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November 19, 2012


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Poultry Times

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November 19, 2012 Volume 59, Number 24 www.poultrytimes.net

New technology detects and deters poultry diseases BELTSVILLE, Md. — Pathogens such as viruses and parasites continue to cause economic hardship for the poultry industry. Enteric or intestinal diseases such as runting-stunting syndrome, poult enteritis mortality syndrome and poult enteritis complex are a major concern of poultry producers worldwide. The same is true for coccidiosis, a devastating disease caused by intestinal parasites. Coccidiosis costs the poultry industry more than $600 million annually in the U.S. and $3 billion worldwide. Agricultural Research Service scientists are finding new ways to identify pathogens and are developing innovative methods to control them. In Georgia, they are using a new molecular technology to detect viruses in poultry. In Maryland, re-

searchers are developing hyperimmune egg yolk antibodies to boost the immune system of young chicks against infectious diseases.

Finding novel viruses At the ARS Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory (SEPRL) in Athens, Ga., scientists have stepped up their efforts in fighting diseases that cause diarrhea, decreased weight and mortality in poultry. A number of viruses are believed to be responsible for intestinal diseases, but a single agent has not been identified. A powerful technology called metagenomics is being used by microbiologist Michael Day and research leader Laszlo Zsak at SEPRL’s Endemic Poultry Viral

Diseases Research Unit to confirm and unearth viruses. The technique is different than traditional sequencing that characterizes genes in a single organism. Metagenomics detects the nucleic acid — RNA and DNA — of thousands of organisms in an entire community. Collaborating with veterinarians and poultry producers, Day and Zsak collected intestinal samples from several turkey flocks affected by enteric disease. They then used metagenomics to uncover vast amounts of viruses from the samples. An analysis of the sample showed that the intestinal virus metagenome contained thousands of pieces of nucleic acid representing many groups

See Technology, Page 12

USDA Agricultural Research Service

ARS research: Microbiologist Michael Day examines the validation results of a new molecular diagnostic assay for a turkey picobirnavirus. Day used a metagenomic approach to detect the novel picobirnavirus RNA in turkeys experiencing enteric (intestinal) disease.

Thanksgiving dinner cost Poultry industry urges action on Russia PNTR in Lame Duck session sees slight increase WASHINGTON — The National Chicken Council, National Turkey Federation, U.S. Poultry & Egg Association and USA Poultry & Egg Export Council joined more than 500 other trade associations and businesses under the umbrella of the Coalition for U.S.-Russia Trade in calling on Congress to “move quickly” in the days ahead to approve legislation enacting Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) with Russia. In a similar letter to President Barack Obama, the coalition urged the president to work with Congress to ensure the passage of Russia’s removal from the Jackson-Vanik legislation and establishment of PNTR with Russia. Russia acceded to the World

Trade Organization in August, and the coalition points out that U.S. competitors in Europe, China and elsewhere are happy to “step in and take advantage of meeting Russia’s needs not only in infrastructure and modernization of its industrial base, but also the demands of a growing consumer class that is highly educated and appreciates quality.” The coalition suggests that until Congress passes Russia PNTR legislation, U.S. executives will be relegated to an “observer” status as foreign competitors “snap up contracts that will lock in commercial relationships for years to come.” “Since Russia already officially entered into the WTO last summer, PNTR will ensure that poultry companies can take full advantage

of new business opportunities, that Russia’s commitments in the WTO are enforced and that American businesses are on an equal playing field in the Russian market,” added the four poultry associations. “Continuing to export $300 million of poultry to Russia annually will provide better incomes for more U.S. workers and additional poultry to be produced by a growing number of family farmers across America.” Randi Levinas, the coalition’s executive director, noted in a press release that, “the time for Congress to act is now. We simply cannot afford to sit idly by and continue to put U.S. exports and jobs at risk

See Russia, Page 12

WASHINGTON — The retail cost of menu items for a classic Thanksgiving dinner including turkey, stuffing, cranberries, pumpkin pie and all the basic trimmings increased less than 1 percent this year, according to the American Farm Bureau Federation. AFBF’s 27th annual informal price survey of classic items found on the Thanksgiving Day dinner table indicates the average cost of this year’s feast for 10 is $49.48, a 28cent price increase from last year’s average of $49.20. “At just under $5 per person, the cost of this year’s meal remains a bargain,” said AFBF President Bob Stallman, a rice and cattle producer from Texas. “Our diverse farm and ranch families are honored to produce the food from our nation’s

land for family Thanksgiving celebrations. During this holiday season, I am encouraging farmers and ranchers to reach out to consumers in person or through social media, to answer questions about the food that they grow or the livestock and poultry they raise.” The AFBF survey shopping list includes turkey, bread stuffing, sweet potatoes, rolls with butter, peas, cranberries, a relish tray of carrots and celery, pumpkin pie with whipped cream, and beverages of coffee and milk, all in quantities sufficient to serve a family of 10. There is also plenty for leftovers. The big ticket item — a 16-pound turkey — came in at $22.23 this year. That was roughly $1.39 per pound,

See Dinner, Page 3


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POULTRY TIMES, November 19, 2012

Truck driver jobs hard to fill even in bad economy The Associated Press

SAVANNAH, Ga. — Tribe Transportation is a growing company that just added 10 new trucks to its tractor-trailer fleet. The problem has been hiring people to drive them. So far the Georgia-based company has filled four of the jobs, leaving six vacancies. The new hires are mostly veteran truckers in their 50s, men who probably won’t spend too many more years behind the wheel, said Matt Handte, Tribe’s executive vice president for sales and operations, “It blows my mind that I’m looking for that many people and I can’t find them,” said Handte, who’s also struggling to hire logistics brokers who line up freight transportation

for customers such as PepsiCo, H.J. Heinze Co. and General Mills. “They aren’t lined up at the door.” Even amid a struggling economy with high unemployment, trucking companies had a tough time hiring young drivers willing to hit the road for long hauls. Now the U.S. is speeding toward a critical shortage of truck drivers in the next few years as the economy recovers and demand for goods increases, an expert in the inner-workings of supply chains said in a report on Oct. 30.

Creating jobs U.S. companies are expected to create more than 115,000 truck driver jobs per year through 2016,

but the number of Americans getting trained to fill those jobs each year is barely 10 percent of the total demand, said Page Siplon, executive director of the Georgia Center of Innovation for Logistics. “Trucking accounts for how we move 80 percent of cargo in our nation” said Siplon, whose center is part of the Georgia Department of Economic Development. “If we don’t have enough workers, it’s going to be slower and more costly to move products. If I can’t move as much product to the shelves as I want to, the cost to consumers goes up.”

Supply chain Siplon looked at a range of supply chain jobs — from truck drivers and warehouse workers to air cargo supervisors — using career-specific employment forecasts by the U.S. Department of Labor and then comparing those numbers with Education Department statistics showing how many degrees and certifications for those jobs are being earned each year. The results found truck drivers will account for 43 percent of expected growth in logistics jobs, but those will also be the positions with the fewest workers trained to fill them. That doesn’t surprise Tom Pronk, vice president of recruiting for C.R. England, a Salt Lake City, Utahbased company that employs 7,500 truck drivers who deliver foods from companies such as Hershey, Nestle, ConAgra and Coca-Cola to retailers. “We have an endless need basi-

cally in the industry,” Pronk said. “Everybody I talk to is very thirsty for drivers. My personal opinion is it’s only going to get worse before it gets better.”

Salaries Truck drivers make decent money. The Department of Labor says the median yearly wage for tractortrailer drivers is $37,770, with some drivers earning more than $57,000. Handte and Pronk both said some drivers can clear $100,000 a year. Both men said older drivers are feeling pressured to retire by federal safety regulations enacted in 2010 that keep a closer watch on drivers’ work hours, drug testing any tickets and traffic citations they get on the job. New generation And the job can be hard to sell to younger workers who don’t think it’s worth the money to spend days and weeks on the road away from their families. “For our new generation who’s coming into the industry, the job is not as romantic to them as it was to their predecessors,” Pronk said. “It’s a tough job to be an on-the-road trucker.” Truck drivers don’t need college degrees but they do need to earn a commercial driver’s license. That can take a month or longer of taking classes that cost $3,000 or more. Trucking companies are trying different approaches to lure young drivers into their rigs. Some offer higher wages — a few extra cents per mile — or work with their drivers to carve out shorter routes de-

signed to get them home sooner. C.R. England, which operates five driver training schools in the U.S., is refunding tuition to graduates after they work six months for the company. David Sheehy of Greely, Colo., just graduated from the company’s school in Salt Lake City. He’ll be paired with an experienced driver for the next month, perhaps longer, before hitting the road on his own. Sheehy, 32, said economic hardships in his hometown pushed him toward trucking after years of bouncing between different jobs with little stability. He drove a tow truck, worked for a car rental company and even was an umpire calling little league and high school baseball games. He’s single and excited about seeing new parts of the country. And he’s eager to earn steady pay. “It is truly a special breed,” Sheehy said. “You’re talking about long hours, weeks on the road at a time, time away from family. There are a lot of negative things. “But they told me a first-year driver can gross $40,000 a year easily,” he said. “You’re talking about financial security there.”

INDEX AEB Hotline..........................23 Business............................6--7 Calendar..............................10 Classified.............................20 Viewpoint............................... 4 A directory of Poultry Times advertisers appears on Page 23

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POULTRY TIMES, November 19, 2012

Deadly shooting at California chicken processing plant The Associated Press

FRESNO, Calif. — A parolee who worked at a California chicken processing plant opened fire at the business on Nov. 6, killing two people and wounding two others, before taking his own life, authorities said. Police said they didn’t know what prompted the attack by Lawrence Jones, 42, midway through his shift at Apple Valley Farms, although other workers told police he did not appear to be himself when he arrived at the plant for work. “It is difficult to say at this point

if in fact there was a specific target that Jones was looking for,” Police Chief Jerry Dyer said. “There was something that must have provoked this incident, perhaps that occurred today, or maybe was building up to today.” Jones had an extensive criminal history dating back into the 1990s, Dyer said without elaborating. Police said they had Jones’ home on lockdown and were searching to see if there were any other victims. Jones arrived at work just before 5 a.m. About three-and-a-half hours into his shift, he pulled out a hand-

gun and began firing, Dyer said. About 30 employees witnessed the shooting, and there were a total of 62 people at work when the gunfire started, police said. “We have a lot of work ahead of us. We have at least 30 witnesses that we need to interview,” Dyer said. Officers found Jones with a gunshot wound to the head and a 32year-old woman bleeding from a wound to her lower back outside the business. She was in stable condition, Dyer said. Three other people were found

shot inside. One was pronounced dead at the scene. Jones and another victim were pronounced dead later. The company was established in 2005, according to online business records. A call to the company went to a voicemail recording that said “due to an emergency we are closed for the day.” A woman who answered the phone at a listing for CEO Durbin Breckenridge and identified herself as his wife said she would pass a phone message to him. News media and onlookers were

kept several blocks from the plant, as police used yellow tape to block access. Dozens of officers swarmed the area. Joe Martinez, 45, told the Fresno Bee that he was in the drive-thru lane of a fast-food restaurant when he heard a loud pop that he initially thought was a car backfiring. Then he looked to the north and saw a man on the ground with two people standing over him. “It’s the last thing you expect to see,” Martinez said. “It’s very upsetting.”

who checked prices at grocery stores in 35 states. “Turkeys may still be featured in special sales and promotions close to Thanksgiving,” Anderson explained. “Anyone with the patience to wait until the last minute to buy a turkey for Thanksgiving could be rewarded with an exceptional bargain,” he said. In addition to the turkey, a combined group of miscellaneous items, including coffee and ingredients necessary to prepare the meal (onions, eggs, sugar, flour, evaporated milk and butter) increased in price, to $3.18. A dozen brown-n-serve rolls also increased slightly this year, up 3 cents to $2.33. Items that showed a price decrease from last year were: a half pint of whipping cream, $1.83, down 13 cents; a 14-ounce package of cubed bread stuffing, $2.77,

down 11 cents; 3 pounds of sweet potatoes, $3.15, down 11 cents; 1 gallon of whole milk, $3.59, down 7 cents; fresh cranberries, $2.45, down 3 cents; 1 pound of green peas, $1.66, down 2 cents; a 30-ounce can of pumpkin pie mix and two 9-inch pie shells, $5.53, down 2 cents. A 1-pound relish tray of carrots and celery remained the same at 76 cents. Anderson noted that despite retail price increases during the last year or so, American consumers have enjoyed relatively stable food costs over the years, particularly when adjusted for inflation. The slight percentage increase in the national average cost reported this year by Farm Bureau for a classic Thanksgiving dinner tracks closely with the organization’s 2012 quarterly marketbasket surveys and the government’s Consumer Price

Index for food (available online at http://data.bls.gov/). Farm Bureau volunteer shoppers are asked to look for the best possible prices, without taking advantage of special promotional coupons or purchase deals, such as spending $50 and receiving a free turkey. Shoppers with an eye for bargains in all areas of the country should be able to purchase individual menu items at prices comparable to the Farm Bureau survey averages. Another option for busy families without a lot of time to cook is ready-

to-eat Thanksgiving meals for up to 10 people, with all the trimmings, which are available at many supermarkets and take-out restaurants for around $50 to $75. The AFBF survey was first conducted in 1986. While Farm Bureau does not make any scientific claims about the data, it is an informal gauge of price trends around the nation. Farm Bureau’s survey menu has remained unchanged since 1986 to allow for consistent price comparisons.

