‘THE WHOLE HISTORY OF THE WORLD IS SUMMED UP IN THE FACT THAT, WHEN NATIONS ARE STRONG, THEY ARE NOT ALWAYS JUST, AND WHEN THEY WISH TO BE JUST, THEY ARE NO LONGER STRONG.’
© AS400 DB/Corbis
Unit 5: History HigHligHts In this unit you will: consult sources on pivotal moments in world history; read and discuss stories of migration; write down the steps tea took to become a typically English drink; discover how roots music infl uenced pop culture; listen to speeches of great political fi gures from English history; give a presentation on history highlights in a fi lm (integrated language task).
HISTORY: A LESSON EASILY LEARNED?
1.1 ⁄ HISTORY CAUGHT IN CARTOONS Have a look at the cartoons and answer the questions.
a E xplain in your own words to your neighbour what the cartoons about history are mocking or pointing out.
– Cartoon A:
– Cartoon B:
– Cartoon C:
– Cartoon D:
b Which important historical events do you know that are linked to English-speaking countries? Give a few examples.
c Obviously English is not a history course, but why can historic events be relevant to the learning of English? Explain.
d Which events in the English-speaking world have also shaped your life or society?
e Which of them would you like to find out more about?
1.2 ⁄ COLLECTIVE MEMORIES 1 History is not a mere collection of details: it is a story of people making changes and changes making people. Therefore, have a look at these world famous pictures from history highlights in English-speaking countries. Connect them to the correct historic events, figures and countries. Look up the historical background on the Internet of the pictures you couldn’t identify or complete the ones for which you only had limited information. Fill in the grid your teacher will give you.
© Bettmann/CORBIS © Juda Ngwenya X00201 Reuters/Corbis
2 ‘History repeats itself’ is a commonly used proverb. Look for parallels in history.
a Which elements in these pictures have turned up again in a later time? Explain. b Which elements will turn up again in the future, do you think? Why? c Which of the introductory cartoons does this circular theme refer back to?
THE SOCIAL DOMAIN
2.1 ⁄ THE UPSIDES AND DOWNSIDES OF HISTORY Moments usually make history because they are so great, or because they are so terrible. Write down three historic events you regard to be extraordinarily positive and three that are remembered for their (negative) dramatic course of events. Explain to your neighbour why they fall into one of these categories. Positive moments in history
Negative moments in history
DiD yoU KnoW?
How a historic event or person is remembered throughout history can differ and change over time. You should always look at historical facts and documents with a critical eye, for they may be coloured by the view of their time, of later centuries or of contemporary philosophies.
2.2 ⁄ THE AMERICAN DREAM
The original document of the Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Independence, painted by John Trumbull
1 When the United States became independent in the 18th century, the country was to become ‘the promised land’ for many immigrants. Read the text of the Declaration of Independence to find out why its content was really ‘breaking news’ at the time. a Summarise the essence of the Declaration of Independence in your own words.
b Use a dictionary and write down the meaning of these words. 1 dissolve 2 entitle 3 impel 4 endowed 5 pursuit 6 consent
European immigrants on deck of the SS Kroonland, a Red Star Line ship, 1920
c Which elements in this Declaration would appeal to 18th or 19th century Europeans? Why?
European immigrants arriving at Ellis Island, 1920
d Why did this text form the basis of what was later to become ‘the American Dream’?
2 Search for examples of the American Dream: who really succeeded in making it to the top, starting from scratch?
3 Is the dream of the Founding Fathers still alive in our time?
2.3 ⁄ BELGIANS CHASING THE AMERICAN DREAM 1 Have you ever thought or dreamt about leaving Belgium and starting a life abroad? Why (not)?
2 Belgians contributed significantly to the large European migration wave to North America. Find out about it by reading the text ‘Belgian Americans’.
a After reading, write down three comprehension questions on the text. Then hand your questions to your neighbour and let him/her answer your questions, using the text as a help. b Is the information you found out by reading the text surprising to you? Why (not)?
By Jane Stewart Cook
S I G N I F I C A N T I M M I G R AT I O N WAV E S
Belgians came to America in the greatest numbers during the nineteenth century. They came for reasons no different than many other Western Europeans — the financial opportunity and a better life for their families. Belgian immigration records do not appear until 1820. From 1820 to 1910, immigration is listed at 104,000; from 1910 to 1950, 62,000 Belgians came to the United States. During the period 1847 to 1849, when disease and economic deprivation were the lot for many in Belgium, emigration numbers of those leaving for America reached 6,000 to 7,000 a year. During this time, most of those coming to the United States were small landowners (farmers), agricultural laborers, and miners; crafts people such as carpenters, masons and cabinetmakers; and other skilled tradespeople, such as glass blowers and lace makers. In later years, especially after the two World Wars, many middle class and urban professionals left Belgium for this country, seeking work in our universities, laboratories, and industrial corporations. Altogether, it is estimated that from 1820 to 1970, approximately 200,000 Belgian immigrants settled in the United States. Each year since 1950, a fixed quota of 1,350 has remained unfilled, and it is calculated that by 1981, Belgians represented no more than 0.4 percent of the foreign-born population. S E T T L E M E N T PAT T E R N S
Nineteenth-century settlement patterns followed work opportunities. For example, the glass industry in the East attracted many to West Virginia and Pennsylvania. Detroit, Michigan, attracted building tradespeople. Door, Brown, and Kewaunee Counties in Wisconsin attracted those seeking farmland. Considerable numbers came to Indiana. Substantial pockets of Belgian Americans can also be found in Illinois, Minnesota, North Dakota, Ohio, Kentucky, Florida, Washington, and Oregon. Many towns and cities across the United States bear the names of their counterparts in Belgium: Liege, Charleroi, Ghent, Antwerp, Namur, Rosiere, Brussels. Michigan and Wisconsin have the largest population of Belgian Americans, with the above-named Wisconsin counties having the largest rural settlement in the United States. The Belgian American settlement in Detroit took place mainly between 1880 and 1910. Most of these new arrivals were skilled Flemish crafts people. Detroit’s early industrial and manufacturing growth was fueled in great part by their skills in Belgian emigrants on the Nassau Bridge in Antwerp Antwerp the building trades and transportation. by Louis van Engelen, 1890
