the advancement in the façade and fenestration systems, including materials, hardware, glazing and installation technologies. Article by Prem C.Jain, Chairman of Indian Green Building Council, discusses the concept of future facades and fenestration’s role in energy efficient buildings, which could generate power, conserve water, and even produce food. With another financial year coming to an end, the real-estate sector has pinned hopes on smart cities for revival. Trust deficit between builders and consumers in the realty market has led to a decline in demand. There is still a silver lining with the announcement of smart cities and passage of the Real Estate Bill. Hopefully the trust deficit that exists today in building construction is bridged and addresses some of the concerns with strict implementation of proposals in the Bill.
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Doors & Windows
Engineered Doors and Windows About the Author:
Ms. Bhawna Sharma, Director, Artius Interior
Bhawna Sharma, Director of Artius, is an astute sales professional with 18 years of experience in building and running sales teams in high technology and high-end domains. A graduate in communicative English with post-graduation in Finance, she also is one of the promoters of Ideas Design Solutions (IDS), a technology firm providing design and manufacturing solutions to a variety of mechanical manufacturing industries in India. She has been looking after the sales and finance functions of IDS as well as Artius. Bhavna has been awarded as outstanding female entrepreneur in manufacturing for Year 2015 by department of MSME, Government of India
Wood has been the preferred material for making doors and windows of the houses. But in the last few years wood windows have lost their charm because of numerous problems like jamming, warping, not being weather proof, prone to termites, fungus and decay, etc., due to the ordinary design, manufacturing and finishing methods. Because of these problems, more and more people are looking at alternatives like uPVC or aluminum windows. The problem with these types of materials is that one cannot get the rich feel and grace of wood. Therefore, these materials are only popular at the lower end of buyers. The high end houses who want rich look and feel still prefer wood windows despite all the flaws. Wood windows in India are done in a very traditional way. These are fabricated on site by the local wood-working craftsmen using conventional tools. The wood is procured from
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local wood suppliers and then left in open to season naturally. Then a very basic frame and sash design is made using hand tools and some basic wood-working machinery. In the current social environment, we are exposed to many dangers such as break-in, severe weather conditions- intense hot, cold and earth quake. Disadvantages of the Traditional Wood If one looks at the traditional wood window design, and manufacturing process, one will see that it is very basic and has not evolved in several decades. Over the decades, some traditional hand tools have been replaced by few machines, but the design and construction has remained very basic. Since the windows are usually fabricated and finished by local contracting teams, there are no guarantees/warrantie on the same. So despite spending good money in getting these systems made, the customer is left
Doors with Unbreakable Glass
From Procurement, to Manufacturing and Finishing Factors to Study before Procuring the Wood: To ensure that wood doesn’t lose its real value, it is very important to understand the minutes of woods. While engineering the wood, there are several points which have to be taken care of like as: • Age of the timber i.e. how old the wood is, its moisture retaining capacity, examining whether it is seasoned properly or not etc.
Made of engineered wood
with no option to live with sub-standard product and high maintenance costs.
• Cutting style of the wood also matters, the wood which is cut in right pattern are most suitable for making doors and windows. Process of Manufacturing: The manufacturing process is a complete shift from the tradition method of fabrication of windows.
Advantages of the New Engineered Technique There is a lot of engineering done in the west to overcome the issues with normal wood. This technique is new in India for now, but engineered wood offers a single solution for all these problems because the doors and windows created with the technology are heat proof, weather proof, break-in proof, sound proof, termite proof, jamming proof and dust proof. Engineered wooden doors and windows are manufactured in such a way that the typical problems associated with wood is taken care off. Their manufacturing process is a complete shift from the tradition method of fabrication of windows. Home is our sanctuary and engineered wood systems secure our home by dealing with unwelcome conditions.
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Certified seasoned wood is sourced from well managed forests. Then the wood is further engineered to make multi-layer sections that result in structurally stable wood. With that wood does not expand or shrink much with changing weather. Engineered wood doors and windows tend to perform better as they have higher load-carrying abilities compared to solid wood of the same dimension. This is because engineered wood and doors have more uniform and predictable structural properties, as the usual deficiencies in the wood (like knots and cracks) are either removed or offset by the manufacturing process. Then systems are fabricated on computer controlled machines to a very high degree of precision and assembled using very high quality
Doors with inbuilt mesh
exterior grade glue. This ensures that the joints do not open up ever. All the systems are designed to accommodate insulated double glass units and are fitted with weather seals to ensure perfect closing and excellent thermal, air, water and dust performance. Finishing the End Engineered Product: After that, the wood passes though the finishing process that involves 4-6 coats of premium water based exterior grade coatings. Multiple layers of water based coating ensure that the wood is nicely protected from the elements and yet the coating is flexible enough to allow the wood to move and breath freely.
Besides, this technique also promises the customers a provision of concealed insect mesh. In traditional systems, there is an additional mesh sash that is always visible. But with the engineered wood technique the doors and windows are installed in such a way that all the meshes remain concealed while the system is shut. So one can only take out the mesh when they open the system. Customers can enjoy unrestricted clear outside view through the glass when the system is shut and a unique mesh protection against gathering unwanted dust over the surface of their systems. An Eco-Friendly Alternative On its own, wood is a renewable resource. But the list of benefits continue to grow when it undergoes the process to become an engineered wood product. In addition to the benefits of wood as a renewable material, a building using engineered wood products sequesters carbon and can enhance the performance of the building, especially in energy use. Wood has natural thermal properties, which greatly reduce heat transfer. While many materials transmit heat easily, wood does not due to its structure.
Guaranteed Performance and a Unique Mesh Integration
The resins used in structural products are stable in use and do not produce gas. Despite added energy needed to produce the product, as well as the resin and heat needed to cure and process it, engineered wood products sequester a lot of carbon. As most engineered wood doors and windows result in a higher density, carbon-intense wood products sequester equivalent carbon dioxide, resulting in a net negative carbon footprint.
Engineered wood doors and windows can last upto 10 years in terms of functional performance and the finishes can stay for atleast 5 years without wearing out. Hence it is evident that with the engineered wood technique, wood doors and windows can have a better performance and durability for wood lovers.
Additionally, engineered products preserve or extend the use of the forest resource by using a higher percentage of fibre, which previously was burned or left to rot. The use of wood from residual sources, plantations and second-growth forests reduces the pressure to harvest more forest area.
This coating lasts a very long time with very little maintenance. Once the coatings are applied, the systems are then fitted with insulated double glass units, modern hardware and seals all around to give excellent locking and sealing capabilities.
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New-Age Hardware for Facade & Fenestration Systems About the Author:
Tanuj Sharma, National Head – Commercial, Kinlong Hardware (India) Pvt Ltd
Tanuj Sharma, heading the Commercial Sales at Kinlong Hardware India, is associated with Kinlong hardware for over half a decade. Kinlong Hardware has been serving the industry for the past 35 years with its ever-growing range of products, hard working labours and abundantly strengthened factories, which provide the customer the freedom to choose and customize their products in unmatched surface finishes. Kinlong Hardware is one of the largest hardware producer of its kind in the world. In India, Kinlong Hardware is present in all major cities with local stock availability to cater the shortest demands of their valuable customers.
With the entry of international systems, equipment and hardware firms, the Indian architectural hardware for façade and fenestration has also evolved over the years. Technology and its use have increased many folds giving precision to products with quality and sustenance. Along with the use of technology, design has also evolved over these years. Gone are the days of highly-reflective glass, strip windows, and punched openings for high-end commercial facades… at least for now. The trend for buildings to have more transparency has been taking precedence in metropolitan areas over the past few decades. This has fueled designer’s interests to continue to push the boundaries of what is possible with lighter support structures, taller unsupported facades, and less hardware/ connection points. One of these avenues for progressive design is the resurgence of the highly transparent facades.
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In this article, we shall discuss those hardware which permits such transparent façade systems. The three major hardware systems discussed are Point Fixed Façade Architectural Hardware, Structural Glazed Façade Architectural Hardware and Modular Post Railing Systems.
A) Point Fixed Façade Architectural Hardware Point Fixed Glass Systems are used most frequently in the structural curtain walls to create transparency and depth of vision for the occupants. The glass panes are either bolted or clamped with components providing attachment to the structural system. The most common system type is often referred as the “spider” system or the “clamped” system. The metallic fingers that support the glass facades allow the designer to increase the transparency by minimizing the structural framing. This four arm fitting is usually a stainless steel casted material supported mainly with the following types of supporting system:
developed and popularized cable nets as a structural system in the 1960s and 70s. But it was architect Helmut Jahn and engineering firm Schlaich Bergermann that applied the technology in a most innovative manner for the Kempinski Hotel in 1992. The Munich hotel’s flat cable net supported glass facade fueled worldwide interest in cable nets as a structural form in glass facade applications.
1) MS pipes/boxes. 2) Fins Metal/Glass. 3) Tension Rods. 4) Tension Cables. Tension cable/rod facades are another sharp looking solution to make the transparency of glass the stand-out feature, thereby further minimizing the visible structure from the inside and outside. The two main types in the industry are tension rod facades and cable net walls.
Image 2 – New Poly Plaza (Beijing), Main façade – spider & cable net façade (Cable net span - 90 m tall & 60 m wide)
Image 1 - Cable nets represent the ultimate in elegant minimalist structural systems
Cable nets represent the ultimate in elegant minimalist structural systems, and provide optimum transparency when the effect of a sheer glass membrane is desired (Image -1). Frei Otto
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This structural system supports glass by a net geometry of pre-tensioned cables (Image 2). Designs can be flat, or the net can be pulled into double curvature. A clamping component locks the cables together at their vertices and fixes glass to the net. The net structure’s large pre stress loads require early coordination of the facade contractor with the building engineer (Image 3). Cable pre-stress must be applied in the field via complex hydraulic jacking processes. Installation means and methods are a primary consideration for all cable structures.
Image 3 – Chatrapati International Airport Terminal MIAL (Mumbai) Entrance façade – Using clamps & tension cable (Single vertical cable support)
Image 4 – Bearys Global Research Triangle (BGRT) (Bangalore) Entrance façade – Using spiders & tension rod support.
B) Structural Glazed Façade Architectural Hardware B.1- Cast in Channels Introduced in Europe, Cast in channels are one of those fixtures that can boost the installation speed by 2 to 4 times and at the same time providing much high structural stability, why so? Cast in channels are rolled channels with swaged studs that are cast in to concrete walls (Image 5). These also could be a one piece casted unit in materials as Stainless Steel of Grade A4/ A2 or Carbon Steel with the coating of Hot Dip Galvanizing or Dacromet coating.
Step 1: Remove the Safty Strip
This fixing system allows practical fixations into walls, slabs, beams and columns that securely transfer the loads on to the building’s substrate. T head bolts and lock nuts are available to allow secure and easy connections on to the cast in channels (Image 6). The use of this system is applicable in a wide range of construction works. cast in channels are first secured to the form work at designated positions. Channels are provided with filler to avoid the concrete from entering inside the channel slot. The filler is taken out after the concrete has dried and connections are made with corresponding T head bolts and lock nuts at desired positions. 3D adjustability is achieved through flexible design. The use of cast-in channels for connections offers great advantages. The safe and
Step 2: Insert the T Bolt Image 5 – Cast in channels
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Step 3: Rotate the T Bolt, affix as per measurement & Install the L Bracket
Image 6 - The fixing systems - Tread bolts and lock nuts
reliable attachments with easy and quick production times lead to faster completions of the construction works. The result is a quality finish at lower costs. The requirement of pre-design and prefixing in construction offers great advantages. B.2 - DACROMET® Coating System DACROMET®, is the leading inorganic coating commonly specified in the wind turbine, heavy truck, marine, agricultural, construction equipment and aerospace industries. A water-based, VOCcompliant coating, DACROMET® is comprised mainly of overlapping zinc and aluminum flake in an inorganic binder. DACROMET® is usually applied to small and medium sized metal components suchas fasteners and stampings which can be coated in bulk by the dip-spin process “Dip-spin” refers to an application process whereby product is
placed in a mesh basket, submerged in coating solution, and then spun centrifugally to remove excess coating material. Each application step in the DACROMET® emulsion is followed by a 15 minute curing cycle of the base coat at roughly 321°C (610°F) part metal temperature. Once the sealer is applied, also by spray or immersion, the parts undergo a 15 minute curing cycle at roughly 177°C (350°F) part metal temperature. (Image 7). Typical coating thickness can range from 6 to 12 microns. Coating thickness may bevaried through successive applications of the basecoat and by controlling theviscosity of the DACROMET® emulsion. The coating coverage by this process is very smooth and uniform. For projects requiring corrosion protection, DACROMET® is recommended. DACROMET® sealers typically withstanding excess of 1000 hours salt spray exposure per ASTM B117. DACROMET® coating standards are specified in ASTM F1136 and F1136M (Image 8). DACROMET® coating standards are specified in ASTM F1136 and F1136M. Four-Way Corrosion Protection • Barrier Protection: Overlapping zinc and aluminum flakes provide an excellent barrier • Galvanic Action: Zinc corrodes to protect steel • Passivation: Metal oxides slow down the corrosion reaction of zinc and steel • Self-Repairing: Zinc oxides and carbonates migrate to the damaged area to repair and restore the coating Dacromet® Advantages
Image 7 – A typical nut bolt using the Dacromet coating. (Dacrotizing)
• Thin: DACROMET® is 5-7 microns and DACROMET® L is 7-9 microns • Hydrogen Embrittlement Free Process: Coating does not require acid pickling or electroplating • Bimetallic Corrosion Resistant: Aluminum flake eliminates the typical bimetallic cell of zinc coatings
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railing systems using channels or spigots, the point fixed railing systems using hollow or plate balustrades & the cable/rod supported balustrade balconies (Image 9).
Image 8– Dacrotized cast in channels, T bolts & L angled plates. material – carbon steel
• Solvent Resistant: Inorganic nature causes it to be resistant to organic solvents • Heat Resistant: Maintains corrosion resistance even following an intermittent heat shock • Conductive: Concentration of metallic flake allows an electrical current to be passed • Salt Spray Resistance: 1,000 hours • Better Than Pure Zinc: 3 times greater corrosion protection than pure zinc.
Considering a balcony, A laminated glass is a high priority with a SENTRY interlayer or at least the PVB, with a minimum thickness of 12.89mm (SGP) OR 13.52mm (PVB) (subject to axial loads), Recommendation as per the European market Image 10 – Rod supported states it as 17.52 balustrade balconies. mm. Now, the hardware part, designed to take loads is primary and secondary are the aesthetics, factory made finish can be easily ruined at site if any further fabrication takes place (Image 10).
Environmental Benefits • No Toxic Metals: Free of nickel, cadmium, lead, barium and mercury • Water Based: Free from dangerous solvents • VOC Compliant: Under EPA RACT requirements (Courtesy - http://www.matenaer.com/ Products/Metal-Finishing/DACROMET.htm)
A cold rolled Stainless Steel grade not less than 304/316/316L/2205 is recommended, Wood, Coated Aluminum also considered as per requirement. Talking of Installation, how do we make sure that the factory finish is maintained at the site? There are systems available which are plug and play type, totally modular and no chance of welding or grinding (Image 11).
C) Modular Post Railing Systems Think of balconies in buildings, glass & supporting system are equally important. The standard norms of the market allow distinguishing the glass types and the patterns. Similarly for the railings, important is the safety, maintenance and ease of installation. We Image 9 – The seamless railing systems have the seamless
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Image 11 – Balustrade balconies: laminated glass is a high priority with a SENTRY interlayer
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The installation is 3 simple steps. 1) The floor and base plate/ channel to be enjoined using the anchor bolt after drilling the holes; the supporting structure is then fixed (Images 12 & 13).
Image 14 – The glass installation
Image 12 – – Balustrade installation
Glass facades are impressive and amazing types of curtain wall for the new era buildings. From the conventional ways to the most sophisticated style, technology has been never ending. Yet again, it
Image 13 – Balustrade installation - floor and base plate/ channel to be enjoined using the anchor bolt
2) The glass installation – Glass will either be embedded (in channel) or have holes in it (point fixed type), using the Allen key on the outer or inner covering of the brackets or clamps can be tightened to lock the glass. (Image 14) 3) Top pipe/c channel will get fixed to either balustrade or the glass directly using the rivets or double side tapes respectively. The ends of the pipe should be secured with accessories (Image 15).
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Image 15 – Top pipe/c channel will get fixed to either balustrade or the glass directly using the rivets or double side tapes
brings a food for thought to the reader’s mind that why shall we not try a better system than the previous ones? The old way once was new until got replaced by a better one, Changes are that makes us what we are. Let’s be the change to build up our nation into a beautiful & comfortable place to live in.
Façades of the Future Perpetuity to Prosperity About the Authors:
Dr. Prem C Jain, Chairman, Indian Green Building Council; Chairman Emeritus, AECOM India Prof.Sakshi Goyal, Principal Architect, Anubhav enterprises
Dr Prem C Jain graduated from Banaras Engineering College in 1957 and obtained the highest degree of Ph.D in Mechanical Engineering from University of Minnesota, USA in 1965. He is Chairman Emeritus for AECOM India, one of the premium consultancy with 1 Lakh engineers & architects in 150 Countries. He is also the Chairman of IGBC – Indian Green Building Council, since 2007. Dr. PC Jain is honoured with many international awards. He is the founder for several institutions like Spectral & ISHRAE in India. Sakshi Goyal, a sustainability consultant, and the Principal at Anubhav Enterprises completed
her Architectural education from University School of Architecture and Planning, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University followed by M.Sc in Environmental Design from University of Bath, UK. She has teaching Architecture at M.N.I.T, Jaipur. She was also associated with AECOM for two years. Sakshi is an Accredited Professional (AP) for green buildings recognized by IGBC and a certified GRIHA trainer and evaluator.
