UNITNee4:d ONCE UPON A TIME to
At the end of this unit you will be able to: describe the typical elements of a fairy tale. talk about things that happened a long time ago. write a short story in the past. use linking words to write or tell stories. listen to and retell a fairy tale. Keep in mind that you are going to write your own version of a modern day fairy tale.
MAIN TRACK CHECK-IN 1 / ONCE UPON A TIME â€Ś 1 Watch the opening scene of the series Once upon a time and answer the questions.
a How does the story start? b Where does it take place? c Who is in the story? d What happened? 2 Discuss these questions.
a What kind of stories start like this?
c Did you often read or listen to fairy tales when you were little? Which ones do you remember? d Which ones are your favourites?
one hundred and nineteen
b Do you like them?
3 Watch the second scene and then answer the questions. a What characters did you see? b Who was the prince looking for? c What happened to her? d How did he wake her up? e What is the first thing she said when she woke up? f Who interrupted the wedding? g What did she come for?
DID YOU KNOW?
Most nouns ending in the letters -f,- fe or -ff have a regular plural by adding the letter -s: e.g. cliff cliffs safe safes giraffe giraffes A lot of words ending in -f or -fe change their plurals in -ves: e.g. half halves thief thieves knife knives wife wives But there are more exceptions and some words can have 2 plural forms: e.g. dwarf dwarfs or dwarves hoof hoofs or hooves
one hundred and twenty
4 Do you know the fairy tales? Match the pictures with the corresponding fairy tale. Choose the words from the box. Alice in Wonderland – Bluebeard – Cinderella – Hansel and Gretel – The Little Match Seller – Little Red Riding Hood – Rumpelstiltskin – Thumbling – The Ugly Duckling
one hundred and twenty-one
5 Read the opening scenes of these stories. Write the appropriate title above each story.
EXTRACT 1: Once upon a time there were three bears who lived together in a house of their own in the woods. One of them was a little wee bear and one was a middle-sized bear and the other was a great big bear. They each had a bowl of porridge: there was a little bowl for the little wee bear and a middle-sized bowl for the middle-sized bear and a big bowl for the great big bear. And there were three chairs. They each had a chair to sit in: a little chair for the little wee bear and a middle-sized chair for the middle-sized bear and a big chair for the great big bear. And they had each a bed to sleep in: a little bed for the little wee bear and a middle-sized bed for the middle-sized bear and a great bed for the great big bear. One day, after they had made the porridge for their breakfast, and poured it into their porridge bowls, they walked out into the woods while the porridge was cooling, so that they might not burn their mouths by beginning too soon, because they were polite, well-broughtup bears. And while they weren’t at home, a little girl called Goldilocks, who lived on the other side of the woods, passed by the house. She had to run errands for her mother but stopped at the house and looked in at the window. And then she peeped through the keyhole, …
EXTRACT 2: Long, long ago, there was a king and a queen. They were very sorry that they had no children, so sorry that it cannot be told. It was their biggest wish to have a baby. At last, however, the Queen had a daughter, Aurora. There was a very fine christening; and the Princess had as godmothers all the fairies they could find in the whole kingdom (there were seven of them). Every fairy had a gift for her. It was the custom of fairies in those days. In this way, the Princess had all the perfections imaginable; she was beautiful, sweet and lovely. When the christening was over, the company returned to the King’s palace. There was a great feast for the fairies. All of them had a magnificent plate covered with solid gold; on it was a spoon, a knife and fork (made of pure gold, set with diamonds and rubies). But while they were all sitting down at the table they saw a very old fairy named Maleficent come into the hall. She had not been invited, because for more than fifty years she had not left a certain tower, and she was believed to be either dead or enchanted.
one hundred and twenty-two
A long time ago, in Persia, a poor boy called Aladdin was playing with his friends in the streets of the city. He was not alone. And then suddenly a stranger came up to him and asked him if he was the son of Mustapha the Tailor. ‘I am, sir, or rather I was,’ replied Aladdin, ‘but he died a long while ago.’ When the stranger heard this, he embraced Aladdin saying: ‘My boy – I wasn’t there before, but I am here now. I am your long lost uncle.’ ‘Where were you all this time?’ asked Aladdin, but he didn’t wait for an answer and ran home, told his mother all about this newly found relative, and she prepared supper for them all. Adapted from: www.storynory.com
christening: to give a baby a name at a Christian ceremony enchanted: affected by magic fairy: an imaginary creature with magic powers, usually represented as a very small person with wings porridge: a breakfast made of oatmeal, or some other meal or cereal, boiled to a thick consistency in water or milk.
a Do you know these stories?
b Which one is your favourite? c Read the extracts again and complete the table below about the stories. Extract 1
reading Extract 3
When? Where? Main character(s):
d Answer the questions about the three extracts. Write full sentences. 1 Were the bears in the house when Goldilocks looked through the window?
No, they weren’t.
