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A PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF THE FLORA OF BARNHAMCROSS COMMON MIKE CREWE In May 1994 I first visited Barnhamcross Common, an area of grassland and scrub immediately south of Thetford and bisected by the AI34, Thetford to Bury St Edmunds road. The common is in the parish of Thetford and thus lies in the administrative county of Norfolk. However, being south and west of the Little Ouse river, it lies within the borders of Vice County 26, West Suffolk. The site is owned by Thetford Town Council and is a Registered Common. Barnhamcross Common is a designated Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) and is managed for its wildlife value by a Local Management Group which organises and oversees any work that is carried out by the Barnhamcross Common Conservation Volunteers (BCCCV). The group produces a newsletter, issue number 2 (April 1993) of which carries an informal checklist of the plant taxa identified on the site in recent times, prepared by Nick Gibbons. It was clear to me from this checklist (of some 250 plant taxa) that information had been gathered piecemeal and that no complete survey of the whole site had been carried out. The most intensive botanical survey to date of Breckland (Trist, 1979) appears to have only given the site a cursory look for any of the rarer species. This is presumably because the common was not in one of the 1km squares selected for intensive coverage by that survey. It seems perhaps remarkable (but by no means unique!) that a SSSI has received such scant attention. The accompanying map, supplied by members of BCCCV, details the sections and areas referred to throughout this paper. All plant Classification and nomenclature follows Stace (1992).

Soil and Topography The unique topography of Breckland has been amply covered elsewhere (e.g. Simpson, 1982; Trist, 1979). Barnhamcross Common lies in the heart of Breckland and shows many of the features that were typical of the whole area before cultivation by Man. The underlying chalk is covered with a layer of acid sands which vary in depth to a remarkable degree. Changes from one to the other can be very abrupt and complex mosaics of acid and alkaline areas make mapping of soil types almost impossible beyond a basic generalisation. On the west side of the common (E5) there is an excellent example of 'stone-striping', a geological feature which was formed in the last ice-age when glacial action resulted in regulär bands of gravels and chalk, with the dips in between becoming infilled with wind-blown sand. This produced alternating strips of acid and calcareous soils which are reflected in the Vegetation present. In general, the bulk of the sandy, acid areas lie to the east of the AI34 (A, B and C) with another area extending as a narrow band from the south end of D l and the north end of E l into E4 and E2. There is a remarkably clear line visible in the change of Vegetation where the acid soil gives way to calcareous ground in E4. The main calcareous areas occur in Sections D and E, to the west of the road. There is also a strip of more or less neutral soil running northsouth through the centre of the common, roughly following the course of the road.

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Bamhamcross Common habitat areas.

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Habitats and Plant Communities Barnhamcross Common has a complex patchwork of a variety of habitats and plant communities and it is this fact that gives it such a diverse flora. Until very recently, the common was covered in dense scrub but careful management has returned it to a patchwork of open, grassy swards with some Gorse Ulex europaeus scrub on the sandy areas and Hawthorn Crataegus monogyna on the chalk. The local management committee is currently overseeing continued maintenance of the site to ensure that the open grassland communities do not get overgrown by scrub. The speed with which a species-rich grassland flora has developed is quite remarkable and is perhaps testimony to the presence of a good seed bank in the ground and suggests that the area had been species-rich grassland in the past. The speed of recovery lends hope to the notion that rare species such as Spanish Catchfly Silene otites and Perennial Knawel Scleranthus perennis ssp. prostratus which have been recorded from the common in the past, could reappear given the right conditions (although the latter is likely to need re-establishment from elsewhere). Adding to the habitats that can be said to be part of the overall site, the Little Ouse runs past the south-east corner and I have included the near bank in the recording area. The main plant communities are summarised below: Acid heath These areas lie predominantly to the east of the AI34 in Sections A, B and C, with a smaller area to the west of the road and roughly in the centre of the common (junctions of Areas Dl, D3, El, E4). Swards of Sheep's Fescue Festuca ovina, Red Fescue F. rubra and Sand Sedge Carex arenaria are dominant and the areas are generally botanically species-poor. Harebell Campanula rotundifolia , Sheep's-bit Jasione montana and Leafy Hawkweed Hieracium umbellatum are typical of such areas. The northern end to the east of the A134 (Area AI) is dominated by dense stands of False Oat-grass Arrhenatherum elatius. Just one small patch of Heather Calluna vulgaris was found. Sections A and B are very undulating in profile with a series of steep banks and rounded hollows, created during past military activity in the area. Some such areas may also be remnants of an old sand dune system. The associated hollows in Section B are damp in winter and are dominated by stands of Soft Rush Juncus effusus. Acid scrub Typically, areas of dense Gorse Ulex europaeus with isolated Scots Pine Pinus sylvestris and Pedunculate Oak Quercus robur. Where fires have destroyed Gorse, dense stands of Rosebay Willowherb Chamerion angustifolium dominate. Botanically, these areas are very poor. However, recently cleared areas of Gorse return to grassland rapidly and such sites hold the only colonies of Heath Dog-violet Viola canina found. Calcareous grassland The areas of calcareous grassland provide the most botanical interest on the site. The main area is on the north-west part of the common (D4, D5 and D7), with smaller, less species-rich areas further east and south. Smaller patches also occur in the stone-striped areas in E5 and El. The chalky soils Support a diverse

