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Since 1954, the nation’s only poultry industry newspaper

October 10, 2011

Poultry Times

October 10, 2011 Volume 58, Number 21

U.S. files WTO case against China on import duties USTR seeks fairness for chicken producers WASHINGTON — The U.S. has filed a case against China before the World Trade Organization (WTO) to protect up to 300,000 American agricultural jobs that are being threatened by China’s imposition of duties on imports of American chicken products. United States Trade Representative Ron Kirk, in announcing the filing on Sept. 20, said, “To be clear, the United States does not arbitrarily seek disagreements with China. However, we will not stand still if we believe that China has vi-

olated its commitments as a WTO member and is therefore threatening American jobs — in this case hundreds of thousands of American poultry industry jobs. Our actions against China simply demonstrate that the United States is prepared to take every measure necessary to stand up for American workers by ensuring that China — or any of our other trading partners — does not misuse laws to prevent exports of U.S. products.” Specifically, the U.S. is requesting dispute settlement consultations — the first step in a WTO dispute — to challenge China’s imposition of antidumping and countervailing duties against imports of U.S.

chicken “broiler products,” which are both chicken products that are not cut into pieces, as well as various cuts and pieces. Through this case, the U.S. is addressing its concerns that China’s duties appear to be inconsistent with WTO rules. Under WTO rules, parties that do not resolve a matter through consultations within 60 days may request the establishment of a WTO dispute settlement panel. The USA Poultry & Egg Export Council and the National Chicken Council noted that the action being brought is a trade remedy case that challenges the method by which

See WTO, Page 8 Special

Comparing radiant system floor heating patterns By Michael Czarick & Dr. Brian Fairchild Special to Poultry Times

ATHENS, Ga. — Radiant heating systems are by far the most common method of providing supplement heat to birds in poultry houses today. Michael Czarick is an Extension engineer and Dr. Brian Fairchild is an Extension poultry scientist, both with the University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Service in Athens, Ga. More information can be obtained at

What sets radiant heating systems apart from traditional hot air heating systems is the fact that roughly 50 percent of the heat energy produced by a radiant heater is delivered directly to the floor in the form of radiant heat. Radiant heat from a heater

produces a floor temperature gradient where floor temperatures directly underneath the heater may be 20 degrees F to 40 degrees F above ambient air temperature which gradually decrease to near ambient air temperature at a distance of between 5-feet to 20-feet from the radiant heater depending on the type installed. Having a floor temperature gradient is of significant benefit when it comes to providing optimal growing conditions for young chicks because they can select the floor temperature where they feel most comfort-

See Patterns, Page 9

Past President’s Award: Paul Nordin of Wayne Farms, left, incoming president of the North Carolina Poultry Federation, presents the Past President’s Award to Kendall Casey of Perdue Farms for his dedication to the poultry industry and service as the NCPF’s board president for the 2010-11 year.

NCPF presents Distinguished Service Award GREENSBORO, N.C. — Dr. John Barnes, professor of Poultry Health Management at North Carolina State University, was honored with the Distinguished Service Award presented by the North Carolina Poultry Federation at its annual meeting. The federation also presented Tim Brooks of American Veterinary Pharmaceuticals with the Allied Industry Award; and outgoing NCPF President Kendall Casey with Perdue Farms with the NCPF Past President’s Award. The Environmental Grower Award was given to Anthony, El-

See NCPF, Page 11


POULTRY TIMES, October 10, 2011

CSES holds USDA payments to support 2nd annual meeting advanced biofuels production KANSAS CITY, Mo. — The Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES), a multi-stakeholder coalition committed to pursuing a sustainable supply of eggs, held its second annual meeting on Sept. 27 in Rosemont, Ill. Researchers participating in the coalition’s Laying Hen Housing Sustainability Research project reported on progress and early observations from the first U.S. commercial-scale, laying hen housing research to evaluate multiple aspects of sustainability: environmental impact, food safety, worker safety, animal health and well-being, and food affordability. CSES believes a significant gap exists in scientific knowledge related to a wide range of sustainability impacts of laying hen housing. A commercial-scale study of housing alternatives for egg-laying hens in the U.S. is currently underway, led by Michigan State University and the University of California-Davis. The study includes a cage-free aviary system, an enriched colony and the conventional cage system which produces the vast major-

See CSES, Page 10

WASHINGTON — U.S. Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack has announced that USDA will make payments to more than 160 energy producers in 41 states to support and ensure the production and expansion of advanced biofuels. “Renewable energy production will create tens of thousands of direct, American jobs; thousands more indirect jobs, and clean electricity to power millions of homes. The payments I am announcing today (Sept. 27) represent the continuing commitment of the Obama administration to work with producers to provide the biofuel necessary to reduce our nation’s dependence on foreign energy sources,” Vilsack said. “The payments support America’s growing advanced biofuel industry.” The payments are authorized un-

der the Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels (Section 9005 of the 2008 Farm Bill) and are made to eligible producers to support and ensure an expanding production of advanced biofuels. Payments are based on the amount of biofuels a recipient produces from renewable biomass, other than corn kernel starch. Eligible examples include biofuels derived from cellulose, crop residue, animal, food and yard waste material, biogas (landfill and sewage waste treatment gas), vegetable oil and animal fat. For example, Ever Cat Fuels has been selected to receive a $98,507 contract payment to help offset the costs of producing almost 881,000 gallons of biodiesel at its plant in Isanti, Minn. Ever Cat uses the Mcgyan process to produce biodiesel, which efficiently and economi-

Christensen elected PAACO chairman REDFIELD, Iowa — Dr. Karen Christensen, Fort Smith, Ark., was elected chairman of the board of directors of the Professional Animal Auditor Certification Organization (PAACO) at the group’s annual meeting in Kansas City on Sept. 7. Director of Technical Services for O.K. Farms, Christensen was PAACO’s vice chairman the previous two years. She succeeds Dr. David Hermes of Washington, Ind. Named vice chairman was Dr. Terry Mader, Concord, Neb., professor and Extension beef specialist with the University of Nebraska. Rounding out the officer team are: Secretary — Dr. Frank Owsley, Auburn, Ala., associate professor and Extension animal scientist with Auburn University; and Treasurer — Dr. Kenton Kreager, Dallas Center, Iowa, senior technical service veterinarian for Hy-Line International. PAACO’s executive director is Mike Simpson. The PAACO board also welcomed two new directors, who were appointed by their respective member organizations: Dr. Cassandra Tucker, assistant professor, University of California-Davis — Federation of Animal Science Societies. Dr. Jennifer Walker, director of dairy stewardship, Dean Foods, Dallas, Texas — American Association of Bovine Practitioners. More information can be obtained from PAACO at

cally converts feedstock plant oils and animal fats to biodiesel. Ever Cat produces 3 million gallons of biodiesel annually and is the first commercial plant designed to use the Mcgyan technology. The plant began operations two years ago, creating 20 full-time jobs. In Corinth, Maine, Corinth Wood Pellets was selected to receive a $31,406 contract payment to continue to produce and sell premiumgrade wood pellets for the residential, industrial and commercial markets. The wood pellets are produced from sawdust and woodchip feedstock. A total of 18,224 metric tons of wood pellets were produced to generate 298,873,600,000 British thermal units (Btu’s). This energy generation supports the Obama administration’s ongoing efforts to reduce reliance on fossil fuels by turning solid feedstock into alternative fuel that is used to heat residential, industrial and commercial buildings, the department notes. USDA funding for this enterprise is expected to support 11 industry jobs. More information can be obtained at http://www.rurdev.usda. gov.

INDEX AEB Hotline ..................... 15 Business ......................... 6-7 Calendar .......................... 10 Classified......................... 12 Viewpoint............................ 4 A directory of Poultry Times advertisers appears on Page 15

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­POULTRY TIMES, October 10, 2011


Roof integrity key to avoid snow disaster By Dennis Brothers, Jess Campbell, Jim Donald & Gene Simpson Special to Poultry Times

AUBURN, Ala. — Since heavy snow is a seldom occurring event in the deep Southeast, the question of how to deal with or prepare for snow events is very seldom at the top of the list of questions we get from Southeast growers. However, when a snow of any magnitude does occur, the question becomes urgent. Many growers are now asking, “What should I do to alleviate snow loads on my chicken house and Dennis Brothers is a poultry housing specialist and Jess Campbell is program manager, both with the National Poultry Technology Center at Auburn University. Jim Donald is a professor and Extension engineer and Gene Simpson is a professor and Extension economist, both with the Alabama Cooperative Extension System at Auburn University, Auburn, Ala.

keep it from being damaged or even collapsing?” This question is best answered before the fact, so that one may have a “game plan” ready and in place before the event occurs. There are as many factors that all tie into the answer to the main question and will need to be examined further. As anyone with poultry houses knows, when one thing is done, it often affects several other things, some of which can have detrimental results. First, a grower needs to know how much snow load the poultry house was designed and built to withstand — and make sure, through regular inspection and repairs, if needed, that the house can still meet that standard. Second, a grower should have some knowledge of snow loading factors to be able to judge the actual weight on the roof if and when snow does arrive. These steps provide the basis for making appropriate decisions about what to do — and what not to do — when a heavy snow comes down.