According to Jozef Kadijk, whose 1963 lecture at Loyola University in Chicago appears in Belgians in the United States, approximately 10,000 residents of Detroit at that time were born in Belgium. Taking their descendants into account is said to increase that figure to 50,000. Most of the Wisconsin Belgians were Walloons from the areas of Brabant and Liege, Belgium. They began arriving in substantial numbers by 1853, following the lure of farmland that could be purchased from 50 cents to $1.25 an acre. Here they cleared fields, felled trees, and built rude log shelters to house their families. Writing back home of their satisfaction with their new lives, they soon were joined by thousands of their fellow countrymen. The 1860 census shows about 4,300 foreign-born Belgians living in Brown and Kewaunee Counties. ACC U LT U R AT I O N A N D A SS I M I L AT I O N
Belgians are also Western Europeans, and as such, presented a familiar religious and cultural background to others in their new homeland. Stereotypical notions as to traits of character often depict the Dutch-influenced Fleming as reserved, stubborn, practical, and vigorous, while the passion of France is observed in the Walloonâ€™s wit, extroversion, and quickness of mind and temper. It is true that whether Flemish or Walloon, the influences of The Netherlands, Germany and France upon their language, religion and social customs were evident. This helped to make their assimilation easier â€” although they sometimes met with a strong anti-Catholic sentiment, which equated allegiance to the Church with disloyalty to America, and was prevalent in many parts of the United States. However, the Walloons who settled in Northeast Wisconsin found their way made easier because of the established French Catholic communities. In general, the Flemings, with higher education levels and sought-after job skills, suffered less prejudice than the Walloons, the majority of whom were poor, unskilled, and illiterate. But through their industry and thrift, these poor farmers soon won the respect of their neighbors. In time, Belgian Americans became admired not only for their industry and down-toearth outlook, but also for their sociable character and friendly manner. Belgian hospitality and the retention of many old-world customs and traditions gave color and vitality to the communities in which they resided. Another factor which both hastened assimilation and fostered ethnic pride was the tragic experience of Belgium during the World Wars. The sympathy extended to Belgian Americans by others led them to reemphasize their origins and culture.
Promotion poster of the Red Star Line Company by Henri Cassiers, 1899
Abridged from www.everyculture.com
3 Compare the story of these migrating Belgians to that of present day immigrants. Which elements stand out in this comparison?
4 Search the web for stories on Belgian immigrants going to the USA to start a new life. Report back to the class, answering these questions.
a What where the motives for immigration? Why did these Belgians leave their homeland for North America? b Did the chances in the ‘New World’ live up to their expectations? Why (not)? c Did they stay in the U.S., or did they return to Belgium? d Look for examples of ‘Belgian’ culture that are kept alive in North America. e Are/were there any people in your family moving to North America (or elsewhere), in search of a new life? Why did they leave their country?
2.4 ⁄ CONTEMPORARY DREAM CHASERS 1 Which aspects of migration are tackled in these cartoons? Explain.
2 What examples of recent migration are you aware of? Relate them to the class.
DID YOU KNOW?
Every period in history has known waves of migration, small and big ones. The reasons vary: the search for better land to live on, fleeing from natural disasters or wars, hope for a better future … So it is a misconception that migration is a recent phenomenon that has been increasing only over the last decades, nor is migration only oriented towards the rich countries. Examples of migration in history are rife: the Native Americans originally came from Asia and crossed the frozen Bering Strait to find new land. The Germanic tribes came across the Rhine into Roman territory, chasing away the Romans and annihilating the Celts, the original inhabitants of our region. A lot of Irish left their homeland for North America because of the great potato famine in the latter half of the 19th century. Italians, Poles, Greeks, Turks and Moroccans came to work in Belgian mines in the 1950s and 1960s due to the lack of sufficient Belgian miners, and to escape unemployment in their own countries.
3 Look for articles on migration and refugees in the English-speaking media. Read them and bring them to the class. Tell your classmates what you found out by reading these articles.
4 What is your point of view on this issue?
5 Read the text ‘The Other Border’ and answer the questions.
a By smuggling it across the border, the draft version of the journalist’s text has been slightly damaged. These words turned out illegible in the original text. Help the journalist restore his article by filling them in, in the correct place. corpse – deputies – detour – edge – evade – fence – graveyard – perish – reduce - responsibility b Match these words from the text to their correct meaning. Word
1 trudge 2 desolate 3 circumvent 4 trek 5 perilous 6 deepened 7 prompted 8 contraband 9 fatalities 10 beacon
a b c d e f g h i j
to go round dangerous got worse illegal goods deaths sign abandoned walk with difficulty trip carried out without delay 6
c Which ‘other border’ does the title refer to?
© Eric Thayer/Reuters/Corbis
d Explain the meaning of these quotes and check in the text whose quote this is. 1 ‘You never get over it.’
2 ‘It’s the corridor of death.’
3 ‘It’s still our responsibility, whether we like it or not.’
4 ‘It’s sort of the perfect storm.’
e How do you feel about the experiences of the police offi cers in this text? Should they approach the problem differently or not?