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sward of grasses with good stands of Yellow Oat-grass Trisetum flavescens, Smaller Cat's-tail Phleum bertolonii and Quaking Grass Briza media. False Oat-grass is frequent but seldom dominant. The best areas hold a good ränge of typical calcareous grassland species, including Hairy Rockcress Arabis hirsuta, Kidney Vetch Anthyllis vulneraria, Bird's-foot Trefoil Lotus corniculatus, Eyebright Euphrasia confusa, Field Scabious Knautia arvensis, Common Knapweed Centaurea nigra, Greater Knapweed C. scabiosa and Dwarf Thistle Cirsium acaule. Rare Breckland specialities such as Purple-stem Cat's-tail Phleum phleoides and Field Wormwood Artemisia campestris also occur in these areas. The abundance of the nationally rare Tower Mustard Arabis glabra throughout the site, but most notably in calcareous grassland, is significant and one of the main features of the site. (See Plate 10) Calcareous scrub This habitat lies mainly along the extreme western edge of the common, but is encroaching continually on adjacent grassland. The scrub is dominated by Pedunculate Oak and Hawthorn Crataegus monogyna and in general is rather dense with a poor ground layer. The scrub appears to be relatively young, presumably having colonised the grassland fairly recently. As such, few true shadeloving species exist in the ground layer and Common Nettle Urtica dioica dominates throughout. Neutral grassland Neutral soils are present in a narrow belt running roughly north-south along the centre of the common. The flora is a mixture of acid and calcareous species, but generally only those species which are tolerant of a wide ränge of pH levels. Much of the area is dominated by False Oat-grass. River edge The Little Ouse borders a short section of the south-east part of the common, adjoining Section C1. The water is relatively clean and there is a good ränge of riparian plant species. Rank grassland, dominated by False Oat-grass lies landward of the river-edge, but in wetter hollows gives way to stands of Reed Sweet-grass Glyceria maxima and Reed Canary-grass Phalaris arundinacea with species such as Marsh Woundwort Stachys palustris, Spear-leaved Orache Atriplex prostrata, Great Willowherb Epilobium hirsutum and Hedge Bindweed Calystegia sepium present. Recently disturbed areas For various reasons, there are scattered patches of recently disturbed ground throughout the site. Most of these result from human activity and include bonfire sites from scrub clearance sessions; a wide swathe cut through Section A during the laying of a new pipe by Anglian Water; and scattered heaps of garden and builders refuse dumped on the site. Such areas are of little or no benefit to the site's native plant life but a small number of ruderals and 'weeds' occur only on these sites. However, other Breckland species could perhaps occur on such sites, particularly around Rabbit scrapings (e.g. Breckland Speedwell Veronica praecox and Spring Speedwell V. verna). The water pipe Clearing is dominated