Ready for snow? Every poultry grower needs to have intimate knowledge of the condition of the roof system of their houses. The age and overall integrity of the truss system is important to know, not only in a snow loading situation, but for the wind and rain that are affecting the roof year round. Any weaknesses can cause the roof system to be compromised in such a way as to make the roof more vulnerable to snow loading. The key word here is “system.” The trusses, truss bracing, purlins and metal all work to-

Shares of meat producers rise on news of higher corn and soybean stocks The Associated Press

NEW YORK — Shares of meat producers rose on Sept. 30, after a government report found higher-thanexpected supplies of corn and soybeans were stored in American silos, easing concerns that a crop shortage could boost grain prices next year. High corn prices have battered profits at big meat companies like Tyson Foods, because grain-based feed is the most expensive input for their operations. The companies haven’t been able to pass on the higher feed costs because consumer demand is still weak. That squeezes profits margins in an already thin-profit industry. If the cost of grains eases during 2012, it could help

big meat companies finally start to fatten their profit margins. Demand has ticked up for pork and beef, but the poultry industry remains stagnant. The odds of significant price hikes for chicken remain slim, so companies are hoping to profit by cutting costs instead. The USDA said on Sept. 30 that about 1.13 billion bushels of corn was stored in the U.S. on Sept. 1. That’s down 34 percent from the same time last year, but it’s still a bigger figure than most analysts expected. The agency said there was about 215 million bushels of soybeans on hand as of Sept. 1, an increase of 42 percent from the year before. The price of corn for December delivery dropped 40 cents a bushel on the news, or 6 percent, to close at $5.93 a bushel. November soybeans fell 51 cents a bushel, or 4 percent, to $11.79.

gether to make a roof system. If any one of these parts is compromised, the entire system could be in jeopardy. The only way to know what is going on with the system is to visually inspect the attic on a regular basis. It is recommended that at least once a year, a grower enter the attic of each house and have a look around. While it is wise to check every part of the attic, particular attention should be paid to several high risk areas. l Where heavy equipment loads are attached, l The end wall and adjacent trusses, and l The middle 1/3 section of the house. Growers need to be inspecting the metal gang nail fasteners of the trusses in particular. Inspect them for any sign of loosening or bending out of the truss. Also check these for corrosion. Next, attention should be paid to the straightness of each member of the truss — top/bottom chords and bracing. Any bowing or warping of a member can spell

problems to come. Checking for signs of leaks in the roof is also best done from the attic. Leaks cause corrosion and rot if left long term. Close inspection of the purlins can reveal leaks and loose fasteners. Remember that all the roof is a system, any breakdown at any one part can weaken the entire system. Such weaknesses are amplified under a snow load situation. If any deficiencies in the roof system are found, contact a reputable building contractor and/or truss manufacturer and pursue repairs immediately. Knowing the integrity of the roof system is important when making the decision of what to do in a snow load situation.

How heavy is snow load Growers need to have an understanding of how much snow weight their buildings are withstanding. The weight difference of light/dry snow versus wet snow versus ice is substantial,

See Disaster, Page 13


POULTRY TIMES, October 10, 2011

Viewpoint Compiled by Barbara Olejnik, Associate Editor 770-718-3440

Industry needs to tell our story! By Dr. T. Lavergne Special to Poultry Times

BATON ROUGE, La. — The poultry industry is targeted by animal rights and welfare groups, as well as by environmental groups. These groups inform the public about their beliefs through several sources of media — web sites, social networking sites, television, radio, newspapers, magazines, Lavergne etc. Some groups even distribute information in elementary schools. The poultry industry has increased its efforts in informing the public about the way broilers and layers are raised and kept. Additionally, the poultry industry is informing the public about why the poultry industry is utilizing the research-based, production practices currently in place. National, state and local associations are able to use media sources, similar to the groups that oppose the industry, to get their message to the public. The poultry industry does need to use media to “tell our story” and we should take the opportunity whenever it arises. Why? We have a have good story to tell, the media should be our ally and we can help society understand the truth about

the poultry industry. The media tends to contact poultry industry representatives, industry associations, or university faculty close to the Thanksgiving and Easter holidays. At these holidays the media discusses food safety issues and/or production of the poultry products that are important to these holidays. Also, they contact us when there is a poultry-related, catastrophic disease outbreak (anywhere in the world), a major foodborne pathogen outbreak, or in response to a claim or story from a group opposing the poultry industry. While the latter contacts are not the most positive, we need to respond to the media and do so in a positive manner. We need to take any opportunity we have with the media to tell them why and how an outbreak was detected and sourced quickly, what industry practices are in place to prevent further illnesses, how the industry responds to outbreaks, as well as give them the facts and statistics related to a particular disease, foodborne pathogen, or production practice. When talking to media, the following tips should be considered: l Always be prepared and tell the truth l Consider it an “opportunity” when you talk to media l Ask the reporter who they are, what their agenda is, how they were directed to you, and what their deadline is (if you cannot

We have a good story to tell . . . and we can help society understand the truth about the poultry industry.

meet their deadline — thank them and offer to help another time) l Ask what you will be asked in the interview (most reporters will give you time to prepare for the interview) l Do not memorize your responses, respond in a conversational manner l Speak slowly and concisely, use short sentences l Simplify your responses in terms the general public will understand (do not use technical terms or jargon) l You are not obligated to answer a question that you are unsure or uneasy about l Avoid being defensive l Do not say “no comment” (explain why you cannot comment) l If you do not know an answer — tell them you do not know the answer l Always remember that your comments and responses are a reflection of yourself, your organization, your industry, . . . l Never assume that a statement will be “off the record” l Stick to your answers and to the facts l Be honest, patient, polite, positive and enthusiastic l Be confident l Ask questions when you need to l Ask to verify your quotes (most reporters will let you confirm your quotes if you can do so in a timely manner) l Ask the reporter when the story will run, then watch, listen to, or read the story when it runs l Follow up with the reporter

to thank them for running the story, or if you find a major mistake contact the reporter directly and ask for a correction There are organizations and in-

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dividuals in the poultry industry that are promoting the story of the industry. Anyone involved in the poultry industry should take the opportunity to share their part of the industry story. We can spread the positive message that the poultry industry has. Dr. Theresia Lavergne is executive secretary of the Louisiana Poultry Federation and a professor with the LSU AgCenter located at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, La. Gainesville, Georgia 30501. Telephone 770-536-2476; Fax 770-532-4894. Postage paid at Gainesville, Georgia 30501. Poultry Times assumes responsibliity for error in first run of an in-house designed ad only. Advertisers have ten (10) days from publication date to dispute such an advertisement. After ten (10) days, ad will be deemed correct and advertiser will be charged accordingly. Proofs approved by advertiser will always be regarded as correct.

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­POULTRY TIMES, October 10, 2011


Cardinal rules for wintertime broiler houses By Jess Campbell & Dennis Brothers Special to Poultry Times

AUBURN, Ala. — We receive many calls and e-mails from growers asking questions about how to Jess Campbell and Dennis Brothers are poultry housing specialists with the National Poultry Technology Center at Auburn University in Auburn, Ala.

manage wintertime ventilation. Growers want to keep flock performance up, but don’t want to burn any more heating fuel than necessary, and they ask what factors or methods are really important to reaching this goal. The following key points outline what industry experience and university research have shown to be the cardinal rules for wintertime broiler house ventilation. Seal all house air leaks. You cannot properly ventilate a loose

house. We want all air to come in through the inlets, not through leaks and cracks. Cold air falls, and cold outside air leaking through cracks, curtains, holes and any other unwanted opening drops toward the floor, causing condensation, wet litter, cake and poor bird performance. Test house tightness by static pressure: with all doors, curtains and inlets of the house closed and one 48-inch, 20,000-cfm fan turned on, we should be able to pull a negative static pressure of 0.15 inches. If

USDA announces assistance to help new farmers, ranchers WASHINGTON — USDA Deputy Secretary Kathleen Merrigan has announced that the department has awarded 36 grants totaling $18 million to organizations that will provide training and assistance to beginning farmers and ranchers to help them run successful and sustainable farms. As the average age of America’s farmers and ranchers increases, and with traditional rural populations in decline, Merrigan said that now is a critical time to train the next generation of American producers. “Beginning farmers and ranchers face unique challenges, and these grants will provide needed training to help these producers become profitable and sustainable,” said Merrigan. “American agriculture supports one in 12 jobs in America, a critical contribution to the strength and prosperity of the country. The sheer productivity of our farmers has given Americans access to a cheap, wholesome food supply and provides us with more discretionary income than much of the rest of the world. But our farmers are aging, and more of our young people are looking outside of farming for their careers. It’s time to reverse these trends, keep farmers on the farm and help beginning farmers and ranchers thrive in their careers.” USDA’s National Institute of Food and Agriculture awarded the grants through its Beginning Farmer and Rancher Development Program (BFRDP). Under BFRDP, which was established through the 2008 Farm Bill, NIFA makes grants to organizations that implement education, training, technical assistance

and outreach programs to help beginning farmers and ranchers, specifically those who have been farming or ranching for 10 years or fewer. At least 25 percent of the program’s funding supports the needs of limited resource and socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers, as well as farm workers who want to get a start in farming and ranching. Projects were awarded in Arizona, California, the District of Columbia, Georgia, Iowa, Louisiana, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Texas, Vermont, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Washington, Wisconsin and Wyoming. Project highlights include: l A project in New York to provide workshops, conferences, apprenticeships, online resources and mentoring services for more than 1,200 beginning farmers by 2014. l A project in Montana to offer financial, credit and marketing training to beginning American Indian farmers. l A project in Mississippi to develop and disseminate training materials and decision-making tools to high school and college students who plan to enter farming and ranching. BFRDP provided $18 million in funding this year, the third year of the program. Another $18 million will be made available in fiscal year 2012. More information on the BFRDP program can be obtained at

the number is lower than 0.15, too much air is coming through leaks and cracks. The higher the number from the static pressure test the tighter the house. Insulate before you ventilate. We cannot maintain good environment in a poultry house in cold weather if we have no way to keep the heat in. Ceiling insulation should be approximately R19. Check your insulation for tears, holes and places where insulation may have shifted and there is no insulation at all. Consider insulating end walls, end doors and other parts of the house that are not currently insulated. Set the fan timer for the right minimum ventilation rate, according to bird age. Be sure all fans are controlled by a single timer. The ventilation rate needed usually ranges from about 0.10 cfm/bird in week one to about 0.90 cfm/bird by week eight. In week one, for example, with 24,000 birds, you would need one-tenth of 24,000, or 2,400 cfm on average. We say “on average,” because you can’t run a 2,400 cfm fan. You use the timer to run, say, two 10,000-cfm 36-inch fans the percentage of time needed to average out at 2,400 cfm. You find the percentage needed simply by dividing the cfm’s needed by the

cfm capacity of the fans you will be running. In this example, 2,400 cfm divided by 20,000 fan cfm’s equals 0.12. You multiply that percentage times the five minutes in the timer cycle, and set for 36 seconds runtime out of a five-minute cycle (36 seconds on-time out of 300 seconds = 0.12). Never ventilate with less than two 36-inch fans. Single 36inch fan ventilation usually will not yield a high enough static pressure to ventilate properly. Heat moves toward fans, so ventilating with a single 48-inch fan concentrates heat in that end of the house. Running two or more minimum ventilation fans helps maintain temperature uniformity, and that will boost flock performance. Increase fan timer settings (ventilation rate) each week from day one through catch. Fan runtime must be increased weekly to handle the increased moisture birds give off as they grow.As noted in Rule No. 3, the rate needed typically increases from about one-tenth a cfm per bird to almost a full cfm per bird. Note that having a properly set minimum ventilation timer is just as important at the end of the growout as it is in the beginning of the growout. Later in a growout,

