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Since 1954, the nation’s only poultry industry newspaper

April 8, 2013

Poultry Times

April 8, 2013 Volume 60, Number 8

Alternatives to antibiotics and future of antibiotic usage ATLANTA — More restrictions on antibiotic use in food animals are inevitable, and the search for alternatives has to take into account the integrity of both the upper and lower intestinal tracts. A shift in the understanding of where in the intestinal tract nutrients become available to the bird is important in devising an effective new antimicrobial strategy, said Dr. Stephen R. Collett of the Poultry Diagnostic and Research Center at the University of Georgia, as part of his presentation on organic acids during the “Antibiotic Conference — Current Issues for the Poultry & Egg Industry” at the 2013 International Production & Processing Expo. The composition of the microbiota in the lower intestine determines the bird’s long-term performance,

and an unfavorable environment in the lower gut will influence the upper gut, which has more effect on short-term performance, he noted. Management options include accelerating the evolution of the intestinal microbiota, rehabilitating it after a disturbance using the “seed, feed, and weed” process, and immune modulation. Competitive exclusion (CE) has been used in the poultry industry for several decades to control pathogens but is not an alternative to antibiotics, according to Dr. Dik Mevius of the University of Utrecht, the Netherlands. However, CE may support gut health in the absence of antibiotics. It appears to support the

See Antibiotics, Page 12

Dennis Hughes named Ga. Egg Commission chairman SUWANEE, Ga. — Dennis Hughes of Blackshear, Ga., has been elected to serve as chairman of the Georgia Egg Commission’s board of directors for the 2013 calendar year. Jerry Straughan, the outgoing chairman, was named to fill the position of vice chairman. Hughes is general manager of United Egg Marketers in Blackshear, and has served on the commission’s board since 2009. Straughan is director of public relations for the southern division of Cal-Maine Foods. He has been a member of the Georgia Egg Commission’s board since 1997 and had served as chairman since 2005. Both men also serve on the board of the Georgia Egg Association, the state’s egg industry trade organization. Straughan was president in 1999-2001. Hughes currently

serves as second vice president. Other egg producer board members are: Larry Thomason, Thomason’s Fresh Eggs, Calhoun; Gijs Schimmel, Centurion Poultry, Lexington; and KY Hendrix, Rose Acre Farms, Madison. Georgia Commissioner of Agriculture Gary Black and Georgia Farm Bureau president Zippy Duvall are ex-officio members. Advisors from the University of Georgia’s Poultry Science Department are Dr. Mike Lacy and Dr. Bruce Webster. With offices in Suwanee, the Georgia Egg Commission represents all Georgia egg producers with a program of promotion, education and research. For industry information and free recipes write the commission at P.O Box 2929, Suwanee, Ga. 30024.


Antibiotic conference: Speakers at the “Antibiotic Conference — Current Issues for the Poultry & Egg Industry,” held during the 2013 International Production & Processing Expo, included, left to right, Dr. Steve Collett of the Poultry Diagnostic and Research Center at the University of Georgia; Dr. Marc DeBeer, regional head of animal health and nutrition for DSM Nutritional Products America; Dr. Dik Mevius of the University of Utrecht; and Dr. Greg Mathis, president of Southern Poultry Research.

China reports rare bird flu cases, new steps taken The Associated Press

BEIJING — China has reported that 14 people have been seriously sickened by an avian infuenza virus new to humans, as cities along the eastern seaboard stepped up public health measures to guard against the disease, which has already caused five deaths (as of April 4). The health bureau of eastern Jiangsu province said three women and a retired man from different cities in the province were all critically ill with the H7N9 virus, a diagnosis confirmed by the provincial disease prevention center. These cases are the second batch to be confirmed after three in Anhui province and nearby Shanghai on March 31. The H7N9 bird flu virus has previously not been a problem in humans. That compares to the more

virulent H5N1 strain, which began ravaging poultry across Asia in 2003 and has since killed 360 people worldwide, mostly after close contact with infected birds. The reports of the new cases suggest that authorities are taking a closer look at severe flu cases after identifying the first known infections on March 31. ‘‘When you don’t look, you don’t find them, but when you look, you’ll find,’’ said Dr. Ray Yip, a public health expert who heads the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in China. ‘‘A lot of people get severe respiratory conditions, pneumonias, so you usually don’t test them. Now all of a sudden you get this new reported strain of flu and so people are going to submit more samples to test, (so) you’re more likely to see more cases,’’ Yip said.

All of the new patients have been sick since about March 19, when they had fevers, coughs and other flu-like symptoms, the Jiangsu health bureau said in a statement. Their conditions worsened over periods of time ranging from a week to 11 days and they were transferred to intensive care units in the provincial capital, Nanjing. Based on the statement, only one of the patients appeared to have had daily contact with birds — a 45-year-old woman who was described as a poultry butcher. The four cases did not appear to be connected, and other people who have had close contact with the patients have not reported having fevers or respiratory problems, it said. The provincial health bureau said it was strengthening measures to

See Flu, Page 9


POULTRY TIMES, April 8, 2013

What causes footpad dermatitis in poultry? MISSISSIPPI STATE, Miss. — Good litter management and proper ventilation are critical to preventing footpad dermatitis (FPD) and maintaining health in poultry flocks. Footpad dermatitis first became an issue for the poultry industry in the 1980s, but it surely existed long before that time. The condition is known by a variety of names, including pododermatitis and contact dermatitis. It is characterized by inflammation and ulcers on the footpad and toes. The sores can be shallow or deep. Deep ulcers may lead to abscesses This article is drawn from one published by the Mississippi State University Extension Service in Mississippi State, Miss.

of the underlying tissue and structures (Greene et al., 1985). For many years, the feet (or “paws”) of broiler chickens received little attention, but that all changed during the 1980s. Until then, chicken paws were not a saleable product and were rendered along with blood, feathers and other unmarketable parts of the chicken. However, in the mid-1980s, an overseas market for broiler paws began to develop, and paw quality became more important. A chicken “paw” is actually the portion of the leg below the spur; a chicken foot includes the foot as well as the portion of the leg below the feather line. The continuing demand for paws in the overseas market has turned the feet into the third most valuable part of the chicken, behind the breast

and wings. Because of this, lesions caused by FPD are a major concern to the poultry industry. Lesions can harm animal welfare, product quality and food safety (Shepherd and Fairchild, 2010). Under the right conditions, FPD lesions can develop in less than a week. The first signs are discoloration of the skin that may develop into ulcers. The ulcers can cause swelling, redness and heat under the skin and cause the surface area to thicken (Meluzzi et al., 2008). Often, a scab or crust will cover the lesion. If severe ulcers develop, they may cause pain, decrease growth rate, interfere with walking and provide an entry for bacteria. The National Chicken Council uses footpad lesions and paw scores when they assess the welfare of poultry flocks in the U.S. (NCC, 2010).

Major factors Several major factors are associated with the occurrence of FPD. These include drinker design and management; diet composition; house temperature and humidity levels; litter type, quality and quantity; and gut health. Of these, litter may be the most

important because footpads are in constant contact with the material on the floor. In the absence of wet litter, FPD may not develop even though other factors may be present. However, it has been reported that wet litter (i.e., litter that is more than 30 percent moisture) is associated with increased incidence and severity of FPD in broiler and turkey housing systems (Martland, 1984; 1985).

Drinker system The design of your drinker system and how you manage it will play a major role in the moisture content of the litter and the level of FPD your flock may experience. Waterline height and water pressure must be managed correctly to prevent wet floors and maintain performance. Line height that is too low or pressure set too high will lead to wet floors. Line height that is too high or pressure set too low will restrict water intake and thus feed intake and growth rate. Water quality is also important because water that contains lots of particles or has a film will cause nipples to leak, resulting in wetter floors. Most integrators have a water

Georgia sets egg referendum SUWANEE, Ga. — Table egg producers throughout Georgia will be voting in a referendum April 1-30, 2013, on the future of the Georgia Egg Commission. Based on a Marketing Order of 1961, the Georgia Egg Commission and all other state agricultural commodity commissions must be reaffirmed every three years by producers of that commodity. In order for the referendum to pass, 66 2/3 percent of those egg producers voting must be in favor of continuing the 52-year-old endeavor for another three years. Funding is through a mandatory assessment of 4.5 cents per 30-dozen case of eggs, which generates some $350,000 in annual revenue. With these funds, the commission administers a program of promotion, education and research. The assessment level is not at question in this vote. The commission staff also manages the industry’s trade group — the Georgia Egg Association — and coordinates its annual meeting. The Georgia Department of Agriculture will mail a ballot to each egg producer who owns birds and is currently paying into the program. Anyone not receiving a ballot should contact the department at 800-282-5852 or the Georgia Egg Commission at 770-932-4622.

sanitation program in place that their growers follow. Depending on the quality of your water, this program alone may or may not be adequate for your particular operation.

Diet and Nutrition Along with wet litter, nutrition and diet composition are considered major factors in the onset of FPD. Jensen et al. (1970) reported the incidence of dermatitis was high in young turkeys that ate high levels of soybean meal. Soybean meal has been investigated as a possible cause of FPD because indigestible carbohydrates (non-starch polysaccharides, or NSP) in soybeans and other plants may be sticky and caustic (Hess et al., 2004). As NSP in the diet increase, gut viscosity increases, resulting in manure that sticks to the footpads of the birds (Shepherd and Fairchild, 2010). This sticky manure causes litter to cling to the foot, so corrosive substances in the litter stay on the foot longer. Commercially available enzymes can be used to help address diets higher in NSP. Other feed ingredients can also

See Dermatitis, Page 10

INDEX AEB Hotline..........................23 Business.............................6--7 Calendar.................................8 Classified..............................20 Nuggets..................................9 Viewpoint................................4 A directory of Poultry Times advertisers appears on Page 23

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POULTRY TIMES, April 8, 2013

U.S. poultry and egg exports break records in 2012 STONE MOUNTAIN, Ga. — Thanks in large part to the industry’s ability to adapt to changing global marketplace dynamics, 2012 was a record-setting year for exports of U.S. poultry meat and eggs. Combined export value of U.S. poultry meat and eggs reached $5.722 billion in 2012, 12 percent ahead of 2011, the previous record year, according to year-end trade data released recently by the USDA’s Foreign Agricultural Service. “The global landscape is in a constant state of transition,” said Jim Sumner, president of the USA Poultry & Egg Export Council (USAPEEC). “While our traditional markets of Mexico and Russia remained at the top of the broiler markets, there were numerous changes, such as Angola and Taiwan moving into the top 10 broiler markets and Mexico growth as a market for eggs. The greatest benefit for our industry is a much greater balance than we’ve ever before realized.” Sumner said the U.S. industry, which for years depended on a few behemoths such as Russia and China for a majority of its export sales, is now much less dependent on singular markets as new markets

have opened and sales expand to the “ROW” (the rest of the world.) “The only constant in the export marketplace is change,” he said. “And fortunately, our industry is very good at adapting to these changes. In 2008, for example, we exported products to 109 countries. In 2012, we shipped to 121 countries.” For 2012, for example, doubledigit declines in shipments of U.S. chicken meat to several markets, including Korea and Vietnam, were more than offset by increased sales to markets such as Mexico, Russia, Angola, Congo, Kazakhstan and Ghana. The top six markets for U.S. broiler meat exports for 2012 were Mexico, 560,544 tons valued at $641.2 million, up 23 and 42 percent, respectively; Hong Kong, 296,085 tons valued at $396.2 million, down 46 and 47 percent; Russia, 266,995 tons valued at $301.7 million, up 25 and 23 percent; China, 239,897 tons valued at $283 million, up 149 and 137 percent; Angola, 182,027 tons valued at $214.4 million, up 11 and 18 percent; and Canada, 173,037

See Exports, Page 24

Source: USDA/FAS GATS database

Broilers: U.S. broiler (including paws) exports since 1990.

USDA preserves $4 billion in agricultural exports in 2012 Knocking down barriers to trade WASHINGTON — U.S. Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack recently highlighted how the USDA resolved dozens of export issues in 2012, freeing up an estimated $4 billion in U.S. agricultural and forestry exports and protecting roughly 30,000 American jobs in the process. The work is highlighted on www., a resource for demonstrating how the Obama administration is improving performance and accountability for the American people and businesses,

the department noted. “As consumers around the world demand high-quality, Americangrown products, USDA staff are monitoring more than 160 markets to ensure an open system of trade, free from unwarranted and unjustified barriers,” Vilsack said. “Since 2009, USDA has acted to remove hundreds of unfair barriers to trade for American companies and is providing businesses with the resources they need to reach new markets. These efforts have resulted in the most successful period in the history for American agriculture and a boon for America’s rural economies and agriculture-related businesses.”

During the past year, USDA has aggressively worked to eliminate barriers, open new markets, secure the release of U.S. shipments detained at foreign ports, and ensure the safe movement of agricultural products in a manner consistent with science and international standards, the department noted. Overall, a highly-dedicated group of USDA Foreign Service officers, animal and plant health experts, and analysts monitor 162 markets around the world, ensuring a level playing field for U.S. businesses and products. USDA works in partnership with the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative (USTR) and

other federal offices and agencies, USDA added. Currently, the American brand of agriculture is surging in popularity worldwide, while U.S. agricultural exports support more than 1 million jobs in communities across the country, the department said. Fiscal years 2009 through 2012 generated more than $478 billion in agricultural exports, and 2013 agricultural exports remain on track to set new records. As American businesses look to reach the 95 percent of consumers outside of U.S. borders, USDA is providing support and service. For example, in 2012, USDA was able

to help conduct more than 110 trade shows around the world to help more than 1,000 U.S. companies make more than $500 million in on-site sales. The majority of these were small and medium-sized businesses. While strong exports benefit farms and rural communities, agricultural trade is also a building block for a strong national economy, USDA noted. Along with its federal partners, USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) works to protect the health and value of American agriculture and natural

See Trade, Page 14


POULTRY TIMES, April 8, 2013

Viewpoint Compiled by Barbara Olejnik, Associate Editor 770-718-3440

NPIP celebrates 77 years of improving poultry health By Dr. Denise L. Brinson Special to Poultry Times

CONYERS, Ga. — One of the Animal & Plant Health Inspection Service’s high priority programs is the National Poultry Improvement Plan (NPIP), a 77 year-old federal, state and industry program. The NPIP is unique among government programs; its longevity clearly shows the success of this organization, which is due to its collaborative nature. Brinson The National Poultry Improvement Plan is a voluntary disease control program for the poultry industry in the United States. The objective of the NPIP is to provide a cooperative industry-state-federal program through which new diagnostic technology can be effectively applied to the improvement of poultry and poultry products throughout the country. In the early days of the organized poultry industry, a disease known as Bacilllary White Diarrhea was a severe limiting factor to the growth of the industry. This disease, caused by Salmonella pullorum and known Dr. Denise L. Brinson, MAM, DACPV, is acting director of the National Poultry Improvement Plan (USDA, APHIS, Veterinary Services, NPIP) with offices in Conyers, Ga.