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by Heath Groundsel Senecio sylvaticus and Fat-hen Chenopodium album whilst various garden 'escapes' occur along the eastern side, bordering the housing estate (AI). Older dumpings of garden refuse have enabled a few alien species to become established, especially in scrub areas where, presumably, the tippers feel their activities can pass unseen. Smaller areas of disturbance, created by Mole and Rabbit activity, soon become colonised by the neighbouring flora. Playing Field This extra Section, which I have designated ZI, is included merely for completion and is taken up almost entirely by a close-mown playing field and is of little interest botanically. However, there is a more rank grass border and, on the eastern edge, a car park. Much of this border is dominated by False Oat-grass but the car park contains a few ruderals as well as good quantities of Sickle Medick Medicago sativa ssp. falcata and Sand Lucerne M. sativa ssp. varia. Smaller communities There is a copse of Scots Pine in C2 and a belt of Scots Pine along the extreme western edge of the site. The former provides enough shade for Broad Buckler Fern Dryopteris dilatata to occur. A dense area of Blackthorn Prunus spinosa scrub runs down the eastern edge of Section B. Neither of these habitats present any great botanical interest, but they nonetheless add to the great diversity of habitats on Barnhamcross Common. The Sections and Areas The following gives details of the main habitat types and any special points of interest for each of the Areas within the Sections A to E. AI: Southern end acid heath; northern end rank False Oat-grass. Eastern edge bordered by a hedge of predominantly non-native species. Much dumping of garden refuse takes place from neighbouring properties. A small stand of Wild Thyme Thymus polytrichus was found in the acid heath area. The Anglian Water pipeline work cuts through the southern end of AI, A2 and A3. A2 and A3: Southern end acid heath; northern end rank False Oat-grass. Much of the area is covered in Gorse and Broom Cytisus scoparius scrub which is very dense in places. A4: Generally as A2 and A3 but with less scrub. The roadside verge contains a few ruderals. B l : Acid grassland with dense Gorse scrub areas. Dense Blackthorn along eastern edge. Damp, rank grassland at north end contains large stands of Greater Pond Sedge Carex riparia with Common Meadow-rue Thalictrum flavum and Water Chickweed Myosoton aquaticum. B2 and B3: Acid heath dominated by Sand Sedge and Common Bent Agrostis capillaris with open Gorse and Pedunculate Oak scrub; undulating and speciespoor. B4: As B2 but more steeply undulating. The southern end is open grassland and contains several damp hollows with Soft Rush and Grey Sallow Salix cinerea. A relict stand of Creeping Willow Salix repens survives in one such hollow. Heath Dog-violet occurs towards the north end.

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B5: Generally as B4 but with more dense oak scrub in places. The western edge is the Start of the calcareous grassland and contains several associated species of those communities. Hawthorn scrub replaces oak scrub in the mid-section. Large stands of Rosebay Willowherb dominate in places and the roadside contains a few ruderals. B6: Mainly acid grassland with a small area of oak scrub and a stand of Scots Pine. Towards the eastern end lies a linear hollow which is dominated by a rank grassland of False Oat-grass and Yorkshire-fog Holcus lanatus. At one point, a muddy hollow has formed with species such as Soft Rush, Lesser Spearwort Ranunculus flammula Reed Canary-grass, Pale Persicaria Persicaria lapathifolium and Water-pepper P. hydropiper present. Cl: River edge and neighbouring rank grassland. River Water-dropwort Oenanthe fluviatilis occurs in the river itself and typical riparian species below the steep banks. Rank grassland contains a number of typical damp meadow and riparian species, particularly in the south of the area where extensive damp hollows are dominated by Reed Sweet-grass. Higher ground has extensive stands of Common Nettle. C2: Open acid heath with a stand of Scots Pine on higher ground of sand. A shallow continuation of the linear hollow in B6 at the northern end is here drier and more species-rich with Shepherd's Cress Teesdalia nudicaulis and Wild Pansy Viola tricolor ssp. curtisii present in good quantity on the slopes of the hollow. One small stand of Heather survives and Devil's-bit Scabious Succisa pratensis occurs in damp grassland near the western edge. D l : Mixture of calcareous grassland, dominated by False Oat-grass and undulating acid heath. Some oak scrub in northern two-thirds. A small area near the road holds a good calcareous Community, including Rue-leaved Saxifrage Saxifraga tridactylites. Leafy Hawkweed Hieracium umbellatum is common along the southern edge and ruderals occur along the roadside. D2: Species-poor calcareous grassland with acid areas at either end. Some open scrub in mid-section. D3: As D2 but more species-rich in the calcareous areas; Purple-stem Cat's-tail present in good quantity. Towards the southern end, a series of old spoil heaps contain several species not found elsewhere. These are mainly ruderals but also include Smooth Cat-ear Hypochaeris glabra. D4: Calcareous grassland with acid grassland in the eastern half. Some Hawthorn scrub on the western edge and Gorse scrub on the southern edge. D5: Mainly oak and Hawthorn scrub but with grassy glades. Calcareous grassland in the eastern half. Scots Pine belt along the western edge. The grassland in the eastern half forms part of the main area of calcareous grassland on the site. Good stands of Upright Brome Bromopsis erecta, other smaller grasses and a rieh associated flora. D6: A small section of predominantly chalk grassland, species-rich in the southern half but with much False Oat-grass in the northern half. Some Gorse scrub bordering the playing field and scattered disturbed areas from the burning of cleared scrub. D7: A large area with a rieh chalk grassland flora in the southern and eastern

