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99 SOME RECENT SUFFOLK PLANT RECORDS Compiled by E. M. HYDE and F. W. SIMPSON For each record the following information is given: locality and habitat, Ordnance Survey 10 km Square, vice-county, finder's name or initials (see key at end of article) and date of record. The comments are those of the Compilers, based in some cases on information supplied by the finders. Nomenclature and order of species are those of Kent (1992) and Stace (1991). Clement & Foster (1994) is our authority for information on alien plants. Simpson's Flora of Suffolk is used as the authority for claiming first or second County records, supplemented by the large number of records received since its publication. The Compilers wish to thank the specialists who determined or confirmed the identity of specimens, especially Mr. E. J. Clement, who has solved many a problem for us over the years. We thank all those who have supplied records for this interesting list.

Native plants and established introductions Ceterach officinarum Willd., Rustyback. Mendham Church, high up on the building, TM28, v.c. 25, PGL, 8/8/1997. This is Suffolk's rarest fern and one which was feared lost here, following restoration work. A very welcome re-discovery. Recorded here in Hind's Flora, 1889. Salsola kali L. ssp. ruthenica (Iljin) SoĂś, Spineless Saltwort. Mildenhall, in rough grassland by tarmac path, TL67, v.c. 26, YJL, 21/10/1997. An uncommon plant of waste land and arable field edges. Only the third post-Flora record. Cerastium fontanum Baumg. ssp. holosteoides (Fr.) Salman, Ommering & de Voogd, a subspecies of Common Mouse-ear. Landguard Common Nature Reserve, Single plant in small rabbit-proof enclosure, TM23, v.c. 25, AC, April 1997. Det. E. J. Clement. Hb. E. J. Clement. Another new taxon for Landguard Common. Differs f r o m the commoner ssp. vulgare (Hartm.) Greuter & BĂźrdet in its less pubescent stems, narrower upper leaves and larger capsules. The Landguard plant was, in fact, completely glabrous. First definite Suffolk record. Spergularia marina (L.) Griseb., Lesser Sea-spurrey. An annual plant of sandy shores and saltmarshes. However, as long ago as 1985 it was beginning to colonise the bare winter-salted verges of Suffolk's trank roads, often well away from the coast (Hyde, 1986). The records below suggest that like Cochlearia danica L., Danish Scurvygrass and Atriplex littoralis L., Grass-leaved Orache, it may become an established constituent of the verge flora. a) Westley roundabout, A14/B1106, abundant on bare soil close to tarmac, TL86, v.c. 26, PGL, 9/7/1997. The plants were in the splash zone for winter salting. Also present, Atriplex littoralis, one plant, and abundant Plantago coronopus L., Buck's-horn Plantain. First record for v.c. 26, West Suffolk.