Buildings in developed countries consume more than 40 per cent of the country’s energy. Since building in India are less energy intensive, it is estimated that they consume approximately 30 per cent of the nation’s energy. Alarming scenario is that in the next thirty years, we will have to add 3 more India to provide “Housing for All”, and to cater for the needs of the fast growing population. This will lead to serious shortfall in meeting energy demands for the future, unless corrective measures are immediately taken. The good news is that by providing energy efficient green construction, and by harnessing our abundant solar energy, our proposed development need not be threatened.
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We could meet all future demands with only manageable enhancement of power generation, that too by renewable means. Fenestration’s role in energy efficient buildings takes centre-stage. Globally, building construction and building operation have come under spotlight for their very strong linkages with energy use and climate impact. It is estimated that with the rapid urbanization in developing countries around the world, cities in future will be consuming more than 70 per cent of world energy and will account for 70 per cent of CO2 emissions globally. Within the climate and energy debate, the urban consumption pattern in
building units in cities has thus become the focal point for mitigation. And fenestration plays a critical role in energy conservation by buildings. India has made comprehensive commitment to combat climate change at the just-concluded COP21 in Paris. The deal aims at reducing the global warming which has already started melting ice sheets at the poles, resulting into rise of sea levels, threatening the lives of animals and plants, which have been living in peace for centuries on our Mother Earth. The Conclave envisaged to hold
All cosmic creation is made up of five basic elements - Panch Bhoots
the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above the pre-industrial levels, while making all efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C, to minimize the impact of the impending doom. All cosmic creation is made up of five basic elements, called PANCH BHOOTAS. These are sensed by various organs. In the evolution of life, man ranks as the most evolved of all life-forms, from plants to birds and animals. Buildings are the foundations of a civil society. At their best, they nurture and define a community’s identity by instilling a greater sense of pride; they foster frequent and meaningful contact between citizens; they provide comfort in their spaces and they encourage an increasingly diverse population to use them. The façade of a building is the first experience of the building that tells us that structure has something special to offer. Façade is the representation of the architect’s creative vision and desire to impress with something unique and out of the ordinary. As the interface between interior space and exterior environment, building’s skin plays a crucial role in heat and light exchange. Its
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The Sensory Organ The Building Experience
The Futuristic Façades
The growing medium
Energy generation & conservation.
Façades producing energy
Providing fresh water
Façades for rainwater harvesting
The breathing façade
Bio-mimicry in façades
Enhancing quality of life
Façades enhancing macromicro climate
performance in that role affects occupant comfort and productivity, energy use and running costs, which are the cornerstones of Green Buildings. Green Buildings celebrate the optimization of Panch-Bhootas, so that occupant and visitors to the building make a distinct and positive contribution in preserving all life forms on our beautiful Mother Earth. Façades make the single largest contribution in this optimization of the Panch-Bhootas. We present herewith how Façades of the Future will cater to each of these. Element 1: Prithvi (Earth) Façades Addressing Food Crisis – Hydroponics Hydroponics is a triumphant means of growing vast quantities of food in Water while conserving energy in a manner that can utilize much of the flotsam and jetsam of the Age of Oil. The idea that fruits and vegetables can grow with water, light and nutrients (without soil)
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is the basis of hydroponic: one of the innovative system of making the building self-sustaining. There have been other numerous advantages of this system as well. A reduction is seen in street level concentrations, up to 40 per Façades addressing food crisis – cent for NO2 and Hydroponics upto 60 per cent for particulate matter. These also potentially contribute to an increase in biodiversity in urban areas by providing a habitat for insects and birds. The most important aspect is their “Rejuvenating Effect” on the living creatures around, as they contribute in softening of the urban landscape; allowing buildings to seem more ‘natural’ and pleasing to the occupants and visitors.
Element 2: Agni (Fire) Façades Generating Power – Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV)
Algae House - Façade addressing fuel crisis thru powering by Algae
Façade Addressing Fuel Crisis thru Powering by Algae
Façades generating power
Building integrated photovoltaics capture the solar radiation and turn it into energy. A modest level of energy generation (upto 12 per cent efficiency) is achieved through Photovoltaic Glass Unit (PGU). The new PGU’s provide upto 70 per cent transparency to human eye, allowing their use as part of the fenestration of the building. Electricity produced by one sq m area of PGU varies between 40-60 kWh per annum. Tata BP Solar has also used BIPV technology at the Samudra Institute of Maritime Studies in Pune. This satisfies the Institute’s power requirements internally, mitigating the problems of erratic and poor quality city power supply. PV application in this building has combined the sun with structure, which has led to opportunities to convert windows, exteriors and other integrated applications into solar panels in a commercially viable manner. This thin film module system thus demonstrates the utilisation of solar energy as a mainstream source of energy.
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Algae powered building at the International Building Exhibition in Hamburg, demonstrates world’s first algae-based bioreactor façade. The façade is clad in 200 sq m of integrated photo-bio-reactors in which micro-algae is cultivated. The façade system, known as solar leaf, generates algae biomass as a renewable source of energy. This smart energy concept leads natural forces to work together in a loop. The façade of living algae biomass produces heat, which combines with geothermal and solar thermal energy, to create an environmentally-friendly powerhouse. The bioreactors not only produce biomass that can subsequently be harvested, but they also capture solar thermal heat; both energy sources are used to power the building. The algae is produced using the power of the sun, carbon dioxide (CO2), and liquid nutrients, which culminate in energy sources including methane gas that can be used to both power and directly heat the building. At a yield of 15g dry weight per square meter per day for the conversion of biomass into biogas, a net energy gain of approximately 4,500 kWh per year can be achieved, which compares favourably with the requirement of 4,000 kWh per year for a family of four members.
Element 3: Apas (Water)
Element 4: Vayu (Air)
The façade accounts for four-fifth of the building surface exposed to the outside environment. When water falls on a building, the collection of water from various façades of a building will be four times more than just the roof. A façade-rainwater harvesting system utilises façade cladding instead of roof collection. The system uses the structural ‘transoms’ or horizontal glazing members to direct rainwater falling on the glazing panels into the vertical mullions, and from there downwards into a basement collection system. Embodiments allow rainwater to be collected before ground contamination occurs, making its filtration and reuse within the building easier. Hence, urban buildings can seriously benefit from rainwater harvesting by façade and reduce their water consumption in a way that only buildings with larger roof areas were able to before.
Bio Mimicry in Façades – Living Building
In many African countries, clean water is still a luxury. The 10-acre Waterbank Campus comprises of seven water-harvesting buildings including the soccer (or “futsal”) stadium capable of seating up to 1500 people. These help to save, educate and unite communities with availability of fresh water. . PITCHAfrica describes their approach, which provides a solution to anticipated global aquifer depletion.
Just like the surface of a leaf, the ‘skin’ of future buildings will react to external stimuli-opening, closing and breathing throughout the day, through a system of ‘cellular’ openings that will allow light, air and water into the enclosed spaces.
Al Bahr - Bio mimicry in façades
Al Bahr, United Arab Emirates, is sheathed in a thin skin of fashionable glass modules. Each module on its façade responds to the level of sunlight by opening and closing. There is a specially designed secondary sun screen that deflects some of the glare without permanently blocking the views. A series of faceted fiberglass rosettes open and close in response to the temperature of the façade. Element 5: Akash (Space) Façades Enhancing Outdoor Environment – Microclimate Impact
Waterbank Campus - a solution to anticipated global aquifer depletion
Growing vegetation on the façade (vertical landscaping) can potentially create a positive microclimate around the built form. A microclimate is a local atmospheric zone where the climate differs from the surrounding area. Studies demonstrate that in composite climates like New Delhi, a reduction of approx. 5˚C in outdoors (compared to the surrounding ambient) can be achieved by using green vegetation around buildings.
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a green house, offers a potential to prevent toxins, VOC’s and microbial infections from entering the air-conditioned buildings. Paharpur Business Centre, New Delhi, has more than 800 plants spread throughout its six floors, greening each room and hallway. Their job: remove soot and other chemicals from the often charcoal-coloured outdoor air. New Delhi’s smog is nearly three times worse than Beijing’s, as the World Health Organization reports, based on measurements of fine particulates, or PM 2.5.
Quai Branly Museum Façades enhancing outdoor environment
Quai Branly Museum in Paris, showcases that living in a city doesn’t have to mean abandoning the natural world. This building is an example for how to solve one of the biggest urban planning problem of modern times- finding space for the greenery needed to maintain indoor air quality and emotional health of occupants. Façades Enhancing Indoor Environment – Growing Fresh Air Most developing countries have high air pollution levels and as a result the indoor environment can become even more polluted by supplying fresh air. Drawing ventilation air through a green façade, or
Kamal Meattle, CEO. Paharpur Business Centre
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“We have an air treatment plant,” Kamal Meattle, the CEO, says of his innovative combination of scrubbers, filters, and greenery. The result, he adds, is fewer employee sick days, greater productivity, and air as clean as that in Davos, Switzerland. Conclusion Living beings are complex products of their environment. They are made of a number of different natural elements, many of which are essential for survival. Buildings protect them and provide them with a sense of identity. Because of this, they can be considered as the true illustrators of the fundamental elements of life.
“Life is architecture and architecture is the mirror of life”-I.M.Pie
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“Fenesta Products Have Set the Standard” According to the company, Fenesta, customers are assured of end-to-end service, starting from selecting right designs, site survey, fabrication, delivery and installation.
Anand Shriram Head - Special Projects Fenesta Building Systems
Fenesta is one of the largest windows and doors company in India, specializing in the design, manufacture, installation and service of precision-engineered made-to-order uPVC window and door systems. It has installed more than a million windows and doors across nearly 150,000 homes. Empowered with knowledge of India’s acute conditions, Fenesta has designed uPVC windows and doors that are able to withstand the extreme climate. Part of 5650-crores DCM Shriram group and Headquartered in Gurgaon, Fenesta has own sales and service presence in nearly 50 cities with four factories and nearly 100 showrooms.
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Fenesta windows and doors can instantly transform a home. They reduce outside noise due to excellent insulation properties. Steel reinforced Fenesta frames provide additional strength that allows large sizes and adequate sunlight. They can be fitted with special monsoon proof features to prevent heavy rains from seeping indoors. Superior insulation also leads to reduction in energy bills as air conditioning becomes more effective. Many
finish and design options are available that can uplift the looks of your homes and offices - both from inside and outside. Anand Shriram has been a part of the company’s uPVC windows business Fenesta Building System where he currently heads - Project Installation. He joined the company after completing his undergraduate education from the US. He then spent time training at DCM Shriram Ltd’s manufacturing unit at Kota, Rajasthan, understanding the various systems and processes. Post that he has been heading the project installation section.
WFM gladly brings you the edited excerpts from the interview of Anand Shriram, Head- Special Projects, Fenesta Building System, detailing the present and future of fenestration sector in India, latest developments and innovations in the sector, challenges faced by the industry and the future of this trade. He also elucidates elaborately on the journey of his company so far and their future plans. WFM: How do you look back to Fenesta’s journey so far? AS: Fenesta has pioneered the introduction of uPVC windows and doors in the Indian market. The journey started about a decade back and Fenesta today has a sales and service presence in nearly 100 cities through seventeen sales offices, four factories, nine signature studios, nearly 100 dealer showrooms and a strong direct sales force. Fenesta is, by far, India’s largest windows and doors company and to date has manufactured and installed over a million windows serving more than 150,000 homes and scores of hotels, hospitals, factories, showrooms and institutions. Many accolades, not surprisingly, have come Fenesta’s way. The company has won the national award for manufacturing competitiveness instituted by the International Research Institute, Chennai; most recently it was honoured with the Product of the Year 2015 award by ABID (Association of
Slide & Fold Windows
Architects, Builders, Interiors, Designers & Allied Business). WFM: What makes Fenesta’s products stand apart? AS: Fenesta believes in innovating products, specific and suited to the needs of the Indian consumer. Empowered with the knowledge of India’s extreme conditions and tested by specialists, Fenesta products have set the standard in weather resistance, surface finish, stress, dimensional tolerances, UV stability, weld strength, wind load, air filtration, water penetration and ease of operation. Fenesta products are available in pristine white as well as a number of foil colours; they come in a wide range of designs; the doors and windows require minimum maintenance; the products are rust-proof and don’t warp or fade and are substantially sound-proof and
air-tight. The Composite doors, Lift and Slide, Slide and Fold, Villa Series are some of the latest designs introduced in the market. The Fenesta villa series is a first of its kind with the provision of a grill and bug mesh. Fenesta has also introduced two new innovations to face the difficult challenges a severe monsoon can throw: Hurricane Bar that withstands windspeed up to 245 kilometres per hour and a Rain Track that prevents the ingress of rainwater. All Fenesta products are 100 per cent customised and are always delivered as scheduled. To add the final touch of flourish, a customer can choose from a variety of glasses, hardware and accessories.Fenesta is also the only window solutions provider with sales and service presence across the country. Its dedicated team takes care of every customer needs from design to installation and after sales service.
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WFM: What is your take on adopting latest technology and maintaining quality standards? AS: Fenesta, a business of DCMShriram Ltd, believes in adopting the latest technology and providing the best in class products to its customers. We have high output technologydriven machines from Europe, world-class infrastructure and certain quality standards form the backbone of each fabrication plant.Our work is supported by world-class facilities and a complete control over the entire supply chain. The extrusion plant at Kota is also the recipient of the British Sword of Honour for its unblemished safety record and is ISO: 9000, ISO: 14000 and ISO: 18000 certified. WFM: Some window styles are more energy efficient and provides much better internal environment. Could you please explain this? AS: Amongst the several window and door styles, the casement style typically
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Fenesta products at its Signature studio
provides better sealing and insulation compared to a slider system. One can reduce energy expenditure by upto 30 per cent merely by switching to Fenesta uPVC windows. Different types of glass configuration added to the low thermal conducting uPVC profile helps in better insulation in Fenesta windows. WFM: What are the design considerations while planning windows to achieve thermal efficiency and indoor air quality? AS: Thermal efficiency can be achieved by choosing the right window design, appropriate glass and proper sealing. Once the correct design and glass is finalised, the advanced sealing during installation ensures that there are no gaps for inside air to escape or outside air to come in, thereby ensuring thermal efficiency and air quality indoors.
windows are energy efficient thereby making them green. These windows are made of uPVC. The thermal conductivity of uPVC is much lower than Aluminium and therefore they help to keep the inside environment sealed from the exterior weather thereby reducing energy costs. uPVC windows designed with multi chambers and tight seals, further reduce transfer of heat and noise penetration. Compared to Aluminium, Fenesta uPVC Windows and doors are also environment friendly as they require very less energy to convert from raw material to finish goods. Using uPVC windows also reduces deforestation caused in producing wood for wooden windows. All the above make Fenesta products energy efficient and environment friendly.
WFM: What makes Fenesta Window energy efficient?
WFM: Tell us about your innovations in the window systems and other products?
AS: Other than the innovative product range, Fenesta
AS: Fenesta has a range of products that suits the
fenestration requirement of superior architecture - be it a home or an institution. Apart from the Fenesta designs to withstand high wind speeds in high rises as well as heavy monsoon areas (mentioned above) we have introduced doors with stunning designs to compliment any architecture. These custom-crafted doors not only look great but add security and comfort to any space. The Slide and Fold doors merge gardens and terraces with living spaces that help to bring more of the outdoors in. Fenesta doors are practical too. Made of uPVC or GRP (Glass Reinforced Polymer) Fenesta doors are far superior to the traditional doors in durability and functionality. Besides this, they are very low on maintenance. The customized doors give customers the the finest hardware and options of choosing special glass for comfort and aesthetic. WFM: Please tell us about some of the challenges you face? AS: A challenge that remains in this industry in India is of site issues and construction practices. Old construction practices would require wooden system /frame to be made and installed at site and thereafter the finishing is done after construction is completed (plaster, paint etc). Fenesta window, being a factory made and finished product, requires fitment at
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the completion of construction, however in practice, this is not being followed which leads to window damage in terms of aesthetics and performance. We at Fenesta have also been upgrading our services in terms of installation of the windows, taking customer needs and feedback on an ongoing basis. WFM: What is the way forward? Where do you see your company and the Industry in the next 10 years? AS: India has also taken a forward leap in the fenestration product technology. The rising demand for energy-efficient buildings and aspirations led to innovations in the quality, design and texture of windows. We see the market maturing over a period of time. Quality conscious and consistent performers with a focus on the end consumers is there to stay.The potential is huge in
the Indian market, but creating quality awareness among consumers is important. The industry will grow manifold and we will gain as a result of this as well. For Fenesta, every customer is important, be it a home owner, institution or an office project. Fenesta is a brand deeply committed to quality. Having brought to the market a modern, well-designed product, the company is determined to retain its first-mover advantage and build on the reputation it has created for itself. The companyâ€™s professional approach can be seen right from the time a client selects the design, through the various stages â€“ site survey, fabrication, delivery, installation and, if need arises, service. It believes that word-of-mouth is its greatest asset and it will continue to bank on this for todayâ€™s sale as it will for tomorrows.
Fire & Safety
Fire & Life Safety An Introduction About the Author:
KR Suresh, Regional Director, Axis Façade Consulting Private Limited
K.R. Suresh is the Regional Director at Axis Façade Consulting Private Limited. With over 20 years in façade manufacturing, contracting and consulting, he started his career with Permisa – ECIE (a JV with Permasteelisa) for designing and executing unitized structural glazing systems in India. He established the first Façade Consultancy Firm in India providing value added services on designing and detailing of complicated and innovative façades which are cost-effective too. Suresh also helps in preparing tender documents and specifications.