See Rules, Page 16

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POULTRY TIMES, October 10, 2011

Business Compiled by David B. Strickland, Editor 770-718-3442

Rabobank sees production decline for poultry, meat ST. LOUIS — U.S. meat and poultry production is headed for what researchers at the Rabobank International Food & Agribusiness Research and Advisory (FAR) group anticipate to be a “precipitous fall” by mid-2012. Broiler and beef supplies are all expected to tighten as production increasingly lags behind GDP (gross domestic product) growth. Released on Sept. 29, the Rabobank International Food & Agribusiness Research and Advisory (FAR) group’s “Where’s the Beef?” report notes that drought in the U.S. is a major contributor to the production decline, but the report finds that global meat and poultry production is in the midst of a multi-year process of adjusting to higher and more volatile feed costs. Since the U.S. is a large and significant exporter of meat protein, the decline will also affect world markets, as well as demand for feed, notably for corn, the report says. “The drastic decline in protein production we anticipate will be felt in a number of industries,” noted David Nelson, Global Strategist with the Rabobank Food & Agribusiness Research and Advisory team. “We expect the decline will create concerns for everyone from foodservice operators to corn producers.” The report delves into domestic and global consumption trends. Per capita meat consumption in the U.S. appears to have peaked. The poultry industry, in particular, should no longer count on rising domestic demand as a means of growing its way out of over-production situations. However, a rising GDP in the developing world is contributing to an increasing global demand for meat protein. “The greater global demand for meat protein is the key driver to rising feed costs, which in turn drive up the cost of raising animal protein,” Nelson said. “Global meat and poultry production continues to significantly lag GDP growth, which is, of course, the key factor behind rising prices.”

Broiler outlook The report notes the U.S. broiler industry is suffering some of its worst-ever financial losses. The industry has expanded breast meat output at a time when demand has been softening due to the

See Outlooks, Page 7

In other Business news:

Savannah port expands refrigerated capacity BRUNSWICK, Ga. — The Georgia Ports Authority board of directors has approved a $4.75 million project that will expand the Port of Savannah’s capacity for refrigerated container storage by 45 percent. “As the leading U.S. container port for poultry exports, this new investment will not only expand capacity, but create additional opportunity to export Americanmade and grown products to the world,” said GPA’s Executive Director Curtis J. Foltz. The project will consist of the fabrication and installation of 20 four-story steel-framed refrigerated container racks at Garden City Terminal’s Container Berth 8 (CB-8). It is scheduled to be completed in September 2012. The GPA currently has 44 refrigerated container racks in service. Each rack powers 24 refrigerated containers. When complete, the new racks will allow the Port of Savannah to accommodate 1,536 containers with a total of 64 racks online. The Port of Savannah moved nearly 40 percent of U.S. containerized poultry exports or 1.6 billion pounds in fiscal year 2011 (July 2010 through June 2011). In the past five years, refrigerated container volume has increased 54 percent at the Port of Savannah. Savannah’s refrigerated containerized cargo was dominated by exports in FY2011 with 76 percent exports to 24 percent imports. Poultry was GPA’s fourth largest export commodity during FY2011, behind wood pulp, paper and paperboard including paper waste, and fabrics including raw cotton. The Port of Savannah also exported more than $804.5 million

of containerized poultry during FY2011, with the bulk of it going to Hong Kong. “Each year we continue to invest in infrastructure to make sure that wherever the Port of Savannah is today that it will remain so in the future,” said GPA’s Chairman of the Board Alec Poitevint. “Improvements like these ensure Georgia’s role in global commerce as a gateway for American agricultural products.” Before electrified refrigerated container racks were brought online in 2008, diesel generators were used to power refrigerated containers in tandem with wheeled parking spots with electrical hookups, GPA notes, adding that, now, for every 10 racks placed into service, the GPA saves about 540,000 gallons of diesel fuel annually, which would have been used to power diesel generators. With a total of 44 racks online now, the GPA avoids using more than 2.376 million gallons annually. More information can be obtained at http://www.gaports. com.

Cal-Maine reports first quarter results JACKSON, Miss. — CalMaine Foods Inc. has announced results for the first quarter of fiscal 2012 ended Aug. 27, 2011. For the first quarter of fiscal 2012, net sales were $243.8 million, compared with net sales of $190.4 million for the first quarter of fiscal 2011. The company reported net income of $3.1 million, or 13 cents per basic and diluted share, for the first quarter of fiscal 2012 compared with net income of $4.8 million, or 20 cents per basic and diluted share, for the yearearlier period. “We are pleased with our overall performance for the first

quarter of fiscal 2012,” Dolph Baker, president and CEO of Cal-Maine Foods, said. “On a seasonal basis, the first quarter period is historically the slowest period in our fiscal year. Total revenues for the first quarter were up 28 percent over the prior year period, reflecting higher average selling prices for shell eggs and favorable retail demand. Volumes also improved over the same period last year as indicated by a 3 percent increase in total dozen eggs produced and a 7 percent increase in total dozen eggs sold. Sales of specialty eggs, which have a higher selling price, have continued to trend higher and were up 13 percent over the first quarter last year, representing approximately 16 percent of total dozen eggs sold for the first quarter of fiscal 2012.” “In spite of significantly higher feed costs, we were profitable for the quarter,” Baker added. “Feed costs were up 15 cents per dozen compared with the first quarter of fiscal 2011 and we expect feed costs will remain very high and volatile for the year ahead. However, in spite of challenging market conditions, we look forward to the opportunities for growth in fiscal 2012. All of Cal-Maine’s operations have continued to run well and we believe we are well positioned for the strong holiday demand period ahead.” For the first quarter of fiscal year 2012, Cal-Maine will pay a cash dividend of approximately 4.4 cents per share to holders of its common and Class A common stock. The amount paid could vary slightly based on the amount of outstanding shares on the record date. The dividend is payable Nov. 10, 2011, to shareholders of record on Oct. 26, 2011, the company noted. (Continued on next page)

­POULTRY TIMES, October 10, 2011 (Continued from previous page)

Tyson Foods honored for hunger relief efforts LITTLE ROCK, Ark. — Tyson Foods Inc. has been recognized for its hunger relief efforts in Arkansas. Arkansas Hunger Relief Alliance, a network of almost 1,000 charitable organizations in the state that provide food to people in need, recently presented Tyson with an “Acting Out Against Hunger Award.” The company received the award during a special event at the Governor’s Mansion. The alliance presents the award annually to people and organizations that have made an exceptional effort to fight food insecurity in the state of Arkansas. Tyson has been active in hunger relief nationwide since 2000, donating more than 82 million pounds of protein, or the equivalent of more than 320 million meals, the company said. This includes more than 7.5 million pounds of food the company has donated in Arkansas during the past four years. Tyson is also active in raising hunger awareness. This summer the company joined hunger relief organization Share Our Strength in spear-


heading the Little Rock “Hinges of Hope” tour. The event spotlighted “No Kid Hungry” programs in the Little Rock metropolitan area that work diligently to end childhood hunger. According to USDA statistics, Arkansas has the highest rate of childhood food insecurity in the country with 25 percent of children living below the poverty line. “We’re honored to be recog-

nized for our commitment to hunger relief, especially here in our home state,” said Ed Nicholson, director of community relations for Tyson Foods. “While it makes sense for a food company like ours to help feed people in need, we’re hopeful our efforts will also raise awareness about the problem of hunger in our state and nation and prompt others to join the fight.”

•Outlooks (Continued from page 6)

weak economy. Despite some cutbacks in bird production, the report predicts profits will remain under pressure into early 2012 as bird weights have provided a significant offset, and due to a large increase in breast meat inventory. Barring further market dislocation, the report authors believe that the industry can return to profitability some time next spring, but only if the more aggressive cutbacks that FAR expects actually take place.

Beef outlook Given the long cattle-production cycle, as well as a relatively high feed conversion ratio, beef is the protein sector least able to cope with structurally higher and more volatile corn prices. Extreme drought conditions in the South and Southwest and many areas, specifically Texas, are resulting in significant herd liquidation. As a result, the report predicts U.S. beef supplies will be plentiful when the cattle

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currently in feedlots come to market, but the long term impact will include a dramatic decline in beef production by mid-2012. “U.S. beef production could be running as much as 7 percent below comparable 2011 levels by the third quarter of 2012,” says Nelson. U.S per capita consumption will continue in a gradual decline, so the reduction in supplies will be most notable for importers of U.S. beef. The report indicates there could be a double-digit percentage decline in beef available for export in the second half of 2012.

Swine outlook Swine is the bright spot in the report. The report suggests that in 2012 hog prices could end up on average 10 percent higher than even the record levels seen in 2011. The current supply and demand situation for the U.S. pork industry is much more stable than for beef or poultry. Strong export demand (currently accounting for roughly 25 percent of output) coupled with solid domes-

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tic pricing has allowed producers and packers to weather the storm of rising feed costs. That said, the deterioration in U.S. crop conditions — leading to higher corn prices — has dampened the outlook a bit.

Corn outlook A reduction in the domestic production of beef, chicken and pork will, of course, have an impact on corn demand. Ethanol consumption accounts for approximately 40 percent of the use of the 2011 corn crop and the report’s authors estimate that corn demand will decline by an incremental 50 million bushels in the third quarter and by 100 million bushels in the fourth quarter of 2012 compared to 2011. This estimate should be considered in the context of USDA’s current estimate of corn ending stocks for the 2011/12 crop year of only 672 million bushels and the implied stocks-to-use ratio of 5.3 percent — the second lowest in history, the report notes. More information about RaboAgriFinance can be obtained at


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POULTRY TIMES, October 10, 2011

•WTO (Continued from page 1)

China determined that the product was allegedly sold as less than normal value. The China case used “average cost of production” to determine normal value rather than using domestic U.S. market prices for comparable sales as is customary in anti-dumping actions. The use of “average cost of production” reflects neither market realities nor the way in which companies in the industry commonly keep their accounts, the industry groups stated, adding that the U.S. industry agrees that the Chinese methodology was seriously flawed and that the antidumping proceeding did not comply with international rules. The two organizations also said the Chinese authorities had found that U.S. poultry exports benefit from farm subsidies, such as support prices for corn and soybeans. The reality is that U.S. poultry receives no government subsidies and does not benefit from any of the government crop programs, the groups said. “The U.S. industry considers it unfortunate that this dispute has to be addressed through the formal WTO process, but believes that it is necessary that this incorrect methodology be challenged and

that U.S. trading rights guaranteed by WTO agreements be protected,” said USAPEEC and NCC. “This action is essential to demonstrate to the international community that anti-dumping measures based on average cost of production is a form of unfair protectionism that is inconsistent with multilateral trade rules. The U.S. industry also believes that this case will have direct implications for dumping cases that have previously been brought by other WTO Member countries that are also incorrectly based on an average cost of production methodology.” Before the imposition of these duties, the U.S. was China’s largest chicken broiler products supplier with more than 600,000 metric tons of broiler products exported in 2009. Since the duties have come into force, U.S. exports to China are down 90 percent. According to industry sources, if these duties are not lifted, the U.S. poultry industry will have lost approximately $1 billion in sales to China by the end of this year alone. Ambassador Kirk noted that this is the latest in a series of enforcement steps the U.S. has taken to hold China accountable for its WTO commitments, including actions at the WTO against China’s

treatment of steel products, industrial raw materials, electronic payment services and wind power equipment as well as actions in the U.S. to address rapidly increasing Chinese tire imports. In each of these matters, the key principle at stake is that China must play by the rules to which it agreed when it joined the WTO, including commitments to maintain open markets on a non-discriminatory basis, and to follow procedures in a transparent way. USAPEEC and NCC pointed out that the U.S. industry has been cooperating with the Chinese industry and the Chinese government on other initiatives to improve conditions of two-way poultry trade that are unrelated to the issues being addressed in this case. The groups said the industry’s commitment to those initiatives will continue and not be affected by the initiation of the WTO case. “The U.S. industry will continue to work in the future with its Chinese industry counterparts and the Chinese government to resolve any trade irritants that may occur in an amicable fashion, and is hopeful that future problems can be addressed without resort to formal dispute settlement,” the organizations stated.

Dispute background l On Sept. 27, 2009, China’s Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM) initiated antidumping and countervailing investigations of imports of chicken broiler products from the U.S., and then imposed antidumping and countervailing duties on Sept. 26, 2010, and Aug. 30, 2010, respectively. The duties were based on China’s findings that American broiler products had been sold at less than fair value (i.e., “dumped”) into the Chinese market as well as subsidized. WTO rules permit Member countries to impose duties on imports of merchandise that are found to be dumped or subsidized, if those imports cause injury to the domestic industry. However, WTO rules also require Member countries to follow specific procedures and legal standards when conducting their investigations and making determinations. l The U.S. is concerned that China’s investigating authorities, in levying these duties, appear to have failed to adhere to their WTO obligations in numerous respects. In particular, China seems to have failed to observe numerous transparency and due process requirements, failed to properly explain the basis for its findings and conclusions, incorrectly calculated dumping margins, incorrectly calculated subsidy rates and made unsupported findings of injury to China’s domestic industry. l In the antidumping investigation, China imposed dumping duties ranging from 50.3 percent to 53.4 percent for the participating U.S. producers and exporters, and set an “all others” rate of 105.4 percent. In the countervailing duty investigation, China imposed countervailing duties of between 4.0 percent and 12.5 percent for the participating U.S. producers and exporters and an “all others” rate of 30.3 percent.

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dog eating contest on Coney Island. The 100-pound Thomas of Alexandria, Va., is the reigning wing-eating champion. She downed 181 wings to win the 2010 contest. Chestnut, of San Jose, Calif., settled for second place with 169 wings. The winner gets $1,500. The runner-up wins $750 and third place gets $300. Thomas is called the Black Widow because she often beats male competitors in eating contests.

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­POULTRY TIMES, October 10, 2011

•Patterns (Continued from page 1)

able which can vary from bird to bird. As birds get older, and the radiant heating system operates less frequently, the floor temperature gradient tends to become less intense resulting in a more uniform heating of the birds throughout a house. Birds also benefit indirectly from the floor heating properties of a radiant heating system due to the fact that the same radiant heat that helps to keep them warm also helps to keep the litter dry. Since one of the primary reasons for installing a radiant heating system is to heat the floor of a house, knowing the floor heating pattern of a particular type of radiant heater is important from both an installation and bird/litter management standpoint. One of the oldest forms of a radiant heating system is the 30,000 (British thermal units) Btu’s/hr, traditional “pancake brooder.” Though proven to be an effective heater, one of the weaknesses of a pancake brooder is the relatively low amount of radiant heat each brooder produces. Since the pancake brooder produces very little radiant heat, it must be kept close to the floor (within 2 to 3 feet) to produce a significant level of floor heating. The low installation height results in a floor heating pattern that only extends a foot or two past the edge of the brooder which means that in order to cover a significant percentage of the floor space in a poultry house a very large number are required. Radiant brooders (40,000 Btu’s/hr) produce a significantly greater amount of radiant heat than pancake brooders and as a result are typically installed 5 feet or more above the floor to help distribute the increased amount of radiant heat over a larger area. When properly in-

stalled/managed, the floor temperatures directly underneath a radiant brooder will run approximately 20 degrees F to Czarick 30 degrees F above ambient air temperature decreasing to a couple of degrees roughly 8 feet from the brooder. This creates a roughly 16-feet in diameter radiant heat zone (over twice that of a conventional pancake brooder) where the birds are receiving a majority of the heat they require directly from the brooder in the form of radiant heat. Outside this zone the birds are primarily being heated by the hot air produced by the radiant brooders in the house and as a result will run one to three degrees below air temperature. To obtain the maximum benefit from radiant brooders it is generally recommended that they be installed in the vicinity of the feed and water lines where radiant heat is most needed from a chick comfort and litter drying standpoint. Radiant tube heaters have very large radiant heat emitters (the tube) which produce a high level of radiant heat and as a result need to be installed as high above the floor as possible. Installing a radiant tube heater high above the floor not only increases the radiant coverage area but helps to prevent excessive floor temperatures directly underneath the heater as well. Radiant tube heaters tend to have a heating pattern approximately 20-feet to 30-feet in width. The length of the radiant heating pattern is typically 10-feet to 20-feet longer than the tube length which typically is between 30-feet and 40-feet.


The surface temperature of the tube decreases as the exhaust gasses travel from the burner end to the exhaust end of the Fairchild tube which results in a significant difference in the amount of radiant energy emitted along the length of the tube. The net result is that floor heating patterns end up looking more like an egg with the widest coverage pattern near the burner and the narrowest coverage area end at the exhaust end of the tube. The most recent addition to the poultry house radiant heater market are the “high intensity radiant brooders” (80,000 Btu’s/hr), manufactured by CTB and GSI. From a floor heating standpoint these heaters are a cross between conventional radiant brooders and tube heaters. The width of the heating patterns are very similar to a tube but the length of the heating pattern is less than a tube but greater than a radiant brooder (roughly 30-feet X 30-feet). The Quadratherm® (CTB) has more of an oval pattern with a “cool” spot in the center while the GSI AV heater® is more circular with the highest temperatures in the center. In general these types of radiant heaters have roughly twice the coverage area of a conventional radiant brooder. It is important to realize the limitations in the floor heating pattern of any radiant heater. For instance, though a high intensity radiant brooder or tube works very well in a 40-foot wide house, very little radiant heat will be delivered to feed and water near the sidewall of a 50foot-plus wide house, much as the case where radiant brooders

are installed down the center line of a 40-foot wide house. Yes, you can heat a house in both cases but it is important to realize that for large portions of the house the radiant heating system is acting more like a hot air system rather that a radiant system. This can make determining the proper temperature settings and/or temperature sensor location particularly challenging. Ideally, the radiant heat zones of the heaters would overlap to some extent so that a chick would not have to move more than 5 to 10 feet to find some level of radiant heat. Another benefit of installing sufficient radiant heaters so that most of the floor is covered with some level of radiant heat is you’re less likely to create intense hot spots near the heaters trying to obtain acceptable floor temperatures in areas of the house far from the radiant heater. On a related point it is important to keep in mind that the fewer radiant heaters you install, the longer they will need to operate to maintain a proper house temperature during cold weather, the more likely you are to create intense hot spots that are little benefit to the birds in a house. Some “high intensity radiant brooders” and tubes are capable of two stage heating. Though this can prove beneficial in

some cases it is important to keep in mind that when a radiant heater is in “low’ burn mode the amount of floor heating produced by the heating system is significantly reduced. So whereas when on “high heat” mode a high intensity radiant brooder may have a radiant floor heating pattern 30-feet in width, in “low heat” mode this can be reduced 25-feet to 20-feet. If there are an adequate number of radiant heaters this wouldn’t necessarily be a problem. But, for instance in the case of wider houses with a single row of radiant heaters, essentially only the center 20 feet of the house would receive an appreciable amount of radiant heat essentially turning the radiant heating system in to more of an air heating than a floor heating system. Installing the correct number of radiant heaters as well as their placement in a house can have significant impacts on floor temperature, heating system run time and ultimately chick performance. You do not have to look far for examples where insufficient numbers of radiant heaters were installed. Though you may end up being able to maintain the proper air temperature, the birds will not fully benefit from all the advantages of a radiant “floor” heating system.


POULTRY TIMES, October 10, 2011

Calendar Compiled by Barbara Olejnik, Associate Editor 770-718-3440

OCT 11-12 — AFIA REGULATORY TRAINING SHORT COURSE, Westin Arlington Gateway, Arlington, Va. Contact: Leah Wilkinson, American Feed Industry Association, 703558-3560,; or Veronica Rovelli, AFIA, 703558-3563,; 2101 Wilson Blvd., Suite 916, Arlington, Va. 22201.; OCT 11-13 — NAT’L. MTNG. POULTRY HEALTH & PROCESSING, Clarion Resort Fontainebleau Hotel, Ocean City, Md. Contact: Delmarva Poultry Industry Inc., 16686 County Seat Hwy., Georgetown, Del. 199474881. Ph: 302-856-9037; dpi@; OCT 13 — NCC POULTRY HEALTH & GROWOUT COMMITTEE MTNG., (Tentative) Clarion Resort Fountainebleau Hotel, Ocean City, Md. Contact: National Chicken Council, 1915 15th St., N.W., Suite 930, Washington, D.C. 20005. Ph: 202-296-2622;; http://www. OCT 13-15 — NPFDA FALL MTNG., Pontre Vedra, Fla. Contact: National Poultry & Food Distributors Association, 2014 Osborne Road, St. Marys, Ga. 31558, 770-5359901,, http://www. OCT 18-20 — SUNBELT AG EXPO., Moultrie, Ga. Contact: Sunbelt Agricultural Exposition, 290-G Harper Blvd., Moultrie, Ga. 31788. Ph: 229-985-1968, ext. 28; http:// OCT 19-20 — AMI ANIMAL CARE & HANDLING CONF., Westin Crown Center, Kansas City, Mo. Contact: American Meat Institute, 1150 Connecticut Ave., N.W., 12th Floor, Washington, D.C. 20036. Ph: 202587-4200; OCT 20 — GOOD EGG BREAKFAST, Doubletree Hotel, Modesto, Calif. Contact: California Poultry Federation, 4640 Spyres Way, Suite 4, Modesto, Calif. 95356. Ph: 209-576-6355;; OCT 23-26 — NRA ANNUAL MTNG., Tucson, Ariz. Contact: National Renderers Association, 801 N. Fairfax St., Suite 205, Alexandria, Va. 22314. Ph: 703-683-0155;; OCT 25-26 — FOOD SYSTEM SUMMIT, InterContinental Rosemont Hotel, Rosemont, Ill. Contact: Center for Food Integrity, 7501 N.W. Tiffany Springs Pkwy., Suite 200, Kansas City, Mo. 64153; 816-880-5360; OCT 26-27 — NIAA ANTIBIOTIC FORUM, Hotel InterContinental O’Hare, Chicago, Ill. Contact: National Institute for Animal Agriculture, 13570 Meadowgrass Drive, Suite 201, Colorado Springs, Colo. 80921. Ph: 719-538-8843;; NOV 1-3 — AEB MTNG., Scottsdale, Ariz. Contact: American Egg Board, 1460 Renaissance Drive, Park Ridge, Ill. 60068. Ph: 847-296-7043; aeb@; NOV 2-3 — COMMUNICATIONS STRATEGY WKSHP., Marriott Marquis, Atlanta, Ga. Contact: U.S. Poultry & Egg Association, 1530 Cooledge Road, Tucker, Ga. 30084-7303. Ph: 770-493-9401;; http://www. NOV 3-5 — AFIA EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURER’S CONF., Ft. Lauderdale, Fla. Contact: American Feed Industry Association, 2101 Wilson Blvd., Suite 916, Arlington, Va. 22201. Ph: 703-524-0810; afia@; NOV 8-9 — CFIA FALL CONF., Sheraton Imperial Hotel, Durham, N.C. Contact: Bonnie Holloman, Carolina Feed Industry Assocation, P.O. Box 58220, Raleigh, N.C. 27658. Ph: 919-855-8981, bonnie.holloman@, NOV 9 — GRAIN FORECAST & ECONOMIC OUTLOOK CONF., Airport Hilton Hotel, Atlanta. Ga. Contact: U.S. Poultry & Egg Association, 1530 Cooledge Road, Tucker, Ga. 30084-7303. Ph: 770493-9401;; NOV 28-30 — ITF WINTER CONV., West Des Moines Marriott, West Des Moines, Iowa. Contact: Iowa Turkey Federation, 535 E. Lincoln Way, P.O. Box 825, Ames, Iowa 50010. Ph: 15-232-7492; info@iowaturkey,org; DEC 6-8 — ASA BOARD MTNG., Hilton at the Ballpark Hotel, St. Louis, Mo. Contact: American Soybean Association, 12125 Woodcrest Executive Drive, Suite 100, St. Louis, Mo. 63141. Ph: 314-5761770; DEC 6-8 — USAPEEC WINTER MTNG., Four Seasons Hotel, Washington, D.C. Contact: USA Poultry & Egg Export Council, 2300 W. Park Place Blvd., Suite 100, Stone Mountain, Ga. 30087. Ph: 770-413-0006;; http://www. DEC 11-13 — NGFA FEED INDUSTRY

CONF. & TRADE SHOW, Chicago Marriott Magnificent Mile Hotel, Chicago, Ill. Contact: National Grain & Feed Association, 1250 I St., N.W., Suite 1003, Washington, D.C. 20005. Ph: 202-289-0873; ngfa@;


JAN 8-11 — AFBF ANNUAL MTNG., Honolulu, Hawaii. Contact: American Farm Bureau Federation, 600 Maryland Ave., S.W., Suite 1000 W, Washington, D.C. 20024. Ph: 202-406-3600; http://www. JAN 23-24 — UEP BOARD MTNG., Omni Hotel & CNN Center, Atlanta, Ga. Contact: United Egg Producers, 1720 Windward Concourse, Suite 230, Alpharetta, Ga. 30005. Ph: 770-360-9220; gene@unitedegg. com; JAN 23-27 — NPFDA ANNUAL

CONV. & POULTRY SUPPLIERS SHOWCASE, Hyatt Regency, Atlanta, Ga. Contact: National Poultry & Food Distributors Association, 2014 Osborne Road, St. Marys, Ga. 31558. Ph: 770-5359901,, http://www. JAN 24 — NCC TECHNICAL & REGULATORY COMMITTEE, Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, Ga. Contact: National Chicken Council, 1015 15th St., N.W., Suite 930, Washington, D.C. 20005. Ph: 202-296-2622; http://; JAN 25 — NCC MARKETING Georgia World COMMITTEE, Congress Center, Atlanta, Ga. Contact: National Chicken Council, 1015 15th St., N.W., Suite 930, Washington, D.C. 20005. Ph: 202296-2622; http://www.national-; http://www. JAN 24-25 — HATCHERY-BREEDER CLINIC, Atlanta, Ga. Contact: U.S. Poultry & Egg Association, 1530 Cooledge Road, Tucker, Ga. 300847303, Ph: 770-493-9401;; http://www.poultryegg. org, JAN 24-26 — INTERNATIONAL P O U LT RY EXPO INTERNATIONAL FEED EXPO, Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, Ga. Contact: U.S. Poultry & Egg Association, 1530 Cooledge Road, Tucker, Ga. 30084-7303, Ph: 770-493-9401,, http://www.poultryegg. org, or American Feed Industry Association, 2101 Wilson Blvd., Suite 916, Arlington, Va. 22201, 703-524-0810,, http://

•CSES (Continued from page 2)

ity of eggs currently used by the U.S. food system. When completed, this research will help food companies and other organizations make independent, informed purchasing decisions that are ethically grounded, scientifically verified, economically viable and ultimately in alignment with the desires of consumers, the group noted. “It has been a major undertaking to launch a research project of this scope, and we are pleased to report that the research project is fully underway. Our goal is to thoroughly understand the full range of sustainability factors. While it is too early to draw any conclusions, we are excited by what we are seeing across the different housing systems and look forward to sharing our observations with CSES members and interested stakeholders in the future,” said Dr. Janice Swanson, director of animal welfare and professor of animal science at Michigan State University, and one of the research co-leaders. “This project offers the first opportunity for researchers to study the potentially wide-ranging impacts of producing eggs in different kinds of commercial hen housing systems in the United States,” said Dr. Joy Mench, director of the Center for Animal Welfare and animal science professor at the University of California-Davis, also a research co-leader. “We are advancing the knowledge base about laying hen housing and developing research techniques that will enhance future research efforts.” The first research flocks were placed in April of this year, and researchers explained the research methodologies and techniques being em-

ployed in this groundbreaking research. For instance, more than 300 video cameras have been installed to monitor hens’ behavior and use of housing resources such as perches and nest boxes. A state-of-the-art mobile air emissions monitoring trailer equipped with gas analyzers, an air sampling control system and data system measures both the air quality inside the houses and the gaseous and particulate emissions from the houses. People working in the research houses will wear personal air samplers to measure potential exposure to certain gases and particulates, the group noted. “We are very excited to see the months of research planning and house construction coming to fruition. When complete, the research results will provide egg purchasers and users with information to make independent informed egg sourcing decisions,” said Charlie Arnot, CEO of the Center for Food Integrity, which facilitates the CSES. CSES is comprised of leading animal welfare scientists, research institutions, non-governmental organizations, egg suppliers, food manufacturers, restaurant/foodservice and food retail companies. Founding members include the American Humane Association, Cargill Kitchen Solutions, McDonald’s USA, Michigan State University and University of California-Davis. Member-advisors are the American Veterinary Medical Association and the USDA Agricultural Research Service. The Environmental Defense Fund is a non-member advisor. More information can be obtained at 816-5563140, or

­POULTRY TIMES, October 10, 2011



Stabilized fiberglass versus cellulose

(Continued from page 1)


Awards banquet: North Carolina Poultry Federation Executive Director Bob Ford, center, and his wife, Linda Ford, talk with N.C. Commissioner of Agriculture Steve Troxler during the federation’s awards banquet held as part of the group’s annual meeting in Greensboro, N.C.