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b) Wherstead interchange, A14/A137, frequent on bare patches close to carriageway on roundabouts and slip-roads, TM14, v.c. 25, EMH, 3/10/1997. Atriplex littoralis and Plantago coronopus also there. c) Brightwell, traffic roundabout with Cochlearia danica, TM24, v.c. 25 FWS, 9/6/1997. d) Hopton-on-Sea, beside the AI2, TG50, v.c. 25, ALB, 1996. Silene gallica L., Small-flowered Catchfly. Westleton, edge of arable field near sewage works, TM46, v.c. 25, JW, July 1997. First seen here July 1981 (JW), now reduced to a small colony. Now quite rare in Suffolk with few post-Flora records. Rumex acetosella L. ssp. pyrenaicus (Pourr.) Akeroyd, a subspecies of Sheep's Sorrel. Southwold, acid grassland, TM57, v.c. 25, GP, 8/9/1996. Seen also by PGL. A subspecies in which the tepals adhere firmly to the ripe achenes. Its distribution in the County is not known. First Suffolk record. Malva sylvestris L., Common Mallow, blue-flowered form. Wissington, bank on N. side of road, TL93, v.c. 26, AAB, 28/6/1997. Both white and blue-flowered plants are occasionally seen, the former being the more common. Anagallis tenella (L.) L„ Bog Pimpernel. Nacton, damp pasture near Fox's Carr, TM24, v.c. 25, FWS, 24/7/1997. An uncommon plant in Suffolk and believed to be decreasing. Not previously noticed in this site (FWS). Carex ovalis Gooden., Oval Sedge, also in this same pasture, another species becoming less common in the County. Erodium lebellii Jord., Sticky Stork's-bill. (= Erodium glutinosum Dumort.) West Stow, heathland, TL87, v.c. 26, EMC and HC, 21/7/1997. Det. MNS. Uncommon in Suffolk, but recorded from both Breckland and sandy coastal sites. Scandix pecten-veneris L., Shepherd's-needle. Cransford, beet field alongside Roadside Nature Reserve, TM36, v.c. 25, RH, 5/10/1997. A new site for this species, which continues to recover after years of near-extinction. Kickxia elatine (L.) Dumort., Sharp-leaved Fluellen, and K. spuria (L.) Dumort., Round-leaved Fluellen, also in this field. Oenanthe crocata L., Hemlock Water-dropwort. Dagworth, Haughley, c. 20 plants flowering and fruiting in ditch on edge of derelict osier bed, TM06, v.c. 26, JLW, 24/6/1997. A rare plant in Suffolk. It has not been recorded from this part of the County before. Petroselinum segetum (L.) W. D. J. Koch, Com Parsley. Butley River, about 100 plants on either side of the river wall, TM34, v.c. 25, BW, 9/6/1997. This is a second site in TM34 for what has become a very rare plant in Suffolk.

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Centaurium pulchellum (Sw.) Druce, Lesser Centaury. Walberswick, abundant in short damp turf behind the beach, just south of the car park and camp-site, TM57, v.c. 25, GP, 26/7/1997. Also PGL. In the past twelve years or so, this rare Suffolk plant has been recorded in abundance in two, or perhaps three, sections of this Walberswick Stretch of coast. This appears to be the only extant Suffolk colony. Solanum triflorum Nutt., Small Nightshade. Icklingham, 5 sites and Cavenham, 1 site, TL77, v.c. 26, YJL, between July and Sept., 1997. An uncommon arable weed, known in Suffolk only from the Icklingham area in West Suffolk and from Iken in East Suffolk, where it still persists. Ajuga reptans L„ Bßgle, white-flowered form. Wolves Wood R.S.P.B. reserve, one plant of this rare variant near the large pond, TM04, v.c. 26, FWS, 22/5/1997. Only one previous record in recent times (Hyde & Simpson 1992). Origanum vulgare L., Maijoram. a) Bury St. Edmunds, TL86, and West of Higham, TL76, both sites on N. verge of A14, v.c. 26, MDC, 1993. b) Shelley, established on steep roadside bank, TM03, v.c. 26, EMH, 28/8/1995. Probably of garden origin. A declining species, known from a small number of sites only. Verbascum virgatwn Stokes, Twiggy Mullein. a) Wherstead, a large colony on the bank of the A14, N. side, extending from the slip-road from the A137 to the next lay-by, TM14, v.c. 25, CJH, July 1997. Det. MNS. b) Westleton, site of former tip, TM46, v.c. 25, JW, 1997. Det. MNS, Sept. 1997. Native only in the south-west of Britain, casual elsewhere. Infrequent, but perhaps increasing in Suffolk. Verbascum x semialbum Chaub., Great x Dark Mullein. (V. thapsus L. x V. nigrum L.) Westleton, site of former tip, TM46, v.c. 25, MNS, PGL and JW, 12/9/1997. An uncommon hybrid. Both parent species present. Scrophularia umbrosa Dumort., Green Figwort. Tuddenham St. Martin, a large colony by the R. Fynn, TM14, v.c. 25, FWS, 2/8/1997. Conf. MNS. Specimen in Ipswich Museum herbarium. An uncommon native species, found in damp, shady places. First confirmed Suffolk record. Rhinanthus minor L., Yellow Rattie. a) Ipswich, abundant by R. Orwell between jetty and new sewerage fence, TM14, v.c. 25, TH, 23/5/1997. The finder is very familiar with this area and has never before seen these plants. Perhaps soil disturbance connected with the new sewage works has brought buried seed to the surface. b) Creeting St. Mary, near Deerbolt Hall, common over small area, TM 15, v.c. 25, JLW, 2/8/1995. Not previously recorded in this area. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc.

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Legousia hybrida (L.) Delarbre, Venus's Looking-glass. a) Freckenham, edge of arable field, TL67, v.c. 26, EMH, 20/6/1993. b) Kentford, former sand and gravel workings, TL76, v.c. 26, DJL and YJL 26/7/1997. c) Tattingstone, many plants at edge of barley field, TM13, v.c. 25, EMH, 28/6/1991. An interesting colony with flowers of two distinct colours' Among the usual pale lilac flowers were plants with large, bright blueviolet flowers, clearly visible several metres away. In colour and flowersize reminiscent of Legousia speculum-veneris (L.) Chaix, Large Venus's Looking-glass, an occasional casual in Britain. Not, however, this species. Orobanche minor Sm., Common Broomrape. Occasionally very large colonies of this species are seen, as in the second of the records below. a) Bury St. Edmunds, at least 40 flower spikes on S.E. side of bridge over the A14 to Risby, TL76, v.c. 26, MS, 29/5/1997. b) Westley roundabout, A14, N. side, between east-bound slip-road and Tut Hill, TL86, v.c. 26, MS, 29/5/1997. About 200 flower spikes, including four yellow forms. Common Broomrape is particularly frequent along this Stretch of the A14. DĂźring 1993 M. D. Crewe recorded it in sixteen 1 km. squares between the Cambridgeshire border and Bury St. Edmunds. Tragopogon porrifolius L., Salsify (see plate 4). a) Stutton, alongside footpath by Mill, TM13, CJH and AH, May 1997. b) Bucklesham, verge outside Kembroke Kenneis, TM24, v.c. 25, CJH and AH, May 1997. c) B red field, roadside verge just off the AI 2, TM25, v.c. 25, BW, late May/early June, 1997. An established introduction of garden origin. Also found on re-seeded verges. Appears to be increasing. Senecio x albescens Burb. & Colgan, Silver x Common Ragwort. (S. cineraria DC x S. jacobaea L.) Walberswick, flood bank west of Dunwich River, TM57, v.c. 25, PGL and GP, 26/7/1997. One very large and vigorous plant on bank on edge of village. S. jacobaea present, but other parent not seen. Comm. PGL. A rare plant in Suffolk, with only two previous records, from Bawdsey and Southwold. Its distribution in Britain is largely coastal. Juncus x kern-reichgeltii Jansen & Wacht., Soft x Compact Rush. (J. effusus L. x J. conglomeratus L.) Wolves Wood R.S.P.B, reserve, one clump, TM04, SL, 1997. Det. J. Heath and T. Tarpey. A very interesting discovery. First Suffolk record. Galanthus plicatus M. Bieb. ssp. byzantinus (Baker) D. A. Webb, a subspecies of Pleated Snowdrop. Henham park, naturalised, TM47, v.c. 25, PGL and GP, 4/3/1995. Conf. J. Morley. First Suffolk record of this subspecies. Galanthus elwesii Hook. F., Greater Snowdrop.

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Henstead, in cemetery opposite churchyard, TM48, v.c. 25, PGL and GP, 22/2/1996. Conf. J. Morley. Second Suffolk record. Galanthus caucasicus (Baker) Grossh., Caucasian Snowdrop. Henstead, in cemetery opposite churchyard, TM48, v.c. 25, PGL and GP, 22/2/1996. Conf. J. Morley. Second Suffolk record. This and the preceding species were well-naturalised, spreading into the adj acent copse and hybridising freely. Galanthus caucasicus (Baker) Grossh. x G. elwesii Hook, f., Caucasian x Greater Snowdrop. Henstead, in cemetery opposite churchyard, TM48, v.c. 25, PGL and GP, 22/2/1996. Conf. J. Morley, Feb. 1997. A very interesting discovery and the first Suffolk record. Galanthus ikariae Baker ssp. latifolius (Rupr.) Stearn, Green Snowdrop. Haiesworth, well-naturalised and seeding in woodland, TM37, v.c. 25, PGL and GP, 6/4/1996. Re-visited 22/3/1997 to confirm identification. Another interesting discovery. First Suffolk record. All the above snowdrop records comm. PGL. Crocus tommasinianus

Herbert, Early Crocus.

This is a slender, early-flowering crocus, usually with pale mauve flowers, much grown in gardens and frequently escaping. Persists in the wild unless swamped by rank Vegetation.

a) Westley churchyard, TL86, v.c. 26, MDC, 1995. b) Fornham All saints, along track W. of golf course, TL86, v.c. 26, MDC, 1995. c) Thetford churchyard, TL88, v.c. 26, MDC, 1995. d) Woolverstone, scattered along roadside bank, known not to have been planted, TM13, v.c. 25, EMH, 16/2/1998. e) Ipswich, many well-established clumps in flower in light woodland, well away from houses, TM14, v.c. 25, EMH, 25/2/1997. Bird-seed aliens, casuals and escapes Agrostemma githago L., Corncockle. a) East Bergholt, several plants on bank of track down to river, near houses, TM03, v.c. 25, RB, June 1993. Conf. EMH. Comm. T. Tarpey. b) Somerleyton, one plant on verge of Waddling Lane, below hedgerow, TM49, v.c. 25, CAJ, 6/7/1997. These are two new sites for a beautiful plant now considered extinct as a cornfield weed, but surviving as a constituent of wildflower seed mixtures. Several such colonies have been found on Suffolk roadsides in the past few years, but they are unable to compete for long with the natural Vegetation. Another very similar species of Corncockle, Agrostemma gracile Boiss. has once been recorded in Suffolk (Hyde & Simpson 1993). Cistus ladanifer L., Gum Cistus. Wherstead, one small bush in flower high up on the bank of the slip-road from

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the A137 on to the A14 towards Felixstowe, TM14, v.c. 25, AH, July 1997. Det. CJH. Origin not known. First confirmed Suffolk record. The two previous records in Simpson's Flora have since been re-determined as Cistus laurifolius L., Laurel-leaved Cistus. Arachis hypogaea L„ Peanut. Felixstowe, the Grove, about four dozen plants, 6 cm. - 20 cm., in leaf-litter near paths, in several places. Some nuts visible. TM33, v.c. 25, BM, late summer 1997. An amazing discovery, especially in woodland. First Suffolk record in the wild. Recorded as both a bird-seed and tan-bark casual (Clement & Foster 1994). In 1994 a large number of seedlings came up in a vegetable garden in Woolverstone, presumably from discarded bird-seed, but an attempt to grow them on in the greenhouse failed (EMH). Vitis vinifera L., Grape-vine. Woolverstone, scrambling over field hedge, TM13, v.c. 25, EMH, late October 1997. Det. E. J. Clement. The plant is cut down each time the hedge is trimmed. Known here for several years, but never seen in flower or fruit. The only post-Flora Suffolk record. Key to contributors Bowen, R. Bull, A. L. Butcher, A. A. Cawston, Miss H. Coe, Mrs. E. M. Copping, A. Crewe, M. D. Hardinge, R. Hawes, Mrs. A. Hawes, C. J. Hutton, T. Hyde, Mrs. E. M. Jacobs, C. A.

RB ALB AAB HC EMC AC MDC RH AH CJH TH EMH CAJ

Larkin, S. Lawson, P. G. Leonard, D. J. Leonard, Mrs. Y. J. Mathews, Mrs. B. Peck, G. Sanford, M. N. Searle, M. Simpson, F. W. Walshe, J. L. Westcott, Mrs. J. Williamson, Miss B.

SL PGL DJL YJL BM GP MNS MS FWS JLW JW BW

References Clement, E. J. and Foster, M. C. (1994). Alien Plants of the British Isles. Botanical Society of the British Isles. London. Hind, W. M. (1889). Flora of Suffolk. Gurney & Jackson. London Hyde, E. M. (1986). Maritime Plants on Suffolk' s roadsides. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc., 22: 50. Hyde, E. M. and Simpson, F. W. (1993). Some recent Suffolk plant records. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc., 29: 32. Kent, D. H. (1992). List of vascular plants of the British Isles. Botanical Society of the British Isles. London.

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Simpson, F. W. (1982). Simpson's Flora of Suffolk. Ipswich. Suffolk Naturalists' Society. Stace, C. A. (1991). New Flora of the British Isles, 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. E. M. Hyde, Parkside, Woolverstone, Ipswich, Suffolk IP9 1AR

F. W. Simpson, 40 Ruskin Road, Ipswich, Suffolk CP4 1PT

Notes on some Bryophvtes recorded in Suffolk during 1997 Epiphytes have again proved to a major source of interest. The most exciting discovery of the year was made by David Strauss when he found Orthotrichum tenellum on an old willow near Thorpness, it is probably the first time it has been found in East Anglia this Century. With it were Frullania dilatata and Orthotrichum lyelii which have turned up at other sites as well, as have Tortula papillosa and Cryphaea heteromalla. Another curiosity was Tortella tortuosa which was found on a boulder in the rockery in the garden of Shrubland Hall. This only occurs in East Anglia on the Devil's Ditch in Cambridgeshire, but was introduced into the Cambridge Botanic Garden, on limestone in 1955. The rockery at Shrubland Hall was constructed in 1832, so if was introduced then it has survived for 165 years, or it has found its way there more recently, either way it deserves to be added to the Suffolk bryophyte flora. Other noteworthy records during the year have been Dicranum tauricum from Waveney Forest, Cirriphyllum crassinervum from Norton Wood and Pohlia whalenbergia from Gittin Wood. Two meetings were held in the Spring of 1997. The first was to Burgate Wood in February which lived up to expectations, and produced many interesting species. Campylium calcareum from the northem edge of the wood was new to Suffolk, but also of note were Brachythecium salebrosum, Orthotrichum lyelii, Anomodon viticulosus and Cryphaea heteromalla. In March a visit was made to Maidscross Hill, Lakenheath where we hoped to refind Racomitrium canescens. This was accomplished but most remarkably, one clump had a number of capsules, only the second time this species has been observed with sporophytes in Britain, and the first time in England, the other occurrence being on sand dunes in Angus. Also recorded on this visit were Aloina aloides var. ambigua, Encalypta vulgaris and Climacium dendroides. At the end of the year we visited Middle Wood, Offton where the trunks of many of the old coppice ash were thickly clothed in Porella platyphylla, Neckera complanata, Metzgeria furcata, Radula complanata and Anomodon viticulosa. In addition we recorded Ephemerum senatum, Ulota phyllantha, Tortula virescens and Chiloscyphus pallescens. Richard Fisk 1 Paradise Row, Ringsfield, Beccles, Suffolk NR34 8LQ

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Plate 4: Salsify (Tragopogon porrifolius L.), an established introduction of garden origin increasing on road verges (p. 102).

Some recent Suffolk plant records  

Hyde, E. M. & Simpson, F. W.

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