2 Where were the 3 bears then?
3 What was their breakfast?
4 What was the biggest wish of the king and queen?
5 Were all the fairies invited?
6 Was Aladdin alone?
7 Who was Aladdin?
8 Who was the man that Aladdin met?
one hundred and twenty-three
6 Underline the past forms of the verb ‘to be’ in your answers of exercise 5 d and complete the table. Positive form
Negative long form
Negative short form = wasn’t
You He/she/it We
7 Read the speech bubbles. a Complete the sentences with the past simple of the verb ‘to be’. b Write the name of the characters who said these things. The characters are taken from the stories in exercise 5. Life in the city hard for us. We poor and hungry; we had to steal sometimes to survive. It always easy, we in trouble sometimes but
I brave. I more than just a thief and one day the people able to see that.
one hundred and twenty-four
I in the woods and I found this
I invited to the christening
little house. I wanted to go in and nobody
party for the King and Queen’s
there. There 3 bowls
daughter. I furious and
with porridge. I tasted them all and
that’s why I put this terrible curse on
eventually ate the medium bowl entirely.
the young princess, Aurora;
It delicious. I very
and they able to prevent
tired so I went to bed and when I woke up,
this from happening.
there three bears, a little one,
By sunset on her sixteenth birthday,
a middle-sized one and a big bear.
she would prick her finger on the
They friendly, so I
spindle of a spinning wheel and die!
afraid of them.
I in a lamp for 10,000 years; that quite a long time. I so happy that I finally could help somebody; and this young man and his little monkey in need, but they safe from Jafar. I the right
My son at home today, but when he came home he told me about someone he met; it his uncle. I happy that we found his uncle, but I also suspicious.
man at the right place and I got them out of the cave. They very
We at home today, but when we arrived, there a little girl in our house. We
happy that she had sneaked into our house.
8 Look at the questions in exercise 5 d. Make two groups of questions and complete the box. TIP: look at the answers. Questions
+ subject + rest?
QW* + + subject + rest?
Answer Type of question Example
*QW = question word
one hundred and twenty-five
9 What do we already know about fairy tales? Complete the information.
• In a fairy tale we don’t know/ know exactly where and when it took place. • The story usually starts with:
• Take a closer look at the verbs. When is the story set? past – present – future
10 Some words are underlined in the extracts of exercise 5 on page 122. These words are called linkers or linking words (= words that link phrases or sentences). Find the linkers for the function that is given.
: joins words or ideas one hundred and twenty-six
: shows there is a choice between two or more things : shows a contrast
: shows that the second event comes after the first
2 / WHY NOT A MODERN RETELLING? Nowadays there are a lot of modern versions of ancient fairy tales. 11 Watch the extract from the film Beastly and answer the questions.
a Who are the people in the pictures? Complete the fact file about these characters.
What does he/she look like?
How does the character act?
How do other characters react to this character?
b Who do you think is the good and who is the bad character? Why do you think this? 12 Read the text.
a What fairy tale do you think this is?
one hundred and twenty-seven
‘I am a beast. A beast. Not quite wolf or bear, gorilla or dog, but a horrible new creature who walks upright – a creature with fangs and claws and hair springing from every pore. I am a monster. You think I’m talking fairy tales? No way. The place is New York City. The time is now. It’s no deformity, no disease. And I’ll stay this way forever – ruined – unless I can break the spell. Yes, the spell, the one the witch in my English class cast on me. Why did she turn me into a beast who hides by day and prowls by night? I’ll tell you. I’ll tell you how I used to be Kyle Kingsbury, the guy you wished you were, with money, perfect looks, and a perfect life. And then, I’ll tell you how I became perfectly beastly.’ Source: www.alexflinn.com
b How did Kyle become ‘a beast’? Watch the clip to know the answer.
c Are the statements true, false or not mentioned in this extract? Correct the false statements. Statement
Not in text
1 Kendra suddenly appeared on the balcony.
2 Kyle greeted Kendra.
3 Kendra asked why he was there.
4 Kyle replied that it was a joke.
5 Kendra cursed Kyle.
6 Kyle played with girls’ feelings.
7 Kyle cried when Kendra disappeared.
8 Kyle’s father travelled a lot.
13 Watch the clip again and answer the questions. a What is the conflict (= twist) in the story? Explain. b Why does Kendra curse him? c How can the spell be broken? one hundred and twenty-eight
14 Listen to the original story.
a How does it end? b What is the last sentence? 15 Look at exercise 12 c. a Underline the verbs in the sentences.
to turn > turned
to refuse > refused
to hurry > hurried
to obey > obeyed
to admit > admitted
to travel > travelled
DID YOU KNOW?
In British English we write verbs ending in a vowel plus l with double l when we add endings that begin with a vowel (-ing, -ed). In American English, the l is not doubled: e.g. traveled
one hundred and twenty-nine
b Write the verbs in the correct column in blue. Look at the examples that are given.
GRAMMAR Past simple form General rule:
e.g. to turn
Verbs ending in –e:
e.g. to refuse refused
Verbs ending in consonant + y:
e.g. to hurry
Verbs ending in vowel + y:
e.g. to obey
Verbs ending in single stressed vowel:
Verbs ending in vowel + l:
16 Read the extract from the book Beastly and answer the questions. a Who is talking? I= b Where was he? c How did Kyle make himself invisible? d Where did he want to go? e Why did he fear Sloan seeing him? f Why couldn’t he go in? g Why didn’t he want to go in anyway? one hundred and thirty
h Did you read or see Beauty and the Beast when you were little? Yes, I did/No, I didn’t. i Did you enjoy the story? Why/why not?
That night, for the first time since moving to Brooklyn, I went out onto the street. I waited until night, and even though it was early October, I wore a big coat with a hood, which I pulled up over my 5 face. I wrapped a scarf around my chin and cheeks. I walked close to the buildings, turning so people wouldn’t see me, ducking into alleys to avoid coming too close to anyone. I shouldn’t have to do this, I thought. I am Kyle Kingsbury. I’m someone special. 10 I shouldn’t have been reduced to skulking in alleyways, hiding behind garbage Dumpsters, waiting for some stranger to yell, ‘Monster’. I should have been with people. 1
Yet, I hid and ducked and skulked and luckily went unnoticed. That was the weird thing. No one noticed me, even those who seemed to look right at me. Unreal. 15
I knew where I wanted to go. Gin Elliott, from my class at Tuttle, had the hottest parties at his parents’ place in SoHo when they were away. I’d been watching the mirror, so I knew they’d be away this weekend. I couldn’t go to the party – not as a stranger, and certainly not as myself, as Kyle Kingsbury reduced to nothing.
But I thought that maybe – just maybe – I could stand outside the party and watch people going in and out. I could watch them from Brooklyn, sure. But I wanted to be there. No 20 one would recognize me. My only risk was that maybe someone would see me, that I would be captured, held as a monster, maybe made a zoo creature. Not a small risk. But my loneliness made me brave. I could do it. And still, people passed me, seeming to look, but not seeing me. Did I dare take the subway? I did dare. It was the only way. I found the station I’d seen so 25 many times from my window, and pushing back once again the thought of being placed in a zoo and having my friends come there on field trips to see me, I bought a MetroCard and waited for the next train.
Then I figured it out. Of course! It was warm. In my heavy coat and scarf, I looked like a homeless person. That’s what they thought I was, the people on the street and the train. That’s why they hadn’t looked at me. No one looked at the homeless. I was invisible. I could walk the streets, and as long as I kept my face sort of hidden, no one would notice me. It was freedom, in a way.
Braver, I looked around. Sure enough, not one eye met mine. Everyone looked at their books, or their friends, or just…away.
one hundred and thirty-one
When it arrived, it wasn’t crowded. Rush hour was over. Still, I sat away from the other passengers, taking the worst seat in back. I faced the window. Even so, a woman in a 30 nearby seat moved away when I sat. I watched her, reflected in the windowpane, as she passed me, holding her breath. She would have been able to see my animal reflection if she’d looked. But she didn’t look, just walked, lurching against the movement of the train, wrinkling her nose as if she smelled something bad. She went to the farthest part of the car to sit, but she didn’t say anything.
I got to Spring Street and got out, not so carefully this time. I made my way along the brighter streets, pulling my scarf closer around my neck, ignoring the suffocating feeling of it, and staying to the side. My big fear was Sloane seeing me. If she’d made the mistake 45 of telling anyone about me, they’d have made fun of her for sure. And then she’d be eager to point me out to them, so they’d know she wasn’t lying. I got to Gin’s apartment. It had a doorman, so I couldn’t go in the lobby. I didn’t want to anyway, didn’t want to deal with the light, the faces, the fact that the party was going on without me, like I didn’t matter. 50
There was a large planter by the door. I waited until no one was near, then slid down, making myself comfortable beside it. A familiar scent filled the air, and I glanced up at the planter. Red roses. Will would have been proud of me for noticing. Source: Alex Flinn, Beastly
17 Write an example for each group of verbs in exercise 15. Find two examples in the extract taken from Beastly and add them to the table in exercise 15 b on page 129 in green. If you can’t find an example in the text, find one yourself. 18 Many verbs in English have irregular past simple forms and do not end in -ed. Find the past forms for these verbs in the text. 1 to go:
6 to wear:
2 to think:
7 to hide:
3 to know:
8 to have:
4 to make:
9 to buy:
5 to sit:
10 to get:
STRATEGY one hundred and thirty-two
Study tip Some verbs are irregular. This means there are no rules and you just have to learn them by heart. Study the list in the summary of this unit on page 150. Do you find it hard to study the entire list at once? Divide the list in smaller parts (e.g. 7 verbs) and study one part every day.
3 / OH MY DISNEY 19 Read through the facts about Walt Disney and put the events in chronological order.
a At the age of 10, his family moved to Kansas City, where Disney developed a love for trains. His uncle, Mike Martin, was a train engineer and later on he would take a summer job with the railroad (selling snacks and newspapers to travelers).
b In 1932, Walt decided to make a full-length animated film called Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. It took five years to complete the film. It was a huge success.
c Walt Disney was born on December 5, 1901 in Chicago. He was one of five children. d As a child, Walt took art classes in Chicago and drew for the school newspaper. He was very good at it. e In 1929, Disney created Silly Symphonies. For this film he created new friends for Mickey such as Donald Duck, Goofy and Pluto. f They had a lot of success and they made plans for a theme park. Disneyland opened in 1955 and cost 17 million dollars to build. The park was a massive success and is still one of the most popular holiday destinations in the world g In 1923, Walt moved to Hollywood. He created the first animated film. It was called Steamboat Willie and starred Mickey and Minnie Mouse. h Walt Disney died on December 15, 1966, from lung cancer. Walt and his wife, Lilly, had two children.
i After winning eight Oscars for Snow White, during the next five years Walt Disney Studios completed other full-length animated films, Pinocchio, Fantasia, Dumbo and Bambi. Adapted from: www.biography.com
STRATEGY When you have to put events in chronological order, focus on the information in dates, the age of a person, and places referred to. These things can help to reconstruct a text.
one hundred and thirty-three
20 Reread the biography of Walt Disney and write a short text of about 60 words about his life. Use the important dates and words from the box and add some linkers. Don’t forget to use the past simple. 1901 – 1911 – 1923 – 1937 – 1966 – success – to create – to move – to take
I wrote about 60 words. I used all the dates and the words from the box. I added some linkers. I used the past simple tense correctly. I checked my spelling and punctuation.
21 Read the following text about Aladdin. a Complete the sentences and write the verbs in the past simple. Watch out for irregular verbs! Still disguised as an old man, Jafar (to lead) Aladdin and his friend Abu to the Cave of Wonders in the middle of the desert. Sure enough, the Cave (to give) Aladdin permission to enter, (it didn’t give permission to Jafar), as long as he didn’t touch anything except the lamp. While Jafar was waiting outside, Aladdin and Abu nervously (to enter) the Cave. There (to be) mountains of gold and precious jewels, which could have made Aladdin and Abu very rich, beyond their wildest dreams. But they didn’t see the lamp. Aladdin and Abu (to search) through the vast Cave and (to meet) a shy Magic Carpet. It didn’t leave them alone and luckily the enchanted Carpet (to know) exactly where the magic lamp (to be). However, just as Aladdin (to collect) the lamp, Abu (to take) an enormous ruby. The Cave (to be) angry that its rule had been broken. It (to try) one hundred and thirty-four
to trap Aladdin and Abu, but the Carpet (to come) to their rescue. Aladdin (to hand) the lamp to Jafar and the evil man (to try) to give him his ‘eternal reward’- death! Abu (to manage) to stop Jafar by biting his arm and (to steal) the magic lamp back.
Aladdin and Abu were still trapped inside the Cave, but (to be) safe from Jafar for now. Aladdin didn’t understand what (to be) so special about the lamp, until he (to rub) it. A Genie (to appear) and (to tell) Aladdin that he would grant him three wishes. Aladdin (to think) carefully about his wishes. He didn’t know it would work but he (to trick) the Genie into freeing him from the Cave. He didn’t lose a wish. Adapted from: Disney Princess Enchanted Character Guide
b Some of the verbs in the text are negative. Underline the negative verbs and write them down.
GRAMMAR How do we form negative sentences in the past simple? Subject + + + rest of sentence
22 Watch the extract and answer the questions.
a What is going on? b Who is there? c Why do they laugh? d Try to write down as many questions as you can. one hundred and thirty-five
e Does she answer all of his questions?
‘little kids really didn’t like me’
23 Read the text below. Something went wrong with the layout of this interview. Highlight what the interviewer said and underline the questions.
When people found out you would be playing the role of Maleficent, people said: ‘Oh, she’s perfect for that!’ Did you know that? Did you take this as a compliment or an insult?
one hundred and thirty-six
[Laughs] It is really funny when people say you’d be obvious for a great villain. She was just my favorite as a little girl. I was terrified of her but I was also really drawn to her. I loved her. I got a phone call from my brother who said ‘You got to get your name on the list for this!’ Were you like, ‘Geez, thanks a lot?’ Did you see it too? I didn’t at first. But what’s interesting about her that what I do relate to, and what I think everyone relates to, is she’s not what you think she is. You’ve got six kids at home. What did they think of their mom as this villain? I told my kids I was playing Maleficent and they went ‘She’s so scary!’ and I said ‘Let me tell you the real story but you can’t tell anybody’ so I put them in the room and I told them the [film’s] story. What did it feel like to be in Maleficent’s skin? Maleficent was always so elegant. She always was in control. And to play her was difficult. I worked on my voice a lot. She’s bigger than me. She’s on a different level of performance that I have never done. She’s very still. She’s very sure of herself, but I couldn’t figure out her voice, I kept playing with these different types of British voices, making my voice darker and scarier. How did you ultimately find the right voice? I was giving my kids a bath, and I started making up other stories about Maleficent – and they weren’t really paying attention to me, as children often do. You can bore them to death, until I started to mess around with this playful [singsongy] voice. Your daughter, Vivienne, played the toddler version of Aurora. How did that happen? We think it’s fun for our kids to have cameos and join us on set, but not to be actors. That’s not a goal for Brad and me at all. I think we would both Source: www.ew.com
prefer that they didn’t become actors. But she was 4 at the time and other 3- and 4-year-old [actors] really wouldn’t come near me. Big kids thought I was cool! But little kids really didn’t like me. So it had to be a child that really liked me and wasn’t afraid of my horns and my eyes and my claws. So it had to be Viv. What was it like freaking out those other kids? Honestly – did you like it? I had a friend come with their children, and when I met the kids, one of them froze and screamed so much that I had to go wait in my trailer. When [my son] Pax saw me for the first time, he ran away and got upset and I actually found him crying. I had to take off pieces [of the make-up] in front of him to show him it was all fake. How did it feel carrying those massive horns on your head? It was pretty funny, because I kept on hitting my horns on things, the framing was very strange. They were actually kind of heavy. There had to be [lighter weight] ones that you could ride horse in because if you fall with something [heavy] attached to your head, that’s it – it could break your neck. What did Brad think of your costume? I don’t know! You know, I never asked him. He thinks she’s cool. I loved being Maleficent. I was quite sad to put my staff down and put my horns away because somehow, she just lives in a different world. But I did have to take my staff home to practice walking with it in my cloak, and then I would go outside and scream at the bushes to expand my voice and play with my voice. So, mom was a bit nutso for a period. It’s good to know you still have that dark side if you need it. [Laughs] I know!
24 Reread the text. Are the statements true, false or not mentioned? Correct the false statements. Statement
Not in text
1 Viviene played the toddler version of Aurora. 2 Angelina didn’t like Maleficent when she was young. 3 The children laughed when they saw Maleficent. 4 Shiloh ran away when she saw Maleficent. 5 Brad didn’t like the costume.
6 Angelina didn’t tell her children she would be playing Maleficent. 7 Angelina didn’t take anything of the costume home.
DID YOU KNOW?
This text is an American text. The verb ‘to practice’ is used. In American English the verb and the noun are both written with a ‘c’. e.g. to practice – a practice. In British English the verb and the noun are written differently. e.g. to practise – a practice. 25 Find 3 yes-no questions in the interview. – – –
GRAMMAR How do we form yes-no questions in the past simple? subject + rest?
26 Give 3 examples of question word questions in the interview. – one hundred and thirty-seven
GRAMMAR How do we form question word questions in the past simple? subject + rest?
27 Not only Disney does retellings of fairy tales. Read this interview with Marissa Meyer to find out more. a Read the introduction. Who is Marissa Meyer? b The questions in the interview are missing. Write the questions. Choose from the list. There is one extra question! Why did you make these changes? What did you have the most fun with while adapting this fairy tale? Why did you choose a small town in southern France? Did you love fairy tales when you were young? Who is your favorite character in your books? Why did you choose ‘Red Riding Hood’ as the next fairy tale in the series?
Interview: Marissa Meyer
GLOSSARY cyborg: in science fiction stories, a creature that is part human and part machine dandy: a man who likes his looks a lot maturation: growing up to re-envision: to image in a different way to roam: to wander about, walking without thinking where you are going to tweak: to change a little bit
one hundred and thirty-eight
Marissa Meyer is the author of Cinder and Scarlet. Last year, the first book in Marissa Meyer’s Lunar Chronicles series, Cinder, about a cyborg Cinderella was received with high acclaim. The second book in the series, Scarlet, is an adaptation of ‘Little Red Riding Hood’, which follows Scarlet on the quest for her grandmother who may have been taken because of the secrets she’s been keeping. In this interview, Marissa Meyer explains how each book in The Lunar Chronicles series links together. The first book in The Lunar Chronicles, Cinder, was based on the fairy tale, ‘Cinderella’.
We also travel to a new part of the world in Scarlet. Cinder was set in China.
When I was first plotting out the series, I had a list of ten or so of my favorite fairy tales, and I spent a lot of time brainstorming different ways that I could tweak the stories to give them a science-fiction spin. ‘Little Red Riding Hood’ kept popping up, and I knew it was familiar enough that readers would have an instant connection to it, while also having a lot of wiggle room for me to re-envision the story in my futuristic, hightech world. I was particularly excited to see what could be done with the character of the Big Bad Wolf.
Because I knew that Scarlet would feature werewolves (although not quite how we normally see them in YA fiction), I wanted to set it someplace that already had a rich history of werewolves or werewolf mythology. Then one day I saw a TV documentary about ‘The Beast of Gévaudan,’ a creature that supposedly roamed the French countryside in the 18th-century. There were a lot of killings in a few rural towns and the townspeople said it was this beast, which they believed was a werewolf. This legend was also where the idea of werewolves being vulnerable to silver bullets comes from. So that old tale of werewolves, murders and terror inspired the rural French setting for Scarlet.
Scarlet’s grandmother isn’t a helpless old lady and Scarlet isn’t a naive girl like in the fairy tale.
they’ve come to be the way they are. The Pack developed into a small society all on its own, which was really fun to develop and write about.
Which were your favorites?
I didn’t want to rely on the stereotypes of popular fairy tale characters, and so I try to avoid them wherever possible. That started with ‘Cinderella’ – Cinder isn’t a pushover and Prince Kai isn’t a dandy – and I hope that will continue through the entire series. For me, it wouldn’t be any fun to write about those characters. I like heroes who are courageous, who stand up for what they believe in and who take steps to right the injustices they see. Of course, they all have their faults, too (both Scarlet and her grandmother are very stubborn.)
The story fits in the world of The Lunar Chronicles.
Absolutely, I did – I was raised on Disney movies, like most of my generation! But I was still really young when I was given a book of fairy tales that had Hans Christian Andersen’s ‘The Little Mermaid’ in it, and I remember being shocked at how different it was from the Disney movie. It really made me question how other popular fairy tales might be different from the movies I was familiar with, and that kicked off a fascination that I have to this day. It’s impossible for me to choose a favorite, but obviously the four that I’ve chosen to rewrite in The Lunar Chronicles (‘Cinderella’, ‘Little Red Riding Hood’, ‘Rapunzel’, and ‘Snow White’) rank highly!
As you read fairy tales as an adult, do you see different things in them than you did when you were a child?
I really enjoyed exploring Wolf and the ‘gang’ he belonged to – ‘The Order of the Pack.’ I did a lot of research on wolves, their hierarchy, social structure, communication, and hunting skills in order to give these characters as many wolf-like tendencies as I could, while also making sure that I had scientific explanations for how
Oh yes. I took a ‘fairy tale and fantasy literature’ course in college, in which we talked a lot about the psychology and symbolism behind fairy tales. How certain elements are like a ‘code’, hinting at things like social unrest, sexual maturation, religion and morals, etc. Though I can still read and appreciate a fairy tale as a children’s story without trying to pick it apart, I’ll never be able to read them exactly the same way again.
c Read the interview again and answer the following questions.
1 Which fairy tales did Marissa Meyer use to write her books Cinder and Scarlet?
2 How did she start?
one hundred and thirty-nine
Adapted from: www.teenreads.com
3 What does she think of Disney films?
4 How does Marissa Meyer feel about fairy tales now that she is an adult?
3 / REAL PRINCES AND PRINCESSES 28 Read the text about ‘Queen Bey’. a Why do people call Beyoncé ‘Queen’ Bey?
QUEEN BEY Beyoncé Giselle Knowles-Carter, also known as Queen Bey, was born September 4 in 1981. She’s an American singer-songwriter, and actress. She performed in various singing and dancing competitions as a child, and rose to fame in the late 1990s as lead singer of R&B girl-group Destiny’s Child. In 2003 Beyoncé started as a solo artist. Her debut album, Dangerously in Love, sold 12 million copies and earned five Grammy Awards. ‘Crazy in Love’ and ‘Baby Boy’ were her number one singles. In 2006 she got a Golden Globenomination for her performance in Dreamgirls. She also starred in The Pink Panther (2006) and Obsessed (2009). She married rapper Jay Z and this influenced the songs on her third album, I Am... Sasha Fierce (2008). Beyoncé creates songs that are often characterized by themes of love, relationships. On stage, her dynamic, highly choreographed performances have led to critics hailing her as one of the best entertainers in contemporary popular music. Time listed her among the 100 most influential people in the world in 2013 and 2014. Forbes magazine also listed her as the most powerful female musician of 2015. She is definitely one of the richest women in the world who has already sold over billions of records, and then we didn’t even mention how much money her husband makes. She isn’t called Queen Bey for nothing. one hundred and forty
Adapted from: wikipedia.com
b Underline the dates and write one down for each decade that is mentioned, both in figures and letters. c Look at the answers that are given. Write the questions for the underlined answers. 1 She was born on September 4, 1981. 2 She started singing when she was a child. 3 She got a Golden Globe nomination for her performance in Dreamgirls. 4 In 2006 she got a Golden Globe nomination. 5 Forbes listed her as the most powerful musician in 2015. d Taylor Swift was also in Forbes’ list of most powerful women. Can you think of other icons or people that are seen as modern princes or princesses?
one hundred and forty-one
© Rolf Vennenbernd/dpa/Corbis
TRAINING 29 Sometimes we feel as if we are living in a fairy tale. a What fairy tale would you be in? b Complete the story builder about the character you are in that fairy tale. Character’s name:
What does the character look like?
How does the character act?
How do other characters react to this character?
30 Complete the lyrics of the Taylor Swift song with the correct forms of the verbs. Afterwards, listen to the song and check your answers.
Today (to be) A Fairytale – Taylor Swift Today (to be) a fairytale You (to be) the prince I used to be a damsel in distress You (to take) me by the hand and you (to pick up) me up at six Today (to be) a fairytale Today (to be) a fairytale X2 I (to wear) a dress one hundred and forty-two
You (to wear) a dark grey t-shirt You (to tell) me I (to be) pretty When I (to look) like a mess Today (to be) a fairytale
Time slows down Whenever you’re around Can you feel this magic in the air? It must have been the way you (to kiss) me (to fall) in love when I (to see) you standing there It must have been the way Today (to be) a fairytale It must have been the way Today (to be) a fairytale Today (to be) a fairytale You’ve got a smile that takes me to another planet Every move you make everything you say is right Today (to be) a fairytale Today (to be) a fairytale All that I can say Is now it’s getting so much clearer Nothing (to make) sense until the time I (to see) your face Today (to be) a fairytale Time slows down Whenever you’re around Yeah yeah chorus [Instrumental] Time slows down Whenever you’re around I can feel my heart It’s beating in my chest (you to feel) it? one hundred and forty-three
I can’t put this down chorus X2 Oh, oh, oh, oh, yeah, yeah, oh, oh Today (to be) a fairytale
31 Complete the extract from Beastly with the missing verbs.
I’ve changed my name. There (to be) no Kyle anymore. There (to be) nothing left of Kyle. Kyle Kingsbury (to be) dead. I (not to want) his name anymore. I (to look up) the meaning of Kyle online, and that (to clinch) it. Kyle means ‘handsome’. I (to be). I (to find) a name that means ‘ugly’, Feo (who would name their kid that?), but finally (to settle) on Adrian, which means ‘dark one’. That (to be) me, the dark one. Everyone – by which I mean Magda and Will – (to call) me Adrian now. I (to be) darkness. I (to live) in darkness too. I (to start) sleeping during the day, walking the streets and riding the subways at night when no one could really see me. I (to finish) the hunchback book – everyone (to die) – so I (to read) The Phantom of the Opera. In the book – unlike the dorky Andrew Lloyd Webber musical version – the Phantom (not to be) some misunderstood romantic loser. He (to be) a murderer who (to terrorize) the opera house for years before kidnapping a young singer and trying to force her to be the love he was denied. Source: Alex Flinn, Beastly
32 Look at the keywords in the table below. a Group the words, highlight them in different colours and find the fairytales in which these objects/people occur.
one hundred and forty-four
b Can you say what the fairy tales are about?
c You are a character in one of the stories from exercise 32. Write what happened in your diary. Write a paragraph of 60 to 70 words and use the keywords from the exercise.
I wrote who I was. I wrote at least 60 words. I used the keywords in my text. I wrote my text in the past simple. I used a few linking words. I checked my spelling and punctuation.
CHECK-OUT 33 You will get a card from your teacher. The other pupils have to find out what character you are by asking questions about what you did. You can only answer with yes or no. Prepare four questions you can ask the others. e.g. Did you live in the woods? Yes I did / No, I didn’t.
one hundred and forty-five
– – – –
34 You will receive pictures from your teacher.
a Watch the clip and, in pairs, put the pictures in the correct order. b Watch the clip again, and then match the verbs/words you have with the correct picture. c Complete the text with the given clues. There . A man at night and his wife to take the children to the forest. The children were sleeping but he them and them to the forest but they . He to be back soon and then the father and he in the forest. They and what to do or where to go. They started walking and . Hansel and . But suddenly and Hansel and Gretel . When they were inside the candles and a strange creature
d Underline the linking words that are used. e What happened next? Brainstorm and complete the story builder. What was the conflict? Why did this conflict occur?
How did they resolve the conflict?
one hundred and forty-six
f Write what happened next. You can use the keywords in the box.
after that – battery – a big push – a black cat – a bone – her brother – to burn – to cry – to find – to heat – to knit – to leave – not to see very well – oven – to roast – to run away – to save – to sit – a smartphone – suddenly – the witch – wood
CHECKLIST I wrote about 80-100 words. I wrote a creative story. I used the words that were given. I used the past simple. I used linking words to combine sentences. I checked my spelling and punctuation.
one hundred and forty-seven
35 Read how the original story ends. Complete the story builder. How was the conflict resolved?
What happened after the conflict was resolved?
How did the conflict and its resolution affect the character?
one hundred and forty-eight
Gretel ran to set her brother free as fast as she could, opened the cage, and cried, ‘Hansel, we are saved! The old witch is dead!’ Hansel sprang out like a bird from its cage when the door opened. How they did rejoice, and threw their arms around each other’s necks, and danced around and kissed each other! Since there wasn’t anything to fear, they went inside the witch’s house. They ate some more of the house, until they discovered amongst the witch’s belongings, a huge chocolate egg. Inside lay a casket of gold coins and precious stones. ‘These are better than pebbles’ said Hansel, and stuck as many in his pocket as he could. ‘The witch is now burnt to a cinder,’ said Hansel, ‘so we’ll take this treasure with us.’ They filled a large basket with food, stuffed the precious stones and coins in their pockets, and set off into the forest to search for the way home. This time, luck was with them. A little white duck came to their aid as they tried to cross a wide lake. The little white duck carried them, one by one, safely, to the other side. Pretty soon they came to a forest that kept looking more and more familiar, and at last in the distance they saw their father’s house. Then they started to run, burst into the living room, and threw themselves on their father’s neck. Since he had left the children in the forest, he had not had a single happy hour. Their father said, weeping, ‘Your stepmother is dead. You are with me now, my dear children!’ The two children hugged the woodcutter. Gretel shook out her apron, and pearls and precious stones rolled all over the room, and Hansel threw down out of his pocket one handful after another. ‘Look, Father! We’re rich now . . . You’ll never have to chop wood again and we’ll never be hungry again.’ And they all lived happily together ever after. Source: theliterarylink.com
36 Write a fairy tale with the entire class! Listen to your teacher.
SUMMARY GRAMMAR 1 / PAST SIMPLE FORM 1.1 / THE VERB ‘TO BE’ Positive form
was not = wasn’t
were not = weren’t
was not = wasn’t
Was he/she/ it?
were not = weren’t
were not = weren’t
were not = weren’t
1.2 / REGULAR VERBS, NEGATIVE FORMS AND QUESTIONS Positive form Subject I You He/she/it We You They
Verb + ed
Rest of sentence
General rule: Verbs ending in –e: Verbs ending in consonant + y: Verbs ending in vowel + y: Verbs ending in single stressed vowel: Verbs ending in vowel + l:
verb +ed verb + d -y becomes -i + ed vowel + y +ed double consonant + ed double the –l + ed
e.g. to turn e.g. to refuse e.g. to hurry e.g. to obey e.g. admit e.g. travel
→ → → → → →
turned refused hurried obeyed admitted travelled
Subject I You He / she / it We You They
Did not / didn’t
Rest of sentence
to the cinema.
Note that irregular verbs (see page 150) also follow this rule!
one hundred and forty-nine
Questions Question word
Rest of sentence
I you he / she / it we you they
Note that irregular verbs (see below) also follow this rule! Yes/No questions
Did you have a good time yesterday?
Yes, we did.
Did they pay the bill?
No, they didn’t.
1.3 / IRREGULAR VERBS The form of the past simple of irregular verbs is unpredictable. You have to study the list by heart. A negative statement or question with an irregular verb also follows the ‘to do (did/didn’t) + verb’ rule.
one hundred and fifty
2 / USE OF THE PAST SIMPLE We use the past simple to talk about actions that are completely over. e.g.â€ƒ Little Red Riding Hood went to her grandmother yesterday afternoon. She gave her cookies. The past simple is often used to tell a story. e.g.â€ƒ Once upon a time there was a lovely princess.
3 / LINKING WORDS Linking words or linkers are words that link phrases or sentences in a logical way. Linking word
joins words or ideas
shows there is a choice between two or more things
shows a contrast
shows that the second event comes after the first
VOCABULARY 1 / WORDS FROM THE FAIRY REALM 12
15 14 10 10
1 2 3 4 5
enchanted forest the woods a fairy a genie a king
6 7 8 9 10
a queen a princess a prince a witch dwarfs
11 12 13 14 15
a huntsman a beast a woodcutter a spell to curse
a spell: words of magical power that can influence of control things, e.g. to put a spell on someone / to break a spell
one hundred and fifty-one
2 / HOW TO TELL A FAIRY TALE
SETTING When did it happen? Where did it happen?
• • • •
Once upon a time … There once was a … A long time ago … Long, long ago …
Good vs evil • What does the character look like? • How does the character act? • How do other characters react to this character?
STORY CONFLICT Good vs evil Magical part Twist = Conflict + magic What was the conflict?
END one hundred and fifty-two
Why did this conflict occur?
How did they resolve it?
Happy ending? • How did they resolve the conflict? • What happened after the conflict was resolved? • How did it affect the characters?
ON DIFFERENT TRACKS 37 Complete the sentences with the correct past simple form of the verb ‘to be’. 1 How old your brother in this picture? he ten or eleven? 2 Where you born? I born in Brussels. 3 In what season they born? They (not) born in spring, I’m sure. 4 My father (not) at home yesterday evening; he in a meeting. 5 Amina at the beach with her friends. They all very happy. 6 Where you at 11 o’clock? We (not) at home. 38 Complete the conversation with the past simple of 'to be'.
Where Stan last Saturday?
He at the stadium.
you there, too?
No, I . I at home. And you, where you?
My brothers, my sisters and I at the cinema. By the way, where your brothers that day?
I don’t know where my brother Dave . He (not) at home with me but the others .
to write S
one hundred and fifty-three
39 Look at the infinitives and find the past forms in the grid. You can find the answers in every direction!
40 These sentences are taken from fairytales. Combine the sentences and use the correct linking word. The Dwarfs (to be) heartbroken.
The queen (not to be) the fairest of them all.
Snow White (to bite) into the apple.
(to be) Snow White’s hair black?
Cinderella’s father (to die). The Queen (to ask) her Magic Mirror.
and but + + then or
The Dwarfs (to build) a glass coffin for Snow White The witch (to ask) Gretel to turn on (turn on) the oven
The witch (to think) Hansel was big enough
Her stepmother (to take) care of Cinderella.
(to be) Snow White blonde?
Snow White (to fall) down on the grass.
41 Read the quote. Can you explain it? one hundred and fifty-four
‘If you want your children to be intelligent, read them fairytales. If you want them to be more intelligent, read them more fairytales.’ – Albert Einstein
42 Look at the picture and invent your own 21st century fairy tale. Complete the story builder first and then finish the first paragraph. If you have more inspiration, feel free to write the entire story. Use the summary of this unit if you need help with the fairy tale structure.
SETTING When and where?
Good vs evil
Happy ending? one hundred and fifty-five
Once upon a time in a place far away from here, there was a pink baby shoe.
CHECKLIST one hundred and fifty-six
I completed all the elements of the story builder. I described when and where it was found. I explained what happened to the shoe. I wrote at least 75 words. I used my creativity. I wrote my story in the past simple tense. I used a few linking words. I checked my spelling and punctuation.
43 Imagine you were a fairy tale character in the story above. You were the bad character. Write in 40 words about how you took care of that situation and prevented the story from having a happy ending.
CHECKLIST I introduced the character (short). I used the past simple. I explained what I did to make sure there was no happy ending. I wrote about 40 words. I checked my spelling and punctuation.
one hundred and fifty-seven
LAST STOP! MY OWN FAIRY TALE Name:
1 Watch the clip of this modern version of 'Little Red Riding Hood' and complete the story builder. listening 2 Now finish the story with your own ideas. a First, complete the story builder you will get from your teacher with your own ideas. This will give you the basic structure of your story. b Next, you can use the empty story builder on the next page to help you expand those ideas. Finally, write your story in full sentences and paragraphs on a separate piece of paper. Write at least 75-100 words. Donâ€™t forget to use linking words and to write in the past simple tense. Make sure there is a moral to your story. c Create a nice picture for your story too!
Class: Number: d Finally, fill in the checklist and hand in your text.
one hundred and fifty-eight
I completed the story builder. I was creative. I invented a moral for my story. I wrote between 75-100 words. I created a picture for my story. I used the past simple (positive and negative verbs). I used at least 4 linking words and underlined them.
one hundred and fifty-nine
TRACK YOUR PROGRESS
I CAN … I can use the past simple of ‘to be’. (ex. 7) I can use the simple past to complete a text. (ex. 7, 21, 30, 31, 34) I can recognise regular/irregular verbs in the simple past. (ex. 5, 12, 15, 17, 18) I can form questions for given answers in the past simple. (ex. 28) I can use linking words. (ex. 10, 32, 34, 36) Vocabulary I can use adjectives to describe a place, someone’s character. (ex. 11, 29, 32, 34, 35) I can describe fairy tale characters. (ex. 4, 5, 7) I can name well-known fairy tale characters. (ex. 2, 4) I can write dates in full. (ex. 28) I can read for general and specific information. (ex. 5, 12, 16, Reading 24, 27, 28, 35) I can put extracts of a text in a chronological order. (ex. 19, 35) I can match words that refer to the same story. (ex. 32) I can listen for general and specific information. (ex. 1, 3, 11, Listening 12, 13, 14, 22, 30, 34) I can watch a clip and find specific information. (ex. 1, 3, 11, 12, 13, 22) I can write a story in the past. (ex. 36) Writing I can write a diary entry from the perspective of a character in a fairy tale. (ex. 32 c) I can write a short summary of someone’s life in the past. (ex. 20) I can fill in a storybuilder of a fairy tale. (ex. 29, 32 e) I can invent a new ending to a story. (ex. 32 f) I can talk about past events. (ex. 2, 5, 33, 36) Speaking Grammar
I can ask questions about past events. (ex. 33) Spoken interaction I can discuss the ending of a fairy tale. (ex. 34, 36) I can talk about what stories I liked when I was a child. (ex. 2) I can retell a story I heard. (ex. 33, 34) I AM … Motivation Work attitude one hundred and sixty
I am concentrated in the lesson. I ask for explanation when needed. I keep to the deadlines. I work actively in class. I show respect for classmates and teachers. I collaborate well.
FEEDBACK My conclusion
Teacher’s opinion Can do