THE ACTINIARIA OF SUFFOLK.
ACTINIARIA OF SUFFOLK. (Sea-Anemones). DR.
DUDLEY W .
COLLINGS, M . B . ,
THE publication of this preliminary account of our Anemones has been withheld from year to year in the hope that either some of our Members would undertake a study of the Sub-order or a recognised authoritv upon it might happen to assist local knowledge by a visit to our shore. Neither having been yet realised, it seems advisable to lay before Members such discoveries as have been effected from time to time, pointing out the improbability of many more species' future presence Coming to light on account of the shifting sandy nature of our sea-bottom. Representatives of this Ccelenteratan group habitually cling to some solid fulcrum, over which they are able to pass at will, and they prefer a greater tide-range than is afforded by the slight and comparatively uncertain margin between our high and low water marks ; nor is the oleaginous surface of London Clay, which forms the nearest approach we have to rocks, at all to their liking. Hence we are reduced to seeking them upon the piles of our few piers, the woodwork of wrecks, and especially upon the concrete of artificial breakwaters. No one here has paid the subject particular attention hitherto ; and we have had to rely upon P. H. Gosse's 1860 History of British Sea-Anemones ; J. E. Taylor's 1880 Half-hours at the Sea-side and 1892 Tourists' Guide to Suffolk (enumerating four kinds at page 15) ; upon the Victoria History of 1911 (where H . C. Sorby instances three kinds at page 90) and T . A. Stephenson's British Sea Anemones (published by the Ray Society in 1928), whose Classification in volume i, is here adopted. Some additions are taken from the Transactions of both Norfolk Naturalists' and Proceedings of our own Suffolk societies. T h e fĂźll British List of thirtynine species is given : those ten italicised are alone known as Suffolcian at present. T h e last four years have produced nothing new. CLASS
SUB-ORDER ACTINIARIA TRIBE
Family G O N A C T I N I I D / E . Gonactinia prolifera, Sars. TRIBE
SEU S E A - A N E M O N E S
SUBTRIBE ATHENARIA. Family EDWARDSIDJE. Milne carnea, Gosse (Halcampa microps, Gosse).
26 3. 4. 5. 6.
THE ACTINIARIA OF SUFFOLK.
Milne Dixoni, Carl. Edwardsa callimorpha, Gosse. „ delapiae, Carl. „ tecta, Hadd.
Family HALCAMPID/E. Halcampa chrysanthellum, Peach (arenaria, Hadd.).—I have occasionally found this in the mud near Pinmill in the Orwell, but not in later years before 1911 (Dr. Sorby in Vict. Hist.). The young are parasitic on Medusa, jellyfish. Family HALCAMPOIDID.®. Halcampoides purpurea, Stud.
9. 10. 11.
Family ILYANTHIDJE. Ilyanthus Mitchelli, Gosse. Eloactis Mazeli, Jour. Peachia hastata, Gosse (undata, Gosse = triphyella, Gosse).
Family A C T I N I I D / E . Actinia equina, Linn, (mesembryanthemum, Ell. et Gosse).— Suffolk coast (Taylor, 1892) ; Bawdsey (Proc. ii, pp. xxi & lxxvii) ; Dunwich (I.e., p. Ixxix) ; Southwold, dredged in 1929 by Major Cooper (I.e., p. xv); Gorleston breakwater (Trans, i, 224). Norfolk. Habitually viviparous. 13. Anemonia sulcata, Penn. (Anthea cereus, Ell. et Gosse).— Suffolk coast (Taylor, 1892). This Opelet is doubtless common on Zostera-beds, but we have no later records. 14. Bolocera tuedise, Jhnst. 15. Tealia felina, Linn., var. coriacea, Cuv. (crassicornis, Gosse nec Müll.).—Suffolk coast (Taylor, 1892) ; Felixstow 1912 (Ipsw. F. Club 1913, p. 6) ; Bawdsey (Proc. ii, p. lxxvii); in the Orwell near Pinmill, abundant off Harwich and Parkston in 1901, and common in the Aide at Orford (Vict. Hist.); Gorleston breakwater (Trans, i, 224). Norfolk. „ var. tuberculata, Cocks. „ var. Lofotensis, Dan. (Bolocera eques, Gosse).— Brought into Yarmouth by fishing-boats, May 1906 (Tr. Norf. Soc. viii, 464). 16. Bunodactis verrucosa, Penn (Bunodes gemmacea, Ell. et Gosse). 17. Anthopleura thallia, Gosse (Bunodes thallia, Gosse). 18. „ ballii, Cocks (Bunodes ballii, Gosse = /Egeon Alfordi, Gosse).
T H E ACTINIARIA OF SUFFOLK.
Family A U R E L J A N I I D / E . 19. Aureliania heterocera, Thmp. (A. augusta, Gosse = Capnea sanguinea, Forb.). SUBTRIBE 20. 21.
24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32.
Family D I A D U M E N J D ^ E . Diadumene cincta, Stph. „ Lucice, Verr.—Found a mile within Yarmouth harbour and on flints along the south of Breydon Water in 1925 and on 23 October, 1933, also commonly on stones and Musseishells in Lake Lothing during March 1932 (E. A. Ellis). It is said to normally live upon Mytilus edulis, L. Norfolk. Family A I P T A S T I D / E . Aiptasia Couchi, Cocks. Family M K T R I D I I D / E . Metridium senile, Linn., var. dianthum, Ell. (Actinoloba diantha, Ell. & Gosse = Sagartia pura, Aid.)— This Plumose Anemone occurs on the Suffolk coast (Taylor, 1892) from the Stour and Orwell rivers (Vict. Hist.), at Bawdsey (Proc. ii, p. xxi), Southwold where it is abundant on pier-piles, to Easton Broad (Collings, Trans, ii, 282), and on Gorleston breakwater (I.e., i, 224). Norfolk. „ var. pallidum, Hlds. (Sagartia pallida, Holdsworth & Gosse). Calliactus parasitica, Couch. (Sagartia parasitica, Couch & Gosse). Adamsia palliata, Boh. Cataphellia Brodrici, Gosse (Phellia Brodricii, Gosse). Hormathia digitata, Müll. (Tealia digitata, Müll. & Gosse = H. Margaritse, Gosse). ,, coronata, Gosse (Bunodes coronata, Gosse). Paraphellia expansa, Hadd. Gephyropsis Dohrni, Koch. Actinauge Ricardi, Mar. Family S A G A R T I I D / E . Sagartia elegans, Dal., var. miniata, Gosse (S. miniata and ichthystoma, Gosse).—Found in sand by the old harbour pier at Southwold (Collings, Trans, ii, 282). „ var. venusta, Gosse (Sagartia venusta, Gosse).— Occurs with the above variety. „ var nivea, Gosse (Sagartia nivea, Gosse). „ var. rosea, Gosse (Sagartia rosea, Gosse).
T H E CRUSTACEA
35. 36. SV.
anguicoma, Price (viduata, Gosse nec Müll.). troglodytes, Price (Phellia muricincta, Gosse).— Pinmill in the Orwell, and on rocks off Felixstow (Dr. Sorby in Vict. Hist.) ; occurs at Southwold with the above S. elegans (Trans, ii, 282). ,, lacerata, Dal. (coccinea, Gosse nec Müll.= Hermani, Hadd. = Phellia picta, Gos.). „ sphyrodeta, GosseCereus pendunculatus, Penn. (Sagartia bellis. Ell. et Gosse).— Discovered on the breakwater to south of Gorleston pier (E. A. Ellis, in lit. 27 Aug. 1931). Usually on stones among muddy sand. Phellia gausapata, Gosse. Family P A R A C T J D / R . Stomphia coccinea, Müll. (Churchiae, Gosse).—Brought in to Yarmouth by fishing-boats during May 1906 (Tr. Norf. Soc. viii, 464). A rare species, unknown at Plymouth.
THE CRUSTACEA OF SUFFOLK : ONISCOIDEA
T h e earliest adequate enumeration of indigenous kinds is, probably, Leach's of five species in Brewster's Edinburgh Encycl. 1810, vii, 406. Kirby knew something of aquatic ' Oniscidae ' (Introd. capp. xxii-iii), but little of Woodlice. In 1857-9 Kinahan analysed fourteen British terrestrial Isopoda in the Dublin Nat. Hist. Review, twelve of which had been discovered in a Single garden. By 1868 Bäte and Westwood (ii, p. 438) were able to recognise seventeen kinds of their TEro-spirantia division of Normal Isopoda, i.e. Terrestrial with the upper antennse rudimentary and apical segment of abdomen very small, in contradistinction to the aquatic Aquaspirantia. An elaborate monograph on ' T h e British Woodlice ' with excellent figures was published by W . M. Webb and Charles Sillem in 1905-6 (Essex Nat. xiv ; and also separately by Duckworth & Co), showing at page 54 Britain to contain twenty-five species ; of these Collinge in 1917 (Scot. Nat., p.p. 111-6) issued a Check List. All such and one addition are enumerated below, though only the Suffolk dozen are numbered, consecutively to Trans, ii, 271, and italicised. We are much indebted to Mr. Ernest Taylor, of the Hope Department of Oxford University Museum, for liberal assistance in identification. At least, the extra five kinds that are known in Essex will be found to occur in Suffolk, where but small attention has been hitherto accorded this Family.—Ed.