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quarters. The northern part is dominated by Hawthorn and Pedunculate Oak scrub with some Gorse scrub in the north-east corner. Some of the best chalk flora exists in this section with the only Field Wormwood on the common occurring here. E l : A patchwork of mixed acid and calcareous grassland with some irregulär stone-striping visible on the western half. The northern edge is acid heath with some Gorse scrub extending down the centre and oak scrub adjacent to E4. Rank False Oat-grass dominates the south-east of the area with ruderals along the roadside. E2: Mainly rank False Oat-grass stands with scattered Pedunculate Oak. A rather poor part of the common. E3: Rank grassland with oak scrub along the western side. Assorted ruderals along the roadside. Generally species-poor but a few plants of interest present, including Good King Henry Chenopodium bonus-henricus. E4: Acid heath with Gorse scrub along the southern edge. Oak scrub along the northern edge and merging with Hawthorn/oak scrub on the west side in more chalky soil. E5: Large area of stone-striped grassland in the eastern half. Extensive oak/ Hawthorn scrub in the rest of the area. Scots Pine belt along the western and southern edges. Also an area of dense Gorse scrub south of centre with a more interesting flora than other Gorse areas on the site. Good flora in the chalk sections of the stone-striping and a few interesting species in the scrub, including Wall Lettuce Mycelis muralis. Annotated Checklist of Plant Taxa The bulk of this paper consists of an annotated checklist of the taxa found during 1994 and early 1995. It should be borne in mind that this survey involves a Single 12-month period and comments on the abundance and/or frequency of some taxa must be read with this in mind. Late spring/early summer frosts trend to be a feature of Breckland and those in early June and late May of 1994 and 1995 respectively will no doubt have affected some species The summer of 1994 was very dry with virtually no rain from late May to early August. The very dry soil conditions created by such weather will have affected the germination of annual species and perhaps also prevented some species from flowering before they withered, thus making them more difficult to locate. The critical taxa, Rubus and Taraxacum, have not been tackled and lack of time has meant that some of the more difficult genera have not been studied adequately, most notably Polygonum, Festuca and Poa. However, it is my intention that this paper should provide a baseline of data for others to work on and add to. With the inclusion of comments on other species recorded previously on the site, this paper becomes the definitive list of species for this important SSSI and forms a baseline for future use. Checklist of Species Found During 1994-95 The area codes refer to those indicated on the map. Greater detail has been given to those species (marked *) that were found in 1994/95 but did not appear on previous species lists for the site.