as pullorum disease, was rampant in poultry and could cause upwards of 80 percent mortality in baby poultry. The development of the NPIP was initiated to eliminate Pullorum Disease and subsequently fowl typhoid caused by Salmonella gallinarum. On July 1, 1935, the National Poultry Improvement Plan became operational and was subsequently adopted by 49 states. The National Turkey Improvement Plan was activated on Sept. 25, 1943. On Dec. 3, 1971, the two plans were combined under one title “The NPIP” with separate provisions applicable to the different types of poultry. The implementation of the NPIP marked the beginning of the Pullorum-Typhoid eradication program. Since then, S. pullorum and S. gallinarum have been virtually eliminated from the U.S. commercial poultry industry. The 49 member states became responsible for various disease control programs of more than 3 billion breeding chickens and 250 million breeding turkeys during the 77 years since the founding of the NPIP. The NPIP continued to improve poultry health later in the history of the poultry industry during the development of the modern broiler industry. Condemnations at the processing plant due to airsacculitis became extreme. The losses were due in part to Chronic Respiratory Disease (CRD) in chickens and plueropneumonialike organism (PPLO) in turkeys. Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) was determined to be the causative organism in both of these conditions. MG was found

to be egg-transmitted like pullorum disease and was added to the NPIP as a plan disease for turkeys in 1965 and for chickens in 1966. Since Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), which can cause Infectious Synovitis in turkeys and chickens, was found to be egg-transmitted, it was added to the NPIP as a Plan disease in 1974. In 1983, Mycoplasma meleagridis (MM) was added to the NPIP as a plan disease for turkey breeding flocks. Salmonella enteritidis (SE) surfaced as a human health problem particularly in the northeastern quadrant of the United States in the 1980’s. Research indicated that this serotype of salmonella was eggtransmitted like pullorum disease. It too was a natural for the NPIP and thus the establishment in 1989 of the current SE programs for eggand meat-type breeding chickens in the NPIP. The establishment of the Avian Influenza programs for breeding chickens and breeding turkeys were added to the NPIP in the 1990’s. Prior to this time, only vertically transmitted disease were included in the NPIP. However, when the poultry industry began to export large quantities of poultry genetic stock and poultry meat; the major trading partners wanted assurances that the poultry and poultry products originated from breeding flocks free of avian influenza. H5/H7 avian influenza monitoring programs for the commercial table-egg layers, broilers and meat turkeys were included as a new part of the NPIP in 2006. Today, there are active control programs in 49 states for Salmonella pullorum, Salmonella gallinarum, Salmonella enteriditis, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma meleagridis in addition to Avian Influenza programs for both breeders and commercial poultry. The NPIP is the largest and most successful disease control cooperative program ever put in place in agriculture. In order to keep all segments of the commercial poultry industry abreast of the latest poultry health science information, work-

‘The NPIP is the largest and most successful disease control cooperative program ever put in place in agriculture.’ Dr. Denise L. Brinson NPIP Acting Director

shops, poultry health science meeting and seminars, videos, brochures and posters are arranged and produced by the NPIP office. Through these and many other efforts, the NPIP and its programs continue to safeguard poultry health and promote the trade of poultry, poultry genetics and poultry products, keep-

ing our poultry industry healthy and competitive. With our ever narrowing global concept of poultry diseases and new and emerging infectious agents of public health concern, it is great to know that the NPIP will be here to assist the U.S. poultry industry for many years to come.

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Poultry Times  (USPS 217-480) ISSN 0885-3371 is published every other Monday, 345 Green Street, N.W., Gainesville, Georgia 30501. Telephone 770-536-2476; Fax 770-532-4894. Postage paid at Gainesville, Georgia 30501. Poultry Times assumes responsibliity for error in first run of an in-house designed ad only. Advertisers have ten (10) days from publication date to dispute such an advertisement. After ten (10) days, ad will be deemed correct and advertiser will be charged accordingly. Proofs approved by advertiser will always be regarded as correct. Subscriptions: Surface mail in U.S., $18.00 for one year, $29 for two years and $40 for three years. Business or occupation information must accompany each subscription order. Change of Address: Postmaster, report change of address to Poultry Times, P.O. Box 1338, Gainesville, GA 30503. Companion Poultry Publications: A Guide to Poultry Associations; Poultry Resource Guide; Georgia Ag News. The opinions expressed in this publication by authors other than Poultry Times staff are those of the respective author and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of Poultry Times. Advertisement content is the sole responsibility of the advertiser. Poultry Times assumes no liability for any statements, claims or assertions appearing in any advertisement.


POULTRY TIMES, April 8, 2013

UC Davis vet school opens $58.5 million ‘hub’ building McClatchy Newspapers

SACRAMENTO, Calif. — Officially, the ceremony at the University of California-Davis on March 15 was about a building. A fourstory structure with a sandstone and gray-colored exterior — with waterchilled beams for energy conservation and recycled construction materials for forest sustainability. But to Michael Lairmore, dean of the UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, the opening of a $58.5 million building — dubbed “Research Facility 3B” — was “a celebration of discovery.” His effusiveness was due to the fact the new 76,000-square-foot facility will serve as the hub for one of America’s top veterinary schools. UC Davis’ $60 million in annual veterinary research ranges from studies on weight management for the family cat to the ecological

health of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta to the 100,000 infectious microorganisms that can speed diagnosis of foodborne illnesses. “What this does is to put people together in a modern, open laboratory structure,” Lairmore said of the center, the cornerstone of a $203 million construction program for the veterinary school. “And basically what that allows is to have teams of scientists working to solve complex problems.” Besides a veterinary hospital that treats 40,000 animals a year, from domestic pets to mountain lions, the veterinary school once had as many as 20 distantly scattered buildings for teaching and research. Now it will have eight — with the new building as its core research location. UC Davis Chancellor Linda Katehi said the new building brings together diverse research and clini-

cal studies “that make a difference for the lives of people, for the lives of pets, for health and for treating disease in animals and humans.” So on the new facility’s second floor, Dr. Andrea Fascetti and Dr. Jennifer Larsen, specialists in animal nutrition, offered tips on preventing feline and canine obesity with nurturing and healthy pet treats. Nearby, postdoctoral researcher Shawn Acuna, a specialist in anatomy, physiology and cell biology, led demonstrations on nurturing the health of tiny river smelt — “the baseline fish” for “the health of the Delta.” One floor above, Rob Atwill, a doctor of veterinary medicine and director of the Western Institute for Food Safety and Security, which will use the new building, explained his detective work ensuring the healthiness of agricultural products.

“We’re the group called in to track down the water for E. coli (contamination), to trap the feral pigs, to test the lettuce — the whole food safety CSI type of work.” The UC Davis veterinary medicine program also conducts research on the health and welfare of herds in California’s $2.8 billion annual beef industry and $2.5 billion poultry industry while undertaking training programs for U.S. Food & Drug Administration inspectors. Darren Minier, project coordinator for the school’s International Institute for Human-Animal Networks, located in the facility, touted disease transmission studies by UC Davis graduate students tracking interaction between cattle and giraffes, gazelles and zebras in Africa. “We just got back from India, looking at human-monkey conflict,” he said of another endeavor.

“In some parts of northern India, there are just as many monkeys as people — moving from building to building, crop to crop, temple to temple.” The new building is also home to UC Davis’ “100,000 Pathogen Genome Project” — which is compiling a database of infectious microorganisms in food- or water-borne viruses. It also includes the One Health Center of Expertise, an institute melding environmental, social science, agricultural and engineering research for a stated mission of responding “to global health problems arising at the human-water-animal food interface.” In opening ceremonies, Katehi said the new multidisciplinary research center “allows us to be creative and forward-thinking in ways that have not happened before.”


POULTRY TIMES, April 8, 2013

Business Compiled by David B. Strickland, Editor 770-718-3442

Ceva Group records double-digit growth for third year in 2012 LIBOURNE, France — Consolidated sales of the Ceva Group reached $782 million in 2012, up by 14 percent on 2011 and 10 percent at a constant perimeter and exchange rates. Growth was driven through further concentration on key products and helped by the company’s early decision to enter emerging markets, Ceva noted. The growth was almost entirely organic reflecting the strength of Ceva’s portfolio of products, the company added. The biology business continued to grow, up by 29 percent in a market that also grew by an estimated 10 percent. Following the success of its Gumboro vaccine — Transmune® IBD, the company launched Vectormune® ND. The two products can be administered as a single dose in the hatchery giving life-long protection against three major poultry diseases Newcastle, Gumboro and Marek’s disease. The pharmaceuticals business recorded strong growth of major brands in major markets, the company noted. Ceva’s drive into emerging markets was rewarded with results posted in Russia (+26 percent), Turkey (+17 percent), Mexico (+18 percent), with the majority of countries in Asia also recording double digit figures. Research and development spending was once again equivalent to more than 9 percent of sales. The company also acquired the IP rights to a number of novel technologies and advanced manufacturing techniques that will continue to build products for the future, the company added. Ceva Chairman & CEO Marc Prikazsky said, “2012 demonstrated how dynamic our innovative business model is. In a challenging global economic climate, our teams were able to continue to deliver some exceptional results. More than ever, there is no ‘one fit’s all’ solution. As we enter 2013, we will have to fight hard to maintain our position in markets affected by economic downturn, whilst continuing to drive hard into emerging markets where the growth opportunities are still significant.” More information can be obtained at

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Other Business News Koch expanding Georgia facility ATLANTA — Georgia Gov. Nathan Deal has announced that Koch Foods will expand its poultry processing facility in Hamilton, Ga., creating 750 new jobs and investing $49 million. Koch Foods is one of only five vertically integrated food processors in the nation. “Georgia is the top producer of poultry in the United States and Koch Foods is one of the reasons why,” said Deal. “Our network of supporting resources and experience makes our state ideal for any existing company to expand its operations and remain competitive. We are committed to helping our producers grow, to creating opportunities for citizens and to making our state the No. 1 place in the nation to do business.” Koch purchased an existing Cagle’s facility in 2012, retaining 350 jobs. During a two-phase expansion, the company added 350 jobs last year. This second phase, incorporating two new processing lines, will create an additional 750 new jobs. Prior to Koch’s acquisition of the former Cagle’s facility in June, the workforce had been reduced by 50 percent since 2010. “Harris County is excited about Koch Foods’ acquisition of the former Cagle’s plant in Pine Mountain Valley and Koch’s plans to bring the facility up to full capacity by offering people in our region the opportunity to work for a first-class company,” said chairman of the Harris County Commission J. Harry Lange. “We are happy to announce our company’s expansion in Harris County,” said Koch Foods’ Vice President of the Western Division Tommy Knight. “The attitude displayed by the people who helped us along the way affirms our commitment to invest in this community and continue the relationships that we have developed.” The Georgia Department of Eco-

nomic Development collaborated with the Valley Partnership, the Harris County Commission and the Harris County Development Authority to manage this project. “This is a great example of the important role Georgia’s existing companies play in supporting our economy,” said Georgia Department of Economic Development Commissioner Chris Cummiskey. “Thanks to the collective efforts of all involved, this expansion will have long-term benefits for Harris County and its area farmers, as well as for the state’s agribusiness economy.” Founded in 1973, Koch Foods began as a one-room chicken deboning and cutting operation. Following its first acquisition in 1995 and subsequent acquisitions of feed mills and slaughterhouses, Koch Foods has grown into a poultry processor that distributes fresh and frozen products internationally under the Koch Foods, Antioch Farms, Preferred Foods and Rogers Royal brand names, and other custom and private labels.

Case Farms earns worker safety award GOLDSBORO, N.C. — Case Farms has earned a Worker Safety Recognition Award from the American Meat Institute (AMI) for its Goldsboro plant. This award distinguishes companies who demonstrate a strong commitment to creating a safer workplace for all meat and poultry industry employees. The award was presented March 20, as part of AMI’s Conference on Worker Safety, Health, Human Resources and the Environment in Kansas City, Mo. Through this awards program, AMI works to increase awareness about the importance of worker safety and encouraging processors to develop safety programs that meet or exceed industry standards. Honored with an Award of Merit,

the Case Farms Goldsboro facility received high regards throughout the evaluation process. “We are proud to receive recognition from such an esteemed industry organization for our continuous efforts to reduce occupational injuries and illnesses,” said Bobby Barragan, Case Farms’ human resources director. “At Case Farms, we proactively work to maintain the highest level of worker safety standards within each of our facilities, and this recognition serves to further motivate us to excel in our worker safety programs.” Adopting standards developed by the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s Voluntary Protection Program (OSHA VPP), Case Farms has designed reputable safety programs throughout its four complexes. Founded in 1986, Case Farms is a fully integrated poultry farming and processing company. It processes 2.5 million birds per week, has more than 3,200 employees and produces more than 800 million pounds of fresh, partially cooked and frozenfor-export poultry products per year. The company has operations or offices in Maryland, Ohio and North Carolina. More information can be obtained at

Zoetis closes intitial public offering MADISON, N.J. — Zoetis, formerly the animal health business unit of Pfizer Inc., has announced the closing of its previously announced initial public offering. The offering of 99,015,000 shares of its Class A common stock included 12,915,000 shares of Class A common stock that were sold pursuant to the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares, which was exercised in full prior to the closing. Zoetis did not receive any of the proceeds of the offering. Following (Continued on next page)


POULTRY TIMES, April 8, 2013 (Continued from previous page)

the completion of the initial public offering, Pfizer owns 100 percent of the outstanding Class B common stock of Zoetis and retains an approximately 80 percent ownership of Zoetis, the company noted. Building on a 60-year history as the animal health business of Pfizer, Zoetis discovers, develops, manufactures and markets veterinary vaccines and medicines, with a focus on both farm and companion animals, the company said. It generated annual revenue of $4.2 billion in fiscal 2011. Zoetis has more than 9,500 employees and a local presence in approximately 70 countries, including 29 manufacturing facilities in 11 countries. Its products serve veterinarians, livestock producers and people who raise and care for farm and companion animals in 120 countries. More information can be obtained at

CTB Inc. names customer serv. mgr. MILFORD, Ind. — Teena Kruger has been promoted to customer service manager for the Chore-Time Group, according to Mark Stephens, executive vice president and general manager for the CTB Inc. business unit. In her new position, Kruger will be responsible for leading the merger of ChoreKruger Time’s three customer service departments into one cohesive group to serve the poultry and egg industries globally. She will also manage quotations, order entry, order management, shipment logistics, export document preparation,

invoicing, contract management and the distributor e-commerce program for Chore-Time. Kruger joined CTB in 1989 as a production operator and has since served in various roles, including management positions for multiple CTB business units. Prior to her promotion, she was cage project manager for ChoreTime Brock International. A native of New Castle, Ind., Kruger graduated with a bachelor’s degree in business management from Indiana Wesleyan University in Marion, Ind., and currently resides in Syracuse, Ind. Kruger was a 2012 graduate of the Kosciusko Leadership Academy, a county-wide program for development of emerging leaders in the community. More information about the Chore-Time Group can be obtained at

Cooley inducted into JA hall of fame GAINESVILLE, Ga. — Based on his lifetime commitment to the principles of market-based economics and entrepreneurship, Jan Cooley was inducted into the 2013 Business Hall of Fame by the Northeast Georgia chapter of Junior Achievement. Cooley is Cooley CEO of Pro View Foods, a complete food service poultry producer with three plants in Gainesville and Braselton, Ga. Cooley founded Pro View Foods ( in 2008, having begun his poultry career in the 1960’s. Pro View is a successor company to Kings Delight Ltd.