All buildings are susceptible to fire and this aspect needs to be considered during design since it impacts safety of human life. There has been enormous increase in buildings of all classifications consequent to socio economic progress made in the country over the last two decades. In the 1990s came the Dot Com revolution and stalwarts of Silicon Valley started creating new townships and workspaces in India. This demand encouraged construction of highrise buildings without clear anticipation of the associated infrastructure requirement of cities. The challenges and risks that high-rises face due to fire hazards have also increased manifold. These hazards have caused heavy losses to life and limb, throwing up challenges to planners, architects and fire protection services for evolving better and improved methods of design and fire protection in order to mitigate such losses. Over the years, fire safety in buildings has seen major improvements. The issue now being focused l 34 WFM JAN - FEB 2016 l
Lotus Business Park, Mumbai
on is the fire resistance and retarding properties of different types of façade materials as also the engineering aspects of assembly and fitment of façades over the base structures. Local codes are not clearly defined to ensure installation of façades as per international norms and conventions. This leads us to believe that dearth of awareness has created a forest of dense structures that may not be capable of ensuring safety of the structure and its occupants from fire hazards. Safety of life is the most important aspect that needs to be factored during design of buildings. Forensic studies have indicated that primary hazard to humans in a building fire is more from smoke and toxic gases. Nearly three-fourths of all building related fire deaths are from inhalation of the smoke and toxic gases produced in fires rather than from exposure to flame or heat. Many new materials used in building construction, like different kinds of plastic materials, are the worst culprits in production of highly toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, oxides of nitrogen, etc. During a fire, it is the toxic gases that lead to asphyxiation of occupants. The build up of toxic gases can be rapid and could reach critical levels in quick time, providing little or no reaction time for evacuation. The leadtime for build up of toxic gases would depend on the material used, combustion products, and physical and mental characteristics of the exposed individuals would govern endurance to withstand the adverse environments. Therefore, this short interval of time
is very important -- more precisely, the interval between fire occurrence and detection. Therefore, a lot of emphasis has been laid on fire detection systems and subsequently on aspects of thermal management and fire extinguishing techniques to be used in a building. The approach to dealing with a fire in buildings is encapsulated in the following box. Key Mantra for Fire Safety • Evacuation Detection Alarm Staged evacuation – Crowd management • Compartmentalization Slows the fire growth Minimize the smoke spread • Response Automatic (Fire suppression) Fire service • Structural Integrity • Adequate Maintenance
While the approach for dealing with fires is quite standard and is known, methods followed in selection of building and façade material have been prescriptive. The client advises the façade contractor on the international specification or code for installation but does not have the expertise to inspect and comment on the installation. This could lead to aggravation of fires despite the correct material being used for façades. Selection of standardized fire rated materials for façades is important, but we need to also ensure that correct practises of installation of façade materials and fire stops are also followed.
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Façade Design & Technology for Fire Safety in Buildings Innovative façade design has improved greatly in the recent past. However, façade design does not cater for active fire protection except for the recent inclusion of the automatic smoke vent for all glass buildings. Appropriate testing of façade materials and the fire stopping systems are critical to ensure adequate performance of the façade system of buildings in case of a fire. This article elucidates the parameters that define the performance of façade materials during fire, and various aspects which could prevent spread of fire in the building such as perimeter fire stopping and compartmentalization of the structure.
Lack of awareness of basic fire and safety aspects amongst citizens is an important factor, points out Santosh Warick, Director, Maharashtra Fire Services. Rapid urbanisation and industrialisation has created a challenge of fire and safety of high-rise buildings. One of the major causes of urban fires is the negligence of occupants toward fire safety norms and over-loading of electrical systems in buildings. Two aspects, passive and active fire control systems, mainly drive the fire safety approach
for high-rise buildings, says Ar. Anupam De, Founder & Principal Architect at Anupam De & Associates. These broadly would relate to fire resistant structures and barriers, suppression systems, detection/alarm and communication, and smoke management, he adds. Fire protection for buildings begins at the planning stage, points out PV Somasundaram, Vice President - Sales Operations, 3A Composites India Pvt. Ltd. Minimizing fire
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Santosh Warick, Director, Maharashtra Fire Services
Ar. Anupam De, Founder & Principal Architect at Anupam De & Associates
risk has become increasingly complex and challenging. Façade Cladding materials & Fire safety in buildings: Façade is like a garment and should be designed according to the climatic condition and geographical elements. Regarding the fire safety of façades, we need to do a lot of research and testing, says Nagaraj Kollegal, Associate Vice President, Infrastructure, Infosys. Façade materials play key role in fire safety, as it would be extremely difficult to control the building fire on the exterior. Hence, more focus is needed in selecting appropriate materials, and this requires designer knowledge on material behaviour and performance, says Rajan Govind, Director, BES Consultants Pvt Ltd. K.R.Suresh (Regional Director, Axis Façade) too selection of cladding materials at the design stage based on fire threat and combustion charachteristics of the material. Further, most procurements in façades are cost-based and not specification-centric, which exposes not only the buildings but also the surroundings to high risk. The performance of cladding on external walls when exposed to fire is a serious factor when assessing the dangers associated with it, says Hatinder Vohra, National Head- Vetrotech India, Saint-Gobain India Private Ltd- Vetrotech Business. Fire from lower storey can propagate to higher storeys through the
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PV Somasundaram, Vice President - Sales Operations, 3A Composites India Pvt. Ltd
Nagaraj Kollegal, Associate Vice President, Infrastructure, Infosys
external cladding material. Such materials used for external cladding should have been tested for its combustibility. Of late, many high-rise buildings in metros have started insisting on fire retardant materials for façades, says Somasundaram. “However, there is lot of ambiguity in choosing the right materials due to consideration of inappropriate/inadequate information during procurement. There is significant shift from conventional materials to fire retardant (FR) materials. The next step is to move towards non-sealant systems like open Joint systems etc.”, he adds. Façade Materials and Their Reaction to Fire Majority of human loss in case of fire accident in a building is due to smoke and toxicity as a result of the fire. ‘Reaction-to-fire’ of façade materials is very important to contain the propagation of fire and to carry out rescue operations. Combustibility, ignitability, flame spread and burning droplets are the important parameters to consider while addressing fire propagation aspects. However, smoke development and toxicity are the key parameters for the safety of occupants and for rescue operations by fire brigade.
doors of corridors leading to staircase, or when fire compartment is created. Generally, 1 hour fire rated glass must be used in the eye panel of fire doors as all compartments around are fire rated.
Rajan Govind, Director, BES Consultants Pvt Ltd
Hatinder Vohra, National Head- Vetrotech India, Saint-Gobain India Pvt Ltd Vetrotech Business
The parameters which define performance of a fire retardant cladding solution are: – Extent of lateral & vertical fire spread – Extent of smoke emissions – Extent of droplets emissions – Self-extinction of the fire on the panel Use of Fire Rated Glass The integrated approach of using fire resistant glass, following installation parameters and providing openings in the glass façade are helpful for carrying out external firefighting and rescue operations. All these aspects should be viewed in planning stage of building, says Warick.
According to Warick, the concept of compartmentation with glass partitions is not popular in India since the cost of fire rated glass is very high. The Glass that is normally used for separating cabins and discussion rooms in offices and information & technology buildings, are not fire-rated glasses. They can pose danger of spreading fire on the floor. If building with glass façade is on fire, non-fire resistant glass starts heating and when sprinklers get activated these glasses crack. Cracking of glass may lead to spread of fire horizontally and vertically in the building. Splinters of broken glass may fall from the building and pose a threat to occupants and fire fighters. A holistic view of various aspects of glass façade should be considered at the design stage of a building. In the recent past, we have evolved with the concept of breakable glass to ensure that the firefighter can rescue people by locating a red triangle on the glass, denotes Suresh. Fire Stops
Use of fire rated glass is still not in vogue for façades. But it is used extensively in server & data rooms to prevent fire entering such areas. Cost of fire rated glass is the biggest deterrent for use. Fire rated glass is used in the view panel of fire rated
Fire-stop acts like physical barriers, which by design prevent the spread of flames, deadly gases and toxic smoke through openings in buildings. The whole idea of a fire stop is to ensure that fire does not
Fire-fighting in high-rise buildings - a challenge
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Importance of Laminated Glass How does an interlayered toughened fire glass work? Why is it important?
What are the standards used for grading fire resistant glass?
An interlayered fire rated glass comprises of two or more layers of glass (toughened) with a special intumescent material filled between them. This intumescent material foams up on exposure to fire. As a result, it expands on the surface of glass and does not allow the heat to pass from the fire side to the non-fire side.
Based on the fire rating characteristic of a glazed surface, fire rated glass is categorized into three different types namely, • Integrity (E) • Radiation Control (W) • Insulation (I) There are standards pertaining to testing of fire rated glass. Each nation has its own code or standards according to which it is tested. But the most widely followed standard worldwide are the European and the American Standards (namely EN & UL). The following are the most commonly adopted testing standards for glazed systems:
The need for laminated glass is felt only in specific locations such as hand rails, balcony railings , glass doors, structural glazing at lower height such as podium & lobby entrances. Laminated glass is a type of safety glass with an interlayer, mostly Poly vinyl butyl between two or more layers of glass. The interlayer holds the glass if it breaks under accidental impact. So the characteristic feature of laminated glass is its impact safety performance. Laminated glass exhibits noise reduction properties. The acoustic performance of a laminated glass can go up to a range of 30-40 dB. Laminated glass also has the unique property of blocking UVA radiations, which is known to cause skin cancers whereas a normal glass transmits as high as 75 per cent of the UVA radiations.
Interlayered fire glass can provide protection from radiant heat thereby protecting all the combustible items on the non-fire side from getting ignited on their own. Upon increasing the number of interlayers it can provide complete thermal insulation from heat in addition to integrity of the system. Therefore using interlayered glass is the best bet to ensure radiant heat resistance (EW rating) and thermal insulation (EI rating) upon occurrence of fire.
travel vertically to upper floors of a building through the gaps between the façades and the floor slabs, elaborates Hatinder Vohra from Saint-Gobain. Selection of right fire retardant materials while designing façade for any building is the key to address ‘reaction-to-fire’. This will also address the issue of flame spread. However, Perimeter Fire stopping is also a critical aspect in façade design to address flame spread. With the combination of these two - firstly right selection of façade materials and secondly, perimeter Fire stopping - major damage in case of fire can be avoided. Another key factor is compartmentalization or localisation of the fire.
UL 10 B
UL 10 C
In India, the British Standards are commonly followed. The test standard BS 476 has been prepared under the direction of the Fire Standards Committee, and describes the procedures for determining the fire resistance of elements of building construction.
of fire. This is called perimeter fire stopping. It should have a fire rating at least as much as the slab it abuts. The fire stop and the façade must act as an integrated system upon the occurrence of fire. This is very important to prevent spreading of flames from one compartment to another.
Perimeter Fire Stopping – Integral with the Façade In buildings, the space between the floor and the façades are sealed to prevent the spread
Application of fire stops
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Fire Resistance of Material – Aluminium Composite Panel (ACP) Core systems like walls, doors, ceiling etc. Hence, fire rated / fire resistant / 2-hour fire rating terminology is not relevant for ACP. A true fire retardant ACP should have:
It is very important to understand the difference between ‘Fire Resistance’ and ‘Reaction-to-Fire’. Even a normal paper is fire rated, but up to what level? Will this be acceptable? Answer is NO. ‘Reaction-to-Fire’ is more relevant to materials. It deals with combustibility, ignitability, flame spread, smoke development, burning droplets & toxicity. Since we are discussing about ACP, which is façade material, ‘Reaction-toFire’ is appropriate term for selection of ACP and not fire resistance. Fire resistance deals with compartmentalization abilities of building
- Ideally recommended mix and density of non-combustible content in the core is 70 per cent - Core must be self-extinguishing so that if the source of fire is put off then the core should not be a medium for propagation of fire Understanding the Performance Criteria of ACP with various test methodologies: With Commonly Flame Smoke Burning Selfasked tests Spread Emission Droplets Extingui- System shing ASTM E84 √ √ BS 476: √ Part 6&7 EN 13501-1 √ √ √ NFPA 285 √ √ √ BS 8414-1 √ √ √ √ ASTM E119 Not Applicable as this deals with Heat Transfer / Resistance of Wall Assembly System.
Perimeter fire stopping is one of key requirements, which will prevent fire/smoke spreading vertically from one floor to another floor in case of façades are continuous between floors. Overall integrity of the façade system at the floor level is critical to achieve fire resistance, explains Rajan Govind. Spreading of fire on tall buildings is controlled at the building envelope level. There are proven and time-tested details as per good practises to be followed with use of appropriate interfacing materials. Any compromise on materials, specification, detailing at this interface would have adverse impact on fire performances.
G. S. Balaji, Sr. Vice President - Projects, K Raheja Corp
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Perimeter fire stopping is normally designed for 90 or 120 minutes fire rating, explains G. S. Balaji, Sr. Vice president - Projects, K Raheja Corp. Perimeter fire stop is a passive fire safety strategy.
Therefore, an ideal fire retardant ACP must pass EN 13501-1 along with either NFPA 285 or BS 8414-1. Apart from the above, ACP with non-combustible core (mineral filler of more than 90%) is also available which can be considered for very tall buildings / places with very high human density. This product conforms to A2 as per EN 1305-1. In either of the above-mentioned ACP, a third party certification like ‘Class 1A’ from an agency of repute for the manufacturer of ACP would provide required assurance. Certification process of ‘Class 1A’ is: (a) The manufacturers facilities and production process is continuously inspected and checked by an accredited 3rd party (b) Such inspections involve random selection and marking of future test samples (c) Testing of such samples in accredited testing laboratories It is advisable to use ACP cladding without sealants.
According to Suresh from Axis Façade, most failures in façades are due to incorrect application of the fire stop or ignoring the fact that the fire could possibly travel to other floors. "International codes have clearly defined the process and the application, but in India unfortunately we have not been able to regulate the code and ensure the correct application of the product. All fire stop systems need to be in accordance with BS476 Part 20, EN 1366 Part 4 and EN 1364 Part 4", says Suresh. Compartmentalization in Structures Compartmentalization is very important to limit the spread of flame by the use of physical barriers, says Vohra from Saint Gobain. These barriers could be walls, partitions and floors. It is to ensure there is no possibility for the flame to spread. The structure used for compartmentalization should not collapse under fire. It should not transmit heat from the non-fire side to the fireside as it could set all combustible items on the cold side on fire. Therefore, integrity and the insulation performance of the structure are very important when it comes to compartmentalization.
According to the NBC (National Building Code), the size of the compartment shall be as follows: Use
Compartmentation area (m2) Basement car parking 3 000 Basements (other than car 2 000 parking) Institutional Buildings sub-division C-1 1 800 Institutional Buildings sub-division C-2 and C-3 1 125 Mercantile and Assembly 3 000 Building Business Buildings 2 000 All other buildings [excluding low hazard and 750 moderate hazard industrial buildings and storage buildings]
Compartmentalization in faรงades is limited to sealing the perimeter of a space to ensure that in the event of a fire, no smoke or fire travels from this particular compartment either vertically or horizontally, explains Suresh. This allows for the easy and safe evacuation of the occupants. The fire stop is based on the fire load calculated / Sq m and needs to be certified by a fire engineer. It shall be an accredited system which shall be inspected prior handover of the building.
Fire spread in unprotected construction
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In unprotected construction, the fire can spread through: safing gap if unprotected or incorrect application of the fire stop, curtain wall head / transom and the curtain wall cavity, and spandrel glass if
not provided with a shadow box and insulation, adds Suresh. Compartmentalization of structures is practised in car park areas which are divided into various zones and considered the most hazardous area of a building, says Balaji from K Raheja Corp. Maximum area of each zone is specified in the NBC , modified from time to time. These zones are separated by masonry or concrete walls. Fire rated doors and the passage area between these zones are installed with fire curtains which are mechanically operated on receiving signals from fire alarm system. These fire curtains usually having fire rating of 1 or 2 hours and the fire doors and the masonry and concrete walls should be fire rated for 2 hours as per clause 4.2.9. In basement parking system, local CFOs (Chief Fire Officer) insist on having a peripheral drencher system in addition to sprinkler and smoke exhaust system. Compartmentalisation of the lift lobby has become common in high-rise building as this area leads to the staircase and to the fire escape chute, which normally starts, from the mid-landing of the staircase. Openings and Ventilators Ventilation is another important aspect to look at while designing faรงades. The smoke management in case of fire by providing proper ventilation system to carry smoke and heat from fire compartment to the atmosphere is very vital in an installation. Otherwise
fire may spread on the entire floor or can travel to upper floors due to stack effect, notes Warick. Openable windows are necessary for buildings. "NBC stipulates upto 10 per cent openable windows for the purpose of safety. However, we provide about 20 per cent of openable windows so that a proper building flush out can be done. In addition, it provides an opportunity for occupants to open the windows for natural ventilation. This ensures healthy indoor environment for occupants", points out Nagaraj Kollegal, Infosys. Conventional openable windows need to be automated. Automated ventilation helps to prevent spreading of fire and is a very critical aspect. The automatic smoke vent helps in terms of evacuating the smoke generated in the room or the affected space. “Through research, we understood that the flashover happens in 4 minutes from the event of the fire and the glass shatters anyway before the firefighter reachs the location. The approximate travel time to any fire affected building considering the infrastructure is approximately 8 minutes. Thus, the reason for openable windows being manually operated does not serve the purpose. We feel that the automatic smoke vent may not be a good idea considering the cost parameter, but currently is mandatory especially in Mumbai,” observes Suresh. Importance of Choosing the Right Sealant for Walls, Doors, Windows, Floors, Ceilings etc. Walls, doors, windows, floors, ceiling etc. are part of building systems. All these must be ‘Fire Resistant’. Therefore, it is imperative to select sealants that are also highly retardant to fire. For instance, when a fire fully develops in a room, how long would it take to propagate through these systems into a neighbouring compartment? Hence, selection of right grade of sealant is equally important in order to have a foolproof fire protection, says PV Somasundaram, 3A Composites.
and pipe crossing across walls and floors, there are still many areas where the sealant choice can be improved by developers, says Balaji. At the time of façade design, emphasis must be on proper systems. It is important to mention the positions where edges should be sealed through aluminium profiles and the inclusion of (steel) firestops / barriers. Modern façade design also should have an insulation component for energy conservation, but fire is a special consideration here as well. Most insulation foams do not qualify, rockwool/glasswool products can, states Somasundaram. On materials, use of exposed insulation like EPS, XPS should be avoided in the indoors as they can emit toxic smoke in case of fire. It is better to have it in the double wall cavity, or in the exterior, says Kollegal. Other Façade Design Aspects It is recommended that fire safety designs comply with good practice, international and local standards, says Govind. Building façade can only provide limited function such as ventilation. Hence, it is important for overall building fire resistance and fire protection design to focus on building fire protection systems such as sprinklers, ventilations, fire escape, etc. Signage and building plans with training in fire drill or evacuation drill helps occupants to reach to place
Right choice of sealant also ensures that smoke does not travel into other areas and prevents fire from spreading. Though some intumescent sealants are used by some developers to seal cable crossing
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Today in Developing countries Design for Implicit Performance One Size Fits All...... Means of Escape Compartmentation of each room Geometry
Sprinklers sticking out in all rooms Fire coatings all exposed steel
Compromised Aesthetics More Factor of Safety Unidentified mistakes
of safety in case of any emergency, says Warick. Agreeing with Warick, Kollegal too points out that fire exits and escape routes like staircases need to be manifested. According to Balaji of K Raheja, building plan and layouts now-a-days strictly adhere to norms provided in the NBC & local CFO’s NOC. Width of stairways should be minimum 2 meters with proper integration between the escape doors and the BMS system. Emergency doors, depending on the nature of the buildings, are mandatory to be fire rated for minimum 2 hours and should provide for easy escape for person trapped in case of a fire and keep them segregated from the fire creating a fireproof compartment. Use of self-glow lights, hooter etc., are mandated by the codes & CFOs to enable people to follow the signage in case of a fire for proper and safe evacuation. Hatinder Vohra also agrees with Balaji on the specifications for stairways and fire doors. He adds that for all occupancies, the code specifies the requirements of exits, stairways, passageways, egress, compartments and even the required time of fire resistance of the building elements. By keeping
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this in mind, while designing a building one can ensure increased reaction to fire and fire resistance. The distance between buildings is another important aspect. Minimum setback between two buildings should be at least 1/3 of height of the building. . Internationally for all tall or high-rise buildings, the firefighting is done from inside the building. The building fire prevention, protection and life safety systems should be provided and maintained 24X7, which will ensure the fire and life safety of the occupants. We cannot rely on tall ladders for carrying out firefighting rescue operations as there are various limitations for external operations with these ladders, points out Warick. “The maximum height of ladder available in the market is of 110 m and we have number of buildings coming up from 150 m to 450 m in Mumbai. The only reliable option is to ensure fire and life safety of occupant is by providing in-built fire and life safety systems, which will ensure early detection of fire and activation of fire suppression systems to contain the fire,” he adds. Fire safety strategy is a very complicated and directly revolves around human behaviour, thus a building design with the best of the active systems will not work unless and until they are maintained and inspected periodically. Standards Several international standards have enhanced and implemented stringent requirements, which has challenged the manufacturers and suppliers to aim for better fire safe materials. According to Rajan Govind, this has resulted in wide availability of fire resistant cladding and variety of options for non-combustible materials for building façade applications. Furthermore, façade interfacing details such as floor sealing interfaces have greatly improved with new breed of high performance materials such as fire insulation, fire rated sealants etc. These aspects will help to improve the overall façade systems, not just materials alone. The Bureau of Indian Standards does not have an Indian Standard for fire resistant glass façade, says
structural glazing. More of laminated and toughened glass is used for façade glazing in high-rise buildings, he adds.
Warick. “It is high time to adopt latest international standards for glass cladding which will ensure all aspects of fire safety and in turn provided safety of occupants and also to the fire fighters who enter the building for carrying out firefighting and rescue operations,” he adds. There are several leading international fire standards available with regards to the building materials; just to name few standards like NFPA, BS 476 (Part 6&7), DIN 4102, NBC Pt4. These standards have a grading system and performances set out to classify materials on fire. Materials are classified based on its performances on fire propagation and smoke spread, notes Rajan Govind. It is recommended that all façade material achieve ‘Class 0’ grade as per BS 476 or equivalent International standards. This means that material can be used at any location and has better resistance on fire propagation and smoke emissions. Major advancement in terms of façade design and technology in fire safety in buildings is more often a copy of standard followed in the British and American codes which reflect in the IS codes, notes Balaji from K Raheja Corp. Glass façade cladded buildings in India are new and not many buildings have opted for 100 per cent glass façade due to cost. CFO regulations in respective cities do not permit them especially for high-rise buildings. Fire rated glass usage is slowly becoming popular for specific uses such as server and data room and not in use for
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The strict implementation of Part-IV of NBC, i.e. Fire and Life Safety, will help to minimise the out-beak of fires and to save precious lives and national property, says Santosh Warick. After experiencing difficulties in dowsing 2-3 major fires of glass façade buildings, the Mumbai Fire Brigade has come up with some guidelines on glass façade buildings to ensure the fire and life safety of the occupants. Similar guidelines covering all aspects of glass façade will be made available in the NBC amendment. According to Balaji, NBC part 4 specifies that all façade materials used must be non-combustible, type 1 low flame spread and good engineering practice must be followed to reduce the risk of fire and subsequent casualties. Passive and active fire systems must be installed. Annexure C of NBC stipulates in detail the dos and don’ts for a highrise building above 15 m of height. Façade cladding material are primarily granite, glass, FRP, ACP etc. which normally should have min 1 -2 hour fire rating to comply with requirements on lift & safety, observes Balaji. Clause 3.4.19 specifies 1-hour fire rated glass for high-rise buildings where glass is used as a façade material, he points out. Warick notes that the total requirements for glass façade buildings from stability, integrity, insulation, ventilation and openings point of view is not provided in any Indian Standard. The proposed NBC will provide such guidelines for glass facade buildings. In India, the quality of fire rated material and the technology used for constructing fire retardant façades has to improve. “We lack automation. Contractors do not use money effectively. Thus, we lose out on many critical aspects like sealants, and filling air gaps or to achieve fully packed buildings,” says Kollegal. Fire resistant glass rated for 2 hours is ideal for façade, he adds. Façade skins available like HPL (High Pressure Laminates), for example, satisfies aesthetic and fire resistance needs. Other
materials that are ideal include ACP, clay tiles with voids, etc. Façade material should allow the building to breathe. With respect to façades, primarily use of noncombustible/fire retardant materials is required, notes Ar. Anupam De. A case in point is the need to use fire retardant Aluminum composite cladding. While in the Indian context the NBC is a guideline, this itself is under revision, says Architect De, there is not much clarity with respect to façade itself. Further, cities which have their own regulations, do not follow the NBC, like Mumbai. Balaji says that all type 1 material – low flame spread material- must be used in façade and interior finishes as mentioned in clause 184.108.40.206. Type 4 material – high flame spread material- must be avoided. In multi storey buildings with glass façade, use of fire rated material must be jointly agreed by the clients, architects, façade, structural and MEP consultants as per the norms in NBC part 4 and complaint to local CFO requirements. Table 1 in Clause 3.3.1 of the National Building Code of India specifies the fire resistance required for external walls. The fire ratings depend on the fire separation or the distance between the external walls of two buildings. This is important so as to prevent the spread of fire from one building to another. Fire Separation
Type of Construction Type 1
Type 2 Type 3 Type 4
3.7 m - 9 m
Fire resistance rating of non-load bearing external walls for all types of construction
In the façade design process, CFO inputs and NOC conditions are considered to provide fire safety standards and equipment, which can be operated during fire. There is no demand still in the residential and commercial buildings to provide
smoke extraction systems in the lift lobbies or through the staircase, which is a practice in the Middle East & Western countries. Smoke ventilators in the skylight or atrium tops are activated through actuators whenever fire alarm is triggered. Normally, in residential buildings with glass façades, manually operated hatch windows are provided which can be opened during fire to allow smoke to escape. Clause 3.4.12 deals with the smoke venting systems that must be installed in various types of buildings and in different locations. Conclusion Globally, specifiers and building owners are required to meet stringent regulations aimed at protecting inhabitants and also building structure and surrounding environment from fire hazards. But, irrespective of regulations, it is imperative for users to choose the right grade of building materials to minimize damage to human lives and structures. A lot depends on using the right kind of products and systems and utmost care has to be taken in choosing the right grade of fire retardant (FR) material so as to mitigate the risk of fire. As per the provisions of Fire Act, it is the responsibility of the owner or occupier to provide and maintain fire and life safety systems in the building, says Warick. But the reality is that systems are not maintained and in case of an actual emergency, it does not work leading to loss of lives and property. Appropriate testing of façade materials and the perimeter fire stopping systems are critical to ensure adequate performance of the façade system of the building in case of a fire. All fire performance components in a building must function as part of the fire safety strategy. Designers must emphasise that true protection comes from a fully certified and tested system/assembly. The fixing methods currently used in India are below standards and do create quite a chimney behind the façade for the fire to be vertically drawn upwards. As for the strategy, prevention is the key, which again is not a question of a single component like the panel, but the entire system.
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The world looks better
Creativity: boschyserret.com 3D Image: beauty&thebit
Technal, aluminium glazing systems for an improved quality of life: even distribution of natural light, large dimensions, high performance acoustic insulation and energy efficiency. Aluminium building systems suitable for the most contemporary of creative architecture, with a diverse range of styles, finishes and textures. Aluminium building systems in tune with today’s concerns: the environment, security and accessibility. For a more comfortable living space. For more harmonious towns and cities. For a better world.”
Windows - Doors - Façades www.technal.com
The world looks better
Creativity: boschyserret.com 3D Image: beauty&thebit
Technal, aluminium glazing systems for an improved quality of life: even distribution of natural light, large dimensions, high performance acoustic insulation and energy efficiency. Aluminium building systems suitable for the most contemporary of creative architecture, with a diverse range of styles, finishes and textures. Aluminium building systems in tune with today’s concerns: the environment, security and accessibility. For a more comfortable living space. For more harmonious towns and cities. For a better world.”
Windows - Doors - Façades www.technal.com
Fire & Safety
Passive Fire Protection – Saving Lives About the Author:
Andrew Kay, Global Facades Manager, Siderise The possibility of a fire in a tall building is always an emotive subject as the potential for loss of life is that much higher. There is a long history of fatal fires in tall buildings dating back well over 60 years. In 1946 a fire in the Winecoff Hotel, Atlanta GA cost 119 lives, many as a result of jumping. Other notable disaster such as the Joelma Building¹ in São Paulo, Brazil (179 deaths), Hotel Dupont Plaza¹ in San Juan, Puerto Rico (97 deaths) and the Garley Building¹ in Hong Kong (41 deaths) have made those responsible for building codes and regulations around the world sit up and take note. India has also suffered its fair share of high rise fires.
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Andrew Kay has over 30 years’ experience in the construction industry. The bulk of this was gained in his 25 years spent at Hilti (GB) Ltd where he managed a variety of different markets. His last 10 years were spent managing Hilti’s fire protection team where he was responsible for bringing the first curtain wall spray firestops into the UK market. Prior to joining Siderise, he gained invaluable experience at Exova Warringtonfire working on 3rd party certification schemes, CE marking and fire testing. He is an ex-chairman of both the Association for Specialist Fire Protection and the Fire-stopping Forum, as well as vice chair of the Fire Safety Development Group.
Mantralaya is the administrative headquarters of the state government of Maharashtra in South Mumbai and in 2012 a faulty electrical circuit led to a fire in the 7 storey office block that killed 5 people and injured
more than 20. A major blaze broke out on the 21st floor of Lotus Business Park in Mumbai in 2014 and 21 firemen were stranded on the rooftop for several hours before finally being rescued. One fireman
Fire at Mantralaya, Mumbai
unfortunately lost his life and the incident led to charges of negligence being levied against the owners, developers, occupiers, secretary, chairman and manager of the building. Another Mumbai tragedy occurred in June 2013. 4 people were killed and 13 seriously injured when fire swept through the 14 storey IndusInd Bank building. The most common cause of death in a fire is though smoke inhalation rather than the flames themselves. Suffocation from smoke and noxious gasses account for more than 80 per cent of fatalities. Smoke travels at up to 130 metres every minute and whilst most people can easily move at this rate in normal circumstances, the majority of survivors of fires stated that smoke restricted their ability to see to no more than 4 metres. The majority of fatalities happen to people who were not in the room where the fire originated. In 1996 a fire in Dusseldorf airport² terminal building led to 7 people dying from the inhalation of noxious gasses. They were all in a VIP lounge some 400 metres from the seat of the fire and were not even aware that the fire had occurred. The smoke had travelled along ventilation ducts from the terminal to the lounge. In all, 17 people died in the airport fire. A key area of concern when it comes to fire and smoke
Fire at Lotus Business Park in Mumbai
spread is the gap maintained between a building slab edge and a façade designed to accommodate the movement of the structure. The perimeter barrier firestop systems required in cladding systems vary dependant on the façade type. In a curtain wall system the perimeter barrier sits behind the façade, between the edge of the building slab and the façade itself. Its purpose is to act as a continuation of the floor slab right up to the façade whilst allowing for dynamic movement that can be caused by a number of differing factors. Typically the taller the building, the more movement will need to be accommodated. The installation of a perimeter barrier that cannot cope with the continual stresses imposed by positive and negative wind loads will eventually lead to a breakdown in the fire compartmentation measures designed to prevent the passage of flames and noxious gasses from one floor to the next. The use of incorrect materials such as glass wool
being used as firestops can also lead to unnecessary fire spread. Glass wool has a melting point of 680° and so will not perform when an average fire reaches the peak temperatures of between 900° and 1200°. Sprinklers are a vital component in restricting fires in tall buildings. However, they should not be seen as an alternative to adequate passive fire protection measures. Sprinklers often fail to fully extinguish a fire but will stop breakout through glazing components. In these circumstances, a rapid increase in pressure occurs and smoke is then forced under pressure through any gaps. The passive firestops tend to be even more critical in protecting lives and property in these circumstances. So what are the Key Considerations when Designing the Perimeter Barrier and Firestop Requirement? • The product should be tested to a recognised test standard
1. NFPA data, 2. Wikipedia, 3. NDTV article
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restrict the passage of smoke. Where there is potential for gaps, the product must be sealed with a sealant that carries the same fire insulation and integrity rating as the perimeter barrier.
Fire at Mantralaya, Mumbai killed 5 people and injured more than 20
to not only prove its ability to prevent the spread of flame but also its performance with regards to resisting a rise in temperature on the non fire side. All products should be capable of equal fire insulation and integrity ratings. These will normally be 120 minutes. • The product should be installed under compression and must have test evidence to show that it is capable of accommodating movement of a façade. It is imperative that the installed seal is able to function effectively with due regard to all designed movement serviceability limits. Curtain walling and cladding façade systems will deflect due to positive and negative windloads as well as occupational live loads. These criteria are covered by EN 13116:2001. Typically, a project may stipulate that the curtain walling system may have the following allowable deflection limits:
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Under the declared wind loads the maximum frontal deflection of the curtain walling’s framing members shall not exceed L/200 or 15mm, whichever is lesser, when measured between the points of support or anchorage to the building’s structure in compliance with EN 13116. [Extract from EN 13830] These factors may inevitably combine to preclude the suitability and therefore, use of certain systems e.g. high density material slab products. • Perimeter barriers must be installed to provide horizontal compartmentation at every floor level. Vertical cavity barriers should be provided as a minimum to fall in line with any compartment wall and more frequently if dictated by the fire strategy of the building. • Products should be fitted tightly around all bracketry to
• All installations should be in accordance with manufacturers’ instructions and where fixing brackets are required these should be fitted and spaced in accordance with a certified fire test report. • Products used for fire safety installation should carry an independent third party certification in order to ensure that the product supplied is the same as that tested. • The gap between the slab edge and the façade is often a weak point acoustically. Any products used to improve the acoustic performance must not contribute to the fire load or inhibit the performance of the perimeter barrier. Whilst specifying the correct product is vital, it is also important to put emphasis on the quality of installation. Always make sure that any contractor employed in installing life safety measures such as perimeter barriers and firestops has had adequate training on the particular manufacturer’s product and is qualified to install it. Well designed and installed systems can same many lives and protect businesses and property.
Advertorial Sun Glazing
For High Quality & Speedy Facade Installation
Mr. Madhusudhan Director, Sun Glazing
Sun Glazing is a leading Curtain wall Glazing Contractor in South India involved in the design, fabrication & Installation of building facades, including stick curtain walls, and pre-glazed unitized curtain wall systems. Sun Glazing was founded by Mr. Madhusudhan, a Mechanical Engineer by profession, with a 20 year expertise in the Aluminium industry, Initially the company was manufacturing complete Unitized Glazing Panels at its factory for various projects such as the Hyderabad International Airport , Ascendas IT Park , Novotel etc, Thereon the company has been taking up turnkey Façade Glazing contracts and earned a reputation as one of the reliable brand in
the Curtain Wall Glazing Industry at Hyderabad, Bangalore & Vishakhapatnam region. Sun Glazing has recently completed the facade envelope using Pre-Glazed Unitized panels for “SLN Terminus” Commercial building located next to the Botanical Gardens at Kondapur, Hyderabad. The unitized panels at project SLN were composed of large panels with a maximum size of 2.2 meter width x 5.2 meter height. These panels were manufactured & glazed at our factory and shifted to the site. Once on site, the panels are erected onto galvanized steel adjustable serrated brackets anchored to the building. Using this system we were able to achieve high quality & Speedy Installation, therefore were able to complete the facade erection of 12000 Sq m within 5 months, and meeting the project time lines as scheduled. FACT FILE Project: SLN Terminus Location: Gachibowli, Hyderabad Client: Terminus Infrastructure India Pvt Ltd Architect: P G Patki Architects Other Consultants: Landbase Consulting India Pvt Ltd / Facet Construction Engineering Pvt Ltd Material Used For Facade: Global Aluminium, Saint Gobain Glass, Jindal G.I. Sheets Commencement Date: November - 13 Completion Date: April - 14 Area: 12000 sq m
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A RELIABLE BRAND IN THE FACADE INDUSTRY
Sun Glazing & Fabrication is a leading Curtain wall Glazing Contractor in South India, involved in the Design, Fabrication & Installation of Building Façades. Sun Glazing has been established in the year 2006. Initially the company has been manufacturing complete Glazing Panels in its factory for various projects such as the Hyderabad International Airport... etc. Thereon the company has been taking up turnkey Façade Glazing contracts for projects such as Honeywell, Holiday Inn Hotel, Nektar Research & Development, Alexandria Knowledge Park, Dr Reddy’s Laboratories, Broad Ridge Financial, SLN Terminus.. Etc Sun Glazing has the expertise in undertaking facade contracts involved in the design, supply & Installation of the following types of works: Unitized/ Semi unitized Structural Glazing using Double/ Single Glazed glass.
Sliding doors and windows & installation of Automatic Doors. Special Hinged Partitions using toughened glasses and Dorma / Equivalent Hardware.
Curtain wall Glazing using double/ Single Glazed glass.
Sliding-Folding / Circular Doors / Partitions. North light glazing.
Leaf Sky Light Glazing using Insulated Glass/ Polycarbonate / Laminated Glass.
Aluminum Composite Panel Cladding.
Inclined Glazing using Double Glazed / Single Glazed openable
Tension Cable & Cable Net Glazing
Canopies using Steel, Glass/ Aluminum composite panels
Sun Glazing & Fabrication Office : 601, Adithya West End, No-12, Umanagr, Green Lands, Hyderabad-500016. India. Factory : C-63. Industrial Estate, Sanathnagar. Hyderabad – 500018 Tel: 91-40-23400438 |Cell : +91 9849333011 | Email:email@example.com | Website: www.sunglazing.com
Advertorial “All Our Exterior Products are Certified from Germany by EPH”
Vishal Dokania Director, Cedar Décor Durian Decorative Laminates
Please give us a brief introduction of yourself and your firm I am Vishal Dokania, BSc from University of Maryland, USA and MBA in Entrepreneurship from University of Missouri, USA. Cedar Decor Pvt. Ltd. Is a manufacturer of Durian Decorative and Exterior (Cladding) Grade Laminates. Tell us about your experience in business and in the market I have 10 Years of experience into manufacturing of HPL - 4 Production lines producing over 125 Lac square feet of material per month.
our exterior grade products. All details can be found on http://durianlam.com/portfolio/exterior-range/ Please brief on Cedar’s contribution in bringing about the current revolution in this industry (Façade /windows/doors applications)? After personally researching the exterior compact product for over two years, I was able to develop a quality product (with 10 years warranty) and German Lab certification made for and, most importantly, priced for the Indian market. Where are your products manufactured?
Please brief on the generic organizational profile and structure of your company Cedar Decor is a Private Limited Company with two company owned depots in Delhi and Chandigarh. We have over 60 distributors who in turn have over 10,000 authorized dealers selling our product pan India. Internationally we have distributors in Nepal, Russia, Singapore and Dubai. We also export routinely to Kenya and Bahrain. What are the main line of products manufactured and marketed by your company pertaining to façade & fenestration? For facades we have Exterior Grade Compact Laminates. All our exterior products are certified from Germany by EPH. We offer 10 year warranty on
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All our products are manufactured in India. We are in Design collaboration with Schattdecor, Germany; and UV technology from Evonik Industries, Germany. What are the advantages of your products? Our products have the following advantages: They have 100% UV Protection, chemical resistance, high sound insulation, impact resistance, climate stability, thickness precision, etc. and are anti-graffiti and antisoiling. Moreover, they are termite and borer proof, scratch resistant and easy to clean. We have a catalog of popular façade designs developed in collaboration with Schattdecor, Germany. Custom designs can also be developed based on customer requirements.
Advertorial FunderMax Max Exterior Individual Decor
With the advent of digital printing technology, façades today have become a large size canvas for creative designers. Façade customization by direct digital printing is a different and creative way to apply corporate logos and large-format images to a building, and it also allows decorating façades with optical effects of materials and textures, custom designs etc. Possibilities are almost unlimited. FunderMax individual décor panels give life to an architect’s dreams. They not only enable high quality
Clientis Bank Leerau, Switzerland
digital printing on the panel itself but also ensure that the panel does not lose its other attributes including optimal light fastness. The
Röthlheimbad with Hannah-Stockbauer hall, Erlangen, Germany
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result is a high quality, durable product that not only grabs all the attention, but is also maintenance free. Such a product can not only be used for façade claddings, but can be used for other applications such as balconies, tables, furniture, cubicles, kitchen or other applications. For more details on the product, contact: Ashwani Khanna Head - Marketing FunderMax India Pvt Ltd No 13, 1st Floor, 13th Cross, Wilson Garden, Bangalore - 560027, India Tel.: +91 80 46617000 Email:OfficeIndia@fundermax. biz www.fundermax.at www.facebook.at/fundermax
Fire & Safety
Perimeter Protection is Mandatory About the Author:
Sajid Raza, CEO & Vice President, Butler Engineering – The Fire Consultants
Sajid Raza is the CEO & Vice President of Butler Engineering. A Mechanical Engineer and MBA with over 20 years of rich experience, Sajid has a sound track record in the field of Fire Protection and Life Safety. Under his leadership, Butler Fire Consulting provides a wide range of services including fire engineering, code consulting, loss control, special inspections & quality management, and training & education. Sajid’s current portfolio includes active association with ASTM, FCIA, NFPA, IAS, FM, and UL. In addition, he is member of FCIA Standards Committee, IAS Technical Advisory Council, UL Standards Technical Panel, and UAE Fire Code Council. As member of UAE Code Council and chairman of its various subcommittees, Sajid has provided a unique dimension to the first chapter ‘Rated Construction’ covering Perimeter Protection.
It was February 12, 2005, when an electrical fault on the 21st floor of the Windsor building in Madrid started a small fire. The building was unoccupied and the fire was undetected for quite some time before the city’s fire officials were notified. By the time they arrived, the magnificent 32-story structure was essentially lost. All that firefighters could do was to try for the next 18 hours to keep the fire from spreading to adjacent structures. There was no impact from a jumbo jetliner, and this fire lacked the thousands of gallons of jet fuel that so readily accelerated the World Trade Center fires. It was just a little electrical problem. So how could this fire spread so uncontrollably that it consumed eleven higher floors and turned the fourth largest structure in Spain’s capital to rubble? Unfortunately, we may not be able to avoid such disasters where the perimeter of the structure is not effective enough to contain fires to the area of origin.
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On November 21, 1980, fire ripped through the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas. 679 people were injured and 84 died in the fire. Openings in vertical shafts and seismic joints acted as chimneys, spreading smoke and heat all the way through the 26th floor. Guests found out about the fire by actually seeing smoke or because others told them. The hotel’s alarm system was destroyed before fire alarms could activate. In the late evening of May 4, 1988, a fire broke out on the 9th floor of the 1st Interstate Bank Building in Los Angeles. A shrill coming from a smoke detector caused an employee to try to reset it. By then, nearly 15 minutes had passed before the blaze was reported to the fire department. By the time firefighters arrived, the fire had leapfrogged to the 13th floor and the 14th was being threatened; smoke was filling all 62 floors of the building. A maintenance employee who was investigating the source of the fire died in an elevator at the fire floor.
Fire officials reported that the flames had spread up inside the exterior walls, where glass fiber insulation had failed. On October 16, 2004, the Parque Central complex in downtown Caracas, Venezuela, saw flames engulfing its 56-story office tower. What started on the 34th floor had spread over 26 floors during the 17hour blaze. It was reported that although sprinklers were working, there was not enough water pressure to suppress the flames on the higher floors. The building was unoccupied at the time of the fire. On December 6, 2004, fire raked the 29th floor of the LaSalle Bank Building in downtown Chicago. Fortunately, this historic 75-year old concrete and steel structure was able to contain the fire, and fire fighters on an adjacent rooftop were able to reach much of it with their hose stream. Over the six hours of the fire, the flames had only engaged the 29th and 30th floors. Just one year before, a fire on the 12th floor of the Cook County Administration Building killed six people. On the contrary, the recent Address Hotel fire in Dubai on December 31, 2015 (New Year Eve) is a living example of an effective passive fire protection including the perimeter. The exterior burnt, but the perimeter fire barrier prevented flames, smoke and toxic gases from spreading inside the building. Hence, averting the potential disaster to human Fig.2: Fire at the lives. Imagine the Address Hotel, Dubai
disaster on such a high rise had there been a compromise on passive measures! What we have learnt from these fires is that the perimeter protection needs to be the center of focus. Another aspect is that there are three ways for fire to spread from seemingly contained areas: • Poke through effect - this is where flame and hot gasses penetrate through openings in fire-rated walls and floor/ceilings to ignite combustibles on the other side. • Chimney effect - is where heated surfaces create thermal zones that include upward air movement, which in turn sucks hot gasses and flames in its Fig. 3: Chimney effect direction. This effect is attributed to the spread of fire upward through shafts, and also the spread of fire upward though available openings between the floor slab edge and the curtain wall (Fig. 3). • Leapfrog effect- this effect is apparent in mid- to high-rise building fires where flames blasting out through perimeter windows ultimately reach back in through the windows above and continue to spread vertically to upper floors (Fig. 4). To combat these three identified ways of fire propagation, during early 70s, industry experts started designing systems to block these propagations. Many system tests came in existence including ASTM E 2307 in 1990s (Fig. 5). It is a test standard for determining the fire resistance of perimeter fire barrier systems using the intermediate multi-story test apparatus. Multistory testing has shown that
Fig. 4: Leapfrog effect
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spandrel height has an impact on the leapfrog effect, and can critically enhance the structureâ€™s ability to contain a fire to the room of origin. Testing in a controlled environment, using a simulated office setting complete with office furniture, Fig. 5: Testing - ASTM E 2307 proved the point. In in 1990s a system without an insulated spandrel panel between the floor slab and the curtain wall, the fire not only broke through the lower level vision glass, but spread to the floor above in just five minutes. In early 2000, both UL and OPL were testing and listing complete curtain wall systems. Today, ASTM E 2307 is the test method used by both listing agencies. Perimeter Protection Building Envelop A barrier that separates the interior of the building from the outdoor (exterior) environment is termed as building envelope or exterior building facade. Perimeter Fire Barrier A gap, joint, or opening, whether static or dynamic, between a fire-rated floor assembly and a non-rated exterior wall assembly. (Fig. 6) Fig. 6: Perimeter fire barrier These fires provide a glimpse of vertical fire spread (Fig. 7 a & b). Imagine, the fire enters the building and perimeter barrier is not protected!
The Problem The architects and building ownersâ€™ desires to have unique design and aesthetics! The result is a beautiful facade without a listed and tested
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Fig. 7a: Vertical Spread in high-rise buildings
system. Issues with mullion and transom spacing, multiple transoms, spandrel heights, floor location with respect to the sill height, mounting brackets, etc., all vary and create a variety of conditions. Yet, in the final building approval process, perimeter fire containment must provide a system that meets the building code requirements. Complicating these requirements are some curtain wall manufacturersâ€™ restrictions prohibiting mechanical fasters from penetrating their mullions or transoms since unitized systems use these areas for water management from the exterior of the building. The building code recognizes the need to provide supporting documentation Fig. 7 b: Vertical spread of fire such as tests, research reports and sufficient evidence that the proposed system meets the basic principles necessary for perimeter fire barrier protection.
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The Solution Every listed system in the Fire Resistant Directories has 5 basic principles that must be applied for a successful perimeter fire protection system: 1. Install a reinforcement member or a stiffener at the safe-off area behind the spandrel insulation to keep it from bowing due to the compression-fit of the safing Insulation. 2. Mechanical attachment of the Mineral Wool Spandrel Insulation – adhesive attachments and friction fit applications do not work. The adhesive service temperature ranges from - 30oF to 250oF. Fire exposure temperatures based on ASTM E119 very quickly exceeds the adhesive service temperatures resulting in failure of the adhesive applied attachment to hold the spandrel insulation in place Fig. 8: Curtain-wall assembly (Fig. 8). 3. Protection of the mullions with mineral wool mullion covers. Aluminium begins to melt at 1220oF. Without the mullion protection on the fire exposure side, the aluminium mullions and transoms will soften and melt. The mechanical attachments holding the mineral wool spandrel insulation in place will no longer be held in place allowing the spandrel and safing insulation to fall out resulting in a breach of flame and hot gasses to the floor above. 4. Compression fitting and orientation of the safing insulation (Fig. 9). The safing insulation is compression fit (typically 25 per cent, but varies by system) between the slab edge and the inside face of the spandrel insulation. This compression fitting of the safing insulation creates a seal that maintains its integrity preventing flame and hot gasses from breaching through to the floor above
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Fig. 9: Safing insulation
5. Apply an approved smoke sealant material to the top of the safing insulation to provide a smoke barrier to the system (Fig. 10). The smoke seal is commonly spray applied to the top of the safing (non-fire exposure side) forming a smoke barrier with a typical L rating or leakage rating of 0. In addition, a 1” over spray as specified, onto the floor slab and spandrel insulation creates a continuous bond that adds to holding the safing material in place during the fire and Fig. 10: Smoke seal joint spray building movement. Protecting the Perimeter The detailed specification that guides the design, installation, inspection and maintenance – popularly termed as DIIM philosophy – is the effective solution for perimeter protection. A proven design, proper installation, mandatory inspection, periodic maintenance with effective management shall not only ensure a fire safe perimeter but also provide structural safety to the entire façade system assembly (Fig. 11, 12). To summarize, what does an effective Perimeter Fire Barrier System do? • Extends the rating of the floor to the wall • Slows down the process of flame and smoke spread. Of course, it depends on window spacing and other construction factors. As well as the nature and severity of the fire • In addition to sealing the perimeter gap, it provides structural protection and maximizes the integrity of the wall system keeping the wall and window system above intact longer
Fig. 11: Protecting the perimeter
• Forces the fire to exit the building • Protects structural elements and helps prevent catastrophic failure of the spandrel system • Maximizes fire protection afforded by the nonrated wall • Prevents the migration of flame, hot gases and smoke through to floors above. Smoke is the killer! 75 per cent of fire related deaths are caused by smoke • Buys time for occupants to escape • Buys time for first responders to secure the building • Provides additional protection in the event of a sprinkler or detection failure • Provides energy savings through increased thermal efficiencies throughout the life of the building • Immense fire and life safety benefits! What Do Codes Say? • All Model Codes call for the rating of the floor to extend to the exterior wall
• All Model Codes require minimum spandrel height but allow height exceptions in certain sprinklered conditions • Extending the rated floor to the wall is madatory! Summary As a practicing fire consultant, a passive fire protection expert, and member of UAE Fire Code MANDATORY! Council, I recommend that code provisions be strictly enforced globally. The DIIM Philosophy of Fire Protection The perimeter joint must be sealed with an approved design is one such system that extends the rating to the exterior wall surface. provision. This philosophy Fig. 12: Making Perimeter protection applies to mandatory all the fire protection and life safety systems. There may be a good design but the installation is not done properly. Third party inspection is the answer.
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Fire & Safety
Perimeter Fire Barrier Containment About the Author: Yavnish Adlakha is the Regional Product Manager - Firestops for Sub Region Gulf, Near East and East Africa for Hilti. He has over 12 years’ experience in the field of passive fire protection He also worked closely with Bureau of Indian Standards to influence National Building Code of India.
Yavnish Adlakha, Regional Product Manager – BU Chemicals, Hilti Marketing Competence Center Middle East I Near-East and Eastern Africa
After completing his Engineering Degree from Delhi College of Engineering in 2003, Yavnish started his fire protection career with Promat and later with 3M. He completed his Master’s in Business Administration and moved to Middle East in 2010 where he setup the Firestop Division for Fischer. Then he moved to Hilti as Product Manager in 2014. Yavnish is also an enthusiastic trainer and dexterously trained more than 200 architects / specifiers / consultants on passive fire protection. He has composed a book on Passive Fire Protection.
Fire, what do you think about it? If I ask you to close your eyes right now for few seconds and think about FIRE…………….What comes to your mind? I am sure most of the time it is smoke, heat, people running, panic, fire brigade, etc. But why all these bad thoughts comes to our mind. Have we ever thought that fire is a blessing that has happened to mankind since it is discovered and we can’t live without it? It’s been 800,000 years, we’re the only beings on the planet who light fires, who cook our food over fire, who use fire to light our way. Why we all think negative about this powerful, mysterious force? The reason: Fire is a very good slave but a very bad master, when it is out of control it becomes a monster and that’s how we remember it. Fire protection is a vaccination that can help us in fighting during times when fire try to disease us.
Let’s again test our guesstimate. In case you don’t know and try to guess on how many fires and fire related deaths Delhi face annually, then some of you will be shocked to know that according to the Delhi Fire Services website data of 2012-2015,
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they have responded to over 22,000 calls and there were over 300 deaths at an average annually. I am sure it shook us all when we read, watched, and some of us even witnessed fire in Kolkota market in February 2013, Carlton towers in Bangalore on
February 2010, and in Victoria Park, Meerut in April 2006. In January 2005, 257 people were killed in a stampede when fire broke out at a religious festival in Maharashtra. In 2004, 92 children burnt to death in a fire at a TN school. In 2001, 26 people died in a fire at a mental asylum in Tamil Nadu. With our past telling those unforgettable stories of Uphaar Cinema, Siddartha Hotel, Vigyan Bhawan, etc….list being countless, a question that always comes to my mind is, could this have been prevented? If we believe in fate, then the answer is NO as everything is planned and bound to happen; but who knows what’s planned for future? So YES we can prevent many more of these tragedies to happen. Most of investigations in these fires quoted that many things went wrong. The fire started due to short circuit in electrical shaft and went very fast from floor to floor from the shafts. The fire alarm didn’t work. The sprinklers didn’t work because there was no water. The fire exits were locked. People were not trained in basic lifesaving skills. On the contrary, technology is gaining its new height. Multifunctional and great fire protection systems are being invented. Our fire services authorities are more than aware and are working hard to prevent these incidents. And yes, these have also helped in reducing the frequency of such incidents. But we should understand that manual errors like these are still bound to happen and we can prevent these if we go ahead with technology, and at same time do not leave the hands of basics of fire protection like ‘compartmentation’, which can be achieved by passive fire protection. The risk of a fire depends on a building’s use, location, size, occupants, design and construction. A vital factor in reducing this risk is to provide physical barriers to the spread of fire within the building by dividing it into a series of compartments bounded by fire resisting walls and floors. The division of the building into discrete fire zones offers perhaps the most effective means of limiting fire damage. Designed to contain the fire to within the zone of origin, this approach provides at great protection for the rest of the building and its occupants even if first aid firefighting measures are used and fail. It also
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delays the spread of fire prior to the arrival of the fire brigade. The protection of the structural frame, the enclosure and protection of vertical and horizontal openings, effective fire-stopping at junctions, and protection of service penetrations are all important considerations. In simple terms, it is “Life Safety” against fire by safeguarding against the spread of fire, minimizing the dangers and effects of fire. This would also provide adequate time for the fire fighters to enter the fire area, work and get out safely. The objective of passive fire protection system is to retard the spread of fire from a compartment to another, thereby providing ample time for evacuation and fire fighters to access the fire area. Towards achieving this objective, passive fire protection systems form the part of the construction of building elements, and do not require any power, water supply, maintenance, or any activation device to perform in fire situation. However, the materials by itself will not serve the purpose of preventing the fire spread. The philosophy of containment is embodied in a series of tests, that of Fire Resistance, as measured in accordance with the appropriate national or international standards. Fire resistance
The gap between floors sealed using fire rated system.
is a concept applicable to elements of the building structure. It should include all the required fixtures like angles, channels, sealants etc. For this, the system has to be subjected to fire in a big size oven wherein temperatures are simulated as it would happen in real fire. Problem Firestop is one of the most important arm of passive fire protection, We should all be aware that, in such building “compartments”, the most likely threat from fire will occur where services penetrate the wall or floor, or where concealed cavities like curtain wall joint in facades are created. Modern constructions demanding the aesthetics not only in the interiors but also exteriors is a common norm in today’s construction industry. With the rise in the high rise construction and the modern building products, the rise in the fire dangers have also been realized. To prevent the spread of fire and smoke from a floor to another floor is one of the key aspects. One of the easiest way of fire and smoke spread from floor to floor is the opening generally left out unattended between the exterior glazing and the concrete slabs, spandrel wall. This gap over the years has been filled up using POP, normal plaster, mineral wool and a steel plate etc. which unfortunately does not prevent the spread of fire & smoke. Though the effects of smoke & fire are well known, it is a fact that more than 90 per
Perimeter Fire Containment Systems
cent of incidents, it is the smoke that kills. In most cases, fire fatalities result from victims who have succumbed to smoke inhalation long before burn injuries occur. Fire produces many gases that are highly poisonous. These are found in smoke and include carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen sulphide. They displace oxygen in the room, which can cause suffocation. Fire also consumes oxygen. This reduces the amount of oxygen available for persons to breathe. When a person is exposed to the toxins of smoke, muscle control is lost, judgement is impaired and the ability to reason diminishes. At a time when a fire emergency is present, it is important to be able to make quick decisions. Yet, the toxic gases, superheated air, smoke and limited visibility may cause someone to act in an inappropriate or irrational manner. Solution A gap between the glazing element and the concrete slab as shown in the figure, which can be an easy mode of fire & smoke spread should be sealed using fire rated systems. These systems prevent the spread of flame and hot gasses from a lower floor to the interior space of the upper floor for a measured duration of time. The systematic fire stopping of the gap between a floor slab and a curtain wall has only
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1. Fire resistance rated floor assembly 2. Tube mullion framing system 3. Vision glass 4. Spandrel panel, glass, aluminum or stone 5. Mineral wool insulation mechanically attached to framing 6. Mullion covers mechanically attached to framing 7. Stiffener behind safing joint mechanically attached to prevent the spandrel insulation from bowing and creating a breach at the perimeter void. 8. Forming material is typically mineral wool. Consideration should be given to thickness, density, fiber orientation, required material compression and mechanical attachment, and listed fill, void or cavity materials, with specified thickness, will vary based on manufacturer listings.
story Test Apparatus is the correct test standard for these conditions. There are two options for movement of the perimeter fire barrier systems, either static or dynamic. The dynamic test method includes movement capabilities, similar to those of other expansion and control joint systems. Class I has 500 minimum cycles, 1 cycle per minute, while II has 500 minimum cycles, 10 cycles per minute, and III 100 minimum cycles, 30 cycles per minute. The movement capabilities simulate movement from thermal, structural, seismic and wind loading of the assembly. Static systems do not allow for movement. Curtain walls do move. They flex under wind loads, and in seismically active areas will need to be designed to accommodate some movement. So one must choose a tested system which has a dynamic movement. SUMMARY
The gap between the glazing element and the concrete slab
been done in a rigorous fashion for less than 5 years or so. Since the practice of installing TESTED and LISTED is so recent, there are still many misunderstandings and misconceptions which result in wrong decisions being made. Consideration to the type of building elements has to be given to both the floor/roof assembly and type of exterior wall in selecting the correct Perimeter Fire Barrier System. If the exterior wall and floor are fire resistance rated, a system tested in accordance with UL2079 could be used. As most exterior curtain wall systems are not fire resistance rated, systems tested using ASTM E 2307, Fire tests for Perimeter Fire Containment Systems, using the Intermediate-Scale, Multi-
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The perimeter fire barrier containment is an important part of effective fire resistance rated and smoke resistant compartmentation. This has been developed for fire and life safety protection at the important curtainwall gap. The tested systems provide a classified design that has actually been tested and listed for use as a perimeter fire barrier system. Because of the numerous variables involved in the perimeter fire containment system, some of which involve the curtain wall as a whole, it will be rare to have an installation that matches all of the details of a tested and listed perimeter fire containment system. As such, almost all installed systems will be based on an Engineering Judgment (EJ). Such judgments should be issued by qualified technical staff working for the firestop manufacturer or by the listing agency itself. This addresses a very large gap area in a building where fire can extend and spread vertically very rapidly. Accidents will never take an appointment, they will just come as a surprise and will test how much ready we are to face them. Instead of getting scared we should get prepared and start doing little things that can make a difference.
Face to Face
“Facade Designs & Materials are Constantly Changing & Evolving” Jonas Upton-Hansen is the founder and Principal Architect at UHA, an international architecture and design studio based in London. The firm, founded in 2011, grew rapidly to undertake larger scale projects across Europe, Asia and the Americas. Jonas was educated at the Architectural Association in London. After graduating in the year 2000, he joined Foster + Partners in London where he collaborated on projects including the McLaren Formula 1 Headquarters and Monaco Yacht Club amongst others. In 2005, Jonas
Jonas Upton-Hansen Principal Architect, UHA, London
joined the office of Murphy Jahn in Chicago as Associate Principal and collaborated on numerous prestigious projects. Jonas founded UHA London in 2011 and oversees all aspects of the practice alongside fellow director Ricardo Mateu.
Jonas Upton-Hansen explains his company’s approach to design, the range of projects they are involved with in India and world around, distinct preferences and trends in façade design and materials, latest in façade and fenestration technology, and more to WFM.
WFM: Please give us a brief introduction of your firm and few of your recently completed important projects? JUH: UHA is an international architecture and design studio based in London. The firm was founded in 2011 with an initial focus on luxury residential projects in London and grew rapidly to undertake larger scale projects across Europe, Asia and the Americas including countries such as China, India, Mexico and Russia. Recent projects include a 20 million Sq ft mixed use masterplan in central Moscow on the historical ‘Hammer & Sickle’ steelworks; a 160m tall luxury office tower and hotel in downtown Mexico
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City and a corporate headquarters in Shymkent, Kazakhstan. In India, UHA is involved with a significant number of prestigious projects: in Gurgaon - the Michael Schumacher World Tower for Homestead; a series of projects for M3M Group including the St Andrew’s Tower, Escala Urbana Premium and Satya’s Element One mixed use retail and residential project - all of which are currently under construction. In Delhi, we are designing a 180 m tall luxury residential tower for the Unity Group and in Mumbai we are involved with the Worli 1973 high rise residential development by Omkar which is at an advanced stage on site now reaching over 250 m. We have a second project underway
St Andrews Residencies, at Gurgaon for M3M is a 125m tall, 33 storey residential tower
with Omkar, and are currently designing another triple tower residential scheme in Wadala for RNA Corp as well as significant projects with Piramal, Sunteck and Sheth developers. WFM: Tell us briefly about evolving trends in faรงade & fenestration designs. JUH: Trends are constantly changing and evolving based on performance and customer and client requirements. Different markets have distinct trends that are rooted in both historical and cultural norms, which evolve due to changes in building regulations or other factors. For the high-end market, prestigious projects look to their competitors in key cities that have established epochal buildings and seek to borrow from their opulence and material palette. As such many new high-rise buildings are stretching the
sizes and process limits of the materials available to provide a grander aesthetic. Though curtain walls can be designed for quite stringent fire ratings and are generally the default solution for high-rise buildings worldwide, they are not necessarily commonly used on residential buildings in India. WFM: Please elaborate on innovative materials used for faรงades? JUH: There are a large number of new products coming onto the market, some of which are very exciting. Progress in concrete with products such as Ultra-High Performance Concrete - which is a very high strength concrete that can be used in a variety of ways particularly for prefabricated panels - and light transmitting concrete offer exciting opportunities.
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for a commercial façade in terms of daylight requirements, natural ventilation and fire separation. Residential buildings may also have terraces, balconies and utility platforms which may not be needed in a commercial or institutional development. Ventilation and conditioning requirements also typically affect building façades and choice of materials in India.
Bird’s eye-view - St Andrews Residencies
There are also amazing glass products available including photovoltaic glazing panels, intumescent glazing systems, dichroic glazing, glazing with integrated sun control louvers, electrochromic glass that changes from clear to opaque in a second and future glass materials such as ‘Kinetic’ glass which can curl or open in response to changing environmental conditions to name few. The usage of single and multi-layer ETFE (Ethylene Tetrafluoroethylene) ‘cushions’ are now more prevalent, providing external envelope solutions that are extremely lightweight and durable against UV sunlight degradation and are highly resistant to pollution. The cushions also provide the same flexibility for fritting and printing as conventional glass supply. Other materials to note are compound curved ceramic tiles, Corian façade panels, and ‘sci-fi’ materials such as thermo-formed plastic tiles coated in powdered photocatalytic titanium dioxide which scrub pollution from the air. WFM: Is there a distinct preference in design and materials for façades of residential, commercial, public and institutional buildings? JUH: Our philosophy is that the façade should always reflect the nature and scale of the building it wraps. Different programmatic uses require different performance criteria. The code requirements for a residential façade for example are quite different from the requirements
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WFM: Double skin façade is being used in many buildings in west for thermal control, but not so popular in India. Why? JUH: There are several reasons why double skin façades are not overly popular in India. The principal reason is undoubtedly cost, as India is a very cost sensitive market. Double skin façades can be significantly more expensive than single skin façades depending upon their complexity, and there is generally a marked increase in material and component cost as well as the cost and method of installation. While there are proprietary designs available on the market, most double-skin façade designs are bespoke in nature to suit both the building geometry and architectural aspirations of the project. Due to supply and demand, the pool of specialist contractors in India offering doubleskin façades is also smaller for these reasons. However, double skin façades can offer far superior thermal insulation properties, more effective means of solar control and are generally more resilient, hence life-cycle costs are potentially reduced. In order to see a paradigm shift in the national market, clients will need to look closer at their budget assessments and programme if they wish to be pioneer a new generation of more iconic building designs. We work closely with a number of specialist façade engineers, such as Corona Façade Engineering, to develop all aspects of the building envelope. As local expertise in façade and environmental engineering grows, the modelling of the energy performance of buildings will become more common place in India and hence give rise
Central Moscow’s redevelopment plan - Serp and Molot
to a better understanding of the potential energy savings that can be made using double skin façades. True double façade buildings with walkthru accessible cavities used in high end office buildings and cultural buildings in the rest of the world are virtually unheard of in India. WFM: Other than glass, have you found any new materials used abroad which could be used effectively in India? JUH: Glass Reinforced Concrete (GRC) is used widely in Europe but is still relatively new to the Indian market. The material and technology is proven, cost effective and can give a very clean external finish. Its more common premixed and sprayed applications, newer forms of GRC panels are available within inherent extruded glass fibres which increase overall strength, reduce the overall thickness and weight of the panel to a third and provide a good surface finish to both sides of the material. These can be integrated directly into rain screen façade systems or ‘slumped’ during fabrication to form more complex shapes akin to ceramics and terracotta. An example of iconic use would be the ‘Calabash’ Stadium in Johannesburg, completed in 2010 for the FIFA World Cup. GRC is definitely a material we will be specifying on some of our upcoming Indian projects. Other materials that we often incorporate into the façades for Indian projects are aluminium meshes (which are woven metal fabrics), expanded metal panels and powder coated aluminium panels.
With such lightweight and durable materials, it is possible to offer more elaborate and eye-catching façades that are more suited to a modest project budget. We are also currently investigating the potential for perforated Corten panels on a high-rise residential project in India as the look is both rich, textured and colourful. WFM: How are you looking at the plasticity of the material to mould the façade and then the colours and concepts? JUH: Plasticity and ‘materiality’ are integral to our designs and as a result, we are constantly on the lookout for materials that will help us achieve the look and capture the essence of the buildings we design. For the Michael Schumacher World Tower and St Andrew’s Tower (both in Gurgaon), we are using woven metal fabrics to create 3-dimensional ribbons that wrap the buildings. On a museum project in Scandinavia we proposed 3-dimensional moulded plywood louvers to achieve an organic boat like form. For other projects we have proposed materials such as ETFE which allows for more plasticity than glass whilst still allowing significant light transmission. WFM: Tell us about your recent projects in India? JUH: We currently have over 20 active projects in India at various stages of development. We
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Element One: mixed-use project for Satya Group at Gurgaon
are focused mainly in the Mumbai and Delhi NCR markets but have also worked on projects in Pune and Jaipur. Most of our work in India consists of high rise luxury residential and mixeduse developments within the private sector. Our residential projects range in height from 35m to 340m and from single bungalows to +150 acre townships. WFM: Coming to quality control (QC), what all criteria you look for while choosing glass and other materials used for façades & fenestration for various projects? JUH: Quality control is one of the most important factors in delivering a successful building and can often be a major concern in developing markets such as India. UHA endeavour to maximize off site manufacturing and pre-fabrication within a controlled factory environment. A factory environment allows for QC measures that are simply not feasible on a building site, so the more building elements that can be prefabricated, the greater the possibility of a better quality finished product. This applies not just for façades but for multiple building elements.
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In order to ensure quality control UHA always insist on the following: • Detailed specifications for all aspects of the building, produced by the architect or by a professional specification writer in collaboration with the architect. The relevant section of this document should be included in any and all tender packages as a contractor requirement and should be adhered to by the contractor and all sub trades • Detailed shop drawings to be produced by the contractor and all sub-contractors. These drawings should be reviewed and signed off by the architect before works commence. • Detailed mock-ups and samples - ideally at 1:1 scale - of critical areas of the building and façade. Building full size mock-ups provides the architect with the opportunity to catch any design or fabrication deficiencies before the main works start and are also important for testing and performance review. The final approved mock-ups also become contractual benchmarks (control samples) that the contractor must
Escala & Marconi â€“ Projects for M3M
meet or exceed on the building, thus ensuring a minimum level of quality. These measures are standard procedures in most western markets but this is not always the case on Indian projects and thus insisting on these measures is crucial. WFM: In India, building designer generally do not prefer uPVC for their projects; at least for upper or upper middle size residential projects. What is your observation on this? JUH: uPVC is commonly used on lower-end developments due to its low cost â€“ it has
relatively good material properties in terms of durability, maintenance and insulation but its aesthetic appeal is a major shortcoming as most people consider it to look both plain and cheap. This is the main reason why most designers and architects would not specify it for premium residential projects. WFM: How important is positioning of Windows & doors? JUH: Positioning of windows and doors is a crucial element of the design of a building both from a functional and aesthetic point of view. It can have a major impact on how building looks and how
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using basic shuttering systems and a standard modular window system.
WFM: What are the hurdles faced by the building designer while collaborating the view of the façade consultant, fabricator, contactors, etc?
WFM: What advice would you give the fabricators/ manufacturers of façade materials, doors & windows, contractors and consultants in India in terms of the following: upgrading knowledge, commercial variability, quality control and installation?
JUH: As architects we need to convince our clients and their appointed contractors to perhaps do things differently from what is customary or from what their competitors are doing. Fabricators, builders, and contractors are often extremely conservative and formulaic. Whilst clients often cite wanting something ‘different, innovative, cutting edge and iconic’, they are seldom willing to be at the vanguard and to try things that have not already been tested in their ’home’ market (and therefore inherently neither innovative, different nor iconic). Typically the reason given is ‘risk’ avoidance. Our challenge therefore is to work with specialist and experts (engineers, façade consultants, etc.) to devise solutions that are innovative but at the same time limit risk. At UHA we often try to use standard construction methods in ways that are slightly different from the norm. An example of this is the Michael Schumacher World Tower where the organic and aerodynamic shape is constructed
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JUH: The Construction industry is inherently slow at implementing progress and innovation and the construction process often feels antiquated when compared to other industries. Often innovations and new technologies that are cost saving, better performing, and have less impact on the environment already exist but are slow to be adopted. The construction industry is notorious for rules, methods, and ‘taken for granted’ assumptions that prevent innovation. It is our role and duty as architects, designers, consultants, fabricators and contractors to constantly push for more efficient, economical, and environmentally friendly ways of building. We must therefore always challenge convention, and be open to new methods, practices and materials. Innovation always implies some element of risk but often brings huge rewards. My advice would always be to learn from other industries and markets - and always keep an open mind.
Michael Schumacher World Tower Gurgaon, India The Michael Schumacher World Champion Tower, Gurgaon was designed with racing, and more particularly Formula 1 as a strong inspiration and inﬂuence. The overall building form was designed with the aerodynamic curves and cutting edge features of a racing car, wrapped in a 3-dimensional metallic ‘ribbon’ which is reminiscent of the curves and chicanes of the many racetracks that Schumacher mastered. This striking emblem becomes a link between the two parcels of land divided by the road, physically joining tower with clubhouse, drop-off, Schumacher Museum and EWS. The Tower has other unusual features such as a cantilevered helicopter platform on the north side of the building, and a glass dome at the top of the building, inspired by the form of the Formula 1 cars raced by Michael Schumacher. The development includes a museum and cafe dedicated to Michael Schumacher, showcasing his legendary motor racing career which is ongoing. The MSWC Tower will have a maximum height of 99.5 m and will include a number of distinct types of luxury apartments, ranging from 2BHK to 5BHK apartments. The
Tower will also accommodate large and luxurious duplex and triplex penthouses. The curved decks and terraces which provide a multitude of entertainment spaces, follow the sleek aerodynamic form of the building, whilst internally the apartments are quite regular in form, in keeping with the expectations of the highend residential sector. Floor to ceiling glass at each level ensure panoramic views for all apartments, with an abundance of natural light. The overhanging slabs at each ﬂoor level generate superb terraces all around the tower, providing natural shading and minimizing solar gain. Large ‘slots’ on 3 sides of the building let natural light and air
penetrate deep into the centre of the building. Translucent louvers will ensure privacy to all accommodation facing the lightwells, whilst allowing natural light to pass into the units. Sustainability will be one of the key drivers of the development, which will embrace sustainable principles and maximize the potential of the site in terms of cross ventilation, rainwater collection and use of local and recyclable materials. The project will seek to achieve LEED certiﬁcation for the overall development. Like Michael Schumacher’s Formula 1 car, all apartments will be enabled to provide the latest high-tech facilities including full home-automation systems,
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The sleek aerodynamic form of the building with modulated glass façade
allowing for total climate and mood control, ease of use and ﬂexibility. Below are several façade and fenestration focused sustainable innovations of the Michael Schumacher World Tower design: • Floor to ceiling glass at all levels optimises views and natural light. Maximising natural light reduces use of artificial lighting and improves occupant health. • Regular modulated glass façade panels have been design to help minimise the construction costs. Only four variations to the standard façade module exist, with a handful of ‘customised’ pieces where the modules simply cannot work due to the sculptural quality of the tower • Overhanging terraces on all floors provide shading and
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minimises direct sunlight penetration and internal solar gain. This reduces airconditioning load whilst also providing ample exterior space for each unit. The continuous terraces cantilever from the internal concrete structure, and allow for a smooth shape. • Although there is no “typical floor”, where each floor plate
is unique, a series of setting out points allows for simplified construction techniques. • Operable window shades, fenestrations and doors allow for flexibility to control shading, privacy and natural ventilation. • To visually conceal the vents in the floor-to-ceiling glazing, curved tubular metal louvers continue along the top of the façade around each unit. This innovation provides a cost effective measure for concealing and protecting fenestrations. • Building ‘cut-outs’ provide deeper floor-plate light penetration, and provide concealed areas for utilities. • Rainwater is captured and recycled on site for use in irrigation and non-potable water systems. • Large areas of green space and landscape reduce the ‘urban heat-island effect’, thus cooling the environmental temperature around the building.
Quick Facts Project: Michael Schumacher World Tower Location: Sector 109 Gurgaon, Haryana, India Client: Homestead Infrastructure Development Pvt. Ltd. Architect: UHA London Collaborating Architect: Design Forum International Structure (International): Halvorson and Partners Structure (Local): NNC Consultants India MEP: VS Kukreja and Associates Façade: Axis Façade Lighting: Lighting Design Partnership International Materials Used for Façade: External Glazing – Semi-unitised floor to ceiling insulated glazing unit; Ribbon – architectural metal mesh; Cantilevered Balconies (which also act as shading) – concrete rendered in plaster finish; Render treated with anti-carbonation paint. Commencement Date: Summer 2013 Completion Date: Under-construction Area: 32,790 Sq m FAR + Parking Height: 99.5 m (29 floors)
The Glass Marvel
Sumit Banerjee KIS Marketing & Sales (India) Kuraray India Pvt. Ltd.
About the Author: Sumit Banerjee is working for Kuraray India Pvt. Ltd in Marketing & Sales for Kuraray Interlayer Solutions (KIS) business in India. Kuraray acquired the Glass Laminating Solutions (GLS) business of DuPont in June 2014 and is based out of Mumbai. Sumit did his Masters in Business Administration from DAVV Indore, and Bachelors of Engineering from R.G.T.U Bhopal. He is an accomplished Marketing & Sales professional with 10 years of distinguished performance in the institutional marketing and sales with top science driven companies like Dupont India, Saint Gobain and Godrej.
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The Fondation Louis Vuitton deploys arguably one of the most fascinating glass roofs ever seen.
The Louis Vuitton Foundation is an art museum and cultural centre in the Bois de Boulogne overlooking the Jardin d’Acclimatation in Paris, France. The building was designed by Los Angelesbased architect Frank Gehry and was opened to public in October 2014 after six years of construction. Foundation Louis Vuitton deploys SentryGlas® ionoplast interlayer and Dow Corning Silicone to float like a sailboat above the treeline of the Bois de Boulogne in Paris, showcasing one of the most fascinating glass roofs ever seen, with 12 unique, curved glass sails. Built at the behest of Bernard Arnault, a French businessman, art collector and chairman and Chief Executive Officer of LVMH, the building expands outwards from a central area into various galleries, referred to as chapels, with the whole structure covered by sails of white glass, inspired by the l 90 WFM Jan - Feb 2016 l
glass architecture of the end of the 19th century. Designed by American architect Frank Gehry, the LVMH group created the Fondation Louis Vuitton to promote and support contemporary artistic creation for a wide French and international audience. It offers some 7,000 Sq m of usable floor space, comprising 3,850 Sq m of museum space, 11 exhibition galleries and a 360 to 1,000 seat auditorium. In total there is over 13,300 Sq m of glass roof area, comprising 3,600 unique panels, each exhibiting different bend radii (from almost flat to 3 m) and different bending orientation – from the primary perpendicular axes – of -90 to 90°. Almost all of them presented a fascinating challenge to the multi-faceted architectural and engineering teams tasked with designing, fabricating, testing, validating
and installing them. Initial development work centred around the feasibility of actually constructing the 12 unique sails coupled with investigations into the physical formulation and appearance of the glass panels, all of which had to offer long-term durability for what is a project that relies a great deal on its striking aesthetics. Many factors were considered in the glass formulation, including the transparency/translucency, the colour, the coating and of course the all-important interlayer. Given the complexity of the sails and their multiple facets, all of which required unique geometries, glazing panels made using SentryGlas® were the obvious solution. The major challenge was the creation of the unique geometries for each glass panel. Hot bent panels, fabricated using moulding were immediately dismissed as it would have meant an individual mould for
The unique panels of façade, each exhibiting different bend radii
each panel and this would have been prohibitively expensive. The cooling process would also have annealed the glass making it weaker than tempered glass and prone to breakage from thermal shock. Cold bending proffered a similar number of disadvantages, primarily due to the high degree of curvature demanded by some of the panels. The solution came from the latest glass-bending machines that can bend with various radii and temper glass panels without the use of moulds. Nevertheless, a strong limitation of these machines is that they can only produce circular cylindrical shapes for the panels; a special geometrical optimisation has been therefore developed to best fit the cylindrical panels to the original architectural shape. Eventually, Sunglass, the contractor that provided the
glass panels for the building, was able to modify one of its bending ovens so that it could produce glass panels with two different bending radii. This additional degree of freedom allowed a better matching of the original design shape. The panels comprise 6 mm (0.24 inch) tempered glass, a 1.52 mm (0.06 inch) SentryGlas® interlayer and 8 mm (0.31 inch) tempered glass, with the 6 mm panel also incorporating a reflective coating and a 50 per cent opacity white frit on its internal face. This optimum glass formulation was complemented by the specification of Dow Corning® 993 Silicone Structural Glazing Sealant which provides a strong high performing bond between glass and frame and enables an aesthetically pleasing pure glass sail. To seal the exceptionally wide expansion joints between
the complex array of bent glass units, Dow Corning® 791 Weatherproofing Silicone was specified. Both products show excellent chemical compatibility to the SentryGlas® interlayer which is an important aspect as there is a direct contact. Multiple tests were undertaken to assess the effectiveness and longevity of interlayer/sealant combinations, in order to give architects and laminators an idea of the best combination for specific applications. No less than 16 one- and two-part sealants from Dow Corning have been tested. And it is these test results give the engineers the facts they need upon which to base their laminate/sealantcombination decisions. Frit compatibility is also vital to the performance of the glass make up. When a fritted surface comes into contact with the glass laminate interlayer, it is important to verify the lasting compatibility between the frit and the interlayer. These
Unique geometries, glazing panels made using SentryGlas®
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The panels comprise 6 mm (0.24 Inch) tempered glass, a 1.52 mm (60 mil) SentryGlas® interlayer and 8 mm (0.31 inch) tempered glass, with the 6 mm panel also incorporating a reflective coating and a 50% opacity white frit on its internal face
combinations are also tested in terms of visual defects and adhesion to ensure that no measurable differences are found. It was the incorporation of SentryGlas® that allowed the panels to be fabricated to the desired thickness and, due to their unique construction the façade builder and glass manufacturer performed all the necessary French certifications for this particular panel composition. Although mandated by local building legislation, SentryGlas® has been proven time and again in many applications to offer enhanced safety for overhead glazing and skylights. “Our main goal for the glass mechanical performance was to maximize its resistance as well as its flexibility, in order
Dow Corning façade silicones in direct contact with SentryGlas® interlayer
to limit the stress induced by the flexibility of the supports or the use of cold bending for shape adaptation,” explains Jacques Raynaud from RFR/ TESS, temporary partnership responsible for the conception engineering. “The SentryGlas® interlayer helped to achieve a good result as it allowed a reduction in the thickness of the glass panels (and therefore their inertia) thanks to its good capacity of shear transfer between glasses. It also allowed us to use fully tempered glass for both sheets, thanks to its very good post breakage resistance.”
The building, which started construction in 2008, was completed in October 2014, with the all-important glass sails being added in 2012. The teams participating in its construction have been awarded several architectural awards, both in France and in the U.S. This architectural marvel presents Paris with an extraordinary space for art and culture, and demonstrate daring and emotion by entrusting Frank Gehry with the construction of an iconic building for the 21st century. Quick Facts
Optimum glass formulation seen in the structure
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Project: The Louis Vuitton Foundation - Art Museum & Cultural Centre Location: Paris, France Client: LVMH Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitto Design Architect: Gehry Partners, LLP Project Designer: Edwin Chan Project Manager: Marc Salette Project Architect: Laurence Tighe Total area: 8,900 Sq m (Museum: 3,200 Sq m)
The 8th Artists in Concrete Awards Asia
The 8th edition of AICA (Artists in Concrete Awards) was organized at CIDCO Exhibition Centre, Vashi, Navi Mumbai from 20th -22nd January 2016.This prestigious festival, organized annually by Reify celebrates excellence in architecture, interior designing and landscape designing, attracts participants and attendees from around the world. Padmavibhushan Dr. Raghunath A. Mashelkar, Professor & Chancellor, Academy of Scientific & Innovative Research (ASIR) was the chief guest for award function. More than seventy five top
architects from the country like Ar. Ratan Batliboi, Ar. Uttam Jain Asscoiates, Ar. Ambarish Arora, Ar. Oscar Concessao, Ar. Qutub Mandviwala, Ar. Vistasp Bhagwagar attended the event and more than 180 shortlisted projects were presented. This year, around thirty international architects displayed their projects. Jury were from Indonesia, Italy, Costa Rica, Mexico, Austria, France, Cyprus, South Korea, Netherlands, Jordan, Estonia, Panama and Bangladesh. The event showcased one of its kind fabulous of â€œMaterial Installationsâ€? created by using different material glass, steel, plywood and veneer etc. Each pavilion was a showcase of the unique collaboration between an architect and material company. There was a special activity of painting were national and international architects created thoughts on n 2 x 2 ft canvas. AICA is the platform where the industry gets to witness and implement ideas by a significant number of India and International architects together indulging in variable activities.
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The 7th GRIHA Summit 2016 16-20 February, New Delhi
Inauguration the summit
With a view to transform our urban centres into smarter and high-performance habitats, the GRIHA hosted a summit from 16 to 20 February, 2016 at India Habitat Centre, New Delhi. Many interesting discussions took place over four days on vital sustainability issues including energy and water management, innovation in transport and recovery of waste at buildings. On the inaugural day, the welcome address was delivered by Dr Ajay Mathur, Director General, TERI and President, GRIHA Council. He said that dovetailing between Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) and GRIHA’s work has given us examples of good, clean, and liveable buildings. Considering that two-thirds of infrastructure that will exist in 2030 is yet to be built, it presents us with a huge opportunity to ensure that all new buildings are ‘green’, he added. : Dr A K Tripathi, Senior Director, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), Government of India congratulated the GRIHA team for creating
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Inauguration the exhibition
a 100 per cent indigenous green building rating system. The session concluded with a vote of thanks by Ms Mili Majumdar, Secretary cum Treasurer, GRIHA Council. The Keynote address were given by Dr. Bimal Patel, President & Acting Director, CEPT University and the noted architect, Manit Rastogi, Founder Partner, Morphogenesis. Dr. Patel addressed
Green Lifestyle session
Award of ratings
on the ideology of cities of the future. Architect Manit Rastogi pointed out that sustainability and intelligence are driving the industry to come up with innovative solutions for resource efficiency in energy, air, and water. He presented viable design solutions through examples of his projects where cost-effective sustainability solutions were incorporated. The event saw 4 Plenary Sessions on Turning Waste to Building Blocks, Social Upliftment and Income Equality, Indoor Environment Quality, and Sensored Habitat. Many eminent professionals were part of panel discussions including J P Shrff (Chairman and Managing Director, Shroff Group), Neeraj Bansal (Partner and India Head BCRE Sector, KPMG), , Selvam Ramanathan (Director, Geotrix Building Envelope Pvt Ltd), Dr Radha Goyal (Executive Director-Operations, CISCO Systems), Gautami Palanki (Building Performance Specialist, US Green Building Council), Kamal Meattle (Paharpur Business Centre), Corey Enck (US Green Building Council), Maija Virta (Founder and Director, Santrupti Engineers), Varun Pahwa (Executive Vice President, DRI), Dr Satish Kumar (Executive Chairman at the Alliance for an Energy Efficient Economy), Prasad Vaidya (Professor CEPT University) and Ashish Rakheja (MD, Aeon Integrated Building Design Consultant). The Facade Conference On the first day of the event, ‘The Façade Conference’ saw many delegates and interesting speeches by many experts in this field. The theme was ‘Sustainable Façade Building in India’. The session commenced with a welcome address by
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Mili Majumdar who introduced the audience to the term ‘façade’. Dr Ajay Mathur in his special address said that though energy efficiency is the key focus area for the government, it is only a component of green buildings on the whole, which are essential for achieving sustainability in India. Minni Sastry delivered the vote of thanks. The keynote address by Ar Ashok B Lall, Principal Architect, Ashok B Lall Architects on the cumulative effect of all policies and regulations on buildings by GRIHA, grabbed attention of the delegates. He dwelled on the definition of a ‘smart city’ too. This was followed by 2 interesting Technical Sessions in which eminent speakers like Spondon Bhagowati, Sr Green Building Analyst, Environmental Design Solutions; Ar Shaon Sikta Sengupta, Director, Edifice Consultants Pvt. Ltd; Ar Sonali Rastogi, Founder Partner, Morphogenesis; Prof. Ashok B Lall and many experts from TERI discussed various key points associated with energy efficient façades, challenges in designing and constructing them, and the solutions for the same. Six side events focusing on the issues concerning Water, solutions at building/campus and city level, innovation in sustainable living by start-ups, sustainable building materials - all themed on vital sustainability issues - spread over the four days saw many eminent speakers discussing interesting topics. The session ‘Reconnect’ discussed GRIHA Council’s endeavours and its journey. The conference also showcased the winning entries of the GRIHA Trophy at the 58th annual NASA (National Association of Students of Architecture).
7th Edition of ‘World of Windows’ 29th January, 2016 The Gateway Hotel, Ernakulam, Kochi
The 7th edition of ‘World of Windows’ was held on 29th January, at The Gateway Hotel, Ernakulam, Kochi. World of Windows by ZAK has always been the harbinger of technology and unprecedented networking opportunities for the fenestration industry. Continuing the endeavour, another successful conference was culminated in the Port City of Kochi, Kerala. The 7th edition of ZAK World of Windows that took place in the Ball Room of The Gateway Hotel by Taj, in the picturesque Marine drive
area of Ernakulam, Kochi, rendered yet another success story where delegates from the architect, developer, window contractor fraternity attended
Large number of delegates from the architect, developer, window contractor fraternity attended the event
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Amit Malhotra, Leader, McCoy Soudal
Farid Khan, Director & CEO of Profine India Window Technology
Ashish Kapoor - Head Tanuj Sharma, National Sales & Architectural Head – Commercial, Kinlong K R Suresh, Regional advisory, Schueco India Hardware (India) Pvt Ltd Director, Axis Facades,
and witnessed the enlightening presentations and interacted with the panellists during the discussion session.
housing, villas, condominiums, hospitality segment, retail, etc.