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*Field Horsetail Equisetum arvense Small colonies on the river bank in C1 and in B4. *Male Fern Dryopteris filix-mas Several plants scattered in scrub in E5. *Broad Buckler Fern Dryopteris dilatata Single plants found in B l , C2, E l and E2. *Giant Fir Abies grandis A Single specimen in the hedge in A I . *Norway Spruce Picea abies Several specimens in the hedge in A I . Scots Pine Pinus sylvestris Common throughout but no regeneration noted. Meadow Buttercup Ranunculus acris Scarce. Only found in B4, B6, C2 and E5. Creeping Buttercup Ranunculus repens Common in damper areas. Bulbous Buttercup Ranunculus bulbosus Very common throughout. *Celery-leaved Buttercup Ranunculus sceleratus Three plants noted along the riverside in C l . *Lesser Spearwort Ranunculus flammula Small colonies in damp hollows in B6 and B2 and Single plant in C l . Lesser Celandine Ranunculus ficaria Rare. Only found in A I , C l , D5 and E5. *Common Water-crowfoot Ranunculus aquatilis Single plant in dried-up pond in B6. Common Meadow-rue Thalictrumflavum Stands found in Bl and C l . Oregon Grape Mahonia aquifolium Noted in B l , D5 and E5. *Opium Poppy Papaver somniferum Single plant on spoil heap in E5. Common Poppy Papaver rhoeas Scattered in disturbed areas. Long-headed Poppy Papaver dubium On roadside verge in D l . *Greater Celandine Chelidonium majus A few plants on ground recently disturbed in D5 and D6. Two small colonies in scrub in E5. *Californian Poppy Eschscholzia californica Small colony growing from garden refuse dumped in A I . Common Fumitory Fumaria officinalis On disturbed ground in A I , D3 and E5. Wych Elm Ulmus glabra Scarce. Present in scrub in D5 and D7 and along track in E4 and E5. Hop Humulus lupulus Rare. Only found in C l and D7. Common Nettle Urtica dioica Found in all areas; commonest in scrub. *Small Nettle Urtica urens A few small plants in extreme western corner of E5, colonising from neighbouring arable land. Beech Fagus sylvatica Single small seedling found in D5. Pedunculate Oak Quercus robur Present in all areas. Silver Birch Betula pendula Scattered throughout. Most common in B. *Downy Birch Betula pubescens Single small tree in B1. Possibly overlooked. Alder Alnus glutinosa Present near river in SE corner of C. Good King Henry Chenopodium bonus-henricus Two colonies beside track in E3. Fat Hen Chenopodium album Scattered throughout in disturbed areas. *Spear-leaved Orache Atriplex prostrata Plants scattered throughout rank wet grassland in C l . *Grass-leaved Orache Atriplex littoralis Present on roadside verge in B5. Large quantities grow on the verge just south of the recording area by Bamham Camp.

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â&#x20AC;˘Common Orache Atriplex patula One or two plants on roadside edge of area disturbed by water pipeline in B5. Several plants on roadside verge in Dl. *Spring Beauty Claytonia perfoliata Common throughout in suitable habitat. Thyme-leaved Sandwort Arenaria serpyllifolia Very common in D; scattered elsewhere. *Three-nerved Sandwort Moehringia trinervia Scattered plants in E5. Common Chickweed Stellaria media Common throughout. â&#x20AC;˘Lesser Chickweed Stellaria pallida Single plants found in B6, west of E5 and D6. Probably more common but easily overlooked. Lesser Stitchwort Stellaria graminea Common throughout B, C, D and E. Field Mouse-ear Cerastium arvense Very common throughout. *Snow-in-summer Cerastium tomentosum Two small colonies in AI. Common Mouse-ear Cerastium fontanum Very common throughout. Sticky Mouse-ear Cerastium glomeratum Only noted in C2. Possibly overlooked. Little Mouse-ear Cerastium semidecandrum Scattered throughout A, B and C; most widespread in B. Also noted in D7 and ZI. Water Chickweed Myosoton aquaticum Single plants located in B1 and Cl. * Annual Pearlwort Sagina apetala One or two plants on disturbed ground near south end of El. Annual Knawel Scleranthus annuus Present on tracks in AI, A2, B3, Dl and El. Sand Spurrey Spergularia rubra Scarce, but common where found. Located in B6, C2, Dl and El. Bladder Campion Silene vulgaris Scattered in A and B; widespread in D and E. White Campion Silene latifolia Common throughout. *Soapwort Saponaria officinalis Large colony in B4 near south end of B3. Redshank Persicaria maculosa Rare. Found on damp ground in B6 and Cl. *Pale Persicaria Persicaria lapathifolia Plentiful in damp area in B6 and in rank grass near river in C1. *Water-pepper Persicaria hydropiper Small colony in dried-up pond in B6. Knotgrass Polygonum aviculare Scattered. Most frequent on roadside verges. Black Bindweed Fallopia convolvulus Rare. Only on disturbed ground in AI, B5 and E2. *Rhubarb Rheum x hybridum Single plant with Californian Poppies in AI. Sheep's Sorrel Rumex acetosella Abundant in A and B; scattered in other areas. Common Sorrel Rumex acetosa Common throughout, particularly in calcareous areas. * Water Dock Rumex hydrolapathum In edge of river in C l . Curled Dock Rumex crispus Very common throughout. *Clustered Dock Rumex conglomeratus Single plant found on river bