Page 1

85 THE DECLINE AND EXTINCTION OF THE PEARL-BORDERED FRITILLARY (BOLORIA EUPHROSYNE L.) IN SUFFOLK H. M E N D E L

Introduction According to many authorities, the Pearl-bordered Fritillary is a woodland butterfly and ils decline in East A n g l i a and thc south-east of England, in the 1950s, is usually attribuled to the a b a n d o n m e n t of coppice management (e.g. Thomas, Snazell & Moy, 1991; Warren & Thomas, 1992). DĂźring the course of analysing records for 'The Butterflies of Suffolk' (Mendel & Piotrowski, 1986) it b e c a m e clear that the evidence did not support a simple, causal relationship between the demise of coppice management and the declinc and extinction of the Pearl-bordered Fritillary. Recent interest in this butterfly, both nationally - it has been ' i d e n t i f i e d as one of 116 species requiring high priority conservation action in the UK Government's Biodiversity Action Plan' (Brereton, 1998) - and locally - there is debate about a re-introduction attcmpt in S u f f o l k - has motivated m e to r e - e x a m i n e the evidence.

History in Suffolk The Pearl-bordered Fritillary was c o m m o n and widespread in Suffolk during thc 19th Century (Mendel & Piotrowski, 1986; Appendix 1), to the extent that recorders often did not bother to give precise localities for so familiar a species. It was in decline from the turn of the Century, if not before, and survived at reduced population levels up to the S e c o n d World War. The apparent dearth of records until the 1930s was in large part due to thc absence of a suitable local journal to carry them, a Situation that changed with the formation of the S u f f o l k N a t u r a l i s t s ' Society in 1929 and the publication of an annual Transactions. Records suggest that 1939 was a low point for the Pearlbordered Fritillary in Suffolk, the butterfly recorder complaining that 'No records ofany Fritillaries have come in from all Suffolk, except one A. Paphia' (Vinter, 1939). There is evidence of an up-turn in the early 1940s, at least in south-east Suffolk. This was probably encouraged by the opening up of areas of woodland for timber, f i r e w o o d and other w o o d l a n d produets during the Second World War, a timc of national shortagc. Climatic conditions in the 1940s, which produced a n u m b e r of ' g o o d butterfly years', may also have been a factor. W o o d l a n d clearance and 'coniferisation' in the 1950s produced conditions that enablcd populations to f u r t h e r expand until their total collapse at the end of the decade. W o o d l a n d s to the south of Ipswich, variously referred to as 'Bentley W o o d s ' , 'Belstead W o o d s ' , 'Old Hall W o o d ' or simply 'near Ipswich', were the stronghold of the species in S u f f o l k . Here, the Pearl-bordered Fritillary was 'last recorded in 1959 at Belstead' (Beaufoy, 1970). Few entomologists alive today can r e m e m b e r seeing the Pearl-bordered Fritillary in S u f f o l k bul Messrs. A l a s d a i r Aston and Wilfrid George, in particular, have vivid m e m o r i e s supported by diaries dating to the 1950s. Their accounts provide evidence that the extinction of the butterfly in Suffolk followed a period of apparent plenty. Specimen data labels, entomologists'

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diaries and contemporary accounts in the literature lecd support to this view that the Pearl-bordered Fritillary disappeared suddenly and completely: a catastrophic event rather than a gradual dwindling of populauons^beyondthc point of no return. It brings to mind the comment by Emmet (1984) that A never failing source of surprise is the immediate and often complete disappearance ofa local species öfter a year ofplenty... . A few quotations d r i n g to the late-1950s will serve to ülustrate the status of the species in the woods to the south of Ipswich in the years preceding extinction:. 1955 - 'At the edge ofBelstead Wood this butterfly is always to beseen at the correct time of the year, but usually only in small numbers This last spring, however, they were there in profusion, feeding upon the flowers of bügle...' (Beaufoy, 1956) . i958 _ 'On May 27th, I went to Bentley Woods ... In brilliant noon sunshine it was pleasing to see a flight of fine Large Pearl-bordered Fritilliary (Argynnis euphrosyne, L.). They fluttered near the ground in dozens, attending the flowers of bügle.' (Aston, 1959). . 1959 - 'Sundav 24th May - to Bentley Woods ... A hot sunny day -but pretty windy in exposed places. ... Pearl Bordered Frit tooksix There seemed plenty more about - probably there are hundreds. (diary abstract, W. S. George, in lit.).

/ -) '

\ —

o

/

Cx r1

1

r

ö

c

®

4

,r / 3

4

5

Tetrad distribution of the Pearl-bordered Fritillary in Suffolk (see Appendix 1). Key: O u p t o 1939, © 1940-1959, • both date classes

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DECLINE OF THE PEARL-BORDERED FRITILLARY

87

Habitat and life history The Pearl-bordered Fritillary occurs in a variety of different habitats across its ränge in Britain. In north-west England, where I collected bulterflies as a schoolboy in the 1960s, it was locally common on rough, scrubby hillsides in the Morecambe Bay area. It thrived in sheltered, sunny situations where rock outcrops and thin soils produced a sparse growth of Bracken Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn and light grazing prevented scrub from developing into woodland. According to Brereton (1998) 'Mosaics ofbracken, grass and scrub are an increasingly important habitat for the Pearl-bordered Fritillary, especially in south-west England, Wales and Scotland.' In Suffolk it was a woodland butterfly, associated with wide rides, areas of recent coppice, Clearings and woodland edge habitats not always within the strict confines of a wood. Even young conifer plantations may provide suitable habitat for up to seven or eight years, until the trees begin to shade out the ground flora. Within a woodland, the Pearl-bordered Fritillary is a dynamic species moving to new patches of suitable habitat as they become available and disappearing from areas that become overgrown. However, its ability to colonise new areas is thought to decline sharply with distance and is influenced by the nature of the intervening terrain. Characteristic habitat features are a sunny, open but sheltered Situation and sparse ground cover including the larval foodplant (Violet Viola spp.) and a nectar source, which was usually Bßgle Ajuga reptans L. (see Plate 9) in Suffolk. Common Dog-violet Viola riviniana Reichenb. is the most frequently used larval foodplant. Compared with other fritillary species whose larvae feed on violets, the Pearl-bordered Fritillary 'is perhaps the most choosy as it selects small, young violets growing in short or sparse Vegetation where the microclimate isparticularly warm.' (Warren, 1992). Bare ground with leaf / bracken litter is thought to be important for producing a suitable microclimate and provides shelter for the hibernating larvae. Perhaps the litter also acts as a mulch, suppressing the seed germination and growth of plants that might otherwise overshadow the violets. The life history may be summarised as follows (largely after Frohawk, 1934). The butterfly emerges usually around the middle of May (a month earlier in forward seasons) and is on the wing for about a month. Eggs are laid singly on the undersurface of leaves and stems of violets or on nearby plants and debris. They hatch in 10-15 days and the larvae feed on the violet leaves. Larvae enter into hibernation about the end of July after their third moult, a dead, crumpled leaf acting as the hibernaculum. They emerge about the middle of March and become fully grown after their fourth moult. Larvae frequently move to bare ground near the foodplant to bask in the sunshine. The pupa is suspended from a stem, the underside of a leaf or amongst ground debris, and the pupal stage lasts about two weeks. Ipswich entomologist Mr. Sam Beaufoy, who succeeded in breeding most of the British butterfly species, found the Pearl-bordered Fritillary one of the more difficult. He obtained his stock from Old Hall Wood (pers. comm.) and the following is a transcript from his entomological diary (now at Ipswich Museum).

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' 9 9 layfreely in captivity, mainly on the netting, but more on the leaves than do Dark Green & High Brown. Max 1946. Ova laid. Larvae hatch in about afortnight. Larvae grow slowly & hibernate in August after third moult. Winter 1946-47. Larvae kept among dead leaves in a cardboard box in the shed. 15-3-47. Four larvae found to be alive after hibernation. 29-3-47. Two larvae remain. Supplied with young violet leaves - two semicircular pieces were eaten. 16-4-47. One remaining larva transferred to plant outside, after having been kept in a tin indoors. 26-4-47. Last moult. 18-5-47. Larva spun up. 22-5-47. Larva pupates. 2-6-47. Imago emerges. The above was thefirst time that the larvae had been kept through the winter, after many attempts with different methods.' Possible reasons for the decline: Habitat management In the 19th Century, over the period when the Pearl-bordered Fritillary was widespread and generally common in Suffolk, woodland management was labour intensive and more or less continuous. This continuity of management (coppice or otherwise) resulted in a continuity of habitat at a successional stage suitable for the Pearl-bordered Fritillary. Regulär access for work kept tracks and rides open. Areas of rough, scrubby pasture providing sheltered grazing were often associated with woodland blocks. High populations of rabbits kept the sward well cropped and prevented succession to rank Vegetation. Undoubtedly, the decline and abandonment of coppice management and neglect of rides had an effect on populations of the Pearl-bordered Fritillary, but that effect appears to have been gradual, taking place over half a Century or more. If the decline of traditional woodland management caused the disappearance of the Pearl-bordered Fritillary in Suffolk, butterfly populations in woodlands with a long and near continuous history of management would have fared much better than others without. This is not supported by the evidence. The loss of many woodland butterflies in the 1950s was often attributed to woodland clearance and 'coniferisation' which were proceeding at an alarming rate at that time (see Plates opposile). Aston (1959), on a visit to Bentley Woods on 27th May 1958, commented: 7? was a splendid day in Bentley Woods which have lately been "tidied" to give the oaks room. An extremely sinister sight, however, was the rows and rows of recently planted conifers between the oaks. 1t seems that Suffolk can say farewell to many of her most prized inhabitants ...'. True as this prediction proved to be, it is unlikely that 'coniferisation' produced its effects on butterfly populations so quickly or so completely. W. S. George (in lit.), who was last to see the Pearl-bordered Fritillary in Suffolk, on 24th May 1959, recalls that Old Hall Wood 'must have been clear-felled only a year or two earlier ... it was just open ground with bluebells & bßgle etc.'

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DECLINE OF THE PEARL-BORDERED FRITILLARY

Old Hall Wood ('Bentley Woods') before clearance, 21 st August 1951.

Old Hall Wood ('Bentley Woods') recently cleared area, 8th March 1953.


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By the end of the 1950s, the haunts of the Pearl-bordered Fritillary had not been entirely planted with conifers, nor were many of the blocks of newly planted conifers so well grown as to shade out the ground flora. At the time, the open rides, areas of clear-fell and newly planted conifer blocks most likely represented an increase in available habitat for the Pearl-bordered Fritillary in Suffolk. Climate It is evident from the ränge expansions of a wide variety of insect species over the past decade that a small climatic shift can have a marked effect. In Suffolk, species such as Roesel's Bush-cricket Metrioptera roesellii (Hagenbach) (Orthoptera), Emperor Dragonfly Anax Imperator Leach (Odonata) and Bee Wolf Philanthus triangulum (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera) have become dramatically more widespread and the best explanation, at least in part, is a more favourable climate. The converse must surely be true, that as the climate becomes less favourable, the ränge of a species will contract or move. It will disappear first from marginal areas where the habitat is sub-optimal. How a more or less 'favourable' climate for a particular species is defined is understood only in general terms. January and July means of temperature and average monthly rainfall figures, although useful, are generally too broad a measure to provide much of an insight. The overall climate is likely to be less significant than the conditions at some critical point of the life history. The Pearl-bordered Fritillary favours the warmer sunnier and dryer areas within a woodland. It is the earliest of the fritillaries to appear each year and climate and microclimate are likely to be important limiting factors. The subtle ways in which the variables that constitute climate interrelate with other environmental variables make it very difficult to identify the precise effects of small climatic shifts. Climate can affect a species indircctly by altering the habitat. For example, re-growth in woodland after clear-felling or coppicing is very noticeably more vigorous in warm wet seasons, especially on the more fertile boulder clay of central Suffolk. Perhaps the Pearl-bordered Fritillary survived the longest in woods south of Ipswich bccause they are on poor, free-draining, sandy soils where re-growth after clearance is much slower. There seems to have been a genuine down-tum in climate in the 1950s, with temperatures below the long-term average. The extirpation of populations of the Pearl-bordered Fritillary in Britain from that time, from east to west, suggests that climate may have been a contributory factor. However, the Pearl-bordered Fritillary's ränge in the British Isles, from Kent to west Wales from Cornwall to Shetland, demonstrates that the species can tolerate a wide ränge of climatic conditions. According to climate statistics, the late-1950s does not stand out as being particularly extreme in the context of the previous Century. Düring the 1950s the Suffolk Naturalists' Society weather reports were written by R. R. Wilson, F.R.Met.S. who lived at Belstead Hall, less than a mile from Suffolk's most persistent colony of Pearl-bordered Fritillary at Bentley Woods. His reports, published in the Transactions make interesting reading but, unfortunately, do not cover the critical years 1959 and 1960.

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91

Myxomatosis Myxomatosis was first reportcd in England in October 1953, in Kent. The first outbreak in Suffolk was noticed on 2nd Deccmber, the same year, at Easton Bavents near Southwold and within a year the disease had spread over the whole County (Haslam, 1956). The effect on local rabbit populations was devastating, as clearly shown by the Elveden Estate 'Game Register' (Cranbrook, 1959). The total number of rabbits killed on the estate plummeted from 19,839 (1953/54, March-February), to 8,601 (1954/55, March-February; myxomatosis was first noticed on the estate in August 1954) to 401 (1955/56, March-February). The extent of the effects of rabbit grazing on the ground flora and fauna were not fully realised until after the advent of myxomatosis. Sumpton and Flowerdew (1985) reviewed the ecological consequences of the decline in rabbit populations and listed the early effects: an increase in the height and cover of herbs and grass, an increase in the variety of plants, a greater abundance of seedlings of woody plants, more prolific flowering and increased seed germination and seedling establishment encouraging plant succession. Impact studies in Britain focussed on chalk grassland and heathland; woodland ground floras were largely neglected. However, in forests in France an astonishing outburst of grass growth was reported (Morel, 1956). Contemporary reports and comments in field notebooks indicate the changes that were taking place in Suffolk. Aston (in lit.), referring to his visit to Bentley Woods on 27th May 1958 (Aston, 1959), made a note in his diary of the vividly fresh and prolific clumps of tallish grass at the edge of the main drove, which seemed not to have been cropped by rabbits. Changes in the woodland flora following myxomatosis, particularly the reduction in time that an area of clear-fell or coppice remained at a successional stage suitable for the Pearlbordered fritillary, appear to have been underestimated. The spread of myxomatosis across Britain is well documented. Detailed histories of individual butterfly species, at a local level, have been compiled for many counties. It would be interesting to compare the spread of myxomatosis with the timing of local extinctions of the Pearl-bordered Fritillary, to see if there is a recognisable pattem. Other The loss of so many populations of violet-feeding fritillaries in eastern England in the 1950s and 1960s, without obvious cause, has been the subject of considerable debate. Pesticides and herbicides, over collecting, habitat fragmentation, parasitoids, pathogens, pheasant rearing, hedgehogs, lizards and air pollution have all been suggested as possible explanations. Some of these factors may have contributed to the decline but it is unlikely that they were critical, so far as the Pearl-bordered Fritillary was concerned. Pesticides and herbicides were increasingly used in the 1950s and would have adversely affected the woodland edge habitat but spray drift does not penetrate far inside a wood. Parasitoids are known to cause population crashes in some butterfly species, for example the Holly Blue Celastrina argiolus L., but there is no evidence for this in the Pearl-bordered Fritillary. Morley (1937) suggested that pheasants were responsible for wiping out the Silver-washed Fritillary

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Argynnis paphia L. in Bentley Woods, a point strongly contested by Allan (1938). Over the years pheasants and pheasant rearing have been implicatcd in the decline of various butterfly species and the Pearl-bordered Fritillary was placed in the 'high risk' category for pheasant predation by Corke (1989). However, there is no good evidence that it was an important factor in the extinction of this species in Suffolk. Summary and Conclusions The Pearl-bordered Fritillary was common and generally widespread in Suffolk in the 19th Century, frequenting woodland edges, rides and areas of coppice. The evidence suggests that it was in decline from the turn of the Century, if not before, due to the neglect of woodland management. As the 20th Century progressed, other factors possibly compounded the problem. The move from mixed farming to arable and agricultural improvements and intensification resulted in an ever increasing acreage under the plough and the loss of rough ground associated woodland edges. Tractor power enabled previously marginal land to be ploughed up. In the face of this long-term decline there seems to have been a resurgence in populations during the Second World War. This was probably due to the opening up of areas of woodland for timber, firewood and other woodland products at a time of national shortage. Woodland clearance and 'coniferisation' in the 1950s enabled populations to further expand until their sudden and total collapse at the end of the decade. At that time, the Pearlbordered Fritillary disappeared from woods with a long continuity of coppice management just as completely as from those without. This apparently indiscriminate feature of the decline was common to a number of violetfeeding, woodland fritillaries (Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary Boloria selene Denis & SchiffermĂźller, High Brown Fritillary Argynnis adippe Denis & SchiffermĂźller, Silver-washed Fritillary) that were lost to Suffolk at around the same time (Mendel & Piotrowski, 1986). The most plausible explanation for the population crash is that newly created habitat was quickly overgrown after myxomatosis had wiped out the rabbit population, tall perennial grasses and rank Vegetation over-shadowing both foodplant and nectar sources and producing an altogether cooler microclimate. Long-term climatic cycles may have been a contributory factor. Re-establishment Habitat management to create conditions suitable for the re-establishment of the Pearl-bordered Fritillary is high on the conservation agenda. The narrow view that the butterfly is a woodland species, dependent on coppice management, is likely to unnecessarily limit the options. In many woodlands, restoration of coppice management in a way that would provide a continuity of suitable habitat is not an option. Either it would be far too expensive or the area is not large enough for sufficient compartments of a viable size to ensure continuity of habitat at the right successional stage. In reality, the Pearl-bordered Fritillary is one of a group of species associated with open scrub conditions. In Suffolk and in many areas of East Anglia and south-eastern England that habitat was maintained within

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DECLINE OF THE PEARL-BORDERED FRITILLARY

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woodland systems: areas of clearance, coppice, rides and edges with scrubby pasture. Once the habitat parameters of the species are better known, it is likely that easier, cheaper and better ways than coppice management will be found to produce and maintain suitable conditions for the Pearl-bordered Fritillarv in Suffolk. ' The Bentley Woods complex offers many possibilities. Rabbit populations have returned to pre-myxomatosis levels and thrive on the light, free-draining soils of the area. The soils and undulating topography produce a warmer microclimate earlier in the season compared with woodlands on the 'cold' boulder clay of central Suffolk. Also, re-growth after clearance is slower than in the woodlands on the wetter more fertile boulder clay. Acknowledgments I thank Messrs. A. E. Aston, W. S. George and the late Mr. S. Beaufoy for allowing me to include their previously unpublished observations and Ipswich Museum for access to the collections and records it holds. Mr. R. E. Clarke kindly prepared the appendix of records from my notes and produced the distribution map. Thanks to Miss A. Beaufoy and the late Mr. S. Beaufoy for allowing me to use the habitat photographs and Dr. D. A. Sheppard for supplying me with a copy of Thomas, Snazell & Moy (1991), an unpublished report commissioned by English Nature. References Allan, P. B. M. (1938). The fritillaries of Bentley Woods. Trans. Suffolk Nat Soc., 4: 70-71. Aston, A. E. (1959). Collecting in 1958. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc., 11: 140. Beaufoy, S. (1945). Bentley butterflies. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc., 5: 225-226. Beaufoy, S. (1956). Pearl-bordered Fritillary (Argynnis euphrosyne Linn) Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc., 9: 245. Beaufoy, S. (1970). Suffolk butterflies from 1945. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc 15 135-137. Bloomfield, E. N. (1890). The Lepidoptera of Suffolk. London: Wesley. Brereton, T. (1998). Pearl-bordered fritillary national survey 1997. Butterfly Conservation News, no. 68., pp. 11-13. Butters, E. A. (1935). Macrolepidoptera near Ipswich. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc., 3: 88—89. Corke, D. (1989). Of pheasants and fritillaries: is predation by pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) a cause of the decline in some British butterfly species? British Journal of Entomology and Natural History, 2: 1-14. Cranbrook, J. D. (1959). Myxomatosis in Suffolk. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc.. 11: Emmet, A. M. (1984). The demise of the Black-veined White: a new theory. Entomologist 's Ree. J. Var., 94: 43-44. Frohawk, F. W. (1934). The complete book of British butterflies. London: Ward, Lock & Co. Greene, J. (1857). List of Lepidoptera occurring in the county of Suffolk. Naturalist, 7: 253-258. Haslam, I. (1956). Myxomatosis in East Suffolk. Trans Suffolk Nat. Soc., 9: 213-215.

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Helc, N. F. (1870). Notes or jottings about Aldeburgh, Suffolk. London: Russell Smith. Mendel, H. & Piotrowski, S. H. (1986). The butterflies of Suffolk - an atlas and history. Ipswich: Suffolk Naturalists' Society. Morel, A. (1956). Influence de l'epidemie de myxomatose sur la flore Frangaise. Terre et la Wie, 103: 226-238. Morley, C. (1934). Proceedings. Ist June. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc., 2: clxxivclxxvi. Morley, C. (ed.) (1937). The Lepidoptera of Suffolk. Suffolk Naturalists' Society. Stainton, H. T. (1857). A manual of British butterflies and moths. London: Van Voorst. Sumpton, K. J. & Flowerdew, J. R. (1985). The ecological effects of the decline in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) due to myxomatosis. Mammal Review, 15: 151-86. Thomas, J. A„ Snazell, R. G. & Moy, I. (1991). The conservation of violetfeeding fritillaries in the British lsles. Report commissioned by English Nature. Unpublished. Tillett, W. T. (1857). Captures near Thetford. Entomologist's Weekly Intelligencer, 2: 93. Vinter, C. H. S. (1939). Butterflies of 1939. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc., 4: 127-128. Vinter, C. H. S. (1942a). Argynnis dia, a butterfly new to Suffolk. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc., 5: 1 - 3 . Vinter, C. H. S. (1942b). Butterflies of 1942. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc., 5: 43-45. Vinter, C. H. S. (1943). Butterflies of 1943. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc., 5: 111-112. Vinter, C. H. S. (1945). Suffolk Lepidoptera in 1945. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc., 5: 221-223. Warren, M. S. & Thomas, J. A. (1992). Butterfly responses to coppicing. In: Buckley G. P. (ed.), Ecology and management of coppice woodlands, pp. 249-270. London: Chapman & Hall. Warren, M. (1992). Britain's vanishing fritillaries. British Wildlife, 3(5): 282-296. Howard Mendel Department of Entomology The Natural History Museum Cromwell Road London SW7 5BD

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DECLINE O F THE PEARL-BORDERED FRITILLARY

Appendix 1 Pearl-bordered Fritillary: Suffolk Records (in chronological order) G.R.

V.C.

52/8840

26 1838 Sudbury area Anon. ['Abundant in woods (Morley, 1937; quoting Sudbury Journal, 1838)] 26 vi. 1857 Fakenham Wood W. T. Tillett ['several dozcn' (Tillett, 1857)] 25/26 1857 Suffolk J. Greene ['Common' (Greene, 1857)] 25 1857 Stowmarket H. T. Stainton

52/9277

62/05P 62/4153 52/9257 62/05X 62/14 62/1239 62/1239 62/1239 62/1239

62/1239 62/1239 62/1239

Date

Locality

Collector/Recorder

['common' (Stainton, 1857)] 25 1870 Sudboume Woods ['Abundant' (Hele, 1870)] 26 1890 Monkspark Wood ['Locally common' (Bloomfield, 1890)] 25 1890 Needham Market ['Locally common' (Bloomfield, 1890)] 25 1890 Ipswich

N. F. Hele A. H. Wrattislaw E. N. Bloomfield

E. N. Bloomfield ['Locally common ... many localities near Ipswich' (Bloomfield, 1890)] loomfield, 1? 25 24.iv.1893 Bentley Woods C. Morley [C. Morley Collection, Ipswich Museum R. 1952-22] 25 12.V.1893 Bentley Woods C. Morley [C. Morley Collection, Ipswich Museum R. 1952-22] 25 13.vi.1893 Benüey Woods C. Morley [C. Morley Collection, Ipswich Museum R. 1952-22] 25 1894 Bentley Woods C. Morley ['8 Euphrosyne all Bentley Woods. 1894 abundant Ipswich ch District, Distrii C. M.' 'Ab flavus-pallidus Frohk. Varr. Brit. Butt. 1938. pl. xii CM xi ti 38' C. C . !Morley Collection, Ipswich Museum R. 1952-22] 26 8.v.1894 Bentley Woods C. Morley [C. Morley Collection, Ipswich Museum R. 1952-22] 25 13.v.1894 Benüey Woods C Morley [C. Morley Collection, Ipswich Museum R. 1952-22] 25 14.v. 1894 Bentley Woods C. Morley [C. Morley Collection, Ipswich Museum R.1952-22]

62/1239

25 15.v.1894 Bentley Woods [C. Morley Collection, Ipswich Museum R.1952-22]

C. Morley

62/1239

26 11 v. 1895 Bentley Woods [C. Morley Collection, Ipswich Museum R. 1952-22]

C. Morley

62/1239

25 20.vi.1895 Bentley Woods [C. Morley Collection, Ipswich Museum R.1952-22]

C. Morley

62/0540

26 [General 26 [General

J H. Hocking

62/0540

23.V.1898 Raydon Wood Collection, Ipswich Museum] 26.v. 1898 Raydon Wood Collection, Ipswich Museum]

J. H. Hocking

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96 G.R. 62/1239 62/0540 52/9277 62/1239 62/14 62/1239 62/1239

62/1239 62/1239

V.C.

Date

Locality

Collector/Recorder

Bentley Woods

E. W. Plauen

25 16.V.1899 ['took large numbers' (Vinter, 1942a)] Raydon Wood 26 1900 [Morley, 1937] Fakenham Wood 26 1933 [Morley, 1937] Bentley Woods 25 1.vi.1934 | 'on the wing everywhere' (Morley, 1934)] 25 1934 Ipswich District

J. H. Hocking E. Kirkby C. Morley

E. A. Butters [' a fĂźll series' (Butters, 1935)] C. Morley 25 11.vi.1935 Bentley Woods [C. Morley Collection, Ipswich Museum R.1952-22, labelled '11 vi 1935 B W ' G. J. Burton 25 24 Belstead Woods 28.v.1942 (G. J. Burton, in lit.)] 8.vi.1942 Belstead Woods (G. J. Burton, in lit.)] 25.vBentley Woods 8.vi.1942 [' in fair numbers' (Vinter, 1942b)]

['many' 25 ['many' 25

62/1239

25 16.V.1943 Bentley Woods [' a f e w ' (Vinter, 1943)]

52/9357

26 1.vi.1943 Felsham Wood [' one w o m ' (Vinter, 1943)]

62/1239

25 12.V.1945 [Beaufoy (1945)]

Bentley Woods

62/1239

25 12.V.1945 [Vinter (1945)]

Bentley Woods

G J. Burton E. W. Platten

P. J. Burton F. G. Barcock S. Beaufoy C. Morley

62/1239

C. Morley 25 12.V.1945 Bentley Woods [C. Morley Collection, Ipswich Museum R.1952-22, labelled 'ry bank BW many']

62/1239

25

62/1239

25 15.v.1948 Belstead S. Beaufoy ['First butterfly of the year.' S. Beaufoy Diaries, Ipswich Museum]

52/9752

26 16.V.1948 H o m e Wood, Hitcham ['The only Suffolk record I have' (A. L. Bull, in lit.)] 25 23.V.1952 Belstead Woods [S. Beaufoy Diaries, Ipswich Museum]

A. L. Bull

26 26.v.1954 Raydon Wood [S. Beaufoy Diaries, Ipswich Museum] 26 3.vi.1954 Belstead Wood

S. Beaufoy

62/1239 62/0540 62/1239 62/1239 62/1239

v.1946

Old Hall Wood

S. Beaufoy

S. Beaufoy

S. Beaufoy

[S. Beaufoy Diaries, Ipswich Museum] 25 1955 Belstead Wood S. Beaufoy ['At the edge ... always to be seen ... last spring ... in profusion' (Beaufoy, 1956)] 25 15.v.1955 Belstead Wood S. Beaufoy [S. Beaufoy Diaries, Ipswich Museum]

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 35 (1999)


DECLINE O F THE PEARL B O R D E R E D FRITILLAR Y

G.R.

V.C.

62/0540

26 29.V.1955 Raydon Wood S. Beaufoy [S. Beaufoy Diaries, Ipswich Museum] 25 29.V.1957 Belstead S. Beaufoy [S. Beaufoy Diaries, Ipswich Museum] 26 l.vi.1957 Raydon Wood S. Beaufoy ['Many', S. Beaufoy Diaries, Ipswich Museum] 25 27.V.1958 Bentley Woods A. E. Aston ['They fluttered near the ground in dozens' (Aston 1959)] 25 23.V.1959 Belstead S. Beaufoy [S. Beaufoy Diaries, Ipswich Museum] 25 24.V.1959 Old Hall Wood W. S. George ['plenty ... probably there are hundreds ... on bĂźgle, or on the ground' (W. S. George, in lit.)]

62/1239 62/0540 62/1239 62/1239 62/1239

Date

Locality

97

Collector/Recorder

Aulacidea follioti (Barbotin) a gall wasp (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) new to Suffolk Whilst searching for insects on the coast at Thorpeness, B.Suffolk, with Nigel Cuming on 1 Ith September 1998, a Single galled plant of Prickly Sow-thistle, Sonchus asper (L.) Hill was noticed at Ness Point (TM477606). On closer examination the galls proved to be those of Aulacidea follioti, a species previously known in Britain only from the coast of north east Essex. The next day, at Sizewell (TM477646) a second galled plant was found in a similar Situation on the Upper beach. A. follioti was first found in Britain on the grazing marshes at Fingringhoe, north-east Essex in 1996 and added to the British list in 1997 (Bowdrcy, 1997). It was described as new to science in France and is now known also from Spain. The galls are noticeable as irregulär swellings on the lower part of the stem, sometimes with smaller swellings on the branches of the upper stem. The yellowish larvae live in elliptical cells in the gall tissue, where they overwinter. In Britain, despite the widespread distribution of the host plant, the gall has so far only been found close to the sea. Galled plants appeared to occur at a much lower density on the Suffolk coast than at the Essex sites, perhaps reflecting the different nature of the coastline in the two counties. It would be interesting to ascertain how far northward the distribution of A. follioti extends. The author would be pleased to examine any material, especially that collected from north of Sizewell. If material is collected in late summer a short length of galled stem is sufficient for rearing and identification. Reference Bowdrey, J. P. (1994). A preliminary note on Aulacidea follioti Barbotin 1972 (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae), a species new to Britain. Cecidology 9: 54. Jerry Bowdrcy, Colchester Museums, 14 Ryegate Road, Colchester COl 1YG

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 35

(1999)

The decline and extinction of the Pearl-bordered Fritillary, Boloria euphrosyne L. in Suffolk.  

Mendel, H.

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