In the Junior Achievement presentation, he was commended for his passion for work and for creating a work environment that is open to new ideas and experimentation. The Burlington, N.C., native was raised in a cotton mill village where his father worked. His poultry industry career began during his high school days and included a stint with the industry-pioneer, J. D. Jewell. “I got really deep into the poultry business (at Jewell’s); that is where the seed was planted,” he noted. Junior Achievement also acknowledged Cooley mirrored its mission to assist young people reach personal success through education and opportunities. “It’s been a great experience being able to grow the business in the community and help others through the company,” he added. Cooley and his wife, Betty, have been married for 42 years and have two daughters and six grandchildren. Active members of Free Chapel Worship Center in Gainesville, Cooley added that he strives to be a blessing to others through his support of various ministries of his church.

Alltech joins Int’l. Poultry Council BANGKOK, Thailand — Alltech has become the newest member of the International Poultry Council (IPC), the global organization that brings together poultry industry leaders from around the world to discuss and address issues in trade and science and improve relations among nations. “Alltech is honored to join the International Poultry Council,” said Dr. Mark Lyons, Alltech vice president of corporate affairs. “This group is made up of leading companies, government organizations and industry leaders throughout the

Business poultry sector trying to find consensus on important issues related to trade, disease and standards at a global level. Operating in 128 countries, Alltech can help provide local understanding as well as a global view to this discussion.” Formed in October 2005, the IPC brings together poultry industry leaders from around the world to explore the latest innovations in trade and science, and strengthen relations among nations. Founding members include Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Egypt, the European Union, Mexico, Thailand, Turkey and the United States. The IPC’s mission is: to strengthen communication between the industries of different countries, to develop and recommend policies affecting its industries and to promote a common global understanding of and confidence in poultry products as the preferred source of meat protein. “There are numerous challenges in the food chain around the world and only by working together as a global industry will we be able to find solutions to these issues,” Lyons said. “With more than 33 years of experience in providing innovative, natural solutions, we look forward to being a member of this elite group of industry leaders and continuing our investment and focus in the poultry industry.”

ISA recognizes corp. partners BLOOMINGTON, Ill. — The Illinois Soybean Association notes that its Corporate Partnership Program allows Illinois soybean farmers and organizations to collaborate on education, research and legislative affair issues. ISA is also rec-

ognizing its new 2013 corporate partners. “We are excited about the opportunities that our corporate program offers to businesses who market to farmers,” said Bill Wykes, soybean farmer from Yorkville, Ill., and ISA chairman. “Industry collaboration creates value for all involved with soybean production.” Joining ISA in the program are Monsanto and Novozymes BioAg at the Executive Level; ADM and Dow AgroSciences at the Principal Level; BASF, Beck’s Hybrids, Cargill and DuPont Pioneer at the Core Level; Bunge North America and FS GROWMARK at the Association Level; and Consolidated Grain & Barge, StollerUSA and Syngenta at the Affiliate Level. “We thank our corporate sponsors for their support and look forward to continuing the partnership this year and beyond,” said Wykes. “The relationships built between farmers and corporate partners provide us with information and tools that will help us increase productivity and profitability.” Some corporate partners also participate in ISA farmer connection opportunities, including the Illinois Soybean Profitability Summit, which was held March 4, and the upcoming International Biotechnology Symposium. The full-day symposium will be held Aug. 26, in Champaign, Ill., and will focus on building consensus and awareness around the need for a synchronous, science-based, predictable global biotechnology approval process. More information about the Illinois Soybean Association can be obtained at 309-808-3607, or www.


POULTRY TIMES, April 8, 2013

Calendar Compiled by Barbara Olejnik, Associate Editor 770-718-3440

APR 16-17 — EGG INDUSTRY ISSUES FORUM, Hilton St. Louis Frontenac, St. Louis, Mo. Contact: Egg Industry Center, Iowa State University, 201 Kildee Hall, Ames, Iowa 50011-3150. Ph: 515-294-8587; answeb@iastate. edu; APR 17 — DPI BOOSTER BANQUET, Salisbury, Md. Contact: Delmarva Poultry Industry Inc., 16686 County Seat Hwy., Georgetown, Del. 19947-4881; dpi@; APR 17 — DEEP SOUTH POULTRY CONF., Tifton Campus Conference Center, Tifton, Ga. Contact: University of Georgia, Poultry Science Dept., 324 Poultry Science Bldg., Athens,Ga. 30602-4356. Ph: 706-542-9151; APR 19-21 — GPF ANNUAL SPRING MTNG., Lake Lanier Islands Resort, Buford, Ga. Contact: Georgia Poultry Federation, P.O. Box 763, Gainesville, Ga. 30503. Ph: 770-532-0473;; APR 22-23 — FEDERAL FOOD REGULATORY CONF., Washington, D.C. Contact: Prime Label Consultants, 536 Seventh St., S.E., Washington, D.C. 20003. Ph: 202546-3333; APR 22-24 — HUMAN RESOURCES SMNR., Sandestin Golf & Beach Resort, Destin, Fla. Mo. Contact: U.S. Poultry & Egg Association, 1530 Cooledge Road, Tucker, Ga. 30084-7303, Ph: 770-493-9401, seminar@uspoultry. org, APR 23 — COMMUNITIES & LIVESTOCK CONF., Michigan State University Extension Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health, East Lansing, Mich. Contact: Jerry May, 989-875-5233, mayg@msu. edu; APR 23-24 — TPF SPRING SYMPSM, John Q. Hammons Center, Rogers, Ark. Contact: The Poultry Federation, 321 S. Vixtory St., Little Rock, Ark. 72201. Ph: 501-375-8131 APR 23-25 — MEAT & POULTRY HACCP WKSHP., University of Georgia, Athens, Ga. Contact: Spring Meat & Poultry HACCP Workshop, Extension Food Science Outreach, University of Georgia, 140A Food Science Bldg., Athens, Ga. 30602-2610; APR 25 — TPA SPRING GOLF TOURNEY, Murfreesboro, Tenn. Contact: Tennessee Poultry Association, 931-225-1116,, MAY 1-2 — STAKEHOLDERS SUMMIT, Westin Arlington Gateway Hotel, Arlington, Va. Contact: Animal Agriculture Alliance, 2101 Wilson Blvd., Suite 916B, Arlington, Va. 22201. Ph: 703-562-1412;; www// MAY 2-3 — NATIONAL BREEDERS ROUNDTABLE, Airport Marriott Hotel, St. Louis, Mo. Contact: U.S. Poultry & Egg Association, 1530 Cooledge Road, Tucker, Ga. 30084-7303, Ph: 770-493-9401, seminar@uspoultry. org, MAY 6-7 — TURKEY & BROILER HEALTH MGMNT. SCHOOL, Kellogg Hotel & Conference Center, Michigan State University, 219 S. Harrison Road, East Lansing, Mich. 488241022. Contact: Dr. Teresa Morishita at or Sophia Alvarez at MAY 8-9 — LAYER HEALTH MGMNT. SCHOOL, Kellogg Hotel & Conference Center, Michigan State University, 219 S. Harrison Road, East Lansing, Mich. 48824-1022. Contact: Dr. Teresa Morishita at or Sophia Alvarez at MAY 14-15 — AFIA BOARD MTNG., Arlington, Va. Contact: American Feed Industry Association, 2101 Wilson Blvd., Suite 916, Arlington, Va. 22201. Ph: 703524-0810;, MAY 14-15 — MPA POULTRY MANAGEMENT SCHOOL, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State, Miss. Contact: Mississippi Poultry Association, 110 Airport Road, Suite C, Pearl, Miss. 39208. Ph: 601-932-7560. MAY 15-16 — POULTRY PROCESSORS WKSHP., Embassy Suites Atlanta Centennial Olympic Park, Atlanta, Ga. Contact: U.S. Poultry & Egg Association, 1530 Cooledge Road, Tucker, Ga. 30084-7303, Ph: 770493-9401,, MAY 19-22 — ALLTECH INTERNATIONAL SYMPSM, Lexington, Ky. Contact: Alltech International, 3031 Catnip Hill Pike, Nicholasville, Ky. 40356; MAY 20-22 — UEP LEGISLATIVE BOARD MTNG., Washington, D.C. Contact: United Egg Producers, 1720 Windward Concourse, Suite 230, Alpharetta, Ga. 30005. Ph: 770-


MAY 20-23 — NEQS — Harrisburg, Pa. Contact: National Egg Quality School, Maryland Department of Agriculture, 50 Harry S. Truman Pkwy., Annapolis, Md. 21401. Ph: 410-841-5769; Deanna.; JUN 7-8 — AP&EA GOLF TOURNAMENT and EVENING OF FUN, Birmingham, Ala. Contact: Alabama Poultry & Egg Association, P.O. Box 240, Montgomery, Ala. 36101. Ph: 334265-2732; JUN 10-11 — CPF SUMMER BOARD MTNG., The Cliffs Resort, Shell Beach, Calif. Contact: California Poultry Federation, 4640 Spyres Way, Suite 4, Modesto, Calif. 95356. PAh: 209-576-6355; JUN 11-13 — ITF SUMMER MTNG., Adventureland Inn, Altoona, Iowa. Contact: Iowa Turkey Federation, 535 E. Lincoln Way, Ames, Iowa 50010. Ph: 515-22-7492;gretta@;; JUN 14-15 — ANNUAL POULTRY FESTIVAL, Rogers, Ark. Contact: Poultry Federation, P.O. Box 1446, Little Rock, Ark. 72203. Ph: 501-3758131; JUN 16-19 — AMSA RECIPROCAL MEAT CONF., Auburn University, Auburn, Ala. Contact: American Meat Science Association, P.O. Box 2187, Champaign, Ill. 61825. Ph: 800517-AMSA; JUN 19-21 — GEA - GEC ANNUAL MTNGS., King and Prince Beach & Golf Resort, St. Simons Island, Ga. Contact: Jewell Hutto, Georgia Egg Assocation - Georgia Egg Commission, P.O. Box 2929, Suwanee, Ga. 30024. Ph: 770-932-4622;; JUN 19-21 — MTGA SUMMER MTNG., Grand View Lodge, Nisswa, Minn. Contact: Lara Durben, Minnesota Turkey Growers Association. Ph 763-6822171; JUN 20-22 — NCC SUMMER BOARD MTNG., Newport Coast, Calif. Contact: National Chicken Council, 1052 15th St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005. Ph: 202-296-2622; ncc@;; JUN 21-22 — DELMARVA CHICKEN FESTIVAL, Snow Hill, Md. Contact: Delmarva Poultry Industry Inc., 16686 County Seat Hwy., Georgetown, Del. 19947-4881;; JUN 24-26 — FINANCIAL MGMNT. SMNR., Orlando, Fla. Contact: U.S. Poultry & Egg Association, 1530 Cooledge Road, Tucker, Ga. 30084-7303, Ph: 770-4939401,, JUL 27-30 — TPF ANNUAL CONV., San Antonio, Texas. Contact: Texas

Poultry Federation, 595 Round Rock W. Drive, Suite 305, Round Rock, Texas 78581. Ph: 512-248-0600; tpf@; JUL 9-10 — HATCHERY BREEDER CLINIC, The Wynfrey Hotel, Birmingham, Ala. Contact: U.S. Poultry & Egg Association, 1530 Cooledge Road, Tucker, Ga. 30084-7303, Ph: 770-493-9401, seminar@uspoultry. org, JUL 10-11 — AEB BOARD MTNG., Chicago, Ill. Contact: American Egg Board, 1460 Renaissance Drive, Park Ridge, Ill. 60068. Ph: 847-2967043;; JUL 16-17 — INFORMATION SYSTEMS SMNR., Doubletree Hotel, Nashville, Tenn. Contact: U.S. Poultry & Egg Association, 1530 Cooledge Road, Tucker, Ga. 30084-7303, Ph: 770493-9401,, JUL 18-20 — AAMP CONV., Charleston Area Convention Center, North Charleston, S.C. Contact: American Association of Meat Processors, 1 Meating Place, Elizabethtown, Pa. 17022. Ph: 717-367-1168; aamp@; JUL 21-23 — NCC & NPFDA CHICKEN MARKETING SMNR., Coeur d’Alene Resort, Coeur d’Alene, Idaho. Contact: National Chicken Council, 1015 15th St., N.W., Suite 930, Washington, D.C. 20005, 202-296-2622,,; or National Poultry & Food Distributors Association, 2014 Osborne Road, St. Marys, Ga. 31558, 770-5359901,,

org, AUG 19-29 — UEP AREA MTNGS., TBA. Contact: United Egg Producers, 1720 Windward Concourse, Suite 230, Alpharetta, Ga. 30005. Ph: 770360-9220; AUG 22-23 — WOMEN’S LEADERSHIP CONF., Omni Amelia Island Plantation Resort, Amelia Island, Fla. Contact: U.S. Poultry & Egg Association, 1530 Cooledge Road, Tucker, Ga. 30084-7303, Ph: 770493-9401,, AUG 24 — GPF NIGHT OF KNIGHTS, Cobb Galleria Centre, Atlanta, Ga. Contact: Georgia Poultry Federation, P.O. Box 763, Gainesville, Ga. 30503. Ph: 770-532-0473;; SEP 10-11 — POULTRY PROCESSING & SAFETY WKSHP., Athens, Ga. Contact: Poultry Processing & Safety Workshop, Extension Food Science Outreach, University of Georgia, 240A Food Science Bldg., Athens, Ga. 30602-2610. Ph: 706-542-2574;; EFS! SEP 10-12 — AFIA LIQUID FEED SYMPM., Union Station Marriott, St. Louis, Mo. Contact: American Feed Industry Association, 2101 Wilson Blvd., Suite 916. Arlington, Va. 22201. Ph: 703524-0810;; SEP 12-15 — MPA ANNUAL CONV., Hilton Sandestin Resort & Spa, Destin, Fla. Contact: Becky Beard, Mississippi Poultry Association, 110 Airport Road, Suite C, Pearl, Miss. 39208. Ph: 601932-7560;

JUL 21-25 — PSA ANNUAL CONV., Town and Country Resort & Convention Center, San Diego, Calif. Contact: Poultry Science Association, 2441 Village Green Place, Champaign, Ill. 61882. Ph: 217-356-5285; pas@;

SEP 17-18 — POULTLRY PRODUCTION & HEALTH SMNR., Marriott Downtown, Memphis, Tenn. Contact: U.S. Poultry & Egg Association, 1530 Cooledge Road, Tucker, Ga. 30084-7303, Ph: 770-493-9401, seminar@uspoultry. org,

JUL 22-23 — AP&EA ANNUAL MTNG., Destin, Fla. Contact: Alabama Poultry & Egg Association, P.O. Box 240, Montgomery, Ala. 36101. Ph: 334265-2732;

SEP 17-28 — PRODUCTION & HEALTH SMNR., Marriott Downtown, Memphis, Tenn. Contact: U.S. Poultry & Egg Association, 1530 Cooledge Road, Tucker, Ga. 30084-7303, Ph: 770493-9401,,

AUG 8-9 — NCPF ANNUAL CONF., Greensboro, N.C. Contact: North Carolina Poultry Federation, 4020 Barrett Drive, Suite 102, Raleigh, N.C. 27609. Ph: 919-783-8218; rlford@; AUG 16-17 — TPA ANNUAL MTNG. / SUMMER GETAWAY, Hilton Downtown, Nashville, Tenn. Contact: Tennessee Poultry Association, P.O. Box 1525, Shelbyville, Tenn. 371621525. Ph: 931-225-1123; dbarnett@; AUG 19-21 — NATIONAL SAFETY CONF. FOR THE POULTRY INDUSTRY, Omni Amelia Island Plantation Resort, Amelia Island, Fla. Contact: U.S. Poultry & Egg Association, 1530 Cooledge Road, Tucker, Ga. 30084-7303, Ph: 770-493-9401, seminar@uspoultry.