•Dinner (Continued from page 1)

an increase of about 4 cents per pound, or a total of 66 cents per whole turkey, compared to 2011. The whole bird was the biggest contributor to the final total, showing the largest price increase compared to last year. “Thanksgiving Dinner is a special meal that people look forward to all year,” said John Anderson, AFBF’s deputy chief economist. “Most Americans will pay about the same as last year at the grocery store for a turkey and all the trimmings. A slight increase in demand for turkey is responsible for the moderate price increase our shoppers reported for the bird,” he said. Savvy shoppers may pay even less for frozen tom turkey compared to AFBF’s 155 volunteer shoppers

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POULTRY TIMES, November 19, 2012

Viewpoint Compiled by Barbara Olejnik, Associate Editor 770-718-3440 bolejnik@poultrytimes.net

Poultry Innovations: Past and Future By Mike Giles

Special to Poultry Times

GAINESVILLE, Ga. — As schoolchildren we learned that Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin transformed the economy of the southern United States. In more recent times, the Internet changed forever how we communicate and conduct commerce throughout the world. History is full of examples such as these, and the poultry industry is no exception. Years ago when he was executive director of the Georgia Agribusiness CounGiles cil, Georgia Agriculture Commissioner Gary Black asked Henry Simons, the first president of the council, what he thought was the most significant development in Georgia’s agricultural history. Without hesitation, Mr. Simons replied, “the Big John hopper car.” During the early days of the poultry industry, a limiting factor was the availability of affordable grains for feed production. Georgia’s poultry industry was experiencing rapid growth in the early 1960s and was becoming more dependent on corn Mike Giles is president of the Georgia Poultry Federation with offices in Gainesville, Ga.

grown in the Midwest to satisfy the growing demand. Railcars in use at the time were inefficient, and shipping rates were high due to the capacity of the cars and methods used to unload the corn. Grain barges traveling the Mississippi and Tennessee rivers combined with trucking were the alternative. Georgia native D.W. Bronsan, president of Southern Railway from 1962 through 1967, promoted a new hopper car that would eventually revolutionize the way that corn would be shipped from the Midwest to the southern states where it was needed. The aluminum constructed Big John hopper car would haul as much corn in one railcar as three of the boxcars that were in use at the time. Hauling corn from St. Louis to Gainesville, Georgia, via the new hopper cars would drop shipping costs more than 50 percent. However, the new technology faced obstacles. The barge industry engaged in a lengthy court challenge. According to Abit Massey, the Georgia Poultry Federation’s executive director at the time, “the Federation worked with Southern Railway in support of the Big John hopper car by circulating petitions and attending hearings in an attempt to receive approval from the Interstate Commerce Commission to allow Southern Railways to reduce rail rates.” In 1963, the lower rail rates were approved paving the way for the dramatic growth of the poultry industry in Georgia and throughout the south. For the next transformational innovation, we fast forward to 1988

when poultry was primarily raised in curtain-sided houses which depended on side ventilation for cooling. The state of Georgia, as did other states, had received funds as part of a settlement for claims against the oil industry for overcharging for petroleum products. The funds were to be distributed on a competitive basis to support energy conversation projects. The Georgia Poultry Federation, in cooperation with the University of Georgia’s Mike Czarick and Mike Lacy, proposed a project entitled “Energy Efficient Broiler Production” to the Governor’s Office of Energy Resources. In 1989, the project was funded through a $135,000 grant. Czarick and Lacy’s research led to the publication of findings in 1991 which confirmed that broiler performance could be significantly improved in tunnel ventilated housing. More research and publications followed for the team including an article published in 1992 in the Journal of Applied Poultry Research entitled “Tunnel-ventilated broiler houses: Broiler performance and operating costs.” One of the researchers’ original goals was to develop a ventilation system that would avoid the catastrophic mortality rates that occurred during extreme heat waves. The additional, and more significant benefit, was the discovery of the potential for improved broiler performance and feed efficiency. Evaporative cooling systems were incorporated into the ventilation systems, and the modern tunnel ventilated broiler house was born. In 1988, Georgia produced 3.4 billion pounds live weight of broilers, and today the state produces 7.4 billion pounds, an increase of 118 percent. While all of that increase certainly can not be attributed to the development of tunnel ventilated housing, it is fair to say that its development established a condition that allowed for the dramatic and efficient growth of poultry growing in the hot climate of the southern United States over the past two decades. According to Czarick, “the adop-

‘What is exciting to think about is what will be the next idea that will transform some segment of the poultry industry. ’ Mike Giles

Georgia Poultry Federation president

tion of tunnel ventilation by the U.S. poultry industry has led to a dramatic reduction in mortality during hot weather and enabled us to grow the large broilers we produce today with a more consistent year-round bird performance. Tunnel ventilation has also allowed poultry producers to totally enclose their houses which has reduced the heat required

in broiler houses between 30 and 50 percent. Simply put, in today’s economic climate, a poultry company would not be able to stay in business without tunnel ventilated housing.” Now only 20 years later, tunnel ventilated poultry housing is

See Giles, Page 5

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POULTRY TIMES, November 19, 2012

Developing a labor plan to fit all farmers By Bob Stallman

Special to Poultry Times

WASHINGTON — For far too long, farmers and ranchers have had to struggle to make sure that they have a legal, reliable supply of workers. The reality has been a daunting, broken system, riddled with shortcomings that have resulted in labor shortages, lost crops, bureaucratic nightmares and neighStallman bors competing with one another to get the farm hands they need. Farmers from around the country all feel the pain. From Washington state apple growers to New York

Flexibility, stability Farm Bureau, along with other organizations in the agricultural community, is working on a solution for farmers and ranchers in all sectors, in all regions and for all commodities. What Farm Bureau is bringing to the discussion is a plan that we think will accommodate all agriculture — from a grower who needs to hire harvesters for only a few days, to a dairy that needs a workforce 365 days of the year. The crux of Farm Bureau’s plan is to establish and implement a new visa program that would give both employers and employees stability and flexibility into the future, while also addressing the current

workforce that has contributed to our farms and communities. Both elements are necessary to provide a long-term, stable and legal workforce. Building on how the domestic market currently operates, farmers would be permitted to offer migrant laborers either a contract or at-will work. Similarly, workers would be able to choose their form of employment. With a contract, both employers and workers would be provided longer-term stability and the worker could have a visa term of up to 12 months. On the other hand, the at-will option offers flexibility to employers who may just need a week’s worth of harvesting, while allowing workers the portability to work at other seasonal jobs for up to 11 months. This program reflects real-life workforce challenges and provides both the flexibility and stability that

domestic workers enjoy. Just as important, the plan would allow key migrant workers — those who have been working in U.S. agriculture for a defined period, as well as those who are in management and other key positions at a farm – the ability to stay in the U.S. and continue to work in the agriculture sector.

There are many others in processing, breeding and animal health. What is exciting to think about is what will be the next idea that will transform some segment of the poultry industry. Will it be robotics in the processing plant or an advancement that will build on the remarkable progress already made by poultry processors

in the field of food safety? Perhaps it will be a new vaccine or breeder improvement. Another example of this forward looking approach is a multi-university effort underway to consider what transformational innovations might be incorporated into the “Poultry Plant of the Future.” Doug Britton, program manager with the

Ag Technology Research Program at the Georgia Tech Research Institute, and colleagues at poultry programs throughout the United States are in the early stages of discussion on this topic. Research priorities developed out of this effort could lead to dramatic advancements that will improve the poultry industry’s competitiveness

dairy producers, there is an acrossthe-board shortage of labor for hire. Agriculture needs and deserves a legal, stable workforce, and Farm Bureau has a plan.

Eliminating rigidity Since its inception, the H-2A temporary agricultural worker program has been riddled with problems, creating more challenges than providing solutions. Because of the diverse special labor needs within farming, the program has been difficult for growers to use, is not even available to some sectors of agriculture like dairy and simply is not feasible in some parts of the country. Farm Bureau’s plan would remedy

many of H-2A’s failings by offering real-world solutions that better meet both employers’and workers’needs. Over time, as farmers begin using the new visa program, we imagine H-2A will become obsolete. A market-based, flexible agricultural worker program makes sense and is long overdue. It is important for workers, farmers and especially consumers that agricultural producers have access to a legal, stable workforce for the future. With all of agriculture working together, we are optimistic we can offer Congress a reasonable, practical, common-sense solution that works for growers while respecting the rights of workers. It is time to move the discussion forward and find a solution that works for all farmers and ranchers. Bob Stallman is president of the American Farm Bureau Federation with offices in Washington, D.C.

•Giles (Continued from page 4)

the standard throughout the world. Chicken is produced with less energy and lower feed inputs because of this one transformational innovation. These are just two examples in the poultry industry of ideas that became widely adopted innovations.

in the future. All it takes is an idea and then development of that idea by an innovative company or one of our nation’s excellent land-grant or research universities. As the poultry industry strives for continual improvement, these advancements are sure to come . . . stay tuned.


6

POULTRY TIMES, November 19, 2012

Business Compiled by David B. Strickland, Editor 770-718-3442 dstrickland@poultrytimes.net

DSM & Merial begin vaccine collaboration COLUMBIA, Md. — DSM Nutritional Products, a subsidiary of Royal DSM, has announced that it has entered into a collaboration with Merial Ltd., under a Development and Option to License Agreement, to develop animal health vaccines using DSM’s proprietary algal expression system. For decades, the production of vaccines for both animal and human diseases has relied on the use of complex production processes, the companies noted. Alternative methods, such as the one being explored by Merial and DSM using microbial algae as the growth platform, may present a faster and more efficient production method. “We are pleased to join with Merial on this important project that we expect will validate the algal expression system as a viable alternative to egg or cell culture-based vaccines, which would offer important benefits for animal vaccine production,” said Peter Nitze, president of the Nutritional Lipids division within DSM Nutritional Products. As part of the collaboration, Merial will provide research and development funding to DSM to support DSM’s costs of developing animal vaccine antigens using this algal expression system. DSM also would be eligible to earn milestone payments, license fees and royalties on product sales if the collaboration is successful. Following the successful production of an animal vaccine product under this agreement, and prior to commercialization, DSM and Merial will either enter into a commercial supply agreement for the production of the vaccine antigen or DSM will receive a technology transfer fee to convey the manufacturing rights to Merial, the companies noted. “Merial is pleased to join with DSM and explore innovative vaccine product solutions by developing manufacturing processes that are simple and cost effective,” said Bob Nordgren, head of Merial Biologicals Research & Development. More information can be obtained at www.dsm.com, and www.merial.com.

For Classifieds, see page 20

Other Business News Perdue assists in hurricane relief

Tyson pledges Red Cross support

SALISBURY, Md.. — Perdue Foods has delivered 131,000 pounds of protein to Feeding America-affiliated food banks to assist with “Superstorm” Sandy relief efforts in the Northeast. Five tractor-trailer loads of fresh and frozen chicken products — the equivalent of 157,000 meals — were delivered to food banks. The donations were delivered to food banks and distribution centers in the Bronx, Staten Island and Hauppauge, N.Y., locations identified by Feeding America to serve hurricane victims in the Northeast. “Our thoughts and prayers remain with all those affected by this tragedy,” said Jim Perdue, chairman of Perdue Farms. “Our partners at Feeding America are working through their network of food banks and with emergency management responders to ensure our food donations are helping those in their time of need.” Perdue has partnered with Feeding America since 2000 in their efforts to fight hunger and provide relief in times of natural disasters. Perdue has pledged a minimum annual donation of 2 million pounds of food to Feeding America for distribution to community food banks and pantries. “Thank you to Perdue for their support of Feeding America and its network with their generous donation of over 130,000 pounds of valuable protein items,” said Bill Thomas, vice president of operations for Feeding America. “Our network always asks for support such as theirs during times of disaster because the value it brings to clients who have lost everything.” More information can be obtained at www.perdue.com.  Donations to Feeding America can be made at www.feedingamerica.org.

SPRINGDALE, Ark. — Tyson Foods has pledged to contribute to the American Red Cross’ relief and recovery efforts for Hurricane Sandy, Donnie Smith, president and CEO of the company, said. A corporate match of up to $100,000 of employee donations will go to support victims of the hurricane. “Our hearts go out to those who were in the path of the storm,” Smith said. “Our company’s culture is to step up and help our neighbors, and we want to do that now with a dollarfor-dollar corporate match to one of the largest disaster relief organizations in America.” Smith also said the company dispatched its mobile feeding unit, a 53-foot semi-trailer dubbed “Meals that Matter,” and volunteer cook teams to New Jersey on Nov. 3. Teams from corporate headquarters in Arkansas, the company’s transportation group and a processing plant in Shelbyville, Tenn., cooked meals for first responders and victims of Sandy as part of a partnership with the American Red Cross. Food for the meals was furnished by Tyson Foods. The company unveiled the “Meals that Matter” trailer earlier this year to serve as a central supply unit at disaster sites. This marked the first time the unit has been dispatched. “I’m glad I work for a company that has the ability to offer assistance and with more than 100,000 team members who are ready and willing to pitch in,” Smith said. With the exception of a grill, the “Meals that Matter” trailer has everything needed to set up and run a cooking site including: full refrigeration, tents and lights, sanitation equipment, cooking and serving supplies, a generator, hydraulic lift and even a Wi-Fi hot spot for Internet connections via satellite. Mobile grills will be supplied, as needed, by

Tyson’s plant locations. More than 40 plant sites are currently capable of responding to disasters by sending grills and Tyson volunteers to cook food. On average, Tyson noted that it is involved in responding to four to five major disasters each year. In recent years, the company has provided between $300,000 and $500,000 annually in food and financial support to disaster relief.  Donations to the American Red Cross can be made at www. redcross.org.

Merck announces third quarter results WHITEHOUSE STATION, N.J. — Merck has announced its financial results for the third quarter of 2012. Worldwide sales for the quarter were noted at $11.5 billion. Animal health sales were reported at $815 million for the third quarter, down from $826 million for the same quarter in 2011. “We will continue to drive value for our customers and shareholders through Merck’s four-part strategy of executing on our core business, expanding geographically in highgrowth markets, extending our complementary businesses and excelling at managing our costs while investing for growth,” said Kenneth C. Frazier, chairman and CEO of Merck. The animal health sales total of $815 million includes an 8 percent negative impact due to foreign exchange, the company said. Excluding negative impact of foreign exchange, performance was driven by the poultry, cattle and companion animal segments. The Animal Health division also launched the Activyl line of products in the U.S., which is an addition to the companion animal product line, Merck said. Merck, known as MSD outside (Continued on next page)


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POULTRY TIMES, November 19, 2012 (Continued from previous page)

the U.S. and Canada, operates in more than 140 countries. More information can be obtained at www. merck.com.

Diamond V/USDA

research antibiotics CEDAR RAPIDS, Iowa — A unique two-year research project is being undertaken by Diamond V and the National Animal Disease Center of the USDA’s Agricultural Research Service to examine the impact of antibiotics, dietary supplements and stress on the microbial communities and host mucosal tissues of the swine intestinal ecosystem. The goal is to identify alternatives to traditional antibiotics for use in reducing the antibiotic resistance gene reservoir and foodborne pathogens in farm animals. “Both ARS and Diamond V share a common interest in discovering alternatives to traditional antibiotics for farm animal growth and for the production of a safe and secure food supply in the U.S. and around the world,” said John Bloomhall, president and CEO, Diamond V. “Together, we’ll develop an indepth understanding of the path from the diet through the intestinal microbiome to healthy animals and safe food.” “Advances in research technology give us new capabilities in defining the microbial populations in the gastrointestinal (GI) system, their interactions and influence on the health and well being of the host animal,” said Mike Wright, director, Global Marketing and Research, Diamond V. “Using metagenomics, genomics and bioinformatics technologies, we will together focus on how diets impact the intestinal ecosystem. This ecosystem — microbes, host-tissues, dietary components and products of the microbes and tissues — is fundamentally important for animal health and food safety.” The collaborative research will be directed by Dr. Thad Stanton, research leader, NADC Food Safety

and Enteric Pathogens Research Unit (FSEPRU); and Dr. Jason Frank, director, Swine Research, Diamond V. The research will be conducted by Dr. Benjamin Bass, a postdoctoral research scientist, as an employee of Diamond V, and Dr. Meggan Bandrick, NADC postdoctoral veterinarian. Other project collaborators will include NADC microbiologists, molecular biologists, pathologists, veterinarians and animal scientists. Diamond V will share its firsthand experience gained through the large- scale production and analysis of innovative applications for nutrition and health with fermentation products and microbial cell derivatives, the company said, adding that its expertise includes measuring and monitoring the effects of specific diets on biochemical, physiological, immunological and cytological responses by livestock. More information can be obtained at www.diamondv.com.

Hormel donates to Sandy relief AUSTIN, Minn. — Hormel Foods Corp. has announced a donation of four semi-trailer loads of product to assist with Hurricane Sandy relief efforts. The donation includes two semi-trailers of Hormel® Compleats® microwave meals, which is about 110,400 meals and two semi-trailers of Hormel® pizza toppings white chicken cuts, which is approximately 156,000 packs to Feeding America food banks in aid to relief efforts in the areas impacted by the Oct. 29 hurricane. “Our thoughts are with those affected by this devastating event,” said Julie H. Craven, vice president of corporate communications at Hormel Foods. “As relief efforts begin, we hope these meals will provide a source of nourishment for so many in need.” In describing the foods, the company noted that Hormel Compleats microwave meals are 10-ounce meals that feature chicken, turkey or beef, as well as vegetables and pasta, potatoes or rice. They do not

need to be frozen or refrigerated and can be microwaved in the tray. They are fully cooked and can be eaten straight from the package for those without access to electricity. The pizza toppings are fully cooked, large cuts of white meat chicken that can be added as a protein source to a variety of meals, Hormel added. More information can be obtained at www.hormelfoods.com.