Windows are in integral part of timeless architecture, crucial in enhancing the functionality of the buildings. A typical fenestration component suffices the basic requirements of light and ventilation, but along the way faces the challenges of heat/sound and air/water ingress.
The intriguing session of presentations and discussion started at 7 in the evening. About 228 representatives from architect, developer, specifier and contractor community and other fenestration enthusiasts were present throughout the evening of information and networking which ended well after midnight.
The 7th edition of ZAK World of Windows was the 1st in the 3rd season of this enormously successful and much awaited series of conferences. The key focus was on key elements that define a window and establish its existence as an engineering element crucial to the viability of a building. It debated on whether the performance and good design go hand in hand or one has to suffer in order to give way to the other. Various parameters that define the performance of windows were explained for different types of buildings vis-à-vis mass
The session commenced with a brief introduction of the Profine Group by Farid Khan, Director & CEO of Profine India Window Technology followed by an introductory note on advanced aluminium systems from the house of Schueco, by Ashish Kapoor - Head Sales & Architectural advisory, Schueco India. Next to present was K R Suresh, Regional Director, Axis Facades, who spell bound the audience by his account on “Performance optimised design for doors and windows”. The importance of PU foams for perfectly insulated windows was explained by
The Panel discussion: S Gopakumar, Principal Architect, Kumar Group; Sebastian Jose, Director, Silpi Architects; Koshy K Cherian, Director, Sherbrooke Aluminium; K R Suresh, Regional Director, Axis Facades; Nitin Jadhav, Product Market Manager, Profine India Window Technology and Rajeev Antony, Managing Director, Schueco India
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Active participation of the audience
Questions from the audience answered by the panel
Display of products at the event
Amit Malhotra, Leader, McCoy Soudal and the fascinating round of presentations were brought to an end by Williem Chen, Marketing Manager for Kinlong who evaluated the New Hardware for New Era. The end of evening witnessed an engaging group discussion on the High Performance Windows. The panelists, S Gopakumar, Principal Architect, Kumar Group; Sebastian Jose, Director, Silpi Architects; Koshy K Cherian, Director, Sherbrooke Aluminium; K R Suresh, Axis Facades; Nitin Jadhav, Product Market Manager, Profine India Window Technology and Rajeev Antony, Managing Director, Schueco India, discussed and debated on various issues plaguing the fenestration industry and solutions thereof. The panel discussion highlighted various modalities through which the humble window goes from the design stage till the handover. One common observation was that the role of windows in a
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building goes much beyond just being an aesthetic element and is now widely accepted to be an important component determining the performance and comfort level of the building. The points about quality over price and striving for what is required and not for what comes cheap were emphasized by the most powerful voices in the panel and audience. The exhibition display showcased some exclusive engineering components for fenestration, which included uPVC Profile systems from Koemmerling, Specialised aluminium system range - TropTec from the house of Schueco. High precision range of fittings and hardware from Kin Long, EPDM gaskets from Osaka Rubber and a range of sealants and PU Foams from McCoy Soudal were also displayed. This edition of ZAK World of Windows marked the beginning of another promising year for even more fruitful discussions and networking opportunities from the gamut of ZAK Trade Fairs & Exhibitions.
Friendly Cricket Matches Played at Bawal Grounds Welcoming spring, friendly cricket matches were organized at Bawal on 5th March 2016. The participants included teams from the companies Mccoy Soudal, Alpro, Wurth and Kommerling. Enthusiastic spectators saw terrific games from all the teams participated. The first match was between Mccoy Soudal and Alpro. The
Alpro team won the game by 77 Runs. Pawan from Alpro was declared as Man of the Match. The second match played between Wurth and Kommerling was very exciting. Team Wurth scored 190 for 5 and Team Kommerling scored 190/4 in a nail biting finish. A super over was played to decide on the winning team
in which Kommereling won the match by 15 Runs. Durai Swami from Wurth and Nabeel from Kommereling were declared Men of the Match. The winners from both the matches – Alpro and Kommereling – played the finals and Kommereling won by 5 Wickets. All the players from teams were felicitated. n
UWDMA Introduces Quality Guidelines for uPVC Window and Door Profiles uPVC Window & Door Manufacturers Association (UWDMA), a non-profit body formed to create value proposition benefiting use of uPVC windows across India, organized a conference focused on ‘Energy Conservation using uPVC Windows/Doors’ on 20th February 2016 at Indo German Chamber of Commerce at New Delhi. At the event, the quality guidelines to create benchmark of technical specification of uPVC windows and doors was released. The new guidelines will give consumers a better understanding of the options available. Many experts in the field, including architects, façade consultants, fabricators, engineers and developers, attended the event.
Release of Quality Guidelines for uPVC Window and Door
Welcome address was given by Sonia Prashar, Director Marketing – Indo German Chamber of Commerce. Ajay Khurana, President, UWDMA on his inaugural address said that such events help to promote the use of UPVC windows in India. He also elaborated on the UWDMA activities. He informed that the uPVC standards are being developed by BIS Standards committee in collaboration with UWDMA.
The major challenges faced by the industry were discussed at the event. YP Singh (Treasurer, UWDMA and Vice President, Fenesta) spoke on fabrication guideline and proposed BIS standards. An interesting Panel discussion saw heated debate on “uPVC windows - Pros and Cons”. The panel included Ullas Guliani (REHAU); Mario Schmidt (Lingel); Fareed Khan
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(koemmerling); Deepak Gupta (Dema Consulting); Tanmay Tathagat (architect) and the panel was moderated by Satish Kumar (Deceuninck). The panel discussed the need for skilled people for manufacturing, fabrication and installation part of uPVC windows and the need for developing guidelines and standards, especially for high-rise buildings. Presence of substandard products in the market is a reason for falling acceptability of uPVC windows, said Deepak Gupta and Fareed Khan. They stressed on the need for competitive price for uPVC
windows. Mario pointed out that lack of awareness of hardware is a major challenge for the growth of the sector. Tathagat said that though quality products are produced by different brands, the skill for installing the products is lacking. There is a need for installation guidelines. Moreover, certain minimum technical requirements should be specified while calling tenders for windows, he added. Deepak Gupata insisted on the need for designing hurricane bars for windows for Indian conditions. Ullas Guliani also agreed with him on this matter.
Sanjay Seth, energy economist at the Bureau of Energy Efficiency, spoke on ‘Energy Conservation in residences. He elaborated on energy demand in residential buildings, and how can effective fenestration help saving energy. He stressed on the importance of proper insulation for windows, which will help in conserving power. The event concluded with the thanks note by Rajesh Chawla – Vice President UWDMA, followed by a sumptuous lunch and networking. n
CCPS Participates in Municipalika
The Confederation of Construction Products and Services (CCPS) availed the opportunity to participate in the Municipalika, organized with CAPEx, 13thInternational Conference & Exhibition on ‘Sustainable Habitat & Smart Cities’ on December 9-11, 2015 at Jaipur. The event
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was supported by host state Rajasthan, Ministries of Urban Development, Communication and Information Technologies, New and Renewable Energy, Urban Stakeholder Organizations and institutions. CCPS was one of the institutional partners of this big event. The event saw over 1600 delegates participation.
Glass is anticipated as one of the popular materials to be abundantly used during development of Smart Cities. Focusing on this issue, seven papers were presented by Shashi Kant, CCPS; Nishikant Sharma, Eastman Chemical India; Malvinder S Rooprai, Kuraray India; Deepak Gahlowt, CCPS, Vishaw B Sud, Eastman Chemical India; Jaskirat Singh, Saint Gobain India Glass and LGF SYSMAC. Deepak Gahlowt and Shashi Kant successfully conducted two Technical Sessions on 9th December CAPEx. n
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UPVC Windows & Doors
CMC Opens New Showroom in Mumbai
India’s premium stone company, Classic Marble Company (CMC) has announced the launch of its exclusive showroom at Worli in Mumbai. Besides marble, the showroom will also maintain an exhaustive collection of many other designer stones including exotic granite and quartzite, onyx, travertine and limestone. The company’s flagship brand KalingaStone with its marble and quartz will also be part of the array of products available here. With over 300 varieties of stones and a section dedicated to internationally acclaimed porcelain tiles – Techlam from
Spain and Iris from Italy, this will be one of the grandest and the most ostentatious showrooms in all of Mumbai. “The Classic Galleria is a sheer visual treat, offering all types of imported natural stone and showcasing the best exotic collection in India specifically meant for elite residences and hospitality projects. Born from the idea of creating a showroom which would resemble an art
gallery and be both accessible and interactive, Classic Galleria is cladded with 3 mm thin Techlam slab from Spain with designer look,” says Amit Shah, Director, Classic Marble Company. With the showroom in Worli, this will be the company’s second exclusive showroom in Mumbai; the other being in Bhandup which also serves as its head-office along with stockyards. n
Saint-Gobain Inaugurates Research Centre at Chennai Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, J. Jayalalithaa, inaugurated Saint-Gobain Research India’s (SGRI) new, state-of-the-art, cross-functional Research Centre in Chennai in the presence of Pierre-André de Chalendar, Chairman and CEO of the Saint-Gobain Group on January 29, 2016. In line with Saint-Gobain’s strategic focus
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Anand Mahajan, Pierre-Andre de Chalendar and Anand Tanikella
on sustainability, in general, and sustainable habitat, in particular, SGRI is committed to finding
innovative solutions to the challenges of energy efficiency, environmental protection and enhanced comfort for daily living. With an investment of about Rs.200 crores, the new Research Centre is a worldclass R&D facility spread over 120,000 Sq ft. It will focus on developing innovative and sustainable solutions. n
Schlegel Acquires Giesse Italian company Giesse is bought by door and window parts supplier Tyman PLC (www.tymanplc.com) to expand its international business. Tyman said it was buying the Bologna-based aluminium window and door hardware maker to add it to its Schlegel international division (www.schlegel.com). This gives the group an initial presence in the manufacture and supply of hardware components to the aluminium window and door industry in Europe and gives them both access to a number of new markets around the world. The Groupâ€™s range of engineered components for the door and window markets around the world. â€œWe are bringing together two well-
known industry brands and the new business now combines both hardware and seals in a â€˜One stop shop offer . Said Peter Santo CEO Schlegel. The groups have strong plans to use combined strengths to bring all their customers new opportunities in the future. Seals and hardware are the two most important components in the weathering performance of a window and door. Their combined development is an obvious way forward especially as building regulations everywhere continue to improve For Schlegel and Giesse , their major markets are in Europe, but both have growing new businesses in South America and, whilst Schlegel are strong in Australia and New Zeeland, Giesse have a greater presence in China , the middle East and India meaning the new combined business will have access and real synergy opportunities in a number of new markets. n
Italian Firm Cifin Holding Acquires elumatec Group
Under the umbrella of the Italian firm Cifin Holding, elumatec AG, an international leader in the manufacturing of machines for processing aluminium, PVC and steel profiles, is joining the Emmegi Group to create a new heavyweight in the industry. Cifin Holding, which also owns Emmegi, announced January 14, 2016 that it has acquired elumatec AG and its subsidiary companies. The combined elumatec/Emmegi sales total around 225 million euros. The acquisition by Cifin Holding is another important
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milestone for the company, which was founded in 1928 and had to file for bankruptcy in July 2013. A component of the future concept underlying the restructuring of elumatec was the planned sale of the elumatec Group. With over 700 employees, elumatec achieved consolidated sales of about 120 million euros in 2014. Emmegi s.p.a. produces machines,
equipment and software for the handling of aluminium, steel and PVC profiles. The family company has around 500 employees worldwide and achieves sales of 105 million euros. Together, Emmegi and elumatec possess six production units, five in Europe and one in Asia. n
Asahi Launches a New Series Under its Ecosense Brand Asahi India Glass Limited (AIS), one of India’s leading integrated glass companies, expanded its existing portfolio in the architectural segment with the introduction of a new series under its Ecosense range of high-performance glasses (The Green Standard in Glass). The new series – Edge combines the best of functionalities with best-inclass eco-friendly features, says a company release. It is a solar control glass with thermal insulation (Low E) properties, which can be used in single glazing applications. It is ideal for use in structural glazing, facades, windows, and skylights. Ecosense Edge is available in three shades – Clear (Natura), Blue (Electra) and Green (Chroma). The AIS Ecosense is developed to suit the unique climatic conditions of India, and meets the needs of the Indian consumers who traditionally require more cooling than heating and want to prevent solar radiation from coming in and cater for optimally medium to low U-value, rather than
Ecosense Enhance Cove
very low U-value, and optimum light. Ecosense is now widely used on exterior facades to keep indoor spaces brighter and cooler. The existing product ranges include – Ecosense Enhance (Solar Control), Ecosense Exceed (Solar Control Low-E) and Ecosense Essence (Low-E) range, each of them complete in a variety of colours to suit every customer’s preference and requirement. n
Global Solar Control Glass Market to Grow 9 Percent by 2019 Research and Markets estimates the global solar control glass market to witness high growth at a rate
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of around 9 per cent by 2019. Research and Markets, one of the world’s largest market research store, announced
the addition of the “Global Solar Control Glass Market 2015-2019” report to their offering. The tremendous growth in the building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) market, due to the rising awareness towards carbon emissions globally, is driving the growth of the solar control glass market. Technological advancements occurring in the market is also anticipated to fuel the market growth during the forecast period. According to EU, the solar control glass technology can help in the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by around 15 million tons in Europe in a year. n
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Advertorial Mixx Windows Introduces the Slim Series Aluminum Slider by Metra, Italy
Choosing and offering METRA sliding system NC-S 120 STH Slim line means to adopt a lifestyle system increasingly contemporary and comfortable. The new product showcases reduced size of the central junction and the profiles remain visible on 30mm and multi point locking system. The Slim Line contains all the technology and design necessary to enhance interior and exterior solutions. These large windows are of refined and ultra-thin designs, aesthetics performance, safety, air-tightness, durability and comfort. If you are looking for maximum thermic and acoustic insulation with no architecture barriers and easy maintenance then this is the only solution. With a maximum sash weight of 400 Kgs and glazing thickness between 26-42 mm along with air and water tight brush gaskets, this product is superior in quality. Wind load resistance to class 3 and water tightness class 8 A EU certification is available for this product. The product is available in 2 and 3 Track options exclusively with Mixx Windows. Mixx Windows is a one stop shop for all your fenestration needs - be it aluminum, wood or Alu wood. Their showroom is spread across our 25,000 Sq ft in Gurgaon. Mixx Windows is exclusively marketing and distributing Metra Systems from Italy. The brand has a wide range of window solutions from casement to slim
sliding solutions in Aluminium; while engineered wood systems are in house the Alu-wood systems which comes with EU certification from Metra. The Metra Alu-wood system is designed to enhance the quality of the two materials used and to avoid the problems caused by each of them. The result is a product of the highest quality in terms of design and technical both features. The materials used - aluminum and wood - are combined by using the Mixx windows system and patented features by Metra to provide excellent rigidity to the resulting frames. The glass is fixed by using an exclusive and innovative patented snap-on glazing bead. Neither screws nor nails therefore are required. Various finishes such as Anodized, Powder Coated, wood finish on powder and more are available. Contact: Abhinav Gaind Partner, Mixx Windows (KK Impex ) Sapna Interior Building ,39 B , IDC Main MG Road Gurgaon Haryana 122001 Phone: +91 8130101999 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.mixxwindows.com
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Finestre e Porte in Alluminio-Legno AELLE-S 190 STH Windows and doors in aluminium-woodAELLE-S 190 STH For those who want a durable material such as aluminium and at the same time want inside of their habitat natural wood interiors. The idea solution has a name: AELLE-S 190 STH. The Metra systen that allows you to obtain frames large sliding through the use of frames compounds: the outer part consists of aluminium profiles, The internal part composed of solid natural wood. of maintenance • Ease Maximum and acoustic insulation • Absence ofthermal architectural • Design of a high standardbarriers • Inalterability and durability • Resistence and structural stability • Great comfort in smoothness • Wide choice of finishes • Fabricated in India by Mixx Windows email@example.com Display available at: Sapna Interior Building, 39 B, IDC Main MG Road Gurgaon 122001
Aluminium Systems for Architecture Curtain walls Windows and swing doors Windows and doors in Aluminium-Wood Windows and Sliding doors Engineered Burma Teak Wood – Alu systems Systems for balconies Verandas For more information, Shading system SCO 6 , 1st Floor Abhinav Gaind Photovoltaic applications Above ICICI Bank +91 8130101999 Accessories Design Sector 11, Panchkula Karan Bhutani +91 9316109696 +91 9818392020 Finishes and Coatings
Revolutionary doors with extraordinary design
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Embelish your interior with our uPVC insert door panels Secure your house with our aluminium ready-to-install main doors
How to install an insert door panel ? Very easy! Just imagine that instead of installing a double glazing in your profile, you insert a door panel!
Easy to cut, easy to install ! An easy-to-install innovative product, From 24 to 60 mm thick, Adaptable with all uPVC profiles in India, Termite resistant, Strong structure and glazings, Extruded polystyrene foam (XPS) insulation, Double glazing with a laminated face Easy to cut as per your required size
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Window & Facade Magazine (WFM) is a technical journal published by F & F Media and Publications. It is India's premium magazine covering the...
Published on Mar 30, 2016
Window & Facade Magazine (WFM) is a technical journal published by F & F Media and Publications. It is India's premium magazine covering the...