SEP 19-20— CPF ANNUAL MTNG. & CONF., Monterey Plaza Hotel, Monterey, Calif. Contact: California Poultry Federation, 4640 Spyres Way, Suite 4, Modesto, Calif. 95356. Ph: 209-576-6355; SEP 24-25 — GEORGIA POULTRY CONF., Classic Center, Athens, Ga. Contact: Extension Poultry Science, University of Georgia, Athens, Ga. 30602, Ph: 706-542-1325; or Georgia Poultry Federation, P.O. Box 763, Gainesville, Ga. 30503. Ph: 770-532-0473. SEP 30-Oct. 2 — NATIONAL MTNG. POULTRY HEALTH & PROCESSING, Ocean City, Md. Contact: Delmarva Poultry Industry Inc., 16686 County Seat Hwy., Georgetown, Del. 19947;


POULTRY TIMES, April 8, 2013

Nuggets Compiled by Barbara Olejnik, Associate Editor 770-718-3440

ILLINOIS Meat Reciprocal set for Auburn CHAMPAIGN — The 66th Reciprocal Meat Conference will be held June 16-19 at the Dixon Hotel & Conference Center at Auburn University, Auburn, Ala. The conference also serves as the

annual meeting for the American Meat Science Association, which hosts the event. Featured keynote speakers are Dr. William Weldon, vice president, Global Research and Development and Western Europe Operations, Elanco Animal Health; Dr. Temple Grandin, animal science professor, Colorado State University; and Dr. Louw Hoffman, professor of meat science, Department of Animal Sci-

ences, University of Stellenbosch. More information can be obtained at

MICHIGAN Conference focus is rural-ag coexistence EAST LANSING — The Michigan State University Extension Communities and Livestock conference will be held April 23 at the university’s Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health. The conference is aimed at finding ways to help farmers and rural residents coexist as well as exploring the most recent science on issues

affecting rural communities and livestock. Topic will include farmers working together to assess and reduce ecological impacts, the impact of climate change on agriculture best management practices and addressing community concerns about odors related to livestock facilities. Said Jerry May, MSUE educator. “We all share this land — it’s important to build lasting relationships with our rural neighbors to ensure the strength and future of Michigan ag.” More information can be obtained by contacting May at mayg@msu. edu or 989-875-5233. Agenda and registration information is available at


For more poultry industry news visit

WTO Public Forum slated for Oct. 1-3 GENEVA — The 2013 Public Forum, the World Trade Organiza-

tion’s largest annual outreach event, will be held here Oct. 1-3 with the theme “Expanding Trade through Innovation and the Digital Economy” The forum provides a platform for public debate and discussion across a wide range of WTO issues and activities of interest to civil society, academia, business, the media, governments, parliamentarians and inter-governmental organizations. The focus will be on five core themes: Innovation and Trade; The Digital Economy; The Green Economy; Technology: a tool for trade development; and Trade and Energy. Subjects to be discussed include: Has technology innovation changed the way we trade, and if so, how? Has trade helped countries to innovate? How can innovation enhance trading capacities of developing countries? How can trade keep up with the rapid evolution of technology? More information can be obtained at

•Flu (Continued from page 1)

monitor suspicious cases and urged the public to stay calm, joining Beijing and China’s financial capital, Shanghai, in rolling out new steps to respond to the virus. The three earlier cases reported on March 31 included two men who died in Shanghai, resulting in the city activating an emergency plan that calls for heightened monitoring of suspicious flu cases. Under the plan, schools, hospitals and retirement facilities are to be on alert for fevers, and administrators are to report to health authorities if there are more than five cases of flu in a week. Cases of severe pneumonia with unclear causes are to be reported daily by hospitals to health bureaus,

up from the weekly norm. The plan also calls for stronger monitoring of people who work at poultry farms or are exposed to birds. ‘‘The health bureau will take effective and powerful measures to prevent and control the disease, to make sure the flu epidemic is effectively guarded against and to safeguard the health of the city’s residents,’’ said Xu Jianguang, head of the Shanghai Health Bureau. Health officials said there was no evidence that any of the three earlier cases, who were infected during the past two months, had contracted the disease from each other, and no sign of infections in the 88 people who had closest contact with them. Health authorities in Beijing also upped the capital’s state of readiness, ordering hospitals to monitor

for cases of flu and pneumonia without clear causes, the official Xinhua News Agency reported. The announcements, which lacked many details, show that the government has become mildly more transparent in handling health crises than it was a decade ago during the SARS pneumonia epidemic. Then, as rumors circulated for weeks of an outbreak of an unidentified disease in southern Guangdong province, government silence contributed to the spread of the virus to many parts of China and to two dozen other countries. Scientists are closely monitoring these viruses for fear they could mutate into a strain that easily spreads among people, but there’s no evidence of that occurring.

We are a registered 25b FIFRA Product


•Dermatitis (Continued from page 2)

affect FPD. Modern broilers are very responsive to nutrient density in the diet, so maximizing nutrient density in feed is an important way to maximize profit (Bilgili et al., 2010). However, research has shown that feeds with high nutrient density, high protein levels, and high soybean meal levels can lead to increased levels of FPD in broilers (Nagaraj et al., 2007). Therefore, feeds should have optimum amino acid density but minimum crude protein levels, which can be achieved using digestible and synthetic amino acids (Bilgili et al., 2010). Another factor that can contribute to FPD is litter friability (Eichner et al., 2007). Litter should be loose (friable) because chickens tend to scratch, peck, and work the litter material, which improves aeration, speeds up drying and reduces particle size. As litter becomes damp, it cakes and birds cannot work the litter. As the birds walk and rest on wet, caked litter, the outer layers of their skin begin to soften, similar to the way our fingertips become soft and wrinkled when they have been in water for too long. The caked litter produces friction between the soft footpad and the floor; the outer skin layers erode and can cause an FPD lesion (Fairchild and Czarick, 2011).

POULTRY TIMES, April 8, 2013

Temp. & humidity Temperature, humidity and ventilation play an important role in keeping litter dry and reducing the incidence of FPD. While FPD can occur on relatively dry litter, it is usually associated with damp, wet and caked litter. Ventilation helps keep litter dry. However, ventilation during winter is especially challenging. Because it is expensive to heat the house while ventilating with cold outside air. Growers often choose to conserve heat by sacrificing proper ventilation during cold months, making wet litter more likely. For this reason, winter is a critical period for FPD incidence. In contrast, increased ventilation during warmer weather helps control moisture and prevents wet litter. Regardless of the season, house relative humidity (RH) levels should be in the 50-70 percent range. If RH is below 50 percent, litter becomes too dry and dust levels increase. If RH remains above 70 percent for too long, litter slicks over and cake forms. Stocking density The relationship between stocking density and FPD is unclear. Some studies report that higher stocking densities are associated with a greater incidence of FPD, but other studies suggest stocking density is not a factor. It is difficult to keep up with the increased moisture removal demands caused

by additional birds in the house, but many growers do a good job of it, even during colder weather. Although having more birds in the house makes litter quality harder to manage, it has been concluded that stocking density itself has little effect on FPD as long as adequate house environmental conditions are maintained (Dawkins et al., 2004). In other words, if growers ventilate correctly and keep the litter dry, higher stocking densities do not automatically result in FPD issues.

Litter The type, quality, and quantity of litter can affect the rate of FPD. Sawdust, rice hulls, and peanut hulls are all acceptable bedding materials for poultry houses; however, kilndried pine shavings are usually the material of choice where they are available and priced right. Several factors drive the choice of bedding material, including moisture absorbance, cost, availability and particle size. Particle size is especially important; smaller particles absorb and release moisture more rapidly than larger particles. Larger particles tend to cake over more quickly and hold moisture in. Litter that is at least 4 inches deep has a large absorbing capacity, which helps minimize FPD. However, litter must be kept dry to maintain paw quality. The litter is like a big sponge that soaks up moisture in the house. Proper ventilation removes excess moisture and prevents this “sponge”

USDA to conduct Nebraska ag labor survey The Associated Press

LINCOLN, Neb. — USDA says it will be conducting a labor survey of Nebraska’s farms and ranches later in April. Dean Groskurth is director of the USDA’s National Agricultural Sta-

tistics Service office in Nebraska. Groskurth says the data will let state and federal policymakers establish labor policies that help ensure farmers can get enough hired help. The data also will help the USDA

and U.S. Labor Department establish minimum wages for agricultural workers, administer farm labor recruitment and placement programs and help lawmakers adjust labor policies. The survey results are expected to be released on May 21.

from becoming saturated and forming caked litter. Meluzzi et al. (2008) reported that controlling environmental conditions, especially litter quality, appeared to be the best way to control the onset of FPD. A poorly managed ventilation program, including less-than-adequate air flow or cold air chilling the floor, allows excess moisture to build until it results in cake. Other factors also contribute to damp litter, such as condensation forming on the walls due to lack of insulation or air leakage at the doors, footings, or other areas; downtime between flocks; poor drinker management; evaporative and foggerbased cooling systems; and weak intestinal health programs (Cengiz et al., 2011). By the time you see caked litter, you are losing control of your ventilation program and are facing an uphill battle to increase ventilation and reverse the wet litter condition. Unfortunately, litter conditions tell you nothing about how well you are ventilating today; litter conditions indicate only how well you ventilated up until today. It is better to maintain house humidity at a level that prevents wet litter than to try to dry it out.

Intestinal health Sometimes overlooked, good gut health helps keep litter dry. Any challenge to the gut, regardless of the source, can cause subclinical or even clinical enteritis. Enteritis

often causes diarrhea, resulting in increased nutrient and moisture excretion into the litter (Bilgili et al., 2010). Be aware of potential gut challenges, such as: yy Mycotoxins, which can disrupt gut microflora yy And, too much salt in the feed, which may greatly increase water intake and excretion rates. Make sure feed bins do not contain old, moldy feed stuck to the sides that may contaminate the feed supply. Monitor water intake daily for unexpected increases, which may signal a problem related to the diet.

Summary Footpad dermatitis is characterized by lesions on the footpads and has important economic and welfare implications for the poultry industry. While there are many factors that contribute to FPD, the primary factor appears to be wet litter. Managing the house environment properly is the best way to prevent FPD. Farms that control moisture well produce the best paw quality in the field and at the processing plant. This is important to integrators from an economic standpoint, but it is perhaps even more important to growers from a welfare standpoint. Paw quality, a point of inspection during animal welfare audits, indicates how well a grower has cared for the birds and maintained conditions within the house.

For Classifieds see page 20



POULTRY TIMES, April 8, 2013

Legislation would monitor antibiotic use in animals WASHINGTON — Legislation to require more information on the amount and use of antibiotics and other antimicrobials given to animals, including poultry, raised for human consumption has been proposed in Congess. Energy and Commerce Committee Ranking Member Henry A. Waxman (D-Calif.) and Rules Committee Ranking Member Louise M. Slaughter (D-N.Y.) introduced the legislation — H.R. 820, the Delivering Antimicrobial Transparency in Animals (DATA) Act. “The widespread use of antibiotics in animals is a vital public health issue,” said Waxman. “We need to learn more about how these drugs are being used. With this informa-

tion, scientists will be able to better pinpoint the relationship between the routine use of antibiotics in animals and the development of dangerous resistant bugs that can harm humans. “This knowledge will inform scientists and Congress and start us down the path to sensible regulation.” Specifically, the bill will: yy Require drug manufacturers to obtain and provide better information to the U.S. Food & Drug Administration on how their drugs are used by determining (or estimating) the amounts of their drugs used in each food-producing animal for which they are approved (e.g., cattle, swine, and poultry);

yy Improve the timing and quality of the data that the FDA publicly releases Additionally, the DATA Act will, for the first time, require large-scale producers of poultry, swine and livestock to report data on the medicated feeds provided to their animals. The bill would require these producers to submit data to FDA detailing the type and amount of antibiotics and other antimicrobials contained in the feed they use. If the medicated feed is under a Veterinary Feed Directive (VFD), more detailed information must be provided to FDA, including the quantities, dosages and duration of time the medicated feeds were provided to the animals.

“We are on the cusp of a monumental public health crisis in America: the end of antibiotics as a tool for fighting disease,” said Slaughter, the only microbiologist serving in Congress. “Right now, 80 percent of all antibiotics used in the United States are used not on humans but on food animals, many of whom are already perfectly healthy; as a result, antibiotic-resistant bacteria now kill more Americans every year than HIV/AIDS. We must bring more attention to this issue before one of the most important breakthroughs in medical science — the discovery of antibiotics — is rendered obsolete.” The DATA Act would also requires the secretary of health & human services to coordinate with the

Study looks at why chickens overeat EDINBURGH, Scotland — The welfare of poultry could be improved by a discovery about how chickens regulate their appetites. University of Edinburgh scientists have identified how a chicken’s genetic make-up can affect the signals sent from its stomach to its brain that tell a chicken when it has had enough to eat. Poultry farmers often have to restrict food for chickens because some birds are insensitive to feelings of fullness and can overeat, affecting their ability to reproduce. The study could make it easier to develop methods to develop diets that reduce excess growth more naturally in these birds. Researchers say that genetic differences, which affect when chickens recognize when they have had enough to eat, could date back thousands of years when chickens were first domesticated and breeds were selected for their size. The research was carried out by The Roslin Institute at the university. Researchers focused on a protein called cholecystokinin. The protein has a key role in sending signals linked to being full from the gut to the brain. The researchers found that some birds were better equipped than others at recognizing the

protein, making them more effective in triggering signals of feeling full. The study, published in the American Journal of Physiology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, was funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council. It involved cross-breeding a fast-growing meat production strain of chicken with a relatively slow-growing, chicken. The researchers looked at how the protein was processed in both types of chickens and in the new cross breed. They showed that reduced levels of protein that recognizes the fullness signal also affected the chicken’s natural body weight. Their findings back up the theory that, when poultry were domesticated thousands of years ago and bred for increased size, their appetite levels were changed. The study could also help inform research looking at appetite regulation in other animals. “All species regulate their appetites to make sure the amount of food taken in is just the right to maintain body weight and fat content,” said Dr. Ian Dunn. “Our research has shown that there is genetic variation in the interpretation of biological signals sent relating to being full. This also affects what would be considered to be the natural body weight of chickens.”



secretary of agriculture to improve the collection of data on the use of antibiotics and other antimicrobial drugs in or on food producing animals. Additionally, the DATA Act would require FDA to finalize within 180 days its guidance for drug sponsors wishing to comply with FDA’s recommendations for judicious use of medically important antibiotics and other antimicrobial drugs in animals. It would require the Government Accounting Office in three years to evaluate the FDA voluntary approach to reducing or eliminating injudicious use of antimicrobials in animals, and the effectiveness of FDA’s antimicrobial data collection process.


POULTRY TIMES, April 8, 2013

Adequate land ranks as top concern of young farmers WASHINGTON — Securing adequate land to grow crops and raise livestock was the top challenge identified in the latest survey of participants in the American Farm Bureau Federation’s Young Farmers & Ranchers program. That challenge was identified by 20 percent of respondents, followed by burdensome government regulations and “red tape,” which was identified by 15 percent of the young farmers and ranchers responding. “Access to adequate land to begin farming or expand an established operation is a major concern for today’s young farmers,” said Zach Hunnicutt, AFBF’s national YF&R Committee chairman and a crop farmer from Nebraska. “Another major challenge we all face in one form or another is the cost of complying with a maze of government regulations.” Other issues ranked as top concerns included economic challenges, particularly profitability,

12 percent; water availability, 10 percent; taxes, 9 percent; health care availability and cost, 9 percent; availability of farm labor and related regulations, 8 percent; and willingness of parents to turn over the reins of the farm or ranch, 7 percent. When asked to name the top three steps the federal government should take to help young farmers and ranchers, cutting government spending was the top response, with 24 percent listing this as most important. Twelve percent of those surveyed said maintaining the farm safety net was most important, while financial assistance for beginning farmers and tax reform were each cited by 11 percent as the priority that should be first on the list. The 21st annual YF&R survey revealed that 90 percent of those surveyed are more optimistic about farming and ranching than they were five years ago. Last year, 94 percent of those surveyed said they were more optimistic about farming

than they were five years ago. The 2013 survey also shows 83 percent of the nation’s young farmers and ranchers say they are better off than they were five years ago. Last year, 94 percent reported being better off. More than 94 percent considered themselves lifetime farmers, while 90 percent would like to see their children follow in their footsteps. The informal survey reveals that 84 percent believe their children will be able to follow in their footsteps. The survey points out that 64 percent of YF&R members consider communicating with consumers a formal part of their jobs. Many use social media platforms as a tool to accomplish this. The popular social media site, Facebook, is used by 82 percent of those surveyed who use the Internet. Thirty percent of respondents said they use the social networking site Twitter, and 18 percent use YouTube to post videos of their farms and ranches.

“Use of technology to improve production practices on the farm and to interact with consumers — our customers — continues to grow,” Hunnicutt said. “Having instant access to information and communication tools is the ‘new normal’ and that’s not going to change,” he said. Nearly 80 percent of young farmers and ranchers surveyed said they regularly use mobile devices such as smart phones and tablets to communicate. That’s up from 66 percent last year. Computers and the Internet remain vital tools for the nation’s young farmers and ranchers, with 92 percent surveyed reporting using a computer in their farming operation. Nearly all of those surveyed, 94 percent, have access to the Internet. High-speed Internet is used by 65 percent of those surveyed, with 22 percent relying on a satellite connection and just over 2 percent turning to dial-up. The survey also shows that Amer-

ica’s young farmers and ranchers are committed environmental caretakers, with 64 percent using conservation tillage to protect soil and reduce erosion on their farms. AFBF President Bob Stallman said the annual YF&R survey underscores his belief that the future of U.S. agriculture is in good hands. “The future looks bright for American agriculture and our nation as a whole, thanks to the commitment and solid knowledge base held by today’s young farmers and ranchers,” said Stallman. The informal survey of young farmers and ranchers, ages 18-35, was conducted at AFBF’s 2013 YF&R Leadership Conference in Phoenix, Ariz., in February. The purpose of the YF&R program is to help younger members learn more about farming and ranching, network with other farmers and strengthen their leadership skills to assist in the growth of agriculture and Farm Bureau.

some areas, research is ongoing to determine how CE might be useful. The only viable alternative to anticoccidial drugs is the coccidiosis vaccine. Vaccination is antibiotic and drug-free, has no residues, is nontoxic, and uniformly controls all the significant species of coccidia in broilers, said Dr. Greg Mathis, president of Southern Poultry Research. Mathis has performed a study of vaccines, showing that they work as well as drugs. The comparative effectiveness varies, however, depending on which agents are used and how the evaluation was structured. “Every bird and poultry house in the world has coccidia. Coccidiosis is a very costly disease,” Mathis said, estimating that worldwide prevention efforts cost more than $3 billion a year. When prevention is ineffective, the result is not only performance losses and mortality

but changes in the bacterial profile, which can set off a chain reaction of other problems. An integrated approach is best when formulating diets for antibiotic-free birds. Growers need to involve all aspects of production: feed, litter, light, air, water, space, sanitation, and security. “If you pay attention to all of these, you can succeed with an antibiotic-free program,” said Dr. Marc de Beer, regional head of animal health and nutrition for DSM Nutritional Products America. Making changes in the feed could be challenging, though, and achieving the right balance of energy and amino acids and protein is harder without antibiotics in the mix, he added. Growers should choose high quality raw materials, including highly digestible animal byproducts, as products with a high level of indigestible materials can cause

problems with viscosity and bacterial growth. The U.S. Food & Drug Administration is moving forward with its plan to limit use of medically important antimicrobial drugs to those considered necessary for assuring animal health and include more veterinary involvement and consultation. Drug use is a driver of resistance, and judicious use can help curb the emergence of resistance through more targeted application, according to Dr. William T. Flynn, the FDA’s deputy director for science policy, Center for Veterinary Medicine, during his presentation on the FDA’s Perspective on the Future of Antibiotic Usage. The agency hopes to implement a series of changes within the next few years after receiving comments on several documents and holding meetings with producers and others who would be affected by the new

guidelines, he noted. Such changes are partly responsible for the growing interest in alternatives to intensive antibiotic use in the poultry industry. While the distinction between medically important drugs and others, which would not be subject to tighter regulation, may have wide support, challenges are ahead. One is the regulatory process for these approaches, said Ron Phillips, vice president of legislative and public affairs, Animal Health Institute, who provided an industry perspective on the future of antibiotic usage. “Is it sustainable to continue developing and marketing alternatives without some sort of independent examination of these alternatives?” Phillips asked. He suggested that development of appropriate alternatives could be encouraged by more flexibility from government regulators.

•Antibiotics (Continued from page 1)

control of enteropathogens and resistant organisms, but there is no evidence that it results in control of bacterial infections. “The solution is not in a bottle. We need a holistic, systematic approach” to controlling the health of animals without systematic use of antibiotics, Mevius said. CE is an old principle which posits that two species competing for the same resources cannot coexist if other ecological factors are constant, he added. One will always overcome the other, leading to either extinction or an evolutionary or behavioral shift toward a different ecological niche. In poultry production, this concept refers to the idea that beneficial bacteria would exclude bad bacteria, and this strategy has been used to control salmonella. Although it is no longer practiced in

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POULTRY TIMES, April 8, 2013

Experimental vaccine offers improved protection for poultry Arizona State University News

TEMPE, Ariz.— Chickens are vulnerable to a range of infectious diseases similar to those affecting humans. Fowl typhoid is a widespread and devastating illness, particularly in the developing world, where the birds are a vital source of income and nutrition. Now, Ken Roland and his colleagues at the Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University have developed a candidate vaccine to safeguard poultry from fowl typhoid infection, while also providing protection from a related human bacterial strain — Salmonella Enteritidis. “Fowl typhoid, caused by Salmonella Gallinarum, an avian-specific pathogen, accounts for about 10 percent mortality of chickens in the developing world, though this disease is often under-reported,” Roland explains. The group’s clever approach to immunization relies on a modified strain of Salmonella Gallinarum that produces a robust immune response in Rhode Island Red chickens, similar to that produced by the naturally-occurring pathogen. Once a strong, system-wide immune response has been elicited however, a built-in mechanism disables the gene responsible for bacterial virulence. The technique provides better protection from fowl typhoid compared with existing vaccines, while also offering an increased level of safety. *SRB40 PTimesresearch 2C_Layout 1 3/6/12 The group’s results re-

cently appeared in the journal Vaccine. Salmonella Gallinarum, causative agent of fowl typhoid, attacks birds of all ages, particularly broiler parents and brown-shell egg layers. While chickens are most commonly affected, the disease can also infect many other types of birds, including turkeys, game birds, bullfinches, guinea fowls, sparrows, parrots and canaries. Fowl typhoid is responsible for widespread morbidity and mortality in poultry, particularly in Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America. “In many developing countries, chickens represent far more than just a food source, although it is typically the primary source of animal protein,” Roland says. “The freerange flock scenario exposes these birds to diseases carried by the wild bird population, which includes fowl typhoid. Increasing the quality and productivity of backyard chicken will thus provide an immediate impact on the quality of life of the rural poor.” Morbidity from fowl typhoid ranges from 10 percent to 100 percent in stressed or immunocompromised flocks. Birds typically acquire the infection through fecaloral contamination or via the navel/ yolk. The bacterium is fairly hearty, resistant to changes in climate and capable of surviving for months. Birds infected with S. Gallinarum typically display a variety of symptoms including lack 1:45 PM Page 1 of appetite, dejection,



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ruffled feathers, thirst, yellow diarrhea and a reluctance to move. In attempting to combat such illnesses, various vaccine strategies gave been developed. Live vaccines using weakened or attenuated salmonella strains provide greater levels of protection than killed injectable vaccines by engaging all three branches of the immune defense, provoking humoral, mucosal and cell-mediated immunity, which is important for clearance of salmonella infections. Nevertheless, it remains a challenge for vaccinologists like Roland to create vaccines retaining strong immunogenicity once they have been attenuated to ensure safety and reduce harmful reactions in the host. In the case of existing vaccines for fowl typhoid for example, full protection typically requires multiple injections, making it costprohibitive in much of the developing world. Further, the vaccine is virulent in some birds. Roland and his colleagues have instead produced a single-dose oral vaccine. The experimental vaccine strains in the current study make use of a technique known as delayed attenuation, developed in the laboratory of Roy Curtiss, who directs the Institute’s Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology. With delayed attenuation, the salmonella strain enters the system with its native virulence intact, producing a strong, systemic immune response. Then, a key virulence-related gene switches off after a num-

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The crp delayed attenuation strain was also tested for effectiveness against a lethal challenge of the human pathogen Salmonella Enteritidis. After four days, no detectable trace of S. Enteritidis appeared in systemic organs including the liver and spleen, indicating strong protection by the vaccine. The researchers noted that the vaccine strain in which the rfc gene was deleted still exhibited full virulence in chickens, indicating that contrary to the mouse model of Salmonella typhimurium, rfc is a non-essential component for S. Gallinarum virulence in birds. In contrast, the rfaH deletion mutant was attenuated and protective, while the strain with arabinose-regulated rfaH expression retained full virulence. The study indicates that delayedattenuation salmonella vaccines of the kind explored here can have wide applicability for the effective protection from a range of infectious diseases. In future efforts, the group hopes to fine-tune a vaccine strain with more than one attenuating mutation, at least one of which remains unaffected by dietary components, thereby offering improved safety along with maximum immunogenicity. “Our goal,” Roland says, “is to utilize ‘high-tech’ strategies to provide a ‘low-tech,’ easy-to-use, inexpensive vaccine, allowing everyone from backyard farmers to commercial hatcheries to vaccinate their flocks, resulting in better food security in the developing world.”




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ber of cell divisions, shutting down the bacterium’s disease-causing potential. The trick in delayed attenuation is to reengineer the salmonella virulence gene so that it requires the artificial sugar arabinose for effective functioning. Once the bacterial cell’s storehouse of arabinose is exhausted, the virulence gene essentially short-circuits and becomes inactive. Three key virulence-related genes — crp, rfc and rfaH — were previously identified from studies with the related pathogen Salmonella typhimurium in mice. Vaccine strains were constructed and tested in chickens with each of these genes subject to delayed attenuation via arabinose depletion. These strains were also compared for effectiveness with strains in which the virulence genes had been deleted altogether, rather than attenuated and with the wild-type form of the pathogen. The best results in terms of immunogenicity and safety were produced by the vaccine strain bearing a crp gene subject to delayed attenuation. The vaccine was avirulent and produced only minor internal lesions while offering superb protection from a lethal challenge of S. Gallinarum. Further, the presence of small quantities of arabinose in the birds’ drinking water was not sufficient to disable the crp attenuation mechanism or affect virulence or immunogenicity.

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POULTRY TIMES, April 8, 2013

•Trade (Continued from page 3)

USA Poultry & Egg Export Council

Exports: The diversification in U.S. poultry export markets.

Canada defends leaving U.N. convention on droughts The Associated Press

OTTAWA, Ontario — Canada defended its decision to pull out of a United Nations convention that fights the spread of droughts just a month before a major gathering would have forced the country to confront scientific analysis on the effects of climate change. Canada is the only country in the world outside the agreement. Prime Minister Stephen Harper’s government has been vilified an as outlier on climate change policy in past international meetings. Harper said on March 28 that the U.N. Convention to Combat Desertification is too bureaucratic. Foreign Affairs Minister John Baird called

it a “talkfest” that does a disservice to taxpayers. The federal cabinet ordered the withdrawal on Baird’s recommendation. Former Canadian ambassador to the U.N. Robert Fowler said the move is a “departure from global citizenship.” The U.N. body has a research committee dedicated to finding ways to stop the spread of droughts that lay waste to farmland across the planet. Canada’s pullout has stoked more criticism of the Harper government’s record on the environment. Canada, along with Japan, Russia and New Zealand, joined the United States in opting out of the Kyoto

Protocol to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Maude Barlow, head of the Council of Canadians and the author of a forthcoming book on global droughts, said the Harper government is “anti-environment” and is more interested in exploiting Canada’s mineral and energy wealth as an “energy superpower.” The province of Alberta has the world’s third largest oil reserves after Saudi Arabia and Venezuela, with more than 170 billion barrels. “Anything that they’re involved in that can lead to more evidence that we’re a planet in crisis environmentally, they don’t want to be part of,” Barlow said.

resources in the international environment. Last year, APHIS successfully negotiated and resolved 150 animal and plant health issues involving U.S. agricultural exports. Examples include: yy Worked with Mexican officials to spur U.S. table eggs exports to Mexico valued at $45 million per year. yy Secured Japanese market access for poultry and poultry products from New York, Ohio and South Dakota. In 2011, U.S. poultry exports to Japan totaled $88 million. yy Spearheaded a 6-month pilot program with China’s animal and plant health authority which established the resumption of log exports from Virginia and South Carolina, resulting in more than $1.5 million in U.S. hardwood log exports to China from those states. yy Supported the shipment of U.S. cattle to new markets in 2012 by engaging foreign counterparts in preparation for exports and approving seven temporary export inspection facilities to supplement the agency’s permanent export facilities, reducing the distance cattle traveled before export and helping exporters meet shipping deadlines. Turkish and Russian purchases alone during fiscal year 2012 were valued at roughly $300 million. yy Secured the release of 324 shipments of U.S. agricultural products detained at foreign ports, valued at more than $41 million. For example, APHIS recently secured the release of seven grain shipments valued at $1.8 million from the port of Haiphong, Vietnam, and the agency continues to work with Vietnamese officials and the U.S. grain industry on a permanent solution that will keep exports moving efficiently to that market. There are approximately 170 Foreign Service officers in USDA’s Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS), staffing 98 offices covering 162

countries. U.S. farmers, ranchers, trade associations and private companies depend on FAS staff to guide them through export of their products. FAS provides reports on hot market prospects and offers expertise when trade barriers arise. During the past year, FAS has helped to knock down hundreds of barriers to trade. Examples include: yy Negotiated the release of hundreds of detained shipments in dozens of countries, valued at more than $60 million, and ranging from soybean meal in Latvia, to white zinfandel in the EU, rice bran pellets in Norway, Massachusetts scallops in Spain, and U.S. meat and poultry products in Taiwan. yy Began implementing trade agreements with South Korea, Colombia and Panama, ensuring duty free access for a wide variety of U.S. food and farm products expected to boost U.S. agricultural exports by more than $2.3 billion per year when fully implemented, and support nearly 20,000 domestic jobs in the process. yy Engaged with China on a memorandum of understanding on soybean trade that prevented disruptions to over $12 billion of U.S. exports. Maintained market access for U.S. dairy — valued at more than $432 million in 2012 — by coordinating a draft dairy export certificate with the government of China. yy Helped to negotiate the organic equivalence arrangement with the European Union. This partnership between the two largest organic-producers in the world will establish a strong foundation from which to promote organic agriculture, benefiting the growing organic industry and supporting jobs and businesses on a global scale. USDA added that American agriculture supports one in 12 jobs in the U.S. and provides American consumers with 83 percent of the food we consume.


POULTRY TIMES, April 8, 2013

Food Trends Koch Foods Koch Foods is offering two new boneless chicken chunks products in its Snack Cravers line. The product provides a fun and tasty chicken experience while the unique shapes and flavors will live up any event and satisfy every craving. Each bag of chicken comes with a choice of two sauces for dipping — either Spicy Buffalo & Ranch or Honey BBQ & a rich Orange. yy More information:

Wendy’s By pairing grilled chicken with a multi-grain flatbread, Wendy’s has launched its Flatbread Grilled Chicken sandwiches. The new sandwiches are offered in two varieties, Asiago Ranch and Smoky Honey Mustard. The flatbread is warm and toasted on the outside, soft and chewy on the inside. Both varieties include a chicken breast with all-white meat topped with a spring mix featuring nine different types of fresh greens and hand-sliced tomatoes. The Asiago Ranch also includes Applewood smoked bacon, natural Asiago cheese and a dollop of Asiago ranch sauce. The Smokey Honey Mustard has a sweet and savory flavor and is only 370 calories. yy More information:

Tyson Foods Tyson’s Chicken Nuggets are made with all natural ingredients and are sure to please the most selective kid because they taste great and are fun to eat. Made with no preservatives or fillers and 0g trans fat per serving, they’re crispy on the outside and tender and juicy on the inside. They’re an easy finger food that kids love. yy More information:

McDonald’s McDonald’s has introduced the new Premium McWrap in restaurants nationwide. The freshly prepared sandwich wraps are part of the company’s commitment to offering customers a variety of tastes and new food choices. All three varieties of the tortilla-wrapped entree feature fresh vegetables, grilled or crispy chicken breast along with signature sauces such as seasoned rice vinegar,sweet chili or creamy garlic served in a convenient hand-held package designed for eating on-the-go. Customers can choose from three meal-sized Premium McWraps, including Chicken & Bacon, Sweet Chili Chicken or Chicken & Ranch. yy More information: http://www.mcdonaldscom

Perdue Farms Perdue Farm’s new Short Cuts products provide a quicker way to create nutritious and delicious meal or snacks. The new products include Fully Cooked Turkey Ground and seasoned with Italian Style Spices or Chicken Burgers. Both are made with all-natural ingredients with no preservatives and are a great way to jump start a meal. The Chicken Burgers come in two varieties: Classic Lightly Seasoned and Spinach & Roasted Garlic. yy More information:

To subscribe to Poultry Times call 770-536-2476 Good animal health starts with the optimal functioning of the gastro-intestinal tract, the immune system and a well-balanced gut flora. Nutriad has developed a range of extensively researched poultry products that strengthen your birds from the inside out. Our three product programs Performance Enhancement, Health & Well-being and Feed & Food Safety contain options that allow our poultry experts to provide an integrated solution for every stage of your bird’s lifecycle. Rise and shine with Nutriad! 800.841.3320


POULTRY TIMES, April 8, 2013

Disaster relief: Flood-related diseases in poultry & livestock MISSISSIPPI STATE, Miss. — If your fields or farm buildings have been flooded, take special precautions against flood-related diseases in poultry and livestock. Give animals extra care, particularly if they have been stranded by flood water and have been off regular feeding schedules. Be careful when giving wet feed to livestock. Feed just a few animals first, and watch them for several days before giving wet feed to all stock. In addition, watch for signs of flood-related diseases.

Blackleg, Anthrax, etc. Blackleg, caused by micro-organisms spread over fields by standing water, can be a serious post flood disease. Usually it affects cattle 6 to 24 months old, but it also affects sheep, goats and swine. Symptoms include acute lameness, depression, fever and swelling in the hip, shoulder, chest, back, neck, or throat muscles. If untreated, blackleg is usually fatal within 24 hours after onset. Treatment may be effective in the early disease stages. The best prevention against blackleg is inoculation of all unvaccinated young cattle before they are put out on pastures

that have been flooded. Some vaccines also protect against malignant edema (gas edema) and other water-borne diseases. Anthrax may break out after flooding. A veterinarian should study all animals that die suddenly after flooding.

Malignant edema Hot, painful swelling at the point of infection, high fever, loss of appetite, decreased milk production, difficulty breathing, convulsions, then death are signs of malignant edema. This disease kills animals one or two days after symptoms appear. In its early stages, malignant edema can be successfully treated by a veterinarian. Both specific and combination vaccines are available. Tetanus (Lockjaw) Tetanus is a problem whenever animals have puncture wounds. Symptoms include generalized stiffness caused by muscle contractions. Legs and tail are extended; the third eyelid hovers over the eye when its head is raised.

Animals can be vaccinated as a preventative, and the disease is treatable in its early stages.

Foot rot Constant exposure to mud and water softens tissues around the feet of cows and sheep, greatly increasing their susceptibility to foot rot. Lameness, a painful swelling of the hoof, and foul-smelling dead tissue in the space between the claws are common symptoms of the disease. To prevent foot rot and other foot infections, walk cows through a solution of copper sulfate (2 pounds of ordinary commercial bluestone in 5 gallons of water) as they leave the milking parlor or stable after they have been thoroughly milked. Put the solution in a 4- to 6-inch deep trough in an alleyway or doorway. As long as cows’ feet are stained with the copper sulfate solution, they are reasonably protected against foot rot. Mastitis Organisms in mud and muddy water can cause severe mastitis. Coliform organisms are usually involved. They cause acute intoxication

USDA opens export for chicks & hatching eggs WASHINGTON — U.S. Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack and the USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service have announced recent results of the agency’s efforts to support exports of U.S. agricultural products. APHIS’ recent efforts are expected to help increase exports of U.S. cattle, poultry products and pears by more than $85 million a year. APHIS is announcing the opening of export markets to Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia for U.S.

day-old chicks and hatching eggs, increasing U.S. exports by an estimated $25 million a year. “This is a significant agreement for poultry exporters in the U.S.,” Vilsack said.. “For nearly 10 years, APHIS has pursued the opening of the Russian market to U.S. day-old chicks and hatching eggs, and now we have also secured access for these products to Belarus and Kazakhstan.” In February, APHIS veterinary health personnel and their counterparts in Moscow developed the

export documentation that APHIS will issue for products shipped to the three countries. In 2010, Russia, Kazakhstan and Belarus formed a Customs Union, and are currently working to harmonize import requirements for cattle and other live animals and livestock products. The market access for poultry commodities represents the first of nearly 40 new agreements related to live animals and animal products that USDA will work to negotiate with the Customs Union.

(septicemia) in the udder and death of udder tissue(gangrene).To protect cows against mastitis, clean their teats thoroughly before milking. Wash teats and udders with warm water and a mild dishwashing detergent before using the sanitizing solution. Dry teat end carefully with clean paper towels before applying the milking machine. Milk the cows carefully. Do not milk too much, and be careful to prevent injury of teat ends. If possible, allow cows to lie down in a relatively dry, clean place. Cows are probably better off outside in a wet muddy pasture than they are in wet, foul indoor stalls.

Botulism Botulism, the most common post flood ailment in chickens, is caused by organisms in spoiled vegetables or decaying animal carcasses. The birds are infected when they eat this material. Paralysis, difficulty in eating and swallowing, and general weakness are symptoms. The best way to prevent this disease is to confine chickens well away from spoiled meat or decaying matter. Horses are also very susceptible to botulism from drinking stagnant water and eating spoiled food.

Brooder pneumonia This disease affects chickens and results from their eating wet, moldy feed or from wet litter. Symptoms include fast breathing, coughing and gasping. To prevent brooder pneumonia, keep brooders sanitary, give the birds clean litter, clean all utensils and do not use moldy feed. Erysipelas This disease commonly affects turkeys and swine after flooding. In swine the disease may be either acute (causing high fever and rapid death) or chronic (with development of characteristic skin lesions). Swine that have not been vaccinated against erysipelas should be vaccinated before they are put into flooded buildings or pastures. Prompt antibiotic treatment is effective against erysipelas in swine and turkeys. In turkeys, the disease frequently affects the snood of toms after even a slight injury. This article is drawn from one published by the Mississippi State University Extension Service in Mississippi State, Miss. AFTERMARKET SALES AND CUSTOMER SUPPORT COORDINATOR

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POULTRY TIMES, April 8, 2013

Record crop insurance payout stirs subsidy debate The Associated Press

DES MOINES, Iowa — Farmers will be paid a record $16 billion in crop insurance claims for 2012 because of the widespread drought, a staggering amount that has critics calling for changes to what they say is an inefficient taxpayer subsidy the government cannot afford. While farmers buy crop insurance from private companies, the federal government subsidizes their premiums and picks up the tab for losses over a certain amount. One analyst estimates the federal tab for 2012 will come to about $11 billion. It is the second year in a row that U.S. farmers have received record crop insurance payments as flooding and drought in 2011 was followed by an even worse drought last year. The $16 billion in payments also comes as lawmakers working on a new farm bill have been considering a shift from disaster relief to crop insurance as a more predicable way of protecting farmers from natural disasters. Farmers say they must have some kind of protection or a year like the past two could put them out of business. Ben Steffen, who has crops and livestock near Humboldt, Neb., said he had insurance to cover threefourths of his losses last year when drought took about a third of his corn and soybeans and two-fifths of his hay. Farmers can buy insurance that covers from 50 percent to 85 percent of the revenue they would have earned and pay premiums based on their coverage. “It’s not a money-making proposition,” Steffen said. “It’s a way to keep you from getting buried by a disaster.” The most recent report from the Federal Crop Insurance Corp., released on March 18, put the total

payout so far at $15.91 billion, but some claims for 2012 are still pending. Even so, last year’s loss represents at least a 47 percent increase from the $10.8 billion record loss in 2011. Taxpayers will pick up most of the cost. The program run by the Risk Management Agency in the USDA is a three-way venture in which insurance companies sell farmers policies to cover crop losses. The government subsidizes the program by paying about 62 percent of the cost of insurance premiums and farmers pay about 38 percent. When losses exceed premiums, the government ends up picking up most of that cost too, said Bruce Babcock, an agricultural economist at Iowa State University. He estimated that between premium subsidies, crop loss payments and administrative costs, U.S. taxpayers will end up paying about $11 billion for 2012. That’s too much, he said. “I believe farmers need the opportunities to have all the tools they could possibly use to manage their risks,” Babcock said. “I just don’t think they need to be bribed to do so with such high degree of subsidies.” Some agriculture economists think the federal government should set up an emergency fund that sets aside a certain amount of money, perhaps $3 billion a year, to cover unusual disasters. But crop insurers still say their program is a better bet because approval of emergency aid isn’t always certain and crop insurance pays faster. That “stabilizes the supply chain quite a bit” because banks and other companies know farmers will be able to make loan payments and pay their bills even in bad years, said Tom Zacharias, president of National Crop Insurance Services, the nonprofit trade group for insurers that sell policies to farmers.

AP Photo/Nati Harnik

Crop insurance: This photo, taken on Aug. 16, 2012, shows a damaged ear of corn near Nickerson, Neb. Farmers will be paid a record $16 billion in crop insurance claims for 2012 because of the widespread drought, an amount that has critics calling for changes to what they say is an inefficient taxpayer subsidy the government cannot afford.

A similar debate is being heard in Congress, where Republican Sens. Jeff Flake, of Arizona, and John Duncan, of Tennessee, introduced bills in early March to reduce the premium subsidy to pre-2000 levels. Flake said the proposals will save about $40.1 billion over 10 years by cutting the government’s portion of insurance premiums to 37 percent from the current 62 percent. Congress had increased the subsidy to boost participation in the program — a move that was successful in raising the number of insured acres from 215 million acres in 2002 to 282 million acres last year. “The current U.S. fiscal crisis

makes a strong argument for a common sense roll back of crop insurance subsidies,” Flake said in a statement. But Iowa Sen. Charles Grassley, another Republican, said it’s better for farmers to buy crop insurance than to go to the federal government for disaster aid every time there’s a significant drought or flood. “It’s either going to be disaster assistance or its going to be crop insurance,” he said. “Isn’t it better for the government to promote risk management and have the farmer plan ahead and probably pay out a lot less taxpayer dollars than you have with disaster assistance?” In central Illinois near Auburn, Mark Reichert was grateful for

crop insurance after his 520 acres of corn produced only one-half to two-thirds of their normal yield during the drought. Reichert, 52, had enough insurance to cover 90 percent of his losses. He paid $46 to $50 an acre in premiums last year and expects to buy the same amount of protection at about the same cost this year. He said it essentially allows farmers to go on to farm another year and assures banks holding farm loans that there’s consistent revenue to make payments. “It’s not meant to be a cash cow,” he said of the insurance. “It has performed exactly the way it was meant to perform.”


POULTRY TIMES, April 8, 2013

Colorado water users prepare for more drought The Associated Press

DENVER — Back-to-back, drought-plagued winters have prompted Colorado water users and providers to prepare for another dry year. Xcel Energy Inc. is relaxing some of its water rights on the Colorado River to help Denver Water meet the needs of people on the Front Range and Western Slope. On May 1, Denver Water and Colorado Parks and Wildlife will close Antero Reservoir in southeastern Colorado then drain it to save water during the ongoing drought. Officials in Pueblo say Lake Minnequa is continuing to shrink. The lakebed is drying up, and a plan to use a pipeline to bring fresh water into the lake this summer offers little hope of filling it up. The U.S. Drought Monitor shows

all of Colorado is experiencing some level of drought this year. A large portion of southeastern Colorado is seeing exceptional drought — the most extreme condition on the U.S. Drought Monitor’s five-level scale. Denver Water, Fort Collins, Colorado Springs, Aurora, Thornton and other communities are trying to limit watering. Colorado Springs will also charge large water users higher rates. Bart Miller, water program director for Water Resource Advocates, a nonprofit conservation group, said utilities learned a lot from the 2002 drought, one of the worst in the state’s history. A decade ago, they waited until May 1 to take action and many consumers didn’t get the message until July, when they got their water bills and it was too late to have much impact.

Many utilities and water regulators now begin taking action on April 1. Drew Beckwith, water policy manager for the group, said conservation and reuse of existing water supplies where it is allowed are more effective than building more reservoirs, which have yet to fill up. “We don’t need more buckets to put it in, we just need water to fill them,” he said. Timothy Buchanan, a water resource attorney, said reuse is a good solution when water users have not used up their quota, but it’s not without risk. He said evaporation is a big factor in determining whether reuse will hurt people with senior water rights. The Xcel Energy decision affects the Colorado River at the Shoshone Hydro Plant. The practice gives the upstream

junior water rights holders the ability to store water once the spring runoff begins in earnest According to water regulators, the winter of 2012 was the fourth worst on record in the Colorado River Basin and the 2013 forecast has been grim. The only improvement during the two winters occurred in March when several major snowstorms continued to build snowpack. By this time in 2012, runoff was already under way.

“This is a statewide drought, and we all need to work together to manage water resources for the health and safety of our residents, our economic vitality and the environment,” said Jim Lochhead, manager of Denver Water. Colorado River District General Manager Eric Kuhn said water restrictions are going into effect now to prepare for the worst. “In a year like this every extra drop of water we can store now will help us later,” he said.


POULTRY TIMES, April 8, 2013

U.S. & international perspectives on antibiotic resistance ATLANTA — The term antibiotic resistance has several definitions, and when it is described as a phenotypic trait, there are different cutoff points for determining whether an organism is susceptible to an antibiotic or completely resistant. Misunderstandings also surround questions such as how resistance develops, where it comes from, and when or if it will disappear. Dr. Randy Singer, University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine, attempted to answer these questions during the first day of the Antibiotic Conference — “Current Issue for the Poultry & Egg Industry,” held during the 2013 International Production & Processing Expo. He noted that the lack of harmonization across countries, regions, and times regarding the cut-off point for resistance is a challenge for many experts who want to collect data and report their findings. Since the definition is not universal, be cautious when reading documents reporting the prevalence of antibiotic resistance, Singer said. While the findings may be accurate, they may not be applicable to your situation.

Discussing the development of acquired resistance, Singer remarked that it can arise from a genetic mutation, the reason for fluoroquinolone resistance in campylobacter. “But that isn’t the only component in resistance development, and it may not even be the most important one,” he added. “Gene acquisition may be much more of a problem for us now, especially in an era of multi-drug resistance.” Briefly, acquisition refers to array of genes that acquire mobility and can transfer resistance to many antibiotics from one bacterium to another, including those unrelated to each other. Multi-drug resistance is increasing in the Netherlands, where the rate of antibiotic use is one of the lowest in the European Union in humans but highest in the animal population. Although Dutch foodproducing animals appear to be an ideal environment for development of organisms resistant to many of these important drugs, this trend also makes the Netherlands a good environment for monitoring antibiotic resistance and studying its

spread, said Dr. Dik Mevius, professor and chairman of antimicrobial resistance, University of Utrecht. The relationship between resistance in animals and in humans is complex. Although a huge number of animal producers in the Netherlands test positive for methicillinresistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the incidence of MRSA in hospitals is very rare. Alternatively, extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs)-enzymes that inactivate beta-lactam antibiotics, including penicillins and cephalosporinswere until a decade ago limited to a few countries with high antibiotic use but have become a rapidly growing problem in healthcare settings throughout Europe. More than 1,000 variants are known, and their presence in the food chain, particularly broilers, suggests transmission from poultry to humans, with implications for the treatment options for certain infections. ESBLs have also been found in high percentages of slaughter pigs and turkey flocks, and in rising numbers of veal calves, dairy cows and companion animals. Mandatory reductions of antibi-

otic use are in effect as one strategy to counter the spread of resistance to antibiotics from ESBLs and other organisms, Mevius said. Even though antibiotic use is likely to drop significantly, it’s unclear whether this will be enough to control resistance. This is because antibiotic resistance is a global problem, and the efforts of one country, or of a consortium such as the European Union, cannot fully address threats from outside their borders. Also, factors other than antibiotic usage affect resistance, and structural changes in animal husbandry may be needed. The Pan American Health Organization’s program on antimicrobial resistance in pathogens found in food products and food-producing animals has been conducting surveillance and containment activities for the past 25 years. Although the effort has its challenges, the 21 participating countries have national network coordinators and seminal labs that perform testing, inspect and maintain equipment and disseminate findings. The network in Colombia is par-

ticularly strong and could serve as a model for other countries, said Dr. Martha Pulido, National University of Colombia. COIPARS (Columbian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance), led by Dr. Pilar Donado, is an integrated effort focusing on animals at poultry farms and other locations, as well as retail food sellers. The organization also collaborates with public health organizations and research universities around the world and actively involves the private sector in its efforts. Describing antibiotic resistance throughout Latin America, Pulido suggested that improvements will come about through the adoption of integrated programs and the collection, integration, analysis and communication of information on resistance in the bacteria of humans, animals and the environment. This information can be used to support creation of science-based policies to control use of antibiotics in hospitals, communities and the agricultural sector and prolong the drugs’ effectiveness.

Researchers developing DNA screening procedure for foodstuffs MAINZ, Germany — Scientists at the Institute of Molecular Genetics, Genetic Security Research and Consulting at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) have developed a novel screening procedure that provides for highly sensitive, quantifiable analysis of animal, plant and microbial substances present in foodstuffs. Almost all foodstuffs contain the genetic material of those animal and plant species that were used in their preparation For their research, the scientists adapted the latest techniques of DNA sequencing, which are otherwise currently employed in human genetics to unravel the genetic information of thousands of patients.

“The innovative aspect in comparison with conventional DNA detection methods such as polymerase chain reaction, or PCR for short, is that by means of bioinformatic analysis of all biological DNA data available worldwide we can identify the presence of material from species that we would not otherwise expect. And, using a simple digital method of counting short snippets of DNA, we will also probably be able to determine the relative incidence of individual species-related material more precisely than was previously the case,” explained molecular geneticist Dr. Thomas Hankeln, who developed the method in collaboration with bioinformaticist

Dr. Bertil Schmidt and colleagues at the German and Swiss food control authorities. In pilot studies, the researchers were able to use the new DNA method to detect the presence of a 1 percent content of horse meat in products and to determine the actual amount with a high level of precision. The Mainz researchers even found slight traces of the DNA of added mustard, lupin and soy in a test sausage prepared for calibration purposes, something that could also be of interest with regard to allergy testing of foods. Because of its potential, the method — dubbed ‘All-Food-Seq’

by its developers — has already attracted the attention of food inspection experts. “This method is very interesting in connection with efforts to promote the molecular traceability of food,” said Hermann Broll of the German Federal Institute for Risk

Assessment in Berlin and Dr. René Köppel of the Zurich Cantonal Laboratory in Switzerland. The method developed by the Mainz scientists is thus to be validated in comparison with conventional detection techniques in the near future.

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POULTRY TIMES, April 8, 2013

Resource guide for veterans seeking ag career DAVIS, Calif. — Farmer Veteran Coalition, a veteran assistance organization, has released a manual aimed at helping veterans launch a career in agriculture. It is the first of its kind to focus on helping service members transition to careers in food and farming. Titled “Veteran Careers in Agriculture: A Resource Guide,” the manual was released nationally, both online and in print, on March 1. This concise but comprehensive manual covers topics ranging from education programs to funding options for farms. The manual is a culmination of two years of work carried out by Farmer Veteran Coalition (FVC) and its partners.

Starting out In addition to material explaining how to start an agricultural business, the guide features information and resources about many partnered groups that also assist veterans tran-

sitioning into agriculture including Veteran Farm, the National Center for Appropriate Technology (NCAT), and Start2Farm. The guide also includes stories of farmer veterans who have achieved their dream of having a fulfilling agricultural career.

Opportunities In his introductory letter to the guide, U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack addresses the tremendous opportunities that the agricultural sector holds for returning veterans. He says, “For returning veterans, agriculture provides a unique chance to continue serving our country — ensuring that our food supply is secure, protecting our natural resources and giving us the tools we need to continue leading the world.” The skills and work ethic veterans bring from their military service are valuable as-

sets when it comes to providing the food and agricultural sustenance that keeps America strong. FVC Founder and Director Michael O’Gorman explains, “Veterans make excellent farmers. They are not afraid of difficult tasks, they stand up when they are knocked down, they understand the need to be acutely aware of everything around them, and most of all, they are driven by doing what is right for their country.”

Information resources A collaboration between FVC, the USDA and Farm Credit, “Veteran Careers in Agriculture: A Resource Guide” is filled with informational material to aid veterans interested in entering the business of farming and ranching. Print copies are available at no cost to military veterans from the coalition’s Davis office at 508 Second St., Suite 206, Davis, Calif. 95616 and on their website at in an electronic version.

The USDA Farm Service Agency (FSA) makes direct loans, provides loan guarantees and offers credit counseling to farmers and ranchers who are unable to obtain private commercial credit. Funding is now available to all veterans. Additionally, Emergency Loans are available for those who have suffered financial setbacks from declared natural disasters. Farm Credit was created by Congress 95 years ago to ensure that America’s farmers and ranchers would always have access to a source of credit that the farmers and ranchers themselves would own. Local Farm Credit lenders can be found at Farmer Veteran Coalition is a not-for-profit organization that connects military veterans with opportunities for employment, training, and places to heal on America’s farms. More information is available at 530-5641226 or at


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POULTRY TIMES, April 8, 2013

Researching links between behavior & natural repellents By Sandra Avant

Special to Poultry Times

BELTSVILLE, Md. — A little monkey business is revealing a few clues about natural remedies that animals use to protect themselves against biting insects and arthropods. Certain species of animals, such as monkeys and birds, anoint themselves with citrus, other plants and creatures like millipedes. To find out more about this behavior and to determine if any chemicals in the anointing substances effectively deter ticks and mosquitoes, scientists are examining responses to natural compounds. Scientists at the USDA Agricultural Research Service Henry A. Wallace Beltsville (Md.) Agricultural Research Center (BARC) and the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute (SCBI) at the National Zoological Park in Front Royal, Va., compared the effects of citrus compounds on lone star ticks and yellowfever mosquitoes. They also investigated compounds found in millipedes. “We tested a number of components known to be abundant in all citrus extracts, not just lemons, limes and oranges, but all the fruits that are used in anointing — including citrus leaves,” says SCBI researcher Paul Weldon. Of the more than 20 citrus compounds they evaluated, the scientists found that 10 deterred ticks and/or mosquitoes, and nine impaired basic tick behavior.

Weldon used a feeding membrane module that he developed to test citrus compounds against mosquitoes. Some compounds were very effective. But the same compounds were not effective at all when mosquitoes were exposed to them in a wind tunnel module by chemist Ulrich (Uli) Bernier, in the Mosquito and Fly Unit at the ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology in Gainesville, Fla. “We viewed the results of the wind tunnel as being more authentic,” Weldon says. “The compounds didn’t affect mosquitoes that much, but mainly affected ticks. It was a step forward in pinpointing what we believe is the reason that animals anoint themselves with citrus substances.”

Ticking off ticks Mosquitoes, ticks, and other blood-feeding arthropods are attracted to certain chemicals, such as carbon dioxide in an animal’s breath. One behavior of host-seeking ticks when a host draws near is to climb up a plant to reach the passing host and then find an attachment site on the host’s body. Entomologist John Carroll, of BARC’s Invasive Insect Biocontrol and Behavior Laboratory, and colleagues conducted several experiments to evaluate citrus compound repellency against ticks. One test involved putting lemon rind exudates and various citrus chemicals on paper strips. When they sensed a host cue, the

ticks started climbing the paper. Information was recorded on whether a tick crossed a line into chemically treated zones, continued crawling, turned around, crawled back down, or fell off the paper. On average, nine out of 10 ticks rushed to the top of the paper strip treated with acetone — the control. Stopping, retreating, and falling off the paper indicated repellency, Carroll says. “In another experiment, we put ticks inside filter-paper packets treated with citrus chemicals,” he says. “After an hour, ticks were removed from the packets, placed on their backs and timed to see whether they could turn themselves right side up, walk and climb out of a low enclosure.” Some of the chemicals that had repellency also had a big effect on tick behavior, but so did some of the nonrepellent ones, Carroll says. Some ticks did not crawl out and appeared uncoordinated. Of 24 ticks exposed to one chemical, only one tick righted itself. Of more than 20 chemicals tested, only one killed ticks exposed to it for an hour. Several other chemicals appeared potentially useful in deterring tick attachment.

Milling millipedes While some animals use citrus to ward off parasites, others roll on or rub themselves with crushed millipedes. “Certain millipedes discharge chemicals to protect themselves,”

Carroll says. “If you pick up some species of millipedes, you’ll notice the characteristic smell of cyanide.” Carroll and his colleagues tested the responses of lone star ticks to three benzoquinone chemicals found in millipedes and to permethrin, a commercial insecticide and repellent. Ticks were confined in filter-paper packets treated with each chemical for one hour. Only one of the benzoquinone chemicals killed ticks, but it was not as toxic as permethrin, Carroll says. In the behavioral tests, all three benzoquinones inhibited righting and climbing. At higher concentrations, they impaired tick climbing for months. “Some of the experimental methods that we used are kind of simple, but they can provide a lot of information,” Carroll says. “In fact, one of the things that came out of the citrus chemical study was a muchneeded method for statistically analyzing repeated behavior.”

Measuring behaviors Although scientists had compiled data on many different host-seeking behaviors, they needed a simple method to determine how to assess repellency. Based on data collected on the effects of five chemicals on lone star ticks, BARC statistician Matt Kramer devised a method to collapse several tick behaviors into one score when tested with different chemicals. “The idea is to use the behavioral

differences observed as ticks are tested on different compounds to find optimal weightings of these behaviors,” Kramer says. “The sum of these weighted behaviors produces a single score for each tick.” These scores are the best single numbers that could be used for discriminating among the compounds, he adds. “We knew different compounds should produce different behaviors,” Kramer says. “We just didn’t know which behaviors were the most important to use in the score and how much weight each should get before summing them.” A technique called “canonical discriminate analysis” tells how much to weight each measure or behavior to best separate known groups — animals tested on different compounds, Kramer says. With some minor changes, this technique was used to create the composite scores. The new method allows scientists to determine which chemicals are most effective in tests, greatly reduces the complexity of the analysis and provides a valuable tool for measuring animal behaviors. “It can be applied not only to other animals, but also to plants and in many situations where you have multiple measurements or dependent variables for a single individual,” Kramer says. Sandra Avant is a public affairs specialist with the USDA’s Agricultural Research Service in Beltsville, Md.

USDA dedicates April as ‘invasive pest awareness’ month WASHINGTON — USDA’ Animal & Plant Health Inspection Service has proclaimed April as “Invasive Plant Pest and Disease Awareness Month.” All month, APHIS will highlight how invasive species can enter the U.S. and spread, and how the general public can take simple, specific actions to leave these hungry pests

behind. Invasive pests and diseases are non-native species that cause — or are likely to cause — harm to the economy, the environment or human health. “At its core, APHIS’ mission is protecting animal and plant health in the U.S.,” said Acting APHIS Administrator Kevin Shea. “This includes programs to address the

invasive pests and diseases that have cost the United States billions of dollars in lost agricultural jobs, closed export markets and damaged ecosystems. It’s a huge job, and APHIS needs the help of the public to be successful.” Devastating invasive pests and diseases — insects, disease-causing microorganisms, snails, slugs,

mites, microscopic worms, weed seeds and fungal spores — often hitch rides on things people move and pack. These common pathways include passenger baggage; plants and plant parts like fruit, vegetables and bud wood; Internet-purchased plants and plant products; firewood; and outdoor gear, among many others. Fortunately, once people are

aware of these risks, they can easily prevent the spread of hungry pests. More information can be obtained at the Hungry Pests website — The website includes an interactive map and learn about invasive pests and diseases that are affecting or could affect individual states, and how to report them.


POULTRY TIMES, April 8, 2013


to moderate. In the parts structure, movement was light to moderate for early week business. Prices were trending weak to lower for wings, steady to firm for dark meat items and breast cuts, steady for the balance of parts. Offerings of breast cuts and tenders were light and clearing well; dark meat items were light to moderate and wings were available and slow to clear. Market activity for parts was seasonally slow to moderate. In production areas, live supplies were moderate at mixed but mostly desirable weights.

Compiled by David B. Strickland, Editor 770-718-3442

Nat’l. Broiler Market: (Apr. 2): Whole broiler/fryer prices were trending about steady to steady in the East, steady in the West and Midwest. Offerings were

light to moderate for current trade needs. Retail demand was light to moderate, foodservice demand was light to instances good with some anticipating increased interest as the week progressed. Floor stocks were moderate. Market activity was slow

F owl: Mar. 29: Live spent heavy fowl

Final prices at Farm Buyer Loading (per pound): range 10-22¢

P arts: Georgia:

The f.o.b. dock quoted prices on ice-pack parts based on truckload and pool truckload lots for the week of Apr. 1: line run tenders $1.87½; skinless/boneless breasts $1.75; whole breasts $1.11½; boneless/skinless thigh meat $1.40; thighs 73½¢; drumsticks 70½¢; leg quarters 55¢; wings $1.75.

N ational Slaughter: Broiler: Estimated slaughter

for week ending Mar. 30 is 151,477,000. Actual slaughter for the week ending Mar. 23 was 157,242,000. Heavy-type hen: Estimated slaughter for the week ending Mar. 30 is 1,535,000. Actual slaughter for the week end-

The following chart provides an annual high and a comparison of recent activity of major poultry company stocks.

USDA Shell Eggs AMS weekly combined region shell egg prices Average prices on sales to volume buyers, Grade A or better, White eggs in cartons, delivered warehouse, cents per dozen.

Company Annual High Mar. 5 Mar. 19 Cal-Maine 47.66 40.66 43.45 Campbell Soup 42.23 41.69 42.19 ConAgra 35.27 34.73 35.26 Hormel 39.60 38.17 39.53 9.90 9.15 9.01 Pilgrim’s Pride Sanderson Farms 55.87 52.63 54.63 Seaboard 2934.00 2806.25 2849.90 Tyson 24.49 23.21 24.17 (Courtesy: A.G. Edwards & Sons Inc.)

Mar. 29

Extra Large Regions: Northeast 142.00 Southeast 144.50 Midwest 134.50 South Central 144.50 Combined 141.47



141.00 114.00 142.50 106.00 132.50 99.50 143.50 107.50 140.00 106.73

Computed from simple weekly averages weighted by regional area populations

Grain Prices OHIO  COUNTRY  ELEV. Mar. 19 Mar. 26 Apr. 2 No. 2 Yellow Corn/bu. $7.40 $7.53 $6.50 Soybeans/bu. $14.14 $14.42 $13.91 (Courtesy: Prospect Farmers Exchange, Prospect, Ohio)

Broiler Eggs Set/Chicks Placed in 19 States EGGS SET (Thousands)


Mar. 2

Mar. 9

Mar. 16

Mar. 23

Mar. 2

Mar. 9

Mar. 16

Mar. 23

Del Fla Ga Ky La Md Miss Mo. N.C. Okla Pa S.C. Tex Va Other states

27,971 21,816 10,415 3,415 1,221 33,177 7,599 3,364 7,254 17,516 8,110 20,312 6,918 3,760 5,417 15,172 6,396 7,923

27,434 21,772 10,617 3,409 1,221 33,057 7,648 3,379 7,453 16,957 8,268 20,085 6,886 3,949 5,333 15,223 6,661 7,989

28,113 21,156 10,906 3,412 1,221 33,182 7,708 3,395 7,457 17,869 7,938 19,926 6,909 3,796 5,275 15,238 6,653 8,001

28,130 21,080 11,333 3,323 1,220 32,852 7,433 3,455 7,398 17,593 8,126 19,795 6,969 3,877 5,346 15,159 6,518 8,230

20,731 20,311 9,259 3,818 1,089 26,310 5,731 2,967 6,713 14,814 5,172 15,780 4,996 2,977 4,436 12,435 5,024 5,925

20,548 20,875 9,508 4,419 1,488 27,148 6,503 2,968 6,163 14,731 5,144 16,412 4,797 3,031 4,442 12,202 4,451 5,866

21,217 20,533 10,121 3,583 1,224 27,047 6,162 3,020 6,281 14,957 5,502 16,191 4,364 3,062 3,894 12,433 5,087 5,492

21,201 20,406 9,942 4,696 1,141 26,880 6,408 2,994 5,420 14,890 5,769 16,276 4,171 3,114 3,898 12,479 4,856 5,767

19 States Total









% Prev. yr.









Ala Ark


1/Current week as percent of same week last year.

Estimates: The estimated number of broiler/fryers available for slaughter the week ending Mar. 30 was 155.4 million head, compared to 151.6 million head slaughtered the same week last year. The estimated U.S. slaughter for the week of Mar. 30 was 151.8 million head, or 3.6 million less than estimated. For the week of Apr. 6, the estimated available is 152.9 million head, USDA’s Agricultural Marketing Service notes.

Broiler/Fryer Report

Industry Stock Report

ing Mar. 23 was 1,424,000. Light-type hen: Estimated slaughter for the week ending Mar. 30 is 1,863,000. Actual slaughter for the week ending Mar. 23 was 1,788,000. Total: Week of Mar. 30: 154,875,000. Week of Mar. 23: 160,454,000.

USDA National Composite Weighted Average For week of: Mar. 29 For week of: Mar. 22

106.69¢ 106.68¢

Majority (whole body) Mar. 29 Eastern Region: $1.07--$1.11 New York: $1.05--$1.11 Central Region: 98¢--$1.05 Chicago: 9 8¢--$1.05 Western Region: $1.07--$1.12 Los Angeles: $1.08--$1.11 Negotiated prices in trucklot and less-than-trucklot quantities of ready-to-cook whole body broiler/fryers delivered to first receivers; prices in cents per pound.

Turkey Markets Weighted avg. prices for frozen whole young turkeys Weighted average (cents/lb.) F.O.B. shipper dock National Week ending Mar. 29  Last year Hens (8-16 lbs.) 97.50 104.50 Toms (16-24 lbs.) 98.16 105.14 Week ending Mar. 22 Hens (8-16 lbs.) Toms (16-24 lbs.)

95.50 94.50

Mar. avg. 96.58 96.53

Egg Markets USDA quotations New York cartoned del. store-door: Mar. 28 Apr. 2 Extra large, down 10¢ $1.46--$1.50 $1.36--$1.40 Large, down 10¢ $1.44--$1.48 $1.34--$1.38 Medium, down 5¢ $1.14--$1.18 $1.09--$1.13 Southeast Regional del. warehouse: Mar. 28 Apr. 2 Extra large, up 4½¢ $1.35--$1.56 $1.39½--$1.61 Large, up 6½¢ $1.31½--$1.51 $1.38--$1.57 Medium, down 5¢ $1.03½--$1.21 98½¢--$1.21


POULTRY TIMES, April 8, 2013

AMERICAN EGG BOARD HOTLINE AEB Hotline appears regularly in Poultry Times and provides an update on programs and services provided for egg producers by the American Egg Board. Details on any item mentioned may be obtained by contacting AEB at 1460 Renaissance Dr., Park Ridge, Ill. 60068. Phone: 847-296-7043. yy Building on the momentum started in 2012, the American Egg Board organized a sizeable, aggressive campaign in 2013 to reclaim Easter as THE egg holiday. This will be the largest and most comprehensive Easter promotion ever organized by AEB. Across almost every department at AEB, Easter-related efforts were planned. yy A major Easter-focused national advertising campaign featured a new Easter-themed version of the Incredible Edible Egg Jingle for radio and new print and digital ads. Radio listeners of ESPN’s “Mike and Mike” and “Nick Cannon Countdown” heard the new :30 and :60 spots. Several state promotional organizations ran these spots locally helping to extend AEB’s messages further. Viewers of the “Jimmy Kimmel Show” saw a sponsored integration that incorporates the jingle on March 22. yy In-store Easter promotional displays and egg price signage reach grocery shoppers close to their points of purchase. From March 10 to April 6, Easter-themed egg case signage appeared in 7,700 grocery stores. A Facebook coupon and a co-

operative retail promotion with Kellogg Keebler brand crackers drove egg sales during this period. Three million Instant Redemption Coupons for a dozen free eggs with the purchase of two cracker packages also were available. yy An Easter press release featured Sabrina Soto, home/ interior design expert and Target’s Style Expert for Home, and included her tips/inspiration for decorating hard-boiled eggs as part of as well as fact sheets on hard-boiling and “A Dozen Reasons to Love Eggs.” AEB promoted all these efforts via its social media properties. Sponsored stories on both Facebook and Twitter drove visitors to the Incredible Edible Egg’s Facebook page. A Pinterest contest encouraged fans to post their own creative decorated egg. Easter content was also be added to AEB again provided volunteers’ hats and aprons and more than 14,000 hardboiled eggs for the White House Easter Egg Roll. yy To further capitalize on the momentum of Easter, AEB partnered with Discovery Education for a second virtual field trip featuring Willamette Egg Farms. His cage-free facility and aviary housing system showcased different methods of modern egg production. This field trip was tied into lesson plans and additional educational opportunities. yy The state promotional organizations shared an Easter-focused press release that focused on holiday traditions with more than 250 media contacts.

Drought conditions remain in Texas The Associated Press

HOUSTON — More than 98 percent of Texas is in some level of abnormal dryness as spring arrives, conditions that could set drought records and lead to severe water restrictions in some regions of the state. The weekly U.S. Drought Monitor report released on March 28 by the National Drought Mitigation Center in Lincoln, Neb., registered an increase for Texas in each of the five levels of drought. Only 1.4 percent of the state is not in drought, compared to 3.6 percent on March 21. Nearly 11 percent of Texas is in “exceptional” drought, the most severe level, up from 9.9 percent on March 21. Three months ago, 95.4 percent of the state was in drought. Conditions statewide are now only slightly better than they were six months into the 2011 drought, the worst one-year dry spell in Texas’ history, said state clima-

tologist John Nielsen-Gammon. The issues have steadily worsened because five of the past six months have had lower than average rainfall, he said. Soil moisture is low statewide, and reservoirs and aquifers have not fully recharged since 2011, NielsenGammon added. “Depending on how much rain we get in the spring or summer, we may be facing more water restrictions in some parts of the state, maybe some that haven’t been used before,” he said. The Edwards Aquifer, the primary water source for San Antonio, is one of several basins impacted by the drought. The aquifer is nearing historically low levels, and Nielsen-Gammon said authorities fear they will have to place the most severe restrictions ever on residents in the city, one of the nation’s 10 largest metropolitan areas. Several lakes, rivers and streams also remain unusually dry. A central

Texas water authority recently cut off irrigation waters from rice farmers for the second year in a row after several Central Texas reservoirs failed to refill. Some parts of the state could break drought records set over a seven-year stretch in the 1950s — a dry spell so severe all water planning in Texas is based on those conditions. “Officially, we’re still in the same drought since 2011,” NielsenGammon said. “There’s never been a time when even half the state has been out of drought so this is the third year of drought, and if it lasts through the summer, it will be the second worst drought on record.” Based on current forecasts, that is a real possibility. Meteorologists, including Nielsen-Gammon, say outlooks show below normal rainfall during the spring — generally the rainy season for chunks of the state — and warm temperatures through the summer.

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POULTRY TIMES, April 8, 2013

•Exports (Continued from page 3)

tons valued at $498.8 million, up 22 and 32 percent. Last year was also a record-setting year for total U.S. poultry meat exports in both quantity and value. Export value of U.S. poultry climbed to nearly $5.5 billion, 11 percent over 2011, while quantity hit 4.1 million metric tons, up 5 percent. The quantity record was 0.6 percent higher than in 2008, the previous record year. Meanwhile, 2012 U.S. egg exports also reached record levels. Total exports (table eggs plus processed egg products in shell-egg equivalents) were 274.1 million dozen valued at $263.7 million, up 24 and 35 percent from 2011, respectively.

Broiler meat Broiler meat exports in 2012, excluding chicken paws, set records in both quantity and value, reaching 3.3 million tons valued at $4.2 billion, up respectively 4 and 15 percent from 2011. Compared to the previous record set in 2008, U.S. broiler meat export quantity for 2012 increased by about 1 percent, while value rose by 17 percent. Paws Exports of chicken paws in 2012 reached 363,974 tons, an increase of 5 percent from the previous year, while export value was $450.1 million, down 10 percent from 2011. Of those exports, 53 percent went to Hong Kong, and 40 percent went to China. U.S. turkey exports last year also reached record highs, with exports in 2012 climbing to 361,597 tons valued at $678.5 million, up 14 and 13 percent, respectively. Turkey markets The top U.S. turkey markets are Mexico, 187,201 tons valued at

$371.8 million, up 3 and 4 percent, respectively; China, 45,910 tons valued at $70.7 million, up 22 and 32 percent; the Philippines, 14,379 tons valued at $12.9 million, up 167 and 123 percent; Canada, 14,150 tons valued at $31.4 million, up 38 and 29 percent; and Hong Kong, 12,063 tons valued at $20.7 million, down 30 and 17 percent. For table eggs, exports in 2012 were 127.6 million dozen valued at $122.6 million, up 54 and 59 percent, respectively, both records, and driven by increased shipments to Mexico, Hong Kong and the European Union.

Table egg markets The top five export markets for table eggs are Hong Kong, 46.7 million dozen, up 30 percent; Canada, 26.1 million dozen, up 19 percent; Mexico, 16.6 million dozen versus 1.3 million dozen in 2011; the U.A.E. (United Arab Emirates), 13 million dozen, up 66 percent; and the European Union, 8.9 million dozen versus 0.78 million dozen in 2011. For egg products, 2012 was also a record-setting year, as total export value rose by 20 percent to $141 million. Export value to Japan, the top export market for U.S. egg products, decreased by 28 percent to $45.1 million, accounting for 32 percent of U.S. total export value worldwide. Export value to the European Union (EU) rose by 88 percent to $38.3 million, while sales to Mexico increased six-fold to $16.5 million. Exports to Canada increased 18 percent to $9.6 million, while exports to South Korea dipped by 7 percent to $4.1 million. Total egg exports (table eggs plus egg products in shell egg equivalent) in 2012 set records in both volume and value. While export quantity hit 274.1 million dozen, an increase of 24 percent from the previous year, export value reached $263.7 million, up 35 percent from 2011.

Source: USDA/FAS GATS database

Turkeys: U.S. turkey exports since 1990.

Source: USDA/FAS GATS database

Eggs: U.S. exports of table eggs and egg products (in shell-egg equivalents) since 1990.

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Poultry Times April 8 2013 Edition  

Poultry Times April 8 2013 Edition