Allied Industry Award: Tim Brooks of American Veterinary Pharmaceuticals, left, received the 2011 Allied Industry Award from the North Carolina Poultry Federation for his support of the North Carolina poultry industry. Presenting the award was Tom Cimino of Merial Select Inc., the 2010 award recipient.

dridge and Eric Westbrook of Westbook Bros. Farm in Four Oaks, N.C. Two Environmental Runner-Up Awards were presented to Channing and David Gooden, turkey brooder producers with Prestage Farms in Elizabethtown, N.C., and to Roddy Purser of White Rock Farms LLC in Monroe, N.C., a farming operation that also contracts 44,000 hens with Tyson. The federation elected a new board of directors for the 2011-2012 year. Members of the Executive Board are President Paul Nordin, Wayne Farms LLC, First Vice President Scott Prestage, Prestage Farms; Second Vice President Dan Peugh, Allen’s Hatchery; SecretaryTreasurer Jeff Hancock, Tyson Foods; and Past President Kendall Casey, Perdue Farms. Barnes received the Distinguished Service Award for his dedication and loyalty to the poultry industry of North Carolina. His area of research and study has been in poultry pathology, emerging avian diseases, specializing in avian models of ovarian cancer, skeletal diseases of the spine, turkey diseases and the pathogenesis of avian diseases, especially enteric and respiratory diseases. He was instrumental in helping the North Carolina turkey industry solve the severe form of poultry enteritis complex known as poult enteritis mortality syndrome or PEMS. Barnes is a Diplomat in the American College of Veterinary Pathologists and the American College of Poultry Veterinarians. He has also served as president of the American Association of Avian Pathologists.

By Michael Czarick & Dr. Brian Fairchild Special to Poultry Times

ATHENS, Ga. — In August of 2008 a study was initiated to compare the long term integrity of blown stabilized fiberglass insulation to traditional blown cellulose insulation. Stabilized fiberglass insulation is a fiberglass insulation product with special binders that causes the fiberglass insulation to tend to stick together after it is installed. Since blown stabilized fiberglass insulation was developed for use in ceilings in residential houses with slopes as high as 45 degrees, it was hoped that it would be less prone to settling and shifting problems sometimes seen in houses insulated with traditional blown cellulose insulation. The study is being conducted in a recently constructed 66-foot x 600-foot broiler house. A space of 500 feet of the ceiling of the study house was insulated using approximately 6 inches of traditional blown cellulose insulation (to the top of the 2-inches x 6-inches bottom cord of the roof truss, R value = 20 square-feet hr/Btu’s - British thermal units). To help prevent the shifting of insulation away from the ceiling

See Insulation, Page 12

Michael Czarick is an Extension engineer and Dr. Brian Fairchild is an Extension poultry scientist, both with the University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Service in Athens, Ga. More information can be obtained at


POULTRY TIMES, October 10, 2011

•Insulation (Continued from page 11)

peak, a 6-foot long piece of 6-inch thick fiberglass batt was placed along the ceiling peak then covered with a thin layer of blown cellulose insulation. Towards the center of the house, a 100-foot section of ceiling was insulated solely with 8 to 9 inches of blown stabilized fiberglass insulation (R-value = 26 square-feet hr/ Btu’s). In February of 2009, approximately six months after the installation of the blown fiberglass and cellulose insulation products, the farm was visited to note any changes that had taken place since installation. While no significant changes were found in the portion of the ceiling insulated with the blown stabilized fiberglass insulation, the depth of the blown cellulose insulation had decreased between 1/2-inch to 1-inch). In February 2011 the farm was visited

once again to document any changes that had taken placed since the ceiling was insulated. Though there were no significant changes in the stabilized fiberglass insulation, the depth of the blown cellulose insulation had decreased between 1 and 2 inches since installation (There were some isolated areas of the ceiling, near the eaves, where the reduction in depth was closer to 3 inches). It is important to note that what appeared to be settling near the eaves may be in part due to the movement of insulation caused by increased air velocities that generally occur in this area of the attic on windy days and the fact that the original insulation depth was slightly less due to

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difficulties involved in due to the fact that once a certain level blowing insulation near of ceiling insulation is reached, adding the eaves of a house. In insulation doesn’t tend to dramatically general, what was origi- change the amount of heat flow through nally a ceiling with a R- the ceiling. For instance, if a ceiling in a value of 20 square-feet 40-foot x 500-feet house has an R-value hr/Btu’s (5 1/2-inches of 30 square-feet hr/Btu’s, approximately blown cellulose) after 33,300 Btu’s of heat will flow through two and a half years had the ceiling each hour (0.35 gallons of decreased to one with a propane) when it is 80 degrees F inside R-value of 15 square- and 30 degrees F outside. If the ceiling infeet hr/Btu’s (4-inches sulation is cut in half to R-15 square-feet blown cellulose). hr/Btu’s the heat flow through the ceiling Though the insulation value of the will be double to 66,600 Btu’s/hr, an inblown cellulose insulation was signifi- crease of 0.7 gallons of propane per hour, cantly lower than the blown stabilized fi- not what most would consider a substanberglass insulation, thermal images taken tial increase in heat costs. in the attic on a cold day with relatively The fact is that a ceiling with an R-value young birds (80 degrees F inside, 40 de- of 15 square-feet hr/Btu’s is not of great grees F outside) did not show a signifi- concern because the heat flow through the cant difference in attic insulation tempera- ceiling is still “relatively” minimal, but if tures. This in general is not overly surprising See R-Value, Page 15

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­POULTRY TIMES, October 10, 2011


•Disaster (Continued from page 3)

and growers must consider the type of snow load on the house, along with the roof snow loading design capability, when making a decision for action. Most newer construction in Alabama since 2005 was designed with 10 pounds/square foot of roof area for “ground snow load.” Older construction, particularly roofs with a 4/12 pitch, may not be able to withstand that much snow load. An older house with a snow loading design capability of 5 pounds/ square foot should be able to stand up to almost 20 inches of light, dry snow, but is likely to fail under less than 3 inches of heavy, wet snow. Ice is also significantly heavier than even wet snow. (Table 1). If a house roof system is compromised in any way, the amount a roof can withstand will be significantly reduced. Knowing the condition of the house roof system, a grower can take the information from the table, estimate how much snow load his house may be able to withstand, and decide if anything needs to be done and how urgent the action needs to be. There is also a time factor calculated into the design loads for trusses. The longer the snow remains on the house, the more stressed the roof becomes.

Dealing with snow load Once it is decided that a house may be in jeopardy, the question is what to do to avoid damage. A lot of houses in the Southeast have not just a single attic access point but what have been called “snow holes” — multiple attic access panels cut into the ceilings, commonly placed at about 80-foot intervals and usually 3 feet square with various kinds of movable panels inside

as a barrier between bird space and the attic. The question is: “Should growers open these panels, allowing warm bird air into the attic, thereby warming that space and hopefully melting snow off the roof?” This sounds easy enough but there is more to it than what is seen at first glance. Proper exploration of the scenario needs to be done. The overriding concern is condensation. With attic spaces having temperatures of-

five relatively small areas of snow melting from this warm air. It may also get five areas of insulation severely compressed from moisture. The untreated, kiln dried lumber in the attic will also soak up some of this moisture. This can cause wood grain expansion. The following summer, when the attic reaches 140 degrees and more, the wood will again dry out and contract. The more this expansion/contraction oc-

that opening the access panels may be of some help. But if the pitch is 4/12 (more prone to weakness), there is 6 inches of heavy, snow/ice mixture on the roof and it’s still 20 degrees F outside — then opening the attic might not melt enough snow to do any good and your house might still collapse. If you open the access panels and have no collapse, the attic will have been exposed to excess condensation for no reason. The snow that

Table 1: Equivalent inches of snow/ice load-bearing capability Roof Design Snow Load

Light/Dry snow

Heavy/Wet snow



5 lbs/sq ft

19.2 inches

2.9 inches

1.0 inch

1.0 inch

10 lbs/sq ft

38.4 inches

5.8 inches

2.1 inches

1.9 inches

ten 50 degrees less than the bird space and typically with low humidity, allowing warm moist “bird air” to flow into that space will cause massive condensation. As this warm air loaded with moisture from the birds and drinkers comes in contact with the cold surfaces in the attic, it offloads that moisture onto everything in the attic. All the trusses, purlins, metal roofing and insulation get a coating of water. It could be described as “turning the fogger nozzles on in the attic.” This can be none too beneficial to the otherwise dry lumber and detrimental to ceiling insulation. The other fact to analyze is the spacing of access panels. At one every 80 feet, you are not going to get an even heating of the attic space. On a typical 500-foot house, you will have five panels. Therefore you will have five areas that receive the bulk of the warm air and the bulk of the moisture. The roof may only get

curs, the more every fastener becomes loose — this means purlins, braces and gang nails holding the trusses together can become loose. Untreated wood and moisture do not make good partners. Growers need to consider carefully the impact of opening the attic panels before they expose such a structurally important area as the chicken house attic to excess moisture. Someone may say “but if it means saving my house, I’ll risk it this one time.” This thought might be valid. However, it should lead a grower to consider an obvious question: will it actually do any good, will it really melt enough snow off to help the situation? The answer — it is possible but not probable. Positive outcome will depend on several factors: weakness of your existing trusses, the amount of snow, is there ice, snow or a mixture, how heavy is the snow, what is the outside temperature, amount of ridge vent space, etc. It’s possible

will melt will be at the peak and likely only those areas above the access panels. If there is a heavy enough blanket of snow, then that may not help much. Most experts think opening the access panels to try to save a house is of little value. While Southeastern poultry growers do not have to worry about these things that often, and too often find themselves unprepared, northern growers are usually well prepared for snow. One tool they will likely have is a roof rake. They use long-handled roof rakes to pull snow off the roof of dwelling and outbuildings. This could be a better solution to the problem —physical removal of snow from the chicken house roof. If 4 to 6 feet of snow can be pulled off the lower part of the house roof, that will relieve the house of much weight and also allow for the snow above it to have a place to slide to, possibly off the house entirely, when the damming effect of the lower snow is removed.

There are risks to be concerned with here, not the least of which is being hit with an avalanche of falling snow load. Care must be taken to avoid being “snowed under.” It would never be advisable to get on the roof to push snow off. The risk of slipping and falling is obvious and the risk of adding that “one straw of weight that breaks the camel’s back” must also be considered. A strong word of caution must be stated before any action is taken in or around a house in jeopardy — if it is suspected that collapse is imminent, do not risk injury in attempt to save the house. If the house looks like it is about to fall, or popping and creaking can be heard, it is best to abandon efforts and not risk human casualty. This word of caution emphasizes the need for prior planning and the need for regular inspection to discover and address potential problems with the roof system before catastrophe strikes. It is always better to avoid the damage potential rather than have to deal with an emergency situation. However, if the emergency is unavoidable, then the methods discussed here can be considered. Only the grower can make that decision correctly and only when considering all the circumstances and factors involved.

The bottom line The financial bottom line for a snow disaster, near-total destruction of the house and loss of an entire flock of chickens, is almost incalculable. The bottom line with respect to avoiding a snow disaster is prevention. Inspection and repair before the snow event is critical. A game plan must be in place.


POULTRY TIMES, October 10, 2011

Markets Compiled by David B. Strickland, Editor 770-718-3442

N at’l. Turkey Market: (Oct. 5): Domestic: The mar-

demand for November is moderate to good. Frozen offerings are very light to light for current shipments. November fresh offerings are light to moderate. Frozen basted equivalent offering prices on a national basis for hens $1.10-$1.16 shipping

ket on frozen 8-16 lb. hens and 16-24 lb. toms is steady with a steady to firm undertone. Frozen demand is light to moderate. Fresh

point and 16-24 lb. toms $1.08$1.13 shipping point for current deliveries. The market on white meat is mostly steady. The undertone on frozen breast trim is steady to weak, frozen tom breast meat and destrapped tenderloins steady to firm, balance of white meat steady. Offerings of frozen breast trim are moderate to heavy; frozen tom breast meat, destrapped tenderloins and wing meat with skin very light to light; the balance of white meat is light to moderate. The market on consumer sized rib breasts is steady to firm and steady on institutional sizes. Demand is light to moderate for the very light to light offerings. The market on hen and tom bulk parts is steady to firm. The market on thigh meat is steady to firm. Demand is

moderate to good, mostly moderate. Offerings are very light to light. The market on fresh mechanically separated turkey is steady at best and frozen is steady. Demand and offerings are light to moderate with frozen tightest with some reluctant to freeze excess inventories. Export market: Trading is light. The market is steady to firm. Demand is moderate to good. Offerings are very light to light, notes the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service Poultry Programs.

P arts: Georgia:

The f.o.b. dock quoted prices on ice-pack parts based on truckload and pool truckload lots for the week of Oct. 5: line run tenders $1.83½; skinless/boneless breasts

The following chart provides an annual high and a comparison of recent activity of major poultry company stocks.

USDA Shell Eggs

AMS weekly combined region shell egg prices Average prices on sales to volume buyers, Grade A or better, White eggs in cartons, delivered warehouse, cents per dozen.

Annual High

Cagle’s Cal-Maine Campbell Soup ConAgra Hormel Pilgrim’s Pride Sanderson Farms Seaboard Tyson

11.96 36.55 36.99 26.60 30.50 8.61 49.47 2705.00 20.12

Sept. 30

Sept. 30

Oct. 5

3.79 3.70 31.43 31.75 32.37 32.83 24.22 24.43 27.02 27.40 4.27 4.13 47.50 46.77 1801.99 1684.00 17.36 17.24

Extra Large Regions: Northeast 116.00 Southeast 114.50 Midwest 107.50 South Central 119.50 Combined 114.61



112.00 112.50 105.50 115.50 111.55

94.00 96.00 90.50 98.50 94.92

Computed from simple weekly averages weighted by regional area populations

Grain Prices OHIO COUNTRY ELEV. Sept. 20 Sept. 27 Oct. 4 No. 2 Yellow Corn/bu. $6.77 $6.33 $5.78 Soybeans/bu. $12.78 $12.00 $11.18 (Courtesy: Prospect Farmers Exchange, Prospect, Ohio)

(Courtesy: A.G. Edwards & Sons Inc.)

Broiler Eggs Set/Chicks Placed in 19 States EGGS SET (Thousands)

Ala Ark


Del Fla Ga Ky La Md Miss N.C. Okla Pa S.C. Tex Va 19 States Total Prev. year


Sept. 10

Sept. 17

Sept. 24

Oct. 1

Sept. 10

Sept. 17

Sept. 24

Oct. 1

26,394 18,223 18,718 2,908 1,352 31,151 7,393 3,258 6,863 17,569 17,302 6,228 3,718 4,892 14,367 5,859

25,701 19,104 16,110 2,852 1,074 29,570 7,129 3,183 6,852 17,813 18,245 6,465 3,438 5,522 12,835 5,363

27,117 18,961 17,708 2,895 1,351 31,268 7,729 3,242 6,820 16,824 18,670 6,751 3,558 5,263 14,048 5,663

25,491 18,949 18,280 3,045 1,354 30,766 6,893 3,258 7,517 16,481 18,270 5,962 3,337 4,956 13,113 5,461

19,616 19,575 16,043 4,328 1,251 25,851 6,198 2,928 6,319 15,962 14,969 4,317 2,897 4,629 11,503 4,543

20,087 19,412 15,667 5,154 1,140 26,026 6,747 2,851 5,397 15,314 15,445 4,842 3,045 4,932 11,481 4,439

18,304 18,793 17,088 5,074 1,156 27,801 5,910 2,676 4,784 14,533 15,218 3,712 3,208 3,699 11,745 5,067

19,259 17,501 15,800 3,913 1,156 26,676 6,162 2,909 6,199 15,257 13,845 3,527 3,079 3,702 11,356 4,229

186,195 204,833

181,256 196,963

187,868 205,808

183,133 197,354

160,929 170,626

161,979 169,940

158,768 167,630

154,570 169,617

1/Current week as percent of same week last year.

N ational Slaughter: Broiler: Estimated slaughter

for week ending Oct. 8 is 157,376,000. Actual slaughter for the week ending Oct. 1 was 160,799,000. Heavy-type hen: Estimated slaughter for the week ending Oct. 8 is 1,770,000. Actual slaughter for the week ending Oct. 1 was 1,635,000. Light-type hen: Estimated slaughter for the week ending Oct. 8 is 1,419,000. Actual slaughter for the week ending Oct. 1 was 1,418,000. Total: Week of Oct. 8: 160,565,000. Week of Oct. 1: 163,852,000.

Broiler/Fryer Markets

Industry Stock Report


$1.45½; whole breasts 79½¢; boneless/skinless thigh meat $1.32½; thighs 72¢; drumsticks 66¢; leg quarters 53½¢; and wings $1.11.

USDA Composite Weighted Average For week of: Oct. 3 72.30¢ For week of: Sept. 26 72.35¢ Chi.-Del.-Ga.-L.A.-Miss.-N.Y.--S.F.-South. States For delivery week of: Sept. 19 Oct. 3 Chicago majority 60--66¢ TFTR Mississippi majority 83--86¢ 80--85¢ New York majority 66--69¢ 61--64¢ For delivery week of: Sept. 21 Oct. 5 Delmarva weighted average 56--89¢ 55--82¢ Georgia f.o.b. dock offering 89.00¢ 89.00¢ Los Angeles majority price 98.00¢ 98.00¢ San Francisco majority price 98.50¢ 98.50¢ Southern States f.o.b. average 52.75¢ 53.11¢

Turkey Markets Weighted avg. prices for frozen whole young turkeys Weighted average (cents/lb.) F.O.B. shipper dock

Week ending Sept. 30 Hens (8-16 lbs.) Toms (16-24 lbs.) Week ending Sept. 23 Hens (8-16 lbs.) Toms (16-24 lbs.)

National 112.20 109.90 108.14 108.25

Last year 109.49 105.00 Sept. avg. 109.79 108.87

Egg Markets USDA quotations New York cartoned del. store-door: Sept. 30 Oct. 5 Extra large, no change $1.24--$1.28 $1.24--$1.28 Large, no change $1.22--$1.26 $1.22--$1.26 Medium, no change $1.09--$1.13 $1.09--$1.13 Southeast Regional del. warehouse: Sept. 30 Oct. 5 Extra large, up 11¢ $1.05½--$1.19 $1.16½--$1.24 Large, up 11½¢ $1.01½--$1.17 $1.13--$1.22 Medium, up 12½¢ 85½¢--$1.01 98¢--$1.10

­POULTRY TIMES, October 10, 2011

AMERICAN EGG BOARD HOTLINE AEB Hotline appears regularly in Poultry Times and provides an update on programs and services provided for egg producers by the American Egg Board. Details on any item mentioned may be obtained by contacting AEB at 1460 Renaissance Dr., Park Ridge, Ill. 60068. Phone: 847296-7043. l On Aug. 31, the Egg Nutrition Center hosted a webinar with more than 360 health professionals. ENC Research Director Dr. Don Layman and Registered Dietitian Advisor Eileen Behan, RD, LD, presented the popular topic. They focused on equal distribution of protein throughout the day, especially at breakfast and how this affects metabolism, satiety and weight management. Layman discussed the research behind the recommendations and Behan discussed meal options and the different kinds of protein. The evaluations of the 1.5 hour webinar were positive, and participants received continuing education credits. The webinar can be viewed at l The 2011 AEB Research Award was recently presented at the Poultry Science Association Awards Banquet in St. Louis. This award is given to increase the interest in research relating to egg science technology or marketing that has a bearing on egg or spent hen utilization. The award honors an author for a manuscript published during the preceding year. A. Brooke Caudill is this year’s honoree. She studied for her master of science degree in poultry science at Au-

burn University under the direction of Dr. Pat Curtis. l Going beyond USDA’s Per Capita Consumption, the new AEB Demand Dashboard was introduced to the industry at AEB’s July board meeting. Its purpose is to provide more meaningful metrics to measure demand trends in the marketplace. Agreements are in process to include ingredient figures for food manufacturing, which are the only demand figures currently not available on the Dashboard. The Dashboard also included consumer measures of egg and industry health and is available to the egg industry. Contact Joanne Ivy if you would like a copy, l ENC attended the IDEA World of Fitness Conference in Los Angeles in August. It was ENC’s first conference with the fitness and personal trainer profession. The personal trainer group is a great network because of increased awareness of the importance of exercise for improved health, weight control and strength in aging. ENC learned earlier this year from a focus group that the personal trainers’ scope of practice does not include nutrition counseling although they share a strong interest in nutrition as it relates to health and body composition. However, since the exercise and fitness profession is seen by many as a good role model of healthy living, ENC felt it was important to reach out to this professional group with accurate information about eggs and overall nutrition. More than 170 participants signed up for our newsletter.


•R-Value (Continued from page 12)

the depth of the blown cellulose insulation were to continue to decrease it will not be long before the heat loss through the ceiling will become of significant concern. For example, if the blown cellulose insulation were to decrease another couple of inches in thickness the heat loss through the ceiling would double and heating costs would increase to 1.4 gallons per hour, four times that of a ceiling with an R-value of 30 squarefeet hr/Btu’s. This would amount to an increase heat cost approximately $440 a week over a ceiling with an R-value of 30 square-feet hr/Btu’s at $2.50 gallon propane). Though there were no signs of either type of insulation moving away from the peak of ceiling peak, it is thought that since the blown stabilized fiberglass insulation covers the “stringers” (rows of 2 x 4’s that tie the bottom cord of the trusses together) the insula-

tion will be, to some extent, held in place by the “stringers.” Though the same would hold true if the cellulose insulation was blown to the same depth as the stabilized fiberglass insulation, it is doubtful that it would be as effective due to fact that over time the cellulose insulation would likely settle to the point where it would be lower than the stringers. Furthermore, it is important keep in mind that 8 to 9 inches of blown cellulose insulation would represent a 40 percent increase in weight over the more traditional depth of 5 to 6 inches. A depth of 8 to 9 inches of blown stabilized fiberglass insulation is not particularly problematic due to the fact that it generally weighs 30 percent less per inch of thickness than blown cellulose insulation. Though the study comparing stabilized blown fiberglass to blown cellulose insulation is far from over, results to this point con-

firm the U.S. Department of Energy recommendation that when using blown cellulose insulation, installers should take into account the fact that the insulation will settle approximately 20 percent over time (compared to 2 percent to 4 percent for fiberglass). Settling may be greater, as observed in this study, in poultry houses due in part to the movement of the dropped ceilings as fans turn on and off. To date both types of insulation to date are doing an adequate job of keeping ceiling heat loss/gain to a minimum. And though it is doubtful that depth of the blown cellulose insulation will decrease another inch or two over the next two years considering the fact that settling tends to slow over time, it is clear that blown stabilized fiberglass insulation is far less susceptible to settling than traditional blown cellulose insulation.

Index of Advertisers Acme, 8C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 918-682-7791; Agrifan, 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-236-7080; Agile, 8D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-704-7356; AgSeal, 8G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 870-741-9269 Bayer Animal Health, 8A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Big Dutchman, 8G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 616-392-5981; Creek View, 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .717-445-4922 Cumberland, 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217-226-4401; Double L Group, 11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-553-4102; DSM, 8E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-526-0189; Gasolec, 8B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-628-4588; 800-628-4588 Guardian Fiberglass Insulation, 8B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-968-8565; Katolight, 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507-625-7973; Lee Energy, Cover II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Motomco, Cover III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-237-6843; Pro-Tech, 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-438-1707; S&I Pump, 16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 610-273-3993 Space-Ray, 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-849-7311; VAL-CO, Cover IV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 717-392-3978; Walco, 8D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800-438-1615


POULTRY TIMES, October 10, 2011

•Rules (Continued from page 5)

thermostat control usually will override the timer control most of the time. However, the minimum ventilation timer must remain properly set to take care of air quality if and when higher temperatures no longer trigger thermostat control. Maintain minimum ventilation no matter what the outside or inside conditions are. Without at least the minimum ventilation rate, inside air quality will deteriorate and litter moisture and ammonia problems will occur. The amount of house heat lost because of minimum ventilation is small, and well spent to avoid moisture problems. Remember also that you can and must ventilate even if a cold rain is falling outside. When cold air is heated its moisture holding capacity increases. When air is heated 20 degrees its relative humidity will be cut about in half, and therefore its ability to pick up water just about doubles. The cold air we bring into the house in the wintertime gets warmed up and dried out, so it is able to carry excess moisture out of the house through the ventilation fans. The only way to remove moisture from the litter in a poultry house is through ventilation. Bring cool outside air into the house high above the birds, with enough velocity to mix with warm inside air before contacting birds. Doing this well requires a tight house operating in the static pressure range of around 0.10, and it requires properly designed and adjusted air inlets. It takes a static

Poultry Times

pressure of approximately 0.10 inches to throw air 20 feet to the center of the house. Static pressure controlled vent boxes do the best job. Getting a good “jet-stream” of incoming air along the ceiling avoids chilling birds and the mixing action improves heating fuel usage efficiency by preventing warm air produced by birds, furnaces and brooders from rising to the ceiling and staying there. Mixing fans in the house can also help promote temperature uniformity and reduce fuel usage. If wet litter and/or ammonia becomes a problem, increase the minimum ventilation rate. This means increasing the fan run-time. Birds deposit about 2 pounds of water in the house for every pound of feed they eat. So there is a lot of water deposited into a poultry house during a growout. Fecal material plus excessive moisture causes ammonia, and this is worse when litter moisture is high. Proper ventilation is the only way to remove the moisture from the litter. Growers who have tried to operate minimum ventilation fans using a humidistat to turn fans on and off have found this does not work. Humidistats can’t hold their accuracy in the environment of today’s poultry houses. A good rule of thumb to judge litter moisture content is to squeeze a handful of litter. If it sticks together tightly and remains in a ball, it is too wet. If it sticks together only slightly, it has the proper moisture content. If it doesn’t hold together at all, it is too dry.

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If increased ventilation rate does not solve a wet litter problem, add a small amount of heat. Sometimes when a house has slick litter, more fan run time may not solve the problem. This usually means the house needs a little more furnace or brooder heat to help lower the humidity and thus facilitate moisture removal. It may be possible to dry out a house by slightly increasing fan run time during the warmest part of the day when humidity is low. If this doesn’t work heat must be added. If the house gets too dusty and litter is too dry, reduce the minimum ventilation rate. This situation usually means we are overventilating, and calls for lowering the fan on-time setting. If a house gets too warm, look at the thermostat setting, not the fan timer setting. The minimum ventilation timer setting is for moisture removal and air quality, not temperature control. When we need to make it cooler in the house, a thermostat or controller temperature setpoint is used to override the ventilation timer and add more ventilation. In this mode we are now ventilating at a higher rate for temperature control purposes, and fan operation is determined by the thermostat or controller setpoint. Do not confuse this with minimum ventilation, which is timer-operated. Adjust backup thermostat settings, curtain drops and alarms from day one to catch. It is possible even in wintertime to lose birds due to high heat and high humidity, if power fails or fans fail to operate. With larger birds, just a few minutes in a totally enclosed house with no ventilation can elevate temperatures as much as 20 degrees F, causing suffocation and death. Protect yourself and your birds by maintaining recommended backup settings throughout the growout. A good rule of thumb is to set backups and alarms at 10 degrees above and below target temperatures.

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345 Green St. N.W. P.O. Box 1338

Gainesville, Georgia 30503

345 Green St. N.W. P.O. Box 1338

Gainesville, Georgia 30503

Cindy Wellborn 345 Green St. N.W. P.O. Box 1338

Garry Tinsley 770-535-6353

Gainesville, Georgia 30503

David Strickland 345 Green St. N.W. P.O. Box 1338

Gainesville, Georgia 30503

David Strickland 345 Green St. N.W. P.O. Box 1338

Gainesville, Georgia 30503

Morris Multimedia, Inc.

27 Abercorn St.

Savannah, Georgia 31401

Mr. Charles Morris

27 Abercorn St.

Savannah, Georgia 31401

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