The Other Border
Undocumented immigrants are dying in large numbers as they try to road checkpoints in Texas counties north of the U.S. Mexico border. The body lay along a line at the
highway. He was a 23-year-old Salvadoran,
© David Butow/Corbis
according to the ID in his wallet, carrying
The US Border Patrol arresting illegal immigrants from Mexico at the border of Arizona
a toothbrush and a picture of a young girl posing in a cap and gown. The man had spent days trudging through the sandy brush of South Texas, stripped to socks and underwear in the heat. When he collapsed
and died, someone dragged the
toward the road, where it was
spotted by a passing cowboy. By the time Brooks County chief sheriff ’s deputy Benny Martinez arrived on May 21, the body was bleeding from the eyes. Collecting the dead is one of the grim rituals of Martinez’s job. The young man from El Salvador was the 24th undocumented immigrant to
County this year. Over the past six years, more than 400 bodies have been discovered in the desolate rural jurisdiction, where 7,200 people are spread across 943 sq. mi. (2,440 sq km) of cactus and mesquite. ‘You never get over it,’ Martinez says. The body count makes Brooks County one of the deadliest killing fields in the U.S. border crisis. But it is not actually on the border. The county is a
migrants because of the three-lane traffic checkpoint, operated by U.S. Customs and Border Protection, that sits on U.S. 281, 70 miles (115 km) north of Mexico. To circumvent the checkpoint, coyotes drop undocumented immigrants along the highway a few miles south, where they embark on an arduous hike through private ranchland with plans to rejoin their ride north of the station. For undocumented immigrants entering the U.S. in South Texas, the multiday trek is the most perilous leg of a journey that starts with a payment (often $5,000 to $10,000, according to authorities) to coyotes in their home countries, who stash their clients at squalid border safe houses and shepherd them across the Rio Grande aboard inflatable rafts. Despite all the attention to securing the border itself, often the best chance of intercepting the flow of people and contraband is at checkpoints on key roads leading north. In Brooks
County, the enforcement checkpoint has pushed undocumented immigrants onto private ranches, where they are unprepared for the searing heat and arid terrain on what can be a 25-mile (40 km)
around the patrol stations. Temperatures can
reach triple digits in the summer. It’s easy to become disoriented and get lost. Migrants carry little food or water, and those who lag are left behind by their guides. ‘It’s the corridor of death,’ says Eddie Canales, who runs the South Texas Human Rights Center, a few miles from the Falfurrias checkpoint in Brooks County. ‘There’s no telling how many remains are still out there.’ South Texas has struggled for years with the U.S. immigration crisis, but the problems deepened as migration patterns shifted. Beefed-up border security across former trouble spots in California, Arizona and West Texas prompted smugglers to find new routes through the Rio Grande Valley, while escalating violence in Central American nations spurred a wave of refugees searching for a path to the U.S. Illegal border crossings have dropped in 2015 with the end of the unaccompanied-minor crisis, and deaths in Brooks County are actually down from their peak of 129 in 2012. But the impact still hits hard in places like Brooks County, which has just five sheriff ’s , and neighboring Kenedy County (pop. 400), where another border-patrol checkpoint sits astride U.S. 77. In these poor rural areas, recovering, identifying and burying the dead carry significant costs. Judge Imelda Barrera-Arevalo, the top elected official in Brooks County, estimates that dealing with the humanitarian crisis will consume 15% to 20% of the county’s budget this year. ‘It’s still our ,’ she adds, ‘whether we like it or not.’ To
fatalities, humanitarian groups and
some ranchers have installed water stations. The border patrol has positioned rescue beacons on private land so migrants can buzz for help. Agents use ground sensors, cameras and blimps to surveil the sprawl. ‘I won’t be happy until the death toll is zero,’ says Doyle Amidon, the patrol agent in charge of Falfurrias Station. ‘But the nature of this area, and the fact that we are in the perfect location for illegal migrants to pass through here, it’s sort
arduous: exhausting arid: very dry astride: on both sides beefed-up: made stronger blimp: an aircraft grim: harsh, terrible jurisdiction: the area of legal authority mesquite: a type of tree Rio Grande: a river forming the border between Mexico and the USA searing: extreme sprawl: spreading out spurred: stimulated squalid: fi lthy
of the perfect storm.’ Source: time.com
6 Since you are an expert in English, a refugee asks you for help to phrase his/her request for political asylum in English. Check the refugee’s profile and information on the cue cards provided by the teacher and fill out the asylum application form for the USA to the best of your ability. Remember: his/her future may depend on your work!
APPLICATION FOR ASYLUM PART I. INFORMATION ABOUT YOU LAST NAME:
AGE: COUNTRY OF ORIGIN:
CITY OF ORIGIN:
PRESENT NATIONALITY: NATIVE LANGUAGE:
CURRENT CITY OF RESIDENCE IN THE USA:
PART II. INFORMATION ABOUT YOUR APPLICATION 1 I am seeking asylum or withholding from removal based on: Race Political opinion Membership in a particular social group Religion Nationality Torture Convention 2 Have you, your family, or close friends or colleagues ever experienced harm or mistreatment or threats in the past by anyone? Yes No If ‘Yes’, explain in detail: (1) what happened; (2) when the harm or mistreatments or threats occurred; (3) who caused the harm or mistreatments or threats; (4) why you believe the harm or mistreatments or threats occurred.
3 Do you fear harm or mistreatment if you return to your home country?
4 Have you, your spouse, your children, your parents or your siblings ever applied in the USA for a refugee status, asylum or withholding from removal? Yes No 5 Asylum applicants may be represented by counsel. Have you been provided with a list of persons who may be available to assist you, at little or no cost, with your asylum claim? Yes No SIGNATURE OF APPLICANT
THE ECONOMIC DOMAIN
3.1 ⁄ ‘FANCY A CUPPA?’ A strange brew from Asia changed British culture signifi cantly. This drink spread throughout the world and has a remarkable history too.
1 Watch the documentary Why are Brits so obsessed with Tea? and make a scheme on a separate sheet of paper with the key elements of the history of tea.
2 Now explain the history of tea in your own words to your neighbour, based on your listening scheme. He/she will check that you haven’t left anything important out.
3 With this information, you should now be able to explain this essential English tea vocabulary. 1 a proper brew:
2 afternoon tea (low tea):
3 cream tea:
4 high tea:
5 tea bag:
3.2 ⁄ ‘THE REAL THING’ 1 Which brand names from English-speaking countries do you know?
2 What accounts for their success, do you think? Explain. 3 Has your life been ‘Englified’ or ‘Americanised’ because of the products from the English-speaking world? Why (not)? 4 One of the American brands that everybody certainly knows, is Coca-Cola. What do you think they owe their success to?
5 Coca-Cola: the king of advertising. Watch and compare different Coca-Cola commercials through the years.
a Which customers are targeted in particular?
b Which tricks are used in these commercials?
c Which elements come back throughout the decades?
d Which elements have defi nitely changed through time?
6 Does controversy sell? a Watch the Coca-Cola commercial America the Beautiful and guess why it was controversial.
b Read the text and fi nd out whether you were right.
c Link the reactions to this commercial back to the Declaration of Independence (2.2) and the topic of migration (2.3 and 2.4). Which conclusion can you draw?
d Do you think the people who found the commercial offensive will still buy Coca-Cola? Why (not)?
7 Also the products of the Coca-Cola Company are increasingly becoming the subject of public and scientific scrutiny. Why?
8 Record your own soft drink commercial and show it to the class. Before you start, think about how you want to appeal to your target audience.
THE POLITICAL DOMAIN
4.1 â „ RULE BRITANNIA 1 Have a close look at the map to see the impact of the might of the British empire on the globe. Name at least 10 countries on the map that used to belong to Britain.
Britain and all of its (former) colonies and dominions
2 What is left now of this British empire? Which territories do the British still control? Check the web and write down five overseas dominions of the UK.
4.2 ⁄ DETERMINATION WITH A HAT AND A CIGAR A character symbolising the old British empire and its fierce resistance to its enemies is Winston Churchill. Listen to his notorious speech ‘We Will Fight Them on the Beaches’ in the early days of World War II and answer the questions.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician and author, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. Churchill was famous for his stubborn resistance to Hitler during the darkest hours of the Second World War. Source: www.biographyonline.net
a Put the parts of Churchill’s speech in the correct order.
B C D
b To a certain extent, the speech of Churchill acknowledges the shift of power in the world, indicating the end of ‘Rule Britannia’. Explain.
A Spitfi re fi ghter plane formation during the Battle of Britain
c Find three rhetoric devices which Churchill uses in his speech.
4.3 ⁄ THE IRON LADY PUTTING UP A FIGHT The 1982 Falklands War was a remarkable example of the British hanging on to their old dogmas of power.
DiD yoU KnoW?
On 2 April 1982, Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands, a remote UK colony in the South Atlantic. The move led to a brief, but bitter war. Argentina’s military junta hoped to restore its support at a time of economic crisis, by reclaiming sovereignty of the islands. It said it had inherited them from Spain in the 1800s and they were close to South America. The UK, which had ruled the islands for 150 years, quickly chose to fi ght. Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher said the 1,800 Falklanders were ‘of British tradition and stock’. A task force was sent to reclaim the islands, 8,000 miles away. In the fi ghting that followed, 655 Argentine and 255 British servicemen lost their lives, as did three Falkland Islanders.
ARGENTINA Falkland Islands
Based on: news.bbc.co.uk
1 Listen to the speech of Margaret Thatcher, the Prime Minister at the time, in the British Parliament, expressing the reaction to the threat of Argentina against the Falklands and fill in the gaps. ‘The House meets this Saturday to respond to a situation of great
We are here because, for the fi rst time for many years, British territory has been invaded by a
power. After several days of
in our relations with Argentina, that country’s armed forces attacked the Falkland Islands yesterday and established military control of the islands. Yesterday was a day of
. Throughout the day
we had no communication from the Government of the Falklands. Indeed, the last message we received was at 21.55 hours on Thursday night, 1 April. Yesterday morning at 8.33 am we sent a telegram which was
. At 8.45 am all communications
. I will refer again to this in a moment. By late afternoon yesterday it became clear that an Argentine invasion had taken place and that the lawful British Government of the islands had been usurped.
I am sure that the whole House will join me in by the Government of Argentina against British territory. [Hon. Members: “Hear, hear”.] It has not a shred of justifi cation and not a . It was not until 8.30 this morning, our time, when I was able personally to speak to the governor, who had arrived in Uruguay, that I learnt precisely what had happened. He told me that the Argentines had landed at
6 am Falkland’s time, 10 am our
time. One party attacked the capital from the
and another from the
. The governor then sent a signal to us which we did not receive. Communications of course had ceased at 8.45 am our time. It is common for atmospheric conditions to make communications with Port Stanley diffi cult. Indeed, we had been out of contact for a period the previous night. The governor reported that the Marines, in the defence of Government House, were superb. They acted, he said, in the best tradition of the
, but those defending Government House suffered none. He himself had kept the local people informed of what was happening through a small local transmitter he had in Government House. He is relieved that the islanders to stay indoors. Fortunately, as far as he is aware, there were no
. When he left the
Falklands, he said the people were in tears. They do not want to be Argentine. He said the islanders are still
. I must say that I have every
confi dence in the governor and the action he took. I must tell the House that the Falkland Islands and their dependencies remain British territory. No aggression and no invasion can alter that simple fact. It is the Government’s objective to see that the islands are freed from occupation and are returned to British administration
2 Write down five words from the speech that you find hard to understand. Try to derive their meaning from the context first, then check with a dictionary if your interpretation was correct.
3 Summarise the essence of Thatcher’s speech in your own words.
The Royal Marines raising the Union Jack
4 Watch the scene from the film The Iron Lady and answer the questions.
a Why does Geoffrey Howe, Chancellor of the Exchequer, think that it’s not a good idea to go to war?
b Who is Thatcher receiving in her offi ce?
c Which arguments does the visitor give to talk Thatcher out of a war?
d How does Thatcher refute his arguments? The coat of arms of the Falklands
e Which picture from exercise 1.2 (Collective memories) does her example refer to?
f Thatcher also refers to another battle. Which one and why does she do that?
g Why is the fi lm named The Iron Lady?
h When Thatcher died in 2013, she got a state funeral. Yet there was a lot of controversy about the fact whether she deserved that. Surf the web to fi nd out why Thatcher and accordingly her state funeral were controversial.
4.4 ⁄ PRESIDENTS OF THE USA: A REMARKABLE BUNCH 1 Many American presidents made history, others passed on into oblivion. Do you know who did what? Match the exploits or characteristics to the correct president. Then add the correct picture.
Abraham Lincoln – Barack Obama – Bill Clinton – Franklin D. Roosevelt – George H.W. Bush – John F. Kennedy – Richard Nixon – Ronald Reagan – Theodore Roosevelt – Thomas Jefferson – Ulysses S. Grant
He chipped a piece off Shakespeare’s chair as a souvenir when he visited Stratford-upon-Avon.
His nickname in his high school basketball team was ‘Barry O’Bomber’.
He was taken into the American ‘Wrestling Hall of Fame’, as he was an outstanding wrestler in his younger days.
He was shot down with his plane in the Pacific during World War II, but he was able to bail out with his parachute. He was rescued by a submarine. The other crewmember who tried to do the same went down with the plane because his parachute malfunctioned.
Despite being married to one of the most beautiful women of his time, this president had dozens of affairs behind his wife’s back. The secret service assisted him in keeping his affairs hidden.
He had to resign because he had his team break into the rooms of his opponent’s staff at the Watergate hotel.
He had an affair with a female intern at the White House, but maintained that he ‘did not have sex with that woman’.
6 His bad health lead him to spend large parts of his presidential life in a wheelchair.
8 He smoked a ton of cigars, at least 20 a day. After a great military victory at the Battle of Shiloh, citizens sent him more than 10,000 boxes of cigars as gratitude. He died of throat cancer in 1885.
While giving a speech in Milwaukee, an assassination attempt was made on him. However, he finished his 90 minutes’ speech with the bullet still in his chest.
He only turned to politics after a career as an actor.
2 American politics have certainly had their share of scandals and murders. Being a president of the USA is an especially dangerous job. Four presidents were murdered, two others died in suspicious circumstances and many others faced assassination attempts. Reopen an old case of an assassinated president and check the facts as a detective. Find out what you can and draw up a basic file on one of these murders: − − − −
Abraham Lincoln James A. Garfi eld William McKinley John F. Kennedy
COLD CASE FILE Victim: Date of murder:
Main suspect’s profile:
Detective’s name and signature
THE CULTURAL DOMAIN
5.1 ⁄ THE LEGACY OF AFRICAN-AMERICAN MUSIC
DiD yoU KnoW?
One of the darker pages in Western history is the story of slavery. Yet strange though it may seem, our modern day music has been signifi cantly infl uenced through the music sung by the slaves in North America and their descendants. It is therefore a clear example of how cultures mix and infl uence each other, forced or not.
5.1.1 ⁄ ‘SWING LOW, SWEET CHARIOT’ 1 Watch the film fragment of 12 Years a Slave and answer the questions.
a Why are the slaves singing?
b Which type of music do they sing?
tWElVE yEArs A slAVE
Solomon Northup’s 12 Years a Slave recounts the author’s life story as a free black man from the North who was kidnapped and sold into slavery in the pre-Civil War south of the USA. For the next twelve years he survived as the human property of several different slave masters, with the bulk of his bondage lived under the cruel ownership of a southern planter named Edwin Epps. In January 1853, Northup was fi nally freed by Northern friends who came to his rescue. He returned home to his family in New York and there, with the help of editor David Wilson, wrote his account in 12 Years a Slave. Abridged from www.cliffsnotes.com
2 Read the text ‘Negro spirituals’ and answer the questions.
a Why was singing negro spirituals a crucial element in the lives of the African-American slaves in the time before the Civil War?
b Why did this change after the Civil War?
NEGRO SPIRITUALS Spirituals were infl uenced by the culture of Africa. Africans used songs to recite history, express feelings about each other, and it was tied to all aspects of life. Infl uenced by traditions of Africa, spirituals were created by individual and group contribution. Songs were constantly re-created from bits of old songs and then formed into new songs with new tunes and lyrics. They were not always created in church, but were often constructed and sung while working. The most notable spirituals were those that described Cotton slaves at work slaves as the chosen people. This idea provided slaves with the comfort that God was with them and freedom would soon come. They sang: ‘We are the people of God’ and ‘To the Promised Land I’m bound to go’. Although their masters had told them they were the lowest of all people, these lyrics reinforced the belief that God chose them. Hope of liberation was also commonplace; it was expressed in spirituals that were created from the books of the Old Testament and from Revelations of the New Testament. Slaves sang about the Red Sea opening so the Hebrew slaves could pass the Pharaoh armies, David’s victory over Goliath with a stone, Noah building the ark, and Jonah obtaining his freedom from confi nement through faith. These songs not only provided hope in the future and examples of oppressed people from the past, but also confi rmed that God helped oppressed people. Just as God had delivered the people of Israel from Egyptian slavery, they believed that He would also deliver them from slavery.
Slaves gathered outside their quarters
Sorrow was also a prevailing theme, and was expressed in songs about death. Because slaves did not have control over their lives and were subject to the whims of slave masters, death was a constant threat. However, death was not feared since they believed that Christ had died for all sinners and those who believed in Him would be accepted into the Kingdom of Heaven. Instead,
death was viewed as the end to suffering on earth. Therefore, it is not surprising that they sang songs such as ‘Swing Low, Sweet Chariot’, which welcomed death. After the Civil War, the prevalence of spirituals waned since many former slaves did not want to be reminded of the past. However, it was in the early 1870s when a group of students known as the Fisk University Jubilee Singers revived spirituals when they set out to raise money for the university. For the fi rst time, white people, nonsoutherners, and others were able to hear the signifi cance of slave songs. Even today, spirituals provide a way to comprehend the joys, sorrows, and lives of slaves.
commonplace: often used or mentioned confinement: imprisonment prevailing: dominant whim: impulse, urge
3 Listen to the song ‘Swing Low, Sweet Chariot’ and answer the questions.
a Compare the song in the fragment of 12 Years a Slave to ‘Swing Low, Sweet Chariot’. Which similarities and differences can you spot?
Slave sale poster, 1823
b ‘Swing Low, Sweet Chariot’ lyrically has all the typical characteristics of a negro spiritual. Explain.
c Explain the title of the song. Which religious image does it use and what does it mean?
d Compare the music at the beginning of the song to the music in the rest of the song. What do you notice?
e Do you know which genre of music the negro spiritual changes into?
f Listen to a more modern version of this old negro spiritual. Can you recognise the singer?
Swing low, sweet chariot (traditional) - Etta James Chorus: Swing low, sweet chariot Coming for to carry me home Swing low, sweet chariot Coming for to carry me home I looked over Jordan and what did I see Coming for to carry me home A band of angels coming after me Coming for to carry me home Chorus If you get there before I do Coming for to carry me home Tell all my friends Iâ€™m coming too Coming for to carry me home Chorus Only a word heavenly way Coming for to carry me home Since Jesus washed my sins away Coming for to carry me home
chariot: a two-wheeled vehicle drawn by horses
DiD yoU KnoW?
Out of the negro spirituals and the work songs of the African-Americans, a new genre of music arose. Slaves were infl uenced by the hymns from their masters’ church services and combined them with their African tradition. This led to the birth of gospel music. Especially after the emancipation of the slaves in the latter half of the 19th century, church choirs were formed and gospel music became mainstream for AfricanAmericans. Gospel music was much more optimistic and rhythmical than negro spirituals, with the characteristic gospel hand clapping.
A contemporary gospel choir
Over the years, the gospel tradition has moulded the talent of many African-American stars in music. For instance Aretha Franklin, Whitney Houston and Beyoncé all started singing in churches and gospel choirs at a young age. Based on: www.helium.com
5.1.2 ⁄ ‘I’VE GOT THE BLUES’ 1 Read the text ‘The history of Blues’ and answer the questions.
a Name two styles of music which were infl uenced by the Blues.
b The Blues have very typical subjects, which always reoccur. Describe the themes blues usually cover.
c In a way, the function of blues music was exactly the same as the function of the earlier negro spirituals. Explain.
d With that knowledge, you should be able to explain the name of the genre. Where does the name ‘Blues’ come from?
THE HISTORY OF BLUES The origins of the Blues are not unlike the origins of life. For many years the Blues were recorded only by memory, and relayed only live, and in person. The Blues were born in the North Mississippi Delta following the Civil War. Influenced by African roots, field hollers, ballads, church music and rhythmic dance tunes called jump-ups, they evolved into a music for a singer who would engage in call-andresponse with his guitar. He would sing a line, and the guitar would answer. From the crossroads of Highways 61 and 49, and the
B.B. King with his ‘Lucille’, as he called his guitar
platform of the Clarksdale Railway Station, the Blues headed north to Beale Street in Memphis. The Blues have strongly influenced almost all popular music including jazz, country and rock and roll and continues to help shape music worldwide. ‘The Blues ... its 12-bar, bent-note melody is the anthem of a race, bonding itself together with cries of shared self-victimization. Bad luck and trouble are always present in the Blues, and always the result of others, pressing upon unfortunate and downtrodden poor souls, yearning to be free from life’s troubles. Relentless rhythms repeat the chants of sorrow, and the pity of a lost soul many times over. This is the Blues.’ ‘The Blues are the essence of the African-American laborer, whose spirit is wed to these songs, reflecting his inner soul to all who will listen. Rhythm and Blues are the cornerstone of all forms of African-American music.’ Many of Memphis’ best Blues artists left the city at the time, when Mayor ‘Boss’ Crump shut down Beale Street to stop the prostitution, gambling, and cocaine trades, effectively eliminating the musicians, and entertainers’ jobs, as these businesses closed their doors. The Blues migrated to Chicago, where it became electrified, and to Detroit. In northern cities like Chicago and Detroit, during the later forties and early fifties, Muddy Waters, Willie Dixon, John Lee Hooker, Howlin’ Wolf, and Elmore James, among others, played what was basically Mississippi Delta blues, backed by bass, drums, piano and occasionally harmonica, and began scoring national hits with blues songs. Meanwhile, back in Memphis, B.B. King invented the concept of lead guitar, now a standard in today’s rock bands. Arthur ‘Big Boy’ Crudup, Wyonnie Harris, and Big Mama Thorton wrote and performed the songs that would make a young Elvis Presley world renown, e.g. ‘That’s All Right (Mama).’ In the early 1960s, the urban bluesmen were ‘discovered’ by young white American and European musicians. Many of these blues-based bands like the Paul Butterfield Blues Band, the Rolling Stones, the Yardbirds, John Mayall’s Bluesbreakers, Cream (with Eric Clapton), Canned Heat and Fleetwood Mac brought the Blues to young white audiences, something the black blues artists had been unable to do in America, except through the purloined white cross-over covers of black rhythm and blues songs. Since the sixties, rock has undergone several blues revivals. Some rock guitarists, such as Eric Clapton, Jimmy Page (Led Zeppelin), Jimi Hendrix and Eddie Van Halen have used the Blues as a
foundation for offshoot styles. While the originators like John Lee Hooker, Albert Collins and B.B. King – and their heirs Buddy Guy, Otis Rush, and later Eric Clapton and the late Roy Buchanan, among many others – continued to make fantastic music in the blues tradition. The later generation of blues players like Robert Cray and the late Stevie Ray Vaughan, among others, as well as gracing the blues tradition with their incredible technicality, have drawn a new generation listeners to the Blues. Today, guitarists like Ben Harper, John Mayer and Jack White (The White Stripes) integrate the blues tradition into their songs and into their style of
chant: a repetitive song offshoot: developed from to purloin: to steal relentless: without stopping to yearn: to long for
Abridged and adapted from www.history-of-rock.com/blues
2 Yet the Blues can also be more optimistic. Listen to Muddy Waters sing ‘Hoochie Coochie Man’. Then answer the questions. a The song starts with a prophecy. Explain in your own words what happens.
b List all the elements that refer to magic or superstition in the song. Why are they so amply present in the song?
c What type of man is this ‘hoochie coochie man’? Describe him in your own words.
d Compare this blues song to the characteristics of blues that you read about in the text ‘The history of blues’.
Hoochie coochie man - Muddy Waters
© Derick A. Thomas; Dat’s Jazz/Corbis
Gypsy woman told my momma, before I was born You got a boy-child comin’, gonna be a son-of-a-gun Gonna make these pretty women, jump and shout And the world will only know, a-what it’s all about Chorus: You know I’m here Everybody knows I’m here And I’m the hoochie-coochie man Everybody knows I’m here I got a black cat bone, I got a mojo too I got John the Conqueror, I’m gonna mess with you I’m gonna make you, pretty girl, lead me by the hand Then the world will know, the hoochie-coochie man
hoochie coochie: a sexy dance performed by women with a gypsy background John the Conquerer root: a plant which is said to have magical qualities mojo: a magic charm bag or talisman used in voodoo son-of-a-gun: a man that you are annoyed with
Chorus On the seventh hour, of the seventh day, On the seventh month, the seventh doctor said: ‘He was born for good luck, and that you see; Got seven hundred dollars, and don’t you mess with me’ Chorus
3 True or false? Look for the answer in the two texts on roots music. Statement
The Rolling Stones were substantially infl uenced by blues music.
John Lee Hooker invented the concept of the lead guitar.
Elvis Presley contributed to the spreading of blues music.
The Blues will age and disappear because of the dying off of the blues pioneers.
Electrifi ed blues originates from Chicago.
Eric Clapton used to play for the band Cream.
Negro spirituals were written by professional composers.
Negro spirituals refl ect the African tradition of singing while at work.
False Not in text
4 Look for examples of modern day artists whose music has clearly been inﬂuenced by one of the genres of roots music you have read about. Show your findings to your classmates.
5.2 ⁄ BOLLYWOOD STYLE 1 Look at the posters of Indian films. Which similarities and differences with the Hollywood style films do you notice?
2 Read the text on the history of Bollywood and answer the questions.
a Explain the origin of the name ‘Bollywood’.
b Which evolution did Indian fi lm go through in the 1960s?
c What is the name of the forerunner of the modern Bollywood fi lm?
d What is the goal of fi lms, according to Manmahan Desai?
e Which are the typical ingredients of a modern Bollywood fi lm?
f How are these Bollywood fi lms different from their American counterparts?
g Would you be interested in seeing a Bollywood fi lm? Why (not)?
What is Bollywood? A brief summary of Indian cinema from 1913 to the present Even if you’ve never actually seen a film from India, the word Bollywood immediately conjures up images of sumptuous, brightly colored productions shot in exotic locales featuring beautiful stars partaking in impressively choreographed song and dance numbers. But what is the history of India’s national cinema, and how did it grow to become one of the country’s most powerful and financially lucrative industries, and the world leader in both the number of films produced each year as well as audience attendance?
Origins The word Bollywood is (obviously) a play on Hollywood, with the B coming from Bombay (now known as Mumbai), the center of
STARS OF INDIAN CINEMA © Amit Dave/Reuters/Corbis
the film world. The word was coined in the 1970s by the writer of a magazine gossip column, though there is disagreement as to which journalist was the first to use it. However, Indian cinema dates all the way back to 1913 and the silent film Raja Harishchandra, the first-ever Indian feature film. Its producer, Dadasaheb Phalke, was Indian cinema’s first mogul, and he oversaw the production of twenty-three films between 1913-1918. Yet unlike Hollywood, initial growth in the industry was slow.
1920-1945 The early 1920s saw the rise of several new production companies, and most films made during this era were either mythological or historical in nature. Imports from Hollywood, primarily action films, were well received by Indian audiences, and producers quickly began following suit. However, filmed versions of episodes
from classics such as The Ramayana and The Mahabharata still dominated throughout the decade. 1931 saw the release of Alam Ara, the first talkie, and the film that paved the way for the future of Indian cinema. The number of productions companies began to skyrocket, as did the number of films being produced each year – from 108 in 1927, to 328 in 1931. Color films soon began to appear, as did early efforts at animation.
Giant movie palaces were built, and there was a noticeable shift © Rupak de Chowdhuri/ Reuters/Corbis
in audience makeup, namely in a significant growth in workingclass attendees, who in the silent era accounted for only a small percentage of tickets sold. The WW II years saw a decrease in the number of films produced as a result of limited imports of film stock and government restrictions on the maximum allowed running time. Still, audiences remained faithful, and each year saw
an impressive rise in ticket sales.
Birth of the New Wave It was around 1947 that the industry went through significant changes, and one could argue that it was during this time that the modern Indian film was born. The historical and mythological stories of the past were now being replaced by social-reformist films, which turned an often critical eye on such social practices
Shahrukh Khan © Ravindra Hande/Demotix/ Corbis
as the dowry system, polygamy and prostitution. The 1950s saw filmmakers such as Bimal Roy and Satyajit Ray focusing on the lives of the lower classes, who until then were mostly ignored as subjects. Inspired by social and political changes, as well as cinematic movements in both the US and Europe, the 1960s saw the birth of India’s own New Wave, founded by directors such as Ray, Mrinal
Sen, and Ritwik Ghatak. Driven by a desire to offer a greater © Mike Cassese/Reuters/ Corbis
sense of realism and an understanding of the common man, the films during this era differed greatly from larger commercial productions, which were mostly escapist fare. It was the latter that would eventually become the template for the Masala film, a mash of genres including action, comedy, and melodrama punctuated by approximately six song and dance numbers, and the model still used for most contemporary Bollywood films.
The Masala Film – Bollywood As We Know It Today Manmohan Desai, one of the more successful Bollywood directors of the 1970s who is considered by many to be the father of the Masala film, defended his approach thusly: ‘I want people to forget their misery. I want to take them into a dream world where there is no poverty, where there are no beggars, where fate is kind and god is busy looking after his flock.’ The hodgepodge of action, romance, comedy and of course musical numbers is a model that still dominates the Bollywood industry, and though greater attention is now paid to plot, character development, and dramatic tension, it is, in most cases, sheer star power that accounts for a film’s success. With the recent success of films like Slumdog Millionaire and the injection of foreign capital into the Indian film industry, Bollywood is perhaps entering a new chapter in its history, one in which the eyes of the world are now paying closer attention. But the question remains – will a Bollywood film ever find crossover success with mainstream American audiences? Source: www.worldfilm.about.com
3 Slumdog Millionaire was the film that made Bollywood known to Western cinema. Watch the fragments from the film, then answer the questions.
Slumdog Millionaire (2008) tells the story of Jamal Malik, a young orphan from the slums of Mumbai who is one question away from the Who Wants to Be a Millionaire jackpot. Arrested on suspicion of cheating and desperate to prove his innocence, he tells the incredible story of his life: the chaos of the streets he and his brother grew up in; their wild adventures on the road and the vicious runins with local gangs; and Lakita, the girl he loved and lost. Source: Celador Films
a How much money can Jamal win by answering the question correctly?
b Why did the quiz host try to make him give the wrong answer?
c Where is Jamal taken after the show and why?
d Why did Jamal participate in the show Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?
e Why is Jamal worried?
HISTORIC HIGHLIGHTS IN FILM
Give a presentation of a historic highlight from an English-speaking country, illustrated by a fragment from a film dealing with the topic.
Procedure 1 Choose one topic from an English-speaking country’s history that appeals to you. 2 Look up information on the topic. (reading/watching/listening) 3 P repare a short presentation, explaining the essence of the event and its impact on our society. (speaking)
4 C hoose a film which deals directly or indirectly with the topic. Watch it without Dutch subtitles (English subtitles are allowed!). (listening/watching) 5 I nclude a brief explanation of the film in your presentation. Pinpoint two elements in the film that refer to your historic event. (speaking) 6 A t the end of your presentation, show a well-chosen scene from the film to your classmates. (watching/listening) 7 Involve your classmates with an assignment while watching the film fragment. 8 Discuss the answers together in class. (spoken interaction) 9 Pay attention to historical criticism. (watching/speaking)
1 Content • We clearly explain the historic event. • We introduce the chosen film properly. • The film fragment is well selected. • The assignment for our classmates is useful. • The interaction with the class adds depth to our presentation. 2 Vocabulary and grammar • We use vocabulary suited to the topic. • We use vocabulary adapted to our target audience. • We avoid grammatical errors. Class: Number: 232
3 Speaking skills • The presentation is fluent. • The pronunciation is good. • The English interaction with the class goes well. 4 Structure • Our presentation has a clear structure: introduction, body and conclusion. • We fairly divide the presentation between the group members. Feedback
7.1 ⁄ VOICED AND VOICELESS CONSONANTS AT THE END OF A WORD Unlike in Dutch, voiced consonants at the end of the word do not automatically become voiceless. English speakers clearly voice for instance the b, d and g in end position. Listen to the native speaker’s pronunciation of these words, which Dutch speakers often pronounce as homophones. Afterwards, try to pronounce these minimal pairs yourself, using a correct voiced consonant at the end where necessary. Voiceless ending
lent / leant
Notes: - Phonetic notation according to IPA and the phonemic chart of the British council. - For some words different pronunciations are possible: consult your dictionary.
7.2 ⁄ WORD STRESS: VERBS AND NOUNS Nouns and corresponding verbs may be spelled similarly, but the stressed syllable (and as a result also the pronunciation) may differ. Listen to the native speaker’s pronunciation of these pairs. Then it’s your turn to pronounce these words. Noun
7.3 ⁄ SILENT CONSONANTS A lot of English words contain letters in spelling which are not pronounced. The consonants which are written, but not pronounced in spoken English, are called silent consonants. As English spelling is conservative, these letters in spelling which are not pronounced anymore, are reminiscent of older varieties of English or go back to the language of origin of loanwords, e.g. Greek, Latin, Norwegian or French. Listen to the native speaker’s pronunciation of these words, which Dutch speakers often pronounce ‘to the letter’. Afterwards, try to pronounce these yourself, dropping the proper consonant to make it silent where needs be. Words with silent consonants
Words with silent consonants knit
7.4 ⁄ PRONUNCIATION OF THE R In standard British English (or Received Pronuncation), the pronunciation of the ‘r’ is often dropped at the end of a word or before another consonant. Thus it also becomes a silent consonant. In American English, however, the ‘r’ is usually pronounced very clearly in these cases. 1 Listen to the native English and the native American speaker and pay attention to how and when they pronounce the ‘r’. Afterwards, try to pronounce all the words from the list first in British English and then in American English. Word
2 Watch the video One Woman, 17 British accents and try to find out which British accents pronounce the ‘r’ in which way.
8.1 â „ VOCABULARY: HISTORY
INSTUTIONS AND PEOPLE OF POWER
liberty / freedom
Secretary of state
Words on migration Verbs
• • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • •
to migrate to emigrate to immigrate to search / fi nd refuge to settle to integrate to assimilate to emancipate
migration / migrant emigration / emigrant immigration / immigrant refugee settler / settlement integration assimilation emancipation
ADJECTIVES TO INDICATE HISTORICAL IMPORTANCE
important relevant signifi cant meaningful
very important crucial essential decisive pivotal
unimportant irrelevant insignifi cant meaningless
OPPOSITES highlight key moment recent past good old days to fl y high joy / happiness to feel on top of the world
low (point) side-issue distant past hard times to hit rock bottom sorrow / sadness to feel blue
8.2 ⁄ IDIOMS AND COLLOCATIONS ABOUT HISTORY Idioms and collocations about history • • • • • • • •
the course of history That’s past history. … and the rest is history. History repeats itself. to make history to be history in the making to go down in history to be (ancient) history
TRACK YOUR PROGRESS
MY COMPETENCES Vocabulary
I can use the appropriate words and expressions to discuss topics about history. (throughout the unit)
Functional practice: language in social situations
I can describe history cartoons. (1.1, 2.4 ) I can talk with my classmates in English about highlights in history. (throughout the unit) I can phrase my own opinion about history related topics. (1.1, 4.3)
I can build up a presentation for my peers. (6) I can give my class an assignment and afterwards discuss the solutions with them. (6) I can make a commercial for a target audience. (3.2)
Socio-cultural aspects of language
I can judge and explain the link between history, culture and language. (2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 3.1, 3.2, 4, 6) I can compare commercials from different eras and recognise cultural differences in them. (3.2) I can understand the influence of roots music on modern day pop music. (5.1) I can recognise, identify and appreciate aspects of Indian film and culture. (5.2) I can recognise differences between American and British English. (7.4)
MY SKILLS Listening
I can listen for information. (3.2, 4.2, 5.1, 6) I can listen to form an opinion. (3.2, 4.2, 4.3, 5.1) I can listen to summarise and structure information. (3.1, 4.2, 4.3, 6) I can fill out the missing words in a speech. (4.3) I can understand the meaning of song lyrics. (5.1)
I can understand history cartoons. (1.1, 2.4) I can look up information on history highlights. (1.2, 4.4, 6) I can derive the meaning of unknown words from the context. (2.4, 4.2)
UNIT 5 I can derive information from a written text. (2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 3.2, 5.1, 5.2, 6) I can answer questions about a written interview. (2.4) I can look up information on a website. (4.1, 4.3, 4.4, 5.1, 6) Spoken interaction
I can discuss history related topics with my classmates and teacher. (throughout the unit)
I can express personal views and opinions on history related topics. (1.1, 2.3, 2.4, 3.2, 5.1) I can pronounce a voiced consonant correctly at the end of a word. (7.1) I can distinguish between verbs and nouns by using the correct stress pattern. (7.2) I know how to deal with silent consonants in pronunciation. (7.3) I can pronounce an English ‘r’. (7.4) I can do a presentation about history highlights in film. (6)
I can fill out an official government form. (2.4) I can summarise the key information of a written or spoken source on paper. (3.1, 4.4, 6)
MY ATTITUDES Motivation
I am eager to extend my existing knowledge on a topic. I try to improve my pronunciation.
I apply strategies for tasks. I am willing to take initiative when working together.
I help out classmates in pair or group work. I respect other people’s opinions. I share my own opinion with others. I show interest in different points of view. I am willing to look beyond prejudice and stereotypes.