Cargill reports quarterly earnings MINNEAPOLIS — Cargill has reported net earnings of $975 million in the fiscal 2013 first quarter ended Aug. 31, compared with $236 million in the same period a year ago. First-quarter revenues were $33.8 billion compared with $34.6 billion in the year-ago period. “During the past two years, Cargill has invested $8.1 billion to better serve our customers all around the world,” said Greg Page, Cargill chairman and chief executive officer. “By investing steadily, we’ve been able to significantly boost the breadth and depth of the products and services we offer our customers. And that has strengthened the balance, diversification and resilience we strive for in our business.” Three additional factors contributed to Cargill’s performance. Results were balanced, with improved earnings across all five business segments. There were no significant losses in any one business unit, the latter a factor that affected the year-ago period. The company benefited from the considerable time and energy invested during the past 12 months to lower costs, simplify and streamline processes, and ensure capital expenditures were being directed to where they mattered most to customers. The impact of the U.S. drought and weather events in other cropgrowing areas such as the Black Sea region is still unfolding. A key variable is how food and feed demand worldwide will adjust in the coming months if prices remain high. “Now more than ever Cargill is

Business using our knowledge and market insight to help customers manage in this time of tighter supplies, higher prices and more volatile markets,” said Page. “We are reaching out to customers and tapping the full resources of Cargill to create solutions that address their needs.” The impact of the drought on Cargill’s business has been mixed and will continue to be so in the months ahead. The weather has altered the normal distribution of raw materials around the world, and that is pushing more international buyers to non-U.S. origins. As a result, Cargill expects more atypical trade flows — a condition that calls upon its capabilities in

market analytics, risk management and logistics. Cargill’s North American grain handling volumes for exports are anticipated to be lower than pre-drought expectations, and it may be a challenging year for the company’s animal protein businesses globally. The company recently purchased a ground beef processing facility in Fort Worth, Texas, that was formerly owned by AFA Foods. Cargill is also constructing an animal nutrition facility in South Korea’s port of Dangjin. It also announced plans to build a specialty feed facility in Bovina, Texas. More information can be obtained at www.cargill.com.

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POULTRY TIMES, November 19, 2012

Food Trends KFC KFC has announced the launch of Dip’ems, which pairs extra crispy chicken tenders with six dipping sauces. The chicken tenders are made from 100 percent premium all-white meat chicken, marinated and double-breaded in special seasonings. There is also the option to dip them in six flavorful Dip’ems sauces. Three new sauce selections — Creamy Buffalo, Orange Ginger and Bacon Ranch — join the existing sauces of Honey BBQ, Honey Mustard and Creamy Ranch. Dip’ems are available at participating KFC locations in a bucket of 20 tenders and all six sauces or in a combo with three tenders, a choice of two sauces, a side item, a biscuit and a medium drink.  More information: www.kfc.com

Jennie-O Turkey Store Jennie-O, a recognized leader in turkey, has teamed up with the first app-enabled wireless

meat thermometer, iGrill, to help home cooks and grill masters prepare tender, delicious turkey — such as turkey burgers — while ensuring food safety from anywhere in the home, from the convenience of their iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch or Android. The app takes the guesswork out that turkey burgers will always come out tender, delicious and fully cooked to a safe 165 degrees F. A meat thermometer is a necessity for home cooks and professional chefs, but the iGrill wireless thermometer takes this concept a step further by enabling the cook to monitor food temperature without being glued to the grill, stove or oven. The iGrill works with a free app that features multiple preset temperatures and allows the user to monitor multiple probes that are inserted into meat to measure temperature while cooking. The probes relay temperature information to the user’s Apple or Android device and send an alert when the meat is fully cooked. iGrill’s wireless capabilities enable

home cooks and professionals to monitor food from up to 200 feet away, so they can get out of the kitchen or away from the grill, and spend time with guests or on other important things. The app includes 25 recipes for JennieO® turkey meals, such as the Jack and Guac Turkey Bacon Burger, Cranberry Horseradish Turkey Burger and Moroccan Style Turkey Burger. The iGrill app is free and can be downloaded at the iTunes Store or the Google Play Store. The wireless meat thermometer is available for purchase at iGrillinc.com.  More information: www.jennieo. com

SONIC With the growing popularity of chicken among diners, SONIC has introduced two new Premium Chicken Sandwiches to give guests the most bang for their cluck: a new, limited time Asiago Caesar Chicken Sandwich and an improved Classic Chicken Sandwich,

both available in either grilled or crispy. “Chicken sandwiches are sometimes overlooked on menus and we wanted our new Premium Chicken Sandwiches to wake up the standard fare with a fresh flavor experience,” said Chef Clas Petersson, vice president of research & development for SONIC. The Asiago Caesar Chicken Sandwich is a choice of grilled or crispy all-white meat chicken breast, topped with sliced Asiago cheese, thick, hand-sliced tomatoes on SONIC’s warm ciabatta bun with 10 grams of whole grain. The signature Caesar dressing on the sandwich is based on an aioli that Chef Petersson has been developing for the last 18 years. The Classic Chicken Sandwich takes the same grilled or crispy all-white meat chicken breast, tops it with fresh lettuce, tomatoes, light mayo and serves it up between a warm whole-grain ciabatta bun with only 450 calories.  More information: http:bit.ly/SONICPremiumChickenBTS


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POULTRY TIMES, November 19, 2012

How U.S. drought damaged economy as well as crops The Associated Press

WASHINGTON — The worst drought in decades didn���t just shrivel corn and soybeans. It shrank economic growth too. The government said on Oct. 26, that the U.S. economy grew at a modest 2 percent annual rate from July through September. And the crop-killing drought reduced growth by 0.4 percentage points. That means normal weather would have lifted economic growth to 2.4 percent for the quarter, the Commerce Department said.

Q&A Below are questions and answers about the drought and its effect on gross domestic product. GDP is the broadest measure of the economy: Q: How severe was the drought? A: The dry spell that hit the Mid-

west and Great Plains last summer was the worst since the 1950s. It covered 80 percent of U.S. farmland. The drought hit hardest in July, a critical time for corn and other crops. Corn production is expected to drop more than 13 percent in the 2012-2013 growing season. Soybean production will likely fall 8 percent. Cattle, sheep and pig farmers are getting hit, too: The cost of feed is rising, and pastures have withered in the heat. Q: How did the drought reduce economic growth? A: Mainly by reducing crop supplies. Smaller supplies cut growth by 0.17 percentage point from April to June and by 0.42 percentage point from July through September. Jeet Dutta, a senior economist at Moody’s Analytics, says he thinks the worst is over.

He expects the drought’s impact on growth to diminish to 0.1 percentage point in the final three months of 2012. Q: Does the economic damage go beyond the farm? A: Yes, because GDP figures don’t capture, for example, higher food prices that can follow a drought. And farmers hit by a drought typically cut back on purchases of farm equipment, vehicles and other goods. That can hurt merchants in farm country and damage that part of the economy. Ernie Goss, an economics professor at Creighton University in Omaha, says Midwest merchants are expecting a weak holiday season in part because farmers have curtailed their spending. And the drought led to lower water levels in the Mississippi River that stranded barges, causing costly shipping delays.

Q: How does the economic damage from droughts compare with the damage from other natural disasters? A: Hurricanes and earthquakes can reduce economic growth by disrupting production and consumer spending. But once the earth has stopped shaking and the winds have died down, communities can rebuild, boosted by insurance payouts and federal aid. Reconstruction can help the overall economy. By contrast, crops killed by drought can’t be recovered. “It’s a one-shot-a-year production practice for corn and soybeans,” said Todd Davis, an economist at the American Farm Bureau Federation. Q: Have farmers’ incomes suffered? A: Despite the drought, the USDA expects farm incomes to hit $122 billion this year, highest since 1973

when adjusted for inflation. They’ve benefited from higher prices for their crops and livestock. And government-subsidized crop insurance helps cushion the damage. Congress has been promoting crop insurance since the 1990s, notes economist Mekael Teshome of the PNC Financial Services Group. Q: What is the effect on American consumers? A: Prices for corn and soybeans in commodity markets have probably just about peaked, PNC says. But it will take three to six months for higher food prices to work their way through the food chain, says Dutta of Moody’s. USDA expects food prices to rise between 3 percent and 4 percent next year. That would be up from an average of 2.5 percent to 3 percent over the past 20 years.

Vet. students invited to apply for Pfizer scholarship MADISON, N.J. — For the fourth consecutive year, Pfizer Animal Health and the American Veterinary Medical Foundation (AVMF) invite second- and third-year students of veterinary medicine to apply for the Pfizer Animal Health Scholarship. In an effort to help alleviate some of the burden of student debt, a minimum of 330 scholarships of $2,000 each will be awarded to assist students across various disciplines in veterinary medicine. To apply for the Pfizer Animal Health Veterinary Student Scholarship Program, students can visit www.vetstudentconnect.com or www.avmf.org/pfizer until Dec. 2, 2012. Scholarship recipients will be selected based on traditional scholarship selection criteria, such as academic excellence and financial need. In addition, the scholarship will focus on meeting the ongoing

needs of the veterinary profession: increasing diversity among practitioners in ethnic heritage, gender, socioeconomic background, professional aspirations and improving the availability of veterinarians to serve in areas of the profession that have increased demand. “Pfizer recognizes that entering into this rewarding and critical profession does not come at a low cost,” said Vanessa Mariani, director of Academic and Professional Affairs, U.S. Operations at Pfizer Animal Health. “In fact, according to the American Veterinary Medical Association, more than 2,500 students graduated from veterinary schools with an average debt load nearing $140,000 in 2011.” In 2013, PfizerAnimal Health will provide a minimum of $660,000 in student scholarships to eligible students in colleges of veterinary medicine in the U.S. and the Caribbean.

Scholarships will be awarded to students in all areas of study, including food animal medicine, equine and small animal medicine, research, academia and government services, among others. Award eligibility is subject to the guidelines established by individual schools. “This scholarship is one way that Pfizer looks to help address the challenges within the veterinary profession to ensure that it has a thriving future,” said Mariani. “The first three years of this program have been very successful, as we awarded scholarships to students from a variety of socioeconomic backgrounds studying across a diverse array of species and veterinary disciplines.” In 2012, the program awarded 331 students with scholarships. The group included:  31 percent from diverse backgrounds  47 percent studying to practice

food and mixed animal veterinary medicine  28 percent going into small animal practice  8 percent entering academia (research and clinical)  Remaining students going into other areas of practice, such as public health, lab animal medicine and poultry “In part because of the PfizerAVMF scholarship, I was able to begin research this summer on the challenges veterinary students face and how a variety of factors — including Veterinary Business Management Association (VBMA) and other vital programs for veterinary school curricula — impact their success after graduation,” said 2012 scholarship recipient Tammy J. Oseid, a University of Minnesota DVM/MPH class of 2014 student. “The scholarship enabled me to take the time off of work this summer to

begin investigating this area of great personal interest as well as potential benefit to the entire profession.” The scholarship program is a part of Pfizer Animal Health’s Commitment to Veterinarians platform — which offers support through training and education, research and development, investing in the future of the veterinary profession and philanthropy. The scholarship complements a number of other Pfizer Animal Health programs supporting the veterinary profession, including millions invested in universities, industry education and training, scholarships and allied organizations each year. To learn more or apply for the Pfizer Animal Health Veterinary Student Scholarship Program, students can visit www.vetstudentconnect.com or www.avmf.org/pfizer.


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POULTRY TIMES, November 19, 2012

Calendar Compiled by Barbara Olejnik, Associate Editor 770-718-3440 bolejnik@poultrytimes.net

NOV 26-28 — ITF WINTER CONV., Marriott Hotel, West Des Moines, Iowa. Contact: Iowa Turkey Federation, 535 E. Lincoln Way, Ames, Iowa 50010. Ph: 515-232-7492; info@ iowaturkey.org; www.iowaturkey.org.

2013 JAN 13-16 — AFBF ANNUAL MTNG., Nashville, Tenn. Contact: American Farm Bureau Federation, 600 Maryland Ave., S.W., Suite 1000 W, Washington, D.C. 20024. Ph: 202-406-3673; www.fb.org. JAN 25 — GEORGIA AG FORECAST, Georgia Center for Continuing Education, Athens, Ga. Contact: University of Georgia College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences; www.georgiaagforecast.com. JAN 28 — GEORGIA AG FORECAST, ECO Center, Rome, Ga. Contact: University of Georgia College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences; www.georgiaagforecast.com. JAN 28-29 — INT’L. POULTRY Atlanta, SCIENTIFIC FORUM, Ga. Contact: Southern Poultry Science Society, P.O. Box 1705, Clemson, S.C. 29633. Ph: 662325-3416; execsec@southernpoultrysciencesociety.org; www. southernpoultrysciencesociety.org. JAN 28-29 — UEP BOARD MTNG., Atlanta, Ga. Contact: United Egg Producers, 1720 Windward Concourse, Suite 230, Alpharetta, Ga. 30005. Ph: 770-360-9220; www.unitedegg.com. JAN 29 — GEORGIA AG FORECAST, Georgia Farm Bureau, Macon, Ga. Contact: University of Georgia College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences; www.georgiaagforecast.com. JAN 29 — NCC TECHNICAL & REGULATORY COMMITTEE, Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, Ga. Contact: National Chicken Council, 1052 15th St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005. Ph: 202-296-2622; ncc@ chickenusa.org; www.nationalchickencouncil.org; www.eatchicken.com. JAN 29-31 — INTERNATIONAL PRODUCTION & PROCESSING EXPO, Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, Ga. Contact: U.S. Poultry & Egg Association, 1530 Cooledge Road, Tucker, Ga. 30084-7303, Ph: 770-493-9401, seminar@uspoultry. org, www.poultryegginstitute.org; or American Feed Industry Association, 2101 Wilson Blvd., Suite 916,

Arlington, Va. 22201, 703-524-0810, afia@afia.org, www.afia.org; American Meat Institute, 1150 Connecticut Ave., N.W., Wshington, D.C. 20036, 202-587-4200, www.meatami.com JAN 29-Feb. 1 — NPFDA ANNUAL CONV., Hyatt Regency, Atlanta, Ga. Contact: National Poultry & Food Distributors Assocatiion, 2014 Osborne Road, Saint Marys, Ga. 31558. Ph: 770-5359901; kkm@npfda.org; www.npfda.org. JAN 30 — GEORGIA AG FORECAST, UGA Tifton Conference Center, Tifton, Ga. Contact: University of Georgia College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences; www.georgiaagforecast.com. JAN 30 — CHICKEN SUMMIT 2013 ADVSORY GROUP, Atlanta, Ga. Contact: National Chicken Council, 1052 15th St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005. Ph: 202-296-2622; ncc@ chickenusa.org; www.nationalchickencouncil.org; www.eatchicken.com. JAN 30 — NCC MARKETING COMMITTEE, Atlanta, Ga. Contact: National Chicken Council, 1052 15th St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005. Ph: 202-296-2622; ncc@chickenusa.org; www.nationalchickencouncil.org; www.eatchicken.com. JAN 30 — NCC BOARD MTNG., Atlanta, Ga. Contact: National Chicken Council, 1052 15th St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005. Ph: 202-296-2622; ncc@ chickenusa.org; www.nationalchickencouncil.org; www.eatchicken.com. JAN 30 — NEQS ANNUAL STAKEHOLDERS MTNG., Atlanta, Ga. Contact: National Egg Quality School, Maryland Department of Agriculture, 50 Harry S. Truman Pkwy., Annapolis, Md. 21401. Ph: 410-841-5769; Deanna. Baldwin@maryland.gov; www.neqs.org. JAN 31 — GEORGIA AG FORECAST, Decatur County Livestock Complex, Bainbridge, Ga. Contact: University of Georgia College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences; www.georgiaagforecast.com. FEB 1 — GEORGIA AG FORECAST, Toombs County Agri-Center, Lyons, Ga. Contact: University of Georgia College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences; www.georgiaagforecast.com. FEB 13-16 — NTF ANNUAL CONF., Coronado Bay Resort, San Diego, Calif. Contact: National Turkey Federation, 1225 New York Ave., N.W., Suite 400, Washington, D.C. 20005. Ph: 202-898-0100; info@tur-

keyfed.org;

www.eatturkey.com.

FEB 20-21 — NPI CONV., Norfolk Lodge & Suites, Divots Conference Center, Norfolk, Neb. Contact: Nebraska Poultry Industries Inc., University of Nebraska, 102 Mussehl Hall, P.O. Box 830721, Lincoln, Neb. 685830721; 402-472-2051; egg-turkey@uni.edu; www.nepoultry.org. FEB 21 — TPA POULTRY SCHOOL, Ellington Agricultural Center, Nashville, Tenn. Contact: Tennessee Poultry Association, P.O. Box 1525, Shelbyville, Tenn. 37162-1525. Ph: 931-225-1123; dbarnett@ tnpoultry.org; www.tnpoultry.org. FEB 25-27 — PEPA ANNUAL CONV., Intercontinental, Monterey, Calif. Contact: Pacific Egg & Poultry Association, 1521 I St., Sacramento, Calif. 95814. Ph: 916-441-0801; dmurdock@cgfa.org; www.pacificegg.org. FEB 25-March 17 — HOUSTON LIVESTOCK SHOW & RODEO, Houston, Texas. Contact: Houston Livestock Show & Rodeo, P.O. Box 20070, Houston, Texas 77225-0070. Ph: 832-667-1000; questions@ rodeohouston.com; www.hlrs.com. MAR 11 — CPF WINTER BOARD MTNG., Piccadilly Inn, Fresno, Calif. Contact: California Poultry Federation, 4640 Spyres Way, Suite 4, Modesto, Calif. 95356. PAh: 209-576-6355; www.cpif.org. MAR 11-15 — AFIA SPRING COMMITTEE MTNGS./PURCHASING & INGREDIENT SUPPLIERS CONF., Omni Fort Worth Hotel, Fort Worth, Texas. Contact: American Feed Industry Association, 2101 Wilson Blvd., Suite 916. Arlington, Va. 22201. Ph: 703524-0810; afia@afia.org; www.afia.org. MAR 12-13 — ENVIRONMENTAL MGMNT. SMNR, New Orleans, La. Contact: U.S. Poultry & Egg Association, 1530 Cooledge Road, Tucker, Ga. 30084-7303, Ph: 770493-9401; seminar@uspoultry. org; www.poultryegginstitute.org. MAR 12-14 — MPF ANNUAL CONV., Saint Paul RiverCentre, St. Paul, Minn. Contact: Midwest Poultry Federation, 108 Marty Drive, Buffalo, Minn. 55313. Ph: 763-682-2171; info@midwestpoultry.com; www.midwestpoultry.com. MAR 13 — CEAM ANNUAL MTNG., Saint Paul RiverCentr, St. Paul, Minn. Contact: Chicken & Egg Association of Minnesota, 108 Marty Drive, Buffalo, Minn. 55313. Ph: 763-682-2171; info@ mnchicken.org; www.mnchicken.org. MAR 13 — MTGA ANNUAL MTNG., Saint Paul RiverCentre, St. Paul, Minn. Contact: Minnesota Turkey Growers Association, 108 Marty Drive, Buffalo, Minn. 55313. Ph: 763-682-2171; info@minnesotaturkey.com; www.minnesotaturkey.com. MAR 20-21 — FEED MILL MGMNT. SMNR, Nashville, Tenn. Contact: U.S. Poultry & Egg Association, 1530 Cooledge Road, Tucker, Ga. 30084-7303, Ph: 770-493-9401, seminar@uspoultry.

org,

www.poultryegginstitute.org.

MAR 20-21 — AEB BOARD MTNG., Chicago, Ill. Ga. Contact: American Egg Board, 1460 Renaissance Drive, Park Ridge, Ill. 60068. Ph: 847-2967043; aeb@aeb.org; www.aeb.org. APR 5 — OPA INDUSTRY CELEBRATION BANQUET, Renaissance Columbus Downtown Hotel, Columbus, Ohio. Contact: Ohio Poultry Association, 5930 Sharonb Woods Blvd., Columbus, Ohio 43229. Ph: 614-882-6111; jchakeres@ ohiopoultry.org; www.ohiopoultry.org. APR 17 — DPI BOOSTER BANQUET, Salisbury, Md. Contact: Delmarva Poultry Industry Inc., 16686 County Seat Hwy., Georgetown, Del. 19947-4881; dpi@ dpichicken.com; www.dpichicken.com APR 19-21 — GPF ANNUAL MTNG., Lake Lanier Islands Resort, Buford, Ga. Contact: Georgia Poultry Federation, P.O. Box 763, Gainesville, Ga. 30503. Ph: 770-532-0473; www.gapf.org. APR 22-24 — HUMAN RESOURCES SMNR., Destin, Fla. Mo. Contact: U.S. Poultry & Egg Association, 1530 Cooledge Road, Tucker, Ga. 30084-7303, Ph: 770-493-9401, seminar@uspoultry.org, www.poultryegginstitute.org. MAY 2-3 — NATIONAL BREEDERS ROUNDTABLE, St. Louis, Mo. Contact: U.S. Poultry & Egg Association, 1530 Cooledge Road, Tucker, Ga. 30084-7303, Ph: 770-493-9401, seminar@uspoultry.org, www.poultryegginstitute.org. MAY 14-15 — AFIA BOARD MTNG., Arlington, Va. Contact: American Feed Industry Association, 2101 Wilson Blvd., Suite 916, Arlington, Va. 22201. Ph: 703524-0810; afia@afia.org, www.afia.org. MAY 15-16 — POULTRY PROCESSORS WKSHP., Atlanta, Ga. Contact: U.S. Poultry & Egg Association, 1530 Cooledge Road, Tucker, Ga. 30084-7303, Ph: 770-493-9401, seminar@uspoultry.org, www.poultryegginstitute.org. MAY 20-22 — UEP LEGISLATIVE BOARD MTNG., Washington, D.C. Contact: United Egg Producers, 1720 Windward Concourse, Suite 230, Alpharetta, Ga. 30005. Ph: 770360-9220; www.unitedegg.com. MAY 20-23 — NEQS, Harrisburg, Pa. Contact: National Egg Quality School, Maryland Department of Agriculture, 50 Harry S. Truman Pkwy., Annapolis, Md. 21401. Ph: 410-841-5769; Deanna. Baldwin@maryland.gov; www.neqs.org. JUN 7-8 — AP&EA GOLF TOURNAMENT and EVENING OF FUN, Birmingham, Ala. Contact: Alabama Poultry & Egg Association, P.O. Box 240, Montgomery, Ala. 36101. Ph: 334265-2732; www.alabamapoultry.org. JUN 11-13 — ITF SUMMER MTNG., Adventureland Inn, Altoona, Iowa. Contact: Iowa Turkey Federation, 535 E. Lincoln Way, Ames, Iowa 50010. Ph: 51522-7492;gretta@iowaturkey.org; sheila@ iowaturkey.org; www.iowaturkey.org. JUN 14-15

ANNUAL

POULTRY

FESTIVAL, Rogers, Ark. Contact: Poultry Federation, P.O. Box 1446, Little Rock, Ark. 72203. Ph: 501-3758131; www.thepoultryfederation.com. JUN 10-11 — CPF SUMMER BOARD MTNG., The Cliffs Resort, Shell Beach, Calif. Contact: California Poultry Federation, 4640 Spyres Way, Suite 4, Modesto, Calif. 95356. PAh: 209-576-6355; www.cpif.org. JUN 19-21 — GEA - GEC ANNUAL MTNGS., King and Prince Beach & Golf Resort, St. Simons Island, Ga. Contact: Jewell Hutto, Georgia Egg Assocation - Georgia Egg Commission, P.O. Box 2929, Suwanee, Ga. 30024. Ph: 770-932-4622; goodeggs@bellsouth.net; www.georgiaeggs.org. JUN 20-22 — NCC SUMMER BOARD MTNG., Newport Coast, Calif. Contact: National Chicken Council, 1052 15th St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005. Ph: 202-296-2622; ncc@ chickenusa.org; www.nationalchickencouncil.org; www.eatchicken.com. JUN 21-22 — DELMARVA CHICKEN FESTIVAL, Snow Hill, Md. Contact: Delmarva Poultry Industry Inc., 16686 County Seat Hwy., Georgetown, Del. 19947-4881; dpi@dpichicken.com; www.dpichicken.com JUN 24-26 — FINANCIAL MGMNT. SMNR., Orlando, Fla. Contact: U.S. Poultry & Egg Association, 1530 Cooledge Road, Tucker, Ga. 30084-7303, Ph: 770-493-9401, seminar@uspoultry.org, www.poultryegginstitute.org. JUL 27-30 — TPF ANNUAL CONV., San Antonio, Texas. Contact: Texas Poultry Federation, 595 Round Rock W. Drive, Suite 305, Round Rock, Texas 78581. Ph: 512-248-0600; tpf@ texspoultry.org; www.texaspoultry.org JUL 9-10 — HATCHERY BREEDER The Wynfrey Hotel, CLINIC, Birmingham, Ala. Contact: U.S. Poultry & Egg Association, 1530 Cooledge Road, Tucker, Ga. 30084-7303, Ph: 770-493-9401, seminar@uspoultry. org, www.poultryegginstitute.org. JUL 10-11 — AEB BOARD MTNG., Chicago, Ill. Contact: American Egg Board, 1460 Renaissance Drive, Park Ridge, Ill. 60068. Ph: 847-2967043; aeb@aeb.org; www.aeb.org. JUL 16-17 — INFORMATION SYSTEMS SMNR., Doubletree Hotel, Nashville, Tenn. Contact: U.S. Poultry & Egg Association, 1530 Cooledge Road, Tucker, Ga. 30084-7303, Ph: 770493-9401, seminar@uspoultry. org, www.poultryegginstitute.org. JUL 18-20 — AAMP CONV., Charleston Area Convention Center, North Charleston, S.C. Contact: American Association of Meat Processors, 1 Meating Place, Elizabethtown, Pa. 17022. Ph: 717-367-1168; aamp@amp.com; www.aamp.com.


11

POULTRY TIMES, November 19, 2012

Farm bill could hinge on budget talks The Associated Press

WASHINGTON — A farm bill that stalled in Congress before the election could see quick action by the end of the year if congressional leaders decide they need its spending cuts — including a small reduction in the $80-billion-a-year food stamps program — to make a deal for averting the “fiscal cliff.” The farm bill passed by the Senate in June would save $23 billion over 10 years, while a version passed by the House Agriculture Committee in July would save $35 billion. The savings come from cuts to farm subsidies and by tightening eligibility requirements for those who receive food stamps, now known as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, or SNAP. That pot of money could be useful to lawmakers who will be scrambling in the year’s final weeks to address the combination of tax increases and automatic spending cuts due in January — dubbed the fiscal cliff because the combination could plunge the economy into another recession. The Senate has already passed its version of the farm bill. So any decision to make it part of a budget agreement will require the acquiescence of Republican House leaders who stopped action on the bill before the election, saying there weren’t enough votes. But they also avoided a nasty and what would have been a highly visible pre-election floor fight over food stamps. Democrats said the program, which feeds about one in seven

Americans, shouldn’t be touched while conservatives complained the bill’s 2 percent cut in the program — $1.6 billion a year — was too small. Doug Heye, a spokesman for House Majority Leader Eric Cantor, said no decisions have been made on how to move the farm bill or whether it will be part of the fiscal negotiations. The 2008 farm bill expired Sept. 30, so Congress at a minimum will have to extend parts of it into next year. Senate Agriculture Chairwoman Debbie Stabenow (D-Mich.) signaled her eagerness to pair the two bills with a statement Nov. 9 saying the farm bill’s passage would be “a significant first step in meeting the critical deficit reduction challenges our country must face head-on this year.” Retiring Sen. Kent Conrad (DN.D.) said he has already started working on a compromise farm bill in an effort to move it alongside deficit reduction. Conrad, who is chairman of the Senate Budget Committee and sits on the Agriculture Committee, said he spent part of Congress’ election recess consulting with Senate and House aides who worked on the legislation. The House and Senate farm bills differ in how they address subsidies for farmers. But the biggest difference between the two versions is the amount cut from food stamps: The Democratic-led Senate’s bill would cut $4 billion from the almost $800 billion program over 10 years; the GOP-led House’s version would cut

$16 billion. Conrad said he has attempted to “take some sort of reasonable difference” between the House and Senate bills but would not provide details. He argues that next year’s budget will be even worse and farm-state legislators will be forced to make even deeper cuts. “Time is not on our side,” he said. Next year’s budget situation on farm programs will be “a big mess and it’s infinitely better for everyone to get these decisions made now.” Farm groups are aggressively pushing a combination of the farm bill and the fiscal package, seeing the deficit reduction as the last, best vehicle to get the bill done this year. “I think it’s going to be very hard to get a farm bill done unless a decision is made very quickly to be part of a package,” said Bob Stallman, president of the American Farm Bureau Federation. Stallman said he thinks the bill can move very quickly once lawmakers find a compromise on the food stamp issue. “When political leadership decides they want something done they will craft a path to make it happen,” he said. “But that hasn’t happened yet.” Food stamps make up roughly 80 percent of the bill’s half-trillion dollar cost over five years. Sustained unemployment, rising food prices and expanded eligibility under President Barack Obama’s 2009 economic stimulus have doubled the program’s cost since 2008, and

Mexico declares end to bird flu outbreak The Associated Press

MEXICO CITY — Mexico says an outbreak of the H7N3 bird flu virus in western Mexico has been “totally controlled” after 68 days without any reports of new cases.

President Felipe Calderon said on Oct. 24, that more than 22 million hens had been slaughtered throughout the country since efforts to contain the outbreak were announced in July. The outbreak caused price in-

creases in chicken and egg products in Mexico. Calderon said the outbreak caused significant damage because of the outbreak. The United States was among the countries that began exporting eggs to Mexico to help lower egg prices.

food stamps now help feed 47 million people. The proposed House cuts would target practices by many states that critics claim swell the rolls of beneficiaries. They include waiving asset and income eligibility limits for people who get other welfare benefits or signing people up for minimal heating aid so that they can qualify automatically for food stamps, too. The Senate bill also tightens eligibility in some areas but doesn’t save as much money. The House and Senate bills also differ on how subsidies are structured for various crops. Commodity groups for specific crops and lawmakers who represent their constituencies have battled over how those subsidies should work in

an environment where there is less money to go around. This year’s farm bill situation is unusual. The last four farm bills — passed in 2008, 2002, 1996 and 1990 — were all passed prior to elections with rural politics driving the equation. This year politics had the opposite effect as food stamps got in the way. Roger Johnson, president of the National Farmers Union, said the results of the Nov. 6 election should be good news for those who want to see a farm bill passed, since the balance of power stayed the same. “The outcome removed any sort of political rationale for a delay,” Johnson said. “The political argument I think is gone. Not to say it will be easy.”


12

POULTRY TIMES, November 19, 2012

•Technology (Continued from page 1)

of previously known and unknown turkey viruses. Scientists confirmed common avian viruses such as rotavirus, astrovirus and reovirus. They also detected many RNA viruses, such as members of the Picornaviridae family. “We discovered an abundance of previously unknown turkey viruses like picobirnavirus, which is a small, double-stranded RNA virus implicated in enteric disease in other agricultural animals,” Day says. “In addition, we identified a calicivirus, which is associated with human enteric diseases, in poultry.” By using metagenomics, scientists were able to generate and continue to analyze additional data from the samples. They discovered

a new bacteriophage that had never been described in turkey intestinal samples. “The bacteriophage is called phiCA82,” Zsak says. “It belongs to a group known as microphages and is the type of virus that naturally kills bacteria. Phages are important because they can potentially be used as alternatives to antibiotics and as weapons against multi-drug-resistant pathogens.” Future studies will be done to determine if phages like this one actually kill the bacteria they infect, Zsak says. Once this process is identified, scientists can design identical ways to kill dangerous pathogens. Metagenomics also was used to produce the first in-depth analysis of the full-length genome sequence of a novel chicken parvovirus. Scientists then developed a PCR assay

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to detect the virus in turkeys and chickens. They used the highly effective test to detect parvoviruses in enteric samples collected from commercial poultry flocks in different U.S. regions. “The beauty of metagenomics is that viruses do not have to be isolated or propagated. Small pieces of nucleic acid can be sequenced from samples taken from mixed communities,” Day says. “The main goal is to use this technology to develop diagnostic tools, identify effective new treatments and improve management to help control costly animal and plant diseases.”

“Egging On” diseases A different type of technology is being used to prevent coccidiosis and other enteric diseases in poultry at the ARS Henry A. Wallace Beltsville Agricultural Research Center (BARC) in Beltsville, Md. Avian immunologist Hyun Lillehoj partnered with scientists at universities and industry to develop a passive immunization strategy to control poultry diseases. The novel, antibiotic-free technology uses hy-

perimmune egg yolk antibodies to enhance the immune capability of newly hatched chicks. “By controlling coccidiosis, you’re also reducing the impact of this disease on other enteric pathogens,” says Lillehoj, who works in BARC’s Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory. “For example, this method could be used to control the bacterial pathogens that cause necrotic enteritis, a prevalent gut disease of poultry.” Live vaccinations and good management practices help reduce the spread of disease in poultry. The new method offers producers an antibiotic-free alternative in controlling drug-resistant strains of the disease. In studies of intestinal samples from turkeys with enteric diseases, ARS scientists have discovered a new virus that may have future antimicrobial applications. “The technology is simple,” Lillehoj says. “Antibodies are extracted from yolks of eggs from pathogen-free birds that have been hyperimmunized.” These birds possess strong immunity due to an abundance of anti-

bodies against the pathogen-causing intestinal disease, she explains. The egg yolk is spray-dried, mixed with feed and given to chicks that have no immune protection right after hatching. In one experiment, one-day-old chicks were given feed mixed with spray-dried egg yolk powder prepared from hyperimmunized hens. The chicks were then challenged with a coccidia infection. Typically, birds infected with coccidiosis are unable to absorb nutrients from food or gain weight. The chicks that received the hyperimmune egg yolk antibodies had increased body weight, significantly reduced gut lesions than those that did not receive the treatment. Thanks to this research, a product is now available from a commercial company to help control coccidiosis. Similar approaches are being applied to control other poultry enteric diseases.

Poultry Council, The Poultry Federation, Sanderson Farms, Simmons Prepared Foods, Texas Turkey Federation, Virginia Poultry Federation, Wisconsin Poultry and Egg Industry Association, California Poultry Federation, Case Farms, Chicken

and Egg Association of Minnesota, Delmarva Poultry Industry Inc., Georgia Poultry Federation, Iowa Turkey Federation, Minnesota Turkey Growers Association, North Carolina Poultry Federation and Ohio Poultry Federation.

This article is drawn from Healthy Animals, a publication of the USDA Agricultural Research Service.

•Russia (Continued from page 1)

when we know there is strong bipartisan support for this legislation in both chambers.” Other poultry interests signing the letters include: Penn Ag Industry

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13

POULTRY TIMES, November 19, 2012

Flood-related diseases in poultry and livestock MISSISSIPPI STATE, Miss. — If your fields or farm buildings have been flooded, take special precautions against flood-related diseases in poultry and livestock. Give animals extra care, particularly if they have been stranded by flood water and have been off regular feeding schedules Be careful when giving wet feed to livestock. Feed just a few animals first, and watch them for several days before giving wet feed to all stock. In addition, watch for signs of flood-related diseases.

Clostridial diseases Blackleg, caused by micro-organisms spread over fields by standing water, can be a serious post flood disease. Usually it affects cattle 6 to 24 months old, but it also affects sheep, goats, and swine. Symptoms include acute lameness, depression, fever, and swelling in the hip, shoulder, chest, back, neck, or throat muscles. If untreated, blackleg is usually fatal within 24 hours after onset. Treatment may be effective in the early disease stages. The best prevention against blackleg is inoculation of all unvaccinated young cattle

before they are put out on pastures that have been flooded. Some vaccines also protect against malignant edema (gas edema) and other waterborne diseases. Anthrax may break out after flooding. A veterinarian should study all animals that die suddenly after flooding.

Malignant edema Hot, painful swelling at the point of infection, high fever, loss of appetite, decreased milk production, difficulty breathing, convulsions, then death are signs of malignant edema. This disease kills animals one or two days after symptoms appear. In its early stages, malignant edema can be successfully treated by a veterinarian. Both specific and combination vaccines are available. Tetanus (lockjaw) Tetanus is a problem whenever animals have puncture wounds. Symptoms include generalized stiffness caused by muscle contractions. Legs and tail are extended; the third eyelid hovers over the eye when its head is raised. Animals can

be vaccinated as a preventative, and the disease is treatable in its early stages.

Foot rot Constant exposure to mud and water softens tissues around the feet of cows and sheep, greatly increasing their susceptibility to foot rot. Lameness, a painful swelling of the hoof, and foul-smelling dead tissue in the space between the claws are common symptoms of the disease. To prevent foot rot and other foot infections, walk cows through a solution of copper sulfate (2 pounds of ordinary commercial bluestone in 5 gallons of water) as they leave the milking parlor or stable after they have been thoroughly milked. Put the solution in a 4- to 6-inch deep trough in an alleyway or doorway. As long as cows’ feet are stained with the copper sulfate solution, they are reasonably protected against foot rot. Mastitis Organisms in mud and muddy water can cause severe mastitis. Coliform organisms are usually involved. They cause acute intoxication (septicemia) in the udder and

death of udder tissue(gangrene). To protect cows against mastitis, clean their teats thoroughly before milking. Wash teats and udders with warm water and a mild dishwashing detergent before using the sanitizing solution. Dry teat end carefully with clean paper towels before applying the milking machine. Milk the cows carefully. Do not milk too much, and be careful to prevent injury of teat ends. If possible, allow cows to lie down in a relatively dry, clean place. Cows are probably better off outside in a wet muddy pasture than they are in wet, foul indoor stalls.

Botulism Botulism, the most common post flood ailment in chickens, is caused by organisms in spoiled vegetables or decaying animal carcasses. The birds are infected when they eat this material. Paralysis, difficulty in eating and swallowing, and general weakness are symptoms. The best way to prevent this disease is to confine chickens well away from spoiled meat or decaying matter. Horses are also very susceptible to botulism from drinking stagnant water and eating spoiled food.

Brooder pneumonia This disease affects chickens and results from their eating wet, moldy feed or from wet litter. Symptoms include fast breathing, coughing and gasping. To prevent brooder pneumonia, keep brooders sanitary, give the birds clean litter, clean all utensils and do not use moldy feed. Erysipelas This disease commonly affects turkeys and swine after flooding. In swine the disease may be either acute (causing high fever and rapid death) or chronic (with development of characteristic skin lesions). Swine that have not been vaccinated against erysipelas should be vaccinated before they are put into flooded buildings or pastures. Prompt antibiotic treatment is effective against erysipelas in swine and turkeys. In turkeys, the disease frequently affects the snood of toms after even a slight injury. This article is drawn from a publication from the Mississippi State University Extension Service in Mississippi State, Miss.

USDA delivers funding for Hurricane Sandy recovery in 11 states WASHINGTON — As part of federal efforts to provide necessary support to those affected by Hurricane Sandy, U.S. Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack announced on Nov. 8, that USDA’s Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) has provided $5.3 million in Emergency Watershed Protection (EWP) program funds to 11 states affected by the storm. EWP — an emergency recovery program — responds to emergencies created by natural disasters by helping people relieve imminent hazards to life and property.

“USDA is deploying resources to help those impacted by this challenging event,” said Vilsack. “This funding will help communities undertake emergency measures to address public safety concerns and begin restoration efforts. This assistance also keeps farmers, ranchers and landowners on their land, helping to keep American agriculture strong and profitable.” Connecticut, Delaware, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Virginia

and West Virginia each received $480,000 for recovery projects to address public safety and restoration efforts on private, public and tribal lands. With these new EWP funds on hand, NRCS state offices will be able to move swiftly as sponsors come forward for projects to reduce threats to life or property. All projects undertaken, with the exception of the purchase of floodplain easements, must have a project sponsor. When funding is allocated to a

project, NRCS contracts the heavy construction work to local contractors, spurring creation of jobs. Typical projects funded under EWP include removing debris from waterways, protecting eroded stream banks, reseeding damaged areas, and in some cases, purchasing floodplain easements on eligible land. NRCS funds up to 75 percent of project costs, with local sponsors paying the remaining 25 percent in either cash or in-kind services. Funding is subject to congressio-

nal approval. NRCS also has posted online Plants for Atlantic Coastal Restoration, a large collection of guides, fact sheets and other sources of information on re-vegetating shorelines and stabilizing sand dunes after storms. Additional information about assistance programs, safety tips and updates about USDA’s hurricane relief efforts are posted at www. usda.gov/disaster. Information about the U.S. government’s hurricane response efforts is available at www.ready.gov.


14

POULTRY TIMES, November 19, 2012

Tracing listeria in chicken cooking plants By Sharon Durham

Special to Poultry Times

BELTSVILLE, Md. â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Incoming raw poultry is the primary source of Listeria monocytogenes contamination in commercial chicken cooking plants, according to a 21-month study that was conducted by USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists and their collaborators at the University of Georgia. The studyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s results will help these facilities more sharply focus their sanitation processes to reduce crosscontamination. L. monocytogenes is a bacterial human pathogen that is sometimes found in fully cooked,

ready-to-eat processed meat and poultry products. By testing a brand-new commercial cooking facility before and after processing began, the research team was able to track sources of contamination. The research team was led by ARS microbiologist Mark Berrang of the Bacterial Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Resistance Research Unit at the agencyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Richard B. Russell Research Center in Athens, Ga. Because the pathogen is prevalent in the environment and in various forms, there were several potential sources of contamination, including employees, incoming fresh air, raw

meat and the surrounding environment. Potential sources of L. monocytogenes were tested by taking samples of soil and water around and near the facility exterior, and by testing heavily traveled floor surfaces following personnel shift changes. Samples were also collected and tested from incoming air from air vent filters and from monthly swabs of incoming raw meat. The plant was free of L. monocytogenes when first constructed; floor drains in the facility were sampled approximately monthly to determine at what point the plant would become colonized with the bacteria.

Within four months of operation, L. monocytogenes was detected in floor drains, indicating that the organism had been introduced from some outside source. No L. monocytogenes was recovered from any floor samples in the plant entryways, locker room or cafeteria. Likewise, the organism was not detected on air vent filters during the survey. The only tested source found to be consistently positive for L. monocytogenes was incoming raw poultry meat. Quality assurance in the test plant was exceptional and included an extensive proactive sampling plan to assure food safety. L. monocy-

togenes can become prevalent in food processing environments; sanitation, biosafety and product sampling protocols are in place in these facilities to prevent shipping contaminated product. This research was first reported in the Journal of Food Protection. Co-authors included ARS microbiologist Richard Meinersmann in Athens, University of Georgia scientist Joseph Frank and former ARS researcher Scott Ladely. Sharon Durham is a public affairs specialist with the USDAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Agricultural Research Service in Beltsville, Md.

USPOULTRY releases video series on antibiotic use TUCKER, GA â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Antibiotic use in poultry production has been extremely effective in enhancing bird health. To help provide answers to how and why antibiotics are used in the poultry industry, U.S. Poultry & Egg Association has created a series of six short videos. The series is called Poultry Insight and provides information about antibiotic resistance, antibiotic residues,

why and when antibiotics are used, who regulates antibiotic use and what would happen if the poultry industry stopped using antibiotics. â&#x20AC;&#x153;USPOULTRY and our members recognize consumers have questions about antibiotics,â&#x20AC;? said USPOULTRY President John Starkey. â&#x20AC;&#x153;This series of videos is designed to provide a general overview about antibiotics and antibiotic use in the poultry industry, and we welcome

any feedback from consumers who have additional questions.â&#x20AC;? The videos are a discussion with Dr. John Glisson, retired head of the Department of Population Health at the University of Georgia, and former head of the Department of Avian Medicine and associate dean of Public Service and Outreach at the University of Georgiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s College of Veterinary Medicine. Glisson now serves as USPOUL-

TRYâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s director of research. â&#x20AC;&#x153;It is through funds generated by the International Poultry Expo that USPOULTRY is able to develop educational pieces of this type. This video series is only one example of the IPE funds that have been funneled back into the industry over the years,â&#x20AC;? said Mark Waller, Ingram Farms, Cullman, Ala., chairman of USPOULTRY.

â&#x20AC;&#x153;We sincerely appreciate the support of our members and exhibitors that allowed USPOULTRY to develop this information,â&#x20AC;? Waller added. The videos can be viewed on USPOULTRYâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s website at www. uspoultry.org. They can also be viewed on YouTube at http://www.youtube.com/ playlist?list=PLzh0TnoT7JfrFarFd 0vZNJCZGsn7T9KrO.

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WILMINGTON, Del. â&#x20AC;&#x201D; The Delmarva peninsulaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s poultry industry is up and running after emerging from the recent hurricane, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Superstormâ&#x20AC;? Sandy, relatively unscathed. The hurricane made landfall on Oct. 29. The Delaware Department of Agriculture said that there was no significant flooding or poultry house damage, and that chicken farmers

are generally in good shape. Feed trucks are back on the road, and poultry processing plants resumed operations Oct. 31. Bill Satterfield, executive director of Delmarva Poultry Industry Inc., said a farm on the lower Delmarva peninsula lost 80,000 two-weekold chickens to flooding, and that some chicken houses in the same area were still relying on generator power. Another chicken house lost part of the roof, and two chicken houses

near Crisfield, Md., also were flooded, said Satterfield, who was unaware of any other damage. Satterfield scoffed at the notion from two agriculture economics professors at Mississippi State University that the storm is likely to cause short-term disruptions and potential price-gouging because of damage on the Delmarva peninsula â&#x20AC;&#x153;We managed pretty well considering there are about 100 million chickens alive on the Delmarva peninsula at any one time,â&#x20AC;? he said.


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POULTRY TIMES, November 19, 2012

Chicken Whisperer continues as biosecurity spokesperson WASHINGTON — Practically anything and everything you ever wanted to know about chickens can be offered up by Andy Schneider, better known as the Chicken Whisperer®, and who has become a go-to guy across the country for information on raising and keeping backyard poultry safe from disease. Schneider is a national radio personality and the author of The Chicken Whisperer’s Guide to Keeping Chickens. Schneider is entering his third year as spokesperson for a national public awareness campaign focusing on keeping backyard poultry disease free. The Biosecurity For Birds campaign, conducted by the USDA’s Animal & Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), is designed to educate the growing population of backyard poultry owners on how to keep their flocks healthy and free from such diseases as avian influenza (AI) and exotic Newcastle disease (END).

The initiative, begun in 2004, teaches bird owners how to prevent diseases, what signs to look for and how to respond if they suspect their flocks are ill. Backyard poultry has grown increasingly popular in the U.S. in recent years as more Americans seek fresh food, locally. Schneider has helped countless numbers of people start their own backyard flocks. He is the founder of the Atlanta Backyard Poultry Meetup group, which has grown to more than 2,000 members and conducts poultry owner workshops nationwide. Throughout the year, Schneider will be using his radio show, guest appearances, website, Facebook and Twitter pages to promote proper biosecurity measures to ensure healthy flocks. One of his first undertakings will be to host a webinar the last week in February that will focus on the upcoming chicks’ season and offer helpful hints to start your backyard

flocks the right way, keep them safe from disease, as well as safe from predators. The one hour webinar will also cover new technology and tips to keep adult poultry healthy and safe. “Serving as a spokesperson for the USDA/APHIS Biosecurity For Birds program has been a wonderful opportunity for me to educate poultry owners and those who are interested in raising chickens about the appropriate steps they need to take to keep them free from disease as well as the enormous rewards of having your own birds,” Schneider said. Schneider has been featured on CNN, HLN, CBS, NBC, ABC, NPR, as well as in Time magazine, The Wall Street Journal, The Economist, USA Today, Atlanta JournalConstitution, and many other publications. More information about the Biosecurity For Birds program can be obtained at http://healthybirds. aphis.usda.gov.

Ground turkey showcased in NTF video WASHINGTON — Average Betty has created a “man-loaf” sandwich from a turkey chipotle meatloaf for the National Turkey Federation video library to show how ground turkey is versatile and tasty. Sara O’Donnell, food blogger and creator of Average Betty, shows viewers how to create this simple, but tasty new recipe using turkey because of its natural ability to combine readily with different seasonings. Ground turkey is an ideal protein to spice up with all the heat involved in a chipotle glaze, the NTF notes. Average Betty, who is anything but average, takes it a step further

by creating an innovative twist of turning the meatloaf into a creative sandwich, she affectionately calls a ‘man-loaf.’ In the video, O’Donnell uses a pound and a quarter of ground turkey. The turkey is then seasoned with onion, garlic, jalapenos, diced tomatoes, less sodium soy sauce, ground cumin, chipotle chili powder, panko bread crumbs, an egg and cracked pepper. O’Donnell then mixes all the ingredients in a bowl using her “meat hooks” — or hands — while reminding viewers to wash them thoroughly before and after working with the mixture.

The ground turkey mixture is added to a loaf pan and gently patted to the form of the pan. The turkey meatloaf is then baked until the internal temperature reaches 165 degrees F as indicated on a meat thermometer. To view the Turkey Chipotle Meatloaf recipe video, visit NTF’s Cooking Video Library at www.eatturkey.com/consumer/videolibrary/ or www.averagebetty.com/recipes/ turkey-chipotle-meatloaf-recipe/. More recipes, and especially tips and techniques for creating holiday meals, can be obtained from the National Turkey Federation at www. eatturkey.com.

Special


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POULTRY TIMES, November 19, 2012

Do you need to go to a higher level of biosecurity? By Dr. A. Bruce Webster Special to Poultry Times

ATHENS, Ga. — It has been noted that there is no good way to depopulate a large cage layer house to contain an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian disease. In a case of potentially zoonotic disease, such as H5N1 avian influenza, existing depopulation methods may be unworkable because exposure of human workers to the pathogen would be too high. Even if a good depopulation method were available, it would be a nightmarish prospect if an egg company had to depopulate an entire multi-flock complex. The best alternative is to keep such diseases off the premises. This means the use of appropriate biosecurity measures. People are naturally pragmatic. We will do what is necessary to achieve what is important, but are unwilling to put out extra effort for what we believe has little benefit. This is especially true if the extra effort is inconvenient and interferes with our daily activities. Unfortunately, biosecurity measures are inconvenient and do interfere with other things that must be done. Keeping doors locked, maintaining disinfectant foot baths at doorways, controlling direction of personnel movement between company-owned flocks according to bird age or risk of disease trans-

mission, controlling personnel exposure to potential off-site sources of avian disease, wearing only dedicated footwear and clothing, showering between facilities, etc., require more personal commitment and attention to detail than most of us will exercise unless we are absolutely convinced of their necessity. So what level of biosecurity effort is necessary? This is not an easy question to answer, and can only be answered properly within each company according to its own circumstances and tolerance for risk. Too strict a biosecurity program may be unnecessarily expensive and difficult to maintain. Too lax a program overly exposes a company to serious economic loss. The right program will properly balance the potential damage of outbreaks of likely avian diseases against the efforts required to protect against them. The situation is a little like my personal choice whether to leave the doors of my car unlocked when I park it somewhere. If my car is old, I might feel less need to lock it up than if it were new because the consequences of it being stolen would have less impact on me. Similarly, for instance, it is quite rational that the biosecurity measures taken when removing spent hens from the layer house would be less than those exercised when removing a pullet flock from the pullet house because the economic

value tied up in the younger birds is greater and more harm could be done by allowing them to be exposed to pathogens. Returning again to the example of my car, I am more likely to lock it up if I leave it in a busy city parking lot than if I park it at a friend’s house in a quiet neighborhood. In this case, the value of my car does not change, but my worry about it being stolen does. Similarly, an egg producer who would not normally vaccinate, for instance, against M. gallisepticum would be quite rational to go to the expense of doing so if MG were found in the vicinity. The decision to take action against potential harm and the amount of effort undertaken, therefore, are functions of the risk of a harmful event occurring and the amount of harm done if the event occurs. It may be time for egg companies to reweigh the risks and harms of potential avian diseases in light of new realities. If an indemnification program to compensate for flock depopulation were sufficiently robust, depopulation of a multi-age layer complex might be manageable, although maintenance of product flow and service of contracts would be awkward at best. Lacking a robust indemnification program, it might be wise to take another look at the cost of having to depopulate a house or a complex

and ask if that cost would justify the price of a higher level of biosecurity. Psychologically, it can be hard to spend money and effort up front to minimize the risk of a rare, catastrophic event when the event itself seems distant and may never happen. However, biosecurity is a little like buying insurance. It is an inconvenient expenditure now that hopefully will prevent an economic tragedy. The commercial egg industry has, on the whole, improved its commitment to biosecurity in the last 10 years, and egg companies have proven themselves able to manage many diseases by modest biosecurity measures to reduce inter-flock transmission of pathogens and relatively inexpensive vaccination programs. However, given the potential seriousness of a disease such as avian influenza, many egg companies might do more to protect themselves. Do the biosecurity measures taken at your farm or complex accurately reflect the seriousness of the harm that would be done if an outbreak occurred? Since human traffic is the most likely vector to bring diseases onto poultry farms, control of human movement and reduction of pathogens carried by humans are likely to be the most effective ways to up-

grade biosecurity. In addition to the items listed above, it might be wise in some cases to fence the facility and require entry through a monitored gate. It may be valuable to hire people with specific biosecurity responsibilities if existing employees are already busy or would have trouble being diligent with the biosecurity program. To improve the likelihood of compliance, training programs should help employees understand why they are being asked to obey a company biosecurity program. Some of these suggestions probably are already part of your biosecurity efforts and are mentioned here merely as reminders. Contact your state Cooperative Extension Service for assistance in development of a comprehensive biosecurity plan for your facilities. However, even before entering into a serious planning process, there may be something you can do today or this week that would significantly improve the biosecurity of your facility. Ask yourself what is the next most important thing that you can do in this matter. It might be something simple. Dr. A. Bruce Webster is a professor and Extension coordinator with the University of Georgia‘s Poultry Science Department in Athens, Ga.

USDA working to restore water & electricity following hurricane WASHINGTON — As part of federal efforts to provide necessary support to those affected by Hurricane Sandy, U.S. Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack on Nov. 6 announced that power and water services have been restored to more than 130,000 rural customers on USDA-financed systems in nine states. “USDA Rural Development has

been working closely with electric cooperatives, utilities and operators of rural water systems to restore these critical services as quickly as possible,” Vilsack said. “We will continue to work with utilities and local officials to ensure that everyone in the disaster area has access to electricity and safe drinking water.” Twelve USDA-funded rural elec-

tric systems in nine states reported on Nov. 5 that power has been restored to all but 38 customers. At the height of the storm, 130,720 customers in Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Vermont and West Virginia had lost power. Nearly all of the USDA funded rural water systems in Connecticut,

Maryland, North Carolina, New Jersey and Pennsylvania that reported problems are back online, and USDA field staff and utility workers are continuing to conduct additional assessments. These water systems serve 91,553 rural residents. USDA encourages homeowners and business owners in rural communities to contact their local Rural

Development office for housing, business or community assistance information. Additional information about assistance programs, safety tips and updates about USDA’s hurricane relief efforts are posted on the web at www.usda.gov/disaster. More information about hurricane response efforts can be obtained at www.ready.gov.


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POULTRY TIMES, November 19, 2012

Strategies that work as alternatives for antibiotics By Sandra Avant

Special to Poultry Times

BELTSVILLE, Md. â&#x20AC;&#x201D; In the early 1940s, the first antibiotic â&#x20AC;&#x201D; penicillin â&#x20AC;&#x201D; was used successfully to treat bacterial infections and to save thousands of lives, including those of wounded World War II soldiers. Today, antibiotics, which target microorganisms like bacteria, fungi and parasites, are essential for human and animal health. They continue to save lives as well as increase animal production and efficiency. However, exploration of alternative strategies to mitigate the use of antibiotics is needed in view of growing concerns about antibiotic resistance to certain strains of bacteria and increasing restrictions on their prudent use in animals. Some of the latest scientific breakthroughs and technologies, which provide new options and alternative strategies for enhancing production and improving animal health and well-being, were presented at an international symposium, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Alternatives to Antibiotics: Challenges and Solutions in Animal Production,â&#x20AC;? held in September 2012, at the headquarters of the World Organization for Animal Health (known as OIE) in Paris, France. â&#x20AC;&#x153;A number of the new technologies have direct applications as medical interventions for human health, but the focus of the symposium is animal production, animal health and food safety,â&#x20AC;? says Cyril Gay, national program leader for animal health with the USDA Agricultural Research Service in Beltsville, Md. â&#x20AC;&#x153;The result of this symposium will be an assessment of new technologies for treating and preventing diseases of animals and Sandra Avant is a public affairs specialist with the USDA Agricultural Research Service in Beltsville, Md. This article is drawn from one that originally appeared in ARSâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Agricultural Research magazine.

recommendations that will advance strategies for growth promotion and health in livestock, poultry and aquaculture.â&#x20AC;? Through the years, ARS scientists have developed and patented new technologies that could aid in reducing antibiotic use. Some of those tools have been shown to be effective in treating mastitis in cattle, controlling foodborne enteric bacterial pathogens, creating antimicrobials that kill disease-causing bacteria and protecting poultry against parasites.

Poultry diseases Avian immunologist Hyun Lillehoj, at the ARS Henry A. Wallace Beltsville (Maryland) Agricultural Research Center (BARC), has devoted her career to developing alternative-to-antibiotics strategies to control infectious diseases in poultry. Through partnerships with industry, international scientists and colleagues in the BARC Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Lillehoj has demonstrated the effectiveness of using food supplements and probiotics, molecules produced by cells of the immune system and phytonutrients to fight poultry diseases like coccidiosis â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a parasitic disease that causes annual losses of more than $600 million in the U.S. and $3.2 billion worldwide. Lillehoj is now applying similar technology to develop alternatives to treat enteric (intestinal) bacterial infections caused by Clostridium, a pathogen associated with necrotic enteritis in poultry. â&#x20AC;&#x153;My work over the last 27 years at ARS has involved trying to figure out how to grow poultry without using drugs and enhance their innate immunity,â&#x20AC;? Lillehoj said. â&#x20AC;&#x153;One of those strategies is genetic improvement. Weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve been working to identify genetic markers associated with enhanced innate immunity to enteric pathogens.â&#x20AC;? Lillehoj and her colleagues have

USDA Agricultural Research Service

Fighting poultry diseases: USDA Agricultural Research Service avian immunologist Hyun Lillehoj, left, and visiting scientists Duk Kyung Kim and Hong Yeong Ho identify host defense genes of broiler chickens infected with protozoan parasites.

identified several chicken genetic markers that influence parasitic diseases, and she hopes to eventually identify genetic markers for use in selecting and breeding birds for enhanced disease resistance. The team is also studying innate immune molecules that have antimicrobial activity. During an infection, chickens respond to pathogens by producing immune molecules, some of which are antimicrobial peptides or proteins, Lillehoj explains. These tiny proteins can kill pathogens, improve host immune responses and promote growth of beneficial gut bacterial populations. If we can identify all the molecules that enhance immunity,

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POULTRY TIMES, November 19, 2012

•Strategies (Continued from page 17)

translate critical cross talks between these antimicrobial molecules and the host’s immune system, and most importantly, figure out how to activate them at the proper time when birds are immature, I think we’ll really have a way to use the bird’s own immune system to do the job.” Lillehoj and her colleagues have identified and applied for a patent for one of the immune molecules, called “NK lysin.” “NK lysin is produced by host lymphocytes that are activated by parasites during coccidiosis infection in the gut.” Lillehoj says. “We cloned the chicken NK lysin gene, made biologically active recombinant NK lysin protein and demonstrated for the first time that this chicken recombinant antimicrobial protein (host defense molecule) not only kills chicken coccidia, but also kills Neospora and Cryptosporidia, which infect large animals and humans, respectively.” A private company is investigating to see whether chicken NK lysin can be developed into a product that targets and kills chicken intestinal parasites, she says. Lillehoj also studies the effects of phytochemicals derived from plants such as safflower, plums, peppers, cinnamon and green tea in enhancing the chicken’s immune system. In addition, Lillehoj is partnering with commercial company leaders to examine the beneficial effects of

probiotics — live, nonpathogenic bacteria that promote health and balance of the intestinal tract.

Effective compounds In other research, compounds proven to be effective in killing foodborne bacteria may hold potential for treating piglets and calves. Microbiologist Robin Anderson and his colleagues at ARS’s Food and Feed Safety Research Unit in College Station, Texas, received a patent for their invention, which provides a method for controlling foodborne intestinal bacterial pathogens in animals. Chlorate and a certain class of chemicals called “nitro compounds” were shown to substantially reduce or eliminate the important foodborne pathogens salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Salmonella is estimated to cause more than 1.3 million cases of human foodborne disease each year, costing economic losses of $2.4 billion. Salmonella, as well as certain E. coli strains, can also cause substantial losses to the swine industry due to enteric or systemic diseases of pigs. In previous research, Anderson mixed a chlorate-based compound into water or feed and gave it to cattle two days before the animals were harvested. The compound, which has since been licensed by a private company, was highly effective in reducing E. coli. Bacterial levels fell from 100,000 E. coli cells per

gram of fecal material to 100 cells per gram. Scientists were equally successful in using chlorate to reduce salmonella in poultry. Turkeys and broiler chickens received the compound 48 hours before they were processed. In turkeys, the incidence of salmonella dropped from 35 percent to zero, and from 37 percent to 2 percent in broiler chickens. In a more recent study, Anderson and his team looked at using certain nitro compounds — organic compounds that contain one or more “nitro groups” — as a means of controlling foodborne bacteria. A nitro group consists of three atoms — one of nitrogen and two of oxygen — that act as one. The compound can be liquid or solid. “We collected fresh pig feces, which harbor a mixed population of gut bacteria, and used the bacteria as a gut-simulation model to find out how the nitro compounds would work,” Anderson said. Salmonella or E. coli were treated with or without chlorate and with or without an appropriate amount of nitro compound. At various intervals, data was collected on the number of bacteria to determine the treatment’s effect on pathogen survivability. “We found that chlorate by itself had significant bacteria-killing activity against E. coli and salmonella, and that activity was enhanced 10to 100-fold with addition of the nitro compound,” Anderson said. “We also found that the nitro compounds by themselves had significant bacte-

Antimicrobials Creating targeted antimicrobials is the focus of David Donovan, a molecular biologist in BARC’s Animal Biosciences and Biotechnology Laboratory. Research conducted by Donovan, in collaboration with university, industry and federal scientists, has demonstrated that phages — viruses that infect bacteria — produce enzymes that can be used to kill pathogens like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. “These enzymes — known as ‘endolysins’ — have molecular domains that can be isolated and will act independently of their protein surroundings,” Donovan says. “They can be shuffled like cars in a train, resulting in an antimicrobial that targets just the pathogens of

being cleaned, monthly inspect or annually maintain portable fire extinguishers and make exits in the de-boning room operable. Citations with $23,400 in penalties have been issued for four serious health violations, including an unsanitary restroom, exposing workers to noise levels that exceed OSHA standards and failing to provide hearing protection and annual

audiograms for workers exposed to excessive noise. A serious violation occurs when there is substantial probability that death or serious physical harm could result from a hazard about which the employer knew or should have known. Citations with no monetary penalties have been issued for three other-than-serious safety violations,

ria-killing activity, and that activity was more persistent than the chlorate activity by itself.” The nitro and chlorate compounds together were the best treatment. “The two compounds were synergistic,” Anderson said. “They worked well together by enhancing the efficacy of the other.” Scientists hypothesize that this method could have applications for young animals that have been recently weaned and are particularly susceptible to bacterial infections. “This could be used instead of certain antibiotics that are commonly used to treat diarrheal infections in young pigs and cattle,” Anderson said.

interest, significantly reducing the odds that nontargeted bacteria will develop resistance.” Endolysins destroy bacteria by breaking down their cell walls, he explains. Antimicrobials are created by joining key domains from multiple cell-wall-degrading endolysins. The novel enzymes have been successful in killing streptococci and S. aureus.

Animal health As the demand for animal food products increases to meet the nutritional needs of a growing world population, finding alternative strategies to prevent and control animal diseases has become a global issue and a critical component of efforts to alleviate poverty and world hunger, Gay said. This year’s symposium provided an opportunity for an international community of scientists, veterinarians and public policymakers to learn more about the pros and cons of using alternative biotherapeutics to reduce bacterial pathogens associated with food animals, he said. “The major issue addressed is novel biocontrol approaches for reducing bacterial pathogens in food animal production that employ strategies specifically geared to reduce or eliminate drug-resistance development,” Gay said. More information from the September symposium is available at www.alternativestoantibiotics.org.

OSHA cites Quail International for 23 violations GREENSBORO, Ga. — The U.S. Department of Labor’s Occupational Safety & Health Administration has recently cited Quail International Inc. with 23 safety and health violations at the company’s Greensboro plant following an inspection that was initiated based on a complaint. Proposed penalties total $92,115. Citations with $68,715 in penal-

ties have been issued for 16 serious safety violations, including exposing workers to “struck-by” and electrical hazards as well as failing to protect workers from hand injuries, determine whether personal protective equipment such as eye protection is needed in the de-boning room, create specific steps to ensure that processing equipment will not accidentally start up while

including using a flexible electrical cord as permanent wiring, stringing electrical wiring through holes in the ceiling and improperly splicing a flexible electrical cord with duct tape in the shipping department. An other-than-serious violation is one that has a direct relationship to job safety and health, but probably would not cause death or serious physical harm.


19

POULTRY TIMES, November 19, 2012

Study examines housing systems impact on laying hens BLOOMINGTON, Minn. — Interim findings presented from Flock One of the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) Laying Hen Housing Research illustrate the tradeoffs that exist between housing systems in impact to the environment, animal health and well-being and food affordability. The three-year, two-flock study, being conducted on a commercial farm with three housing types in the same location, is assessing five areas of sustainability: Animal Health and Well-Being, Environment, Food Affordability, Food Safety and Worker Health and Safety. A final analysis following Flock Two will review all data collected, exploring interactions and tradeoffs between each sustainability area across the three housing systems being studied: cage-free aviary, enriched cages and conventional cages. Preliminary findings from three of those areas, Environment, Animal Health and Well-Being and Food Affordability, were shared with CSES members at the organization’s annual meeting in Minneapolis. Researchers stressed that the information presented should be considered preliminary, as it has not been subject to peer review. CSES is committed to sharing results. Final research results will be submitted to peer-reviewed journals for appropriate validation. “The preliminary findings from Flock One have produced intriguing data. The findings have illumi-

nated opportunities to integrate data between the different areas of sustainability to better understand each housing system and its impact,” stated Dr. Janice Swanson, professor and director of Animal Welfare at Michigan State University and coscientific director for the project. Highlights of the preliminary findings from three research areas follow. First flock findings for Worker Safety and Health as well as Food Safety will be shared with CSES members at a later date.

Environment The Environment research is evaluating and comparing indoor air quality, emissions from the houses and from manure storage and production efficiency, including feed, water and energy use. “The conventional and enriched houses had very good indoor air quality, with ammonia and particulate matter (dust) levels being very low. The aviary ammonia levels tended to be 1.5 to 2 times as high, likely due to manure on the floor not being removed until the end of the flock,” reported Dr. Hongwei Xin, professor at Iowa State University and director of the Egg Industry Center. “This could be corrected with higher ventilation rates but that will use more energy, illustrating some of the tradeoffs between systems.” In addition to differences in manure handling, dust-bathing and for-

aging in the aviary system, where the hens scratch and flap their wings in bedding on the floor, generates additional dust, eight to 10 times more than in the enriched or conventional houses. Ongoing research will assess whether this impacts worker or hen health. Similarly, ammonia and particulate matter emissions from the houses were highest for the aviary house, followed by the conventional house and the enriched house. Methane emissions for all housing systems were similar and quite small. Electricity use was similar across all three systems. The aviary house also used a small amount of supplemental heat (from propane) (about 1,400 gallons for the year), although the winter during the monitoring period was milder than normal.

Health, well-Being The animal health and well-being research is looking at multiple factors in the three different housing systems: hen health and well-being using a standardized assessment, physiological stresses and use of resources and space. “As other studies have indicated, each system has its own advantages and shortcomings in providing appropriate health and well-being for the hens,” said Dr. Joy Mench, professor and director of the Center for Animal Welfare at University of California Davis and co-scientific director of the project.

Hens in the enriched system experienced more fractured wings and legs during placement into the house. Hen mortality over the life of the flock was much higher in the aviary system due to conditions associated with egg production and behavioral issues with hens either being excessively pecked, or picked out (vent). When compared to birds in the conventional system, those in aviary and enriched systems both had a higher incidence of keel (breast bone) deviations. The hens in conventional cages had the highest incidence of foot problems, mainly hyperkeratosis. When hens in the aviary had foot problems they were more severe than those in conventional or enriched cages. Conventional and enriched hens had cleaner feathers but worse feather cover than aviary hens. Hens with large areas of feather loss lost more body heat than better-feathered hens. Patterns of feather loss suggested that hens in conventional and enriched systems lost feathers due mainly to abrasion against the cage, while those in the aviary system lost feathers due to aggressive pecking from other birds.

Food affordability “One of the useful features about this research is that it is being done in commercial-size and commercially operated houses. Data from Europe are from smaller houses

and are not comparable to the U.S. situation. And we don’t ever have economic and affordability data on experimental flocks, so quite reasonably no one has done this type of economic analysis before,” said Dr. Daniel Sumner, University of California Davis agricultural economics professor and director of the University of California Agricultural Issues Center. Sumner is leading the economics and food affordability research component. “We’re not done slicing the data all the ways we will, but we are seeing real cost differences that are likely to be important if people implement these alternative housing systems.” On the basis of per dozen eggs, overall costs are highest for eggs produced in the aviary system, followed by those from enriched housing and then by conventional housing. Annual operating costs — feed, pullet and labor costs — were highest in the aviary system, while the other two houses were lower, and similar to each other. Feed comprises the largest share of operating costs. “While the price of corn and soybeans have been historically high, we are not likely to see those prices go back down to where they were before 2007, so feed cost differentials will remain particularly important,” Sumner said. Capital costs per dozen eggs were much higher for aviary and enriched systems than conventional due to the cost of the barns and equipment and the smaller scale of those houses.

FFA notes increases in its student memberships nationwide INDIANAPOLIS — From California to North Carolina and everywhere between, FFA is on the grow, the group notes. During the 2011-12 school year, 16,939 students joined FFA and raised the organization’s total membership to 557,318 students in grades seven through 12 in the U.S., Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. “Interest in agricultural education continues to grow due to the hard

work, dedication and commitment agriculture teachers and state FFA leaders have toward developing our members for the future,” said National FFA Organization CEO Dwight Armstrong. “Our members are developing skills through educational and real-world experiences that will ideally position them to pursue one of more than 300 careers in agriculture.” Demographically, Texas added

more members than any other state last year, growing to 86,482 students. Trailing Texas was Georgia, Colorado, Delaware and Arizona. Texas also leads the list of the top five largest FFA membership states, followed by California (70,683), Georgia (32,244), Missouri (25,748) and Oklahoma (24,364). Nine of the 10 largest FFA chapters are in California high schools in Fresno, Sacramento, Hanford, Woodland,

Atwater, Tulare, Madera, Romoland and Clovis. FFA chapters were in 18 of the 20 largest U.S. cities last year, including New York City, Chicago and Philadelphia. “Through my travels this year, I have been quite impressed by the passion that agriculture teachers exude toward their students,” said National FFA President Ryan Best. “They’re working hard every hour

in the classroom to fully develop FFA members’ potential for future personal and career success.” FFA operates on local, state and national levels. Student members belong to chapters organized at the local school level. There are 7,498 local FFA chapters throughout the U.S., Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. More information can be obtained at www.ffa.org.


20

POULTRY TIMES, November 19, 2012

Ark. farmers set records even in drought The Associated Press

LITTLE ROCK, Ark. â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Arkansas row crop farmers took advantage of early warm weather during spring to get their seed in the ground, allowing many to dodge the worst effects of the late-summer drought and go to market with some record yields. The University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture says growers of corn, rice and soybeans came away with record production but were out the costs of irrigating through the dry weather. The USDA estimates the Arkansas soybean yield will be 41 bushels per acre, breaking the 2004 record of 39 bushels. The number of acres planted in soybeans declined slightly from last year, from 3.3 mil-

lion acres to 3.2 million in 2012. â&#x20AC;&#x153;The main reason the soybean yields were exceptional for the 2012 season was early planting,â&#x20AC;? said Jeremy Ross, Extension soybean specialist for the division. â&#x20AC;&#x153;By the first of May, we had around 60 percent of the soybean crop planted. Typically by the first of May, we usually only have 25 percent planted.â&#x20AC;? â&#x20AC;&#x153;The second factor that helped to produce these great yields was irrigation,â&#x20AC;? Ross said. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Around 75 percent of the soybean crop was irrigated this past year. Without irrigation, Arkansas soybean producers would not be able to produce these yields.â&#x20AC;? Corn Belt states normally outproduce Arkansas growers on a per-acre basis. That remained true this year, but the drought narrowed the margin as growers further north

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21

POULTRY TIMES, November 19, 2012

Drought tracker: sees dryness worsen in Kan. and Okla. The Associated Press

ST. LOUIS — The worst U.S. drought in decades got worse in parts of the nation’s midsection, further frustrating ranchers and growers of winter wheat in Kansas and Oklahoma, a drought-tracking consortium’s update showed on Nov. 8. The U.S. Drought Monitor’s latest map showed that 60 percent of the land in the lower 48 states was experiencing some degree of drought as of Nov. 6, down less than a percentage point from the previous week. Nearly one-fifth of the contiguous U.S. remained in extreme or exceptional drought, the two worst classifications. But the stubbornly dry conditions intensified in Kansas, the top U.S. producer of winter wheat. The Nov. 8 update, put out by the National Drought Mitigation Center at the University of Nebraska in Lincoln, showed that the expanse of that state in extreme or exceptional drought climbed roughly 6 percentage points, to 83.8 percent. Three-quarters of hard-hit Oklahoma — another key winter wheat state — is mired in the two highest forms of drought, up 8 percentage points from the previous week. The

Oklahoma Mesonet, a statewide network of environmental monitoring stations, said that 18 of its stations recorded less than one-tenth of an inch of rainfall in October, while 66 measured less than an inch. “The combination of warm and dry weather was taking a toll on grasses and small grains” such as winter wheat, which as of Nov. 5 was running out moisture, David Miskus, a senior meteorologist with the Climate Prediction Center, wrote in authoring the Nov. 8 report. Thirty percent of Oklahoma’s fledgling winter wheat crop was found to be in poor to very poor shape, a decline of 18 percentage points from the previous week, as topsoil moisture in the state continues to grow increasingly parched. “With so much of Oklahoma already in (extreme or exceptional drought), it is getting difficult to degrade the state further,” Miskus wrote. Ninety-five percent of Nebraska and half of Iowa remained in the two worst drought categories, the update showed. Conditions continued improving some states, such as Arkansas, where the amount of land in extreme or exceptional drought fell nearly 6 percentage points to 29.8 percent.

With the nation’s harvest of corn and soybeans nearly completed, Midwest farmers have turned their attention to their winter wheat, with little cooperation from the weather as about two-thirds of those plantings have taken place in drought-affected areas. Some 92 percent of the nation’s winter wheat is now in the ground, on pace with the average planting speed over the previous five years, according to the USDA. Seventythree percent of the latest crop has emerged, consistent with the showing during the past half-decade. Thirty-five percent of the U.S. winter wheat plantings are considered good while 42 percent are deemed fair. Nineteen percent of the crop is classified as poor or very poor. Climate watchers haven’t anticipated meaningful precipitation that would appreciably relax the grip of drought that has put soil moisture and levels of rivers and reservoirs used for irrigation at such a deficit. Farmers embrace snowfall as a means of recharging soil moisture in time for each spring’s corn and soybean sowings, with about 20 inches of snow equating to just an inch of actual water.

Sandy’s fallout skips drought-plagued Midwest The Associated Press

ST. LOUIS — Drought-plagued Midwest farming states got little benefit from the massive storm Sandy that pounded the Eastern Seaboard recently, although the nation’s worst drought in decades appears to be easing in some areas.

The U.S. Drought Monitor’s weekly update posted on Nov. 1, showed that 60 percent of the land in the lower 48 states was experiencing some degree of drought as of Oct. 30. That’s down nearly 2 percentage points, taking into account much of Sandy’s fallout. Dry conditions continued easing

in Iowa, North Dakota and Illinois, although far too late to help the corn and soybean crops, which are nearly completely harvested. The federal government says 88 percent of this year’s winter wheat crop had been planted as of Oct. 29. That’s 3 percentage points ahead of the five-year average.

www.poultrytimes.net

Rivera to lead USPOULTRY food safety program TUCKER, Ga. — The U.S. Poultry and Egg Association has announced the appointment of Rafael Rivera as manager, Food Safety and Production Programs. He will guide USPOULTRY’s Food Safety and Production Program by developing on-going programs addressing major regulatory and technical challenges facing poultry operations. Rivera joins USPOULTRYfrom Perdue Farms. His experience includes serving as flock supervisor, HACCP (Hazard Analysis & Critical Control Point) coordinator and quality assurance supervisor. Rivera holds a bachelor of science in animal science degree from the University of Puerto Rico and a master of science in poultry science degree from North Carolina State University. “I am pleased to join the US-

POULTRY team. USPOULTRY is made up of professionals in their fields who are committed to supporting the poultry industry,” Rivera said. “We are excited to welcome Rafael to our organization. We are confident his strong food safety background Rivera will enhance U S P O U LTRY’s ability to serve the industry,” said John Starkey, USPOULTRY president. More information about the U.S. Poultry & Egg Association and its programs can be obtained at http://uspoultry.org/.

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22

POULTRY TIMES, November 19, 2012

Markets Compiled by David B. Strickland, Editor 770-718-3442 dstrickland@poultrytimes.net

Nat’l. Broiler Market:

ity prices were 4¢ higher in the East, higher in the Midwest, and unchanged in the West when compared to the previous week’s prices. Offerings were light overall for current trade needs. Retail and foodservice demand cover the full range,

(Nov. 13): Whole broiler/fryer prices were firm to higher in the East, fully steady to firm in the Midwest and steady in the West. Final major-

but is noted as mostly moderate to good as more seasonal items began to take center stage. Floor stocks were balanced to light. Market activity was moderate to active. In the parts structure, movement was light to moderate entering the week as most operations returned to normal following the recent inclement weather. Prices were trending steady to firm for breast cuts, steady to weak for wings and drums. The balance of parts were steady. Offerings were light to moderate for breast items, moderate to heavy for dark meat and generally sufficient for the balance of parts. Market activity was slow to moderate. In production areas, live supplies were moderate; weights were mixed at mostly desirable weights.

F owl: Nov. 9: Live spent heavy fowl

Final prices at Farm Buyer Loading (per pound): range 9½-21¢

P arts: Georgia:

The f.o.b. dock quoted prices on ice-pack parts based on truckload and pool truckload lots for the week of Nov. 13: line run tenders $1.82½; skinless/boneless breasts $1.58; whole breasts $1.00½; boneless/skinless thigh meat $1.32½; thighs 71½¢; drumsticks 65½¢; leg quarters 53½¢; wings $1.82.

N ational Slaughter: Broiler: Estimated slaughter for week ending Nov. 10 is

The following chart provides an annual high and a comparison of recent activity of major poultry company stocks.

USDA Shell Eggs AMS weekly combined region shell egg prices Average prices on sales to volume buyers, Grade A or better, White eggs in cartons, delivered warehouse, cents per dozen.

Annual High

Cal-Maine 47.00 Campbell Soup 36.28 ConAgra 28.80 Hormel 30.70 Pilgrim’s Pride 8.68 Sanderson Farms 55.87 Seaboard 2353.00 Tyson 21.06

Nov. 6

Estimates: The estimated number of broilerfryers available for the week ending Nov. 10 was 150.4 million head. For the week of Nov. 17, the estimated available is 150.4 million head, notes USDA.

Broiler/Fryer Markets

Industry Stock Report

Company

155,331,000. Actual slaughter for the week ending Nov. 3 was 150,676,000. Heavy-type hen: Estimated slaughter for the week ending Nov. 10 is 1,608,000. Actual slaughter for the week ending Nov. 3 was 1,658,000. Light-type hen: Estimated slaughter for the week ending Nov. 10 is 1,220,000. Actual slaughter for the week ending Nov. 3 was 919,000. Total: Week of Nov. 10: 158,159,000. Week of Nov. 3: 153,253,000.

Nov. 13

43.73 42.89 35.30 36.58 28.37 27.82 30.07 30.28 5.89 6.11 47.05 47.01 2353.00 2230.00 17.26 17.11

Nov. 9

Extra Large Regions: Northeast 122.50 Southeast 131.50 Midwest 122.50 South Central 132.50 Combined 127.48

Large

Medium

121.00 129.50 120.50 131.50 125.89

108.50 111.00 105.50 113.50 109.80

Computed from simple weekly averages weighted by regional area populations

USDA Composite Weighted Average For week of: Nov. 12 91.60¢ For week of: Nov. 5 88.99¢ Chi.-Del.-Ga.-L.A.-Miss.-N.Y.--S.F.-South. States Oct. 29 Nov. 12 For delivery week of: Chicago majority 81--87¢ 85--90¢ Mississippi majority 82--86¢ 84--87¢ New York majority 84--87¢ 88--91¢ For delivery week of: Oct. 30 Nov. 13 Delmarva weighted average TFTR 69¢--$1.09 Georgia f.o.b. dock offering 96¢ 96¼¢ Los Angeles majority price $1.05 $1.05 San Francisco majority price $1.05½ $1.05½ Southern States f.o.b. average 64.93¢ 64.63¢

Grain Prices

Turkey Markets

OHIO COUNTRY ELEV. Oct. 30 Nov. 6 Nov. 13 No. 2 Yellow Corn/bu. $7.50 $7.51 $7.33 Soybeans/bu. $14.94 $14.68 $13.70 (Courtesy: Prospect Farmers Exchange, Prospect, Ohio)

(Courtesy: A.G. Edwards & Sons Inc.)

Weighted avg. prices for frozen whole young turkeys Weighted average (cents/lb.) F.O.B. shipper dock

Broiler Eggs Set/Chicks Placed in 19 States Ala Ark

Ca,Tn,Wv

Del Fla Ga Ky La Md Miss Mo. N.C. Okla Pa S.C. Tex Va

19 States Total Prev. year % Prev. yr.

EGGS SET (Thousands)

CHICKS PLACED (Thousands)

Oct. 13

Oct. 20

Oct. 27

Nov. 3

Oct. 13

Oct. 20

Oct. 27

Nov. 3

26,053 17,697 9,550 3,158 1,353 30,865 7.014 3,304 7,471 16,543 7,606 17,382 6,287 3,647 4,924 13,014 6,019

25,458 18,329 8,428 3,162 1,088 28,132 6,956 3,298 7,071 16,364 7,210 18,305 6,416 3,377 5,654 12,603 5,543

25,755 20,061 10,573 3,240 1,353 30,168 7,319 3,183 6,769 16,365 7,867 19,331 6,622 3,209 5,122 13,200 6,195

24,787 20,132 10,271 3,284 1,351 29,852 7,330 2,956 6,804 15,168 6,859 19,266 6,662 3,193 5,156 12,989 4,780

19,778 18,906 9,027 3,509 935 27,814 6,718 2,845 6,386 13,545 5,327 14,407 4,782 2,675 3,704 10,735 4,877

18,660 18,637 9,804 3,720 1,023 25,953 5,762 2,700 6,331 13,616 4,770 15,158 4,854 2,980 4,127 11,668 4,495

19,380 19,282 10,673 4,280 1,291 26,577 5,910 2,703 5,239 14,142 5,543 14,988 4,356 2,957 3,818 11,132 4,494

18,778 17,289 9,875 4,046 1,015 25,812 5,544 2,949 5,808 13,994 4,996 14,505 3,706 3,044 4,161 11,011 4,526

181,887 181,852

177,394 183,537

186,332 185,172

180,840 186,594

155,970 155,108

154,258 151,134

156,765 153,311

151,059 149,126

100

97

101

97

101

102

102

101

1/Current week as percent of same week last year.

National Week ending Nov. 9 Hens (8-16 lbs.) 110.04 Toms (16-24 lbs.) 111.37

Last year 114.43 114.20

Week ending Nov. 2 Hens (8-16 lbs.) Toms (16-24 lbs.)

Oct. avg. 110.27 112.18

109.58 112.17

Egg Markets USDA quotations New York cartoned del. store-door: Nov. 6 Nov. 13 Extra large, up 4¢ $1.30--$1.34 $1.34--$1.38 Large, up 4¢ $1.28--$1.32 $1.32--$1.36 Medium, no change $1.13--$1.12 $1.13--$1.17 Southeast Regional del. warehouse: Nov. 6 Nov. 13 Extra large, up 4½¢ $1.25½--$1.38 $1.30--$1.45 Large, up 7¢ $1.21½--$1.38 $1.28½--$1.45 Medium, down ½¢ $1.07--$1.23 $1.06½--$1.14


23

POULTRY TIMES, November 19, 2012

AMERICAN EGG BOARD HOTLINE AEB Hotline appears regularly in Poultry Times and provides an update on programs and services provided for egg producers by the American Egg Board. Details on any item mentioned may be obtained by contacting AEB at 1460 Renaissance Dr., Park Ridge, Ill. 60068. Phone: 847296-7043.  New improved features on the refreshed EggNutritionCenter.org include the Nutrition News and Hot Topics areas located on the homepage. These areas will be updated regularly with new research studies and nutrition items of interest. You can now easily navigate the site and find your favorite items such as egg facts, nutrition and research, Continuing Professional Education (CPE) opportunities, patient/client materials, recipes and more. Researchers can check out the ENC Grant Program page for relevant information. Bookmark and visit EggNutritionCenter.org for great nutrition updates.  After reviewing the first part of the 2012 print plan, AEB is far exceeding its competitors, especially looking at Actions Taken by readers who saw AEB’s ads. The Actions Taken measurement is a compilation of various individual actions including: — More Favorable Opinion — Visited Website — Looked for More Information — Recommended the Product — Consider Purchasing the

Product — Purchased the Product — Saved the Ad. AEB’s success in Actions Taken is partially a result of the relevant ad positioning secured within each publication. AEB consistently ran its ads alongside relevant content such as healthy egg recipes as well as breakfast and healthy lifestyle content. This 2012 print plan also outperformed the rest of its category (Dairy, Produce, Meat and Baked Goods) by 3 percent.  For the rest of 2012, AEB secured four tablet enhancement opportunities with Food Network, Prevention and Everyday with Rachael Ray to align with the back-to-school time period. These ads were focused toward tablet users and helped influence consumer engagement. The Food Network execution ran during the September issue and utilized a slideshow that allowed users to scroll through different facts about eggs. AEB ran two enhanced ads with Prevention; one in August and October issues. The August execution utilized five hot spots as tappable content which allowed users to access these same facts about eggs by clicking on various parts of the ad. The October execution utilized a slideshow similar to the enhanced ad that ran in Food Network. The Rachael Ray tablet takeover was executed with the September issue, and gave AEB a 100-percent share of voice on the application. Throughout the application, users were given six different AEB ads.

EPA approves temporary fuel waivers to aid states impacted by hurricane WASHINGTON — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has exercised its authority under the Clean Air Act to temporarily waive certain federal clean gasoline requirements for gasoline sold and distributed in Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Mississippi, Georgia, Alabama, District of Columbia, New York, Maryland, Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island.

The waiver was granted by EPA in coordination with the Department of Energy (DOE). EPA Administrator Lisa P. Jackson determined that, as a result of effects of Hurricane Sandy, extreme and unusual supply circumstances exist, which may result in a temporary shortage of gasoline compliant with federal regulations. The federal waiver will help ensure an adequate supply of fuels in

the impacted states. The waiver allows the sale and distribution of conventional gasoline in a number of Eastern states that are required to use reformulated gasoline, and allows a number of additional states to mix reformulated gasoline and conventional gasoline to remove potential barriers to the supply of gasoline to the region. More information is available at http://epa.gov/enforcement/air/ fuel-waivers.html.

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24

POULTRY TIMES, November 19, 2012

Study finds essential oil blend reduces salmonella contamination By Sharon Dowdy

Special to Poultry Times

ATHENS, Ga. — Oil and water may not mix, but a University of Georgia study has found feeding chickens a blend of plant-based oils in their drinking water can help prevent salmonella contamination before the meat reaches the dinner table, or even the grocery store. Salmonella is a bacterium that causes an estimated 1 million cases of foodborne illness in the United States each year, said Walid Alali, a food safety scientist with the UGA Center for Food Safety in Griffin, Ga. “Each year some 20,000 people will go to the hospital and close to 400 will die due to salmonellosis,” Alali said.

Links Usually, symptoms last four to seven days and most people get better without treatment. But salmonella can cause more serious illness to older adults, infants and those with chronic diseases. Poultry is a common source of salmonellosis, as are eggs, raw sprouts and unpasteurized juices, but proper cooking and pasteurization kill salmonella. A major outbreak in 2011 was linked to ground turkey that infected close to 136 people in 34 states. In 2009 almost 400 people in 42 states were sickened after eating contaminated peanut butter. Alali’s work focuses on controlling harmful bacteria in an effort to reduce human illness. In this study, published in the October issue of Food Control, he tested the effectiveness of adding a blend of oils to the poultry’s water source. The product, Mix-Oil, is a highly concentrated blend of essential oils

from thyme, eucalyptol and oregano developed by the Italian company Animal Wellness Products. Mix-Oil has been on the market since 2004 and is used for all animal species, including commercially raised fish.

Better meat/profit “Our field results show that MixOil helps get better performance and better meat quality and always gives profitability,” said AWP President Paolo Cristofori. On a farm in Athens, Ga., Alali compared Mix-Oil to two organic acids traditionally used in the poultry industry to reduce the amount of salmonella the chickens carry. Currently farmers control salmonella in their flocks by administering vaccinations, “probiotics — a cocktail of good bacteria that compete with bad bacteria — and by adding acids to their drinking water,” Alali said. John Amis/UGA

The right combination “These extracts come from plant material, and they have antibacterial qualities. They have the ability to kill pathogens — we just have to come up with the right blend,” Cristofori said. The UGA study found the chickens that were fed Mix-Oil in their water had higher weight gains, a lower feed conversion rate and lower mortality rate. They also drank as much water as they did before the Mix-Oil regimen and more water than chickens that were given lactic acid to prevent salmonella. “Chickens consume less water when one of the organic acids, lactic acid, is used because they don’t like the taste of it,” Alali said. “It can also inflame the chicken’s intestines and, over time, it can damage the farm’s water pipes.” Mix-oil reduced salmonella con-

Reducing salmonella: Roosters in a laboratory on the University of Georgia campus in Athens, Ga. UGA researchers are studying the role of essential oils in reducing salmonella in chickens.

tamination in the chickens just “as well as lactic acid, and it improved the performance of the chickens,” he said. Salmonella typically collects in two chicken organs; the crop and the ceca. The crop is located at the base of the esophagus and the ceca is part of the large intestine. The UGA study also looked at the salmonella frequency in these organs. There was less salmonella in the crop of the chicken flock that consumed Mix-Oil, but the levels remained unchanged in the ceca.

From farm to fork In a second study, Alali searched for the best concentration level of Mix-Oil. “The concentration means money, and how much you add results in a cost to the farmer,” he

said. “Poultry producers are always concerned over how a treatment is going to affect their birds and how much it’s going to cost them.” The UGA research project shows Mix-Oil costs around $500 per 20,000-bird chicken flock to control salmonella in chickens and improve performance. Next the researchers will test MixOil on a commercial poultry farm. “We have proven the concept, now we have to take this to the commercial level and see how it

performs on an actual farm,” Alali said. “We are trying to control salmonella in the poultry industry both at the preharvest level, on the farm and at the processing plants. This is what we call farm to fork control. The industry does its job and grocers and consumers control what happens after that. Sharon Dowdy is a news editor with the University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences.

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Poultry Times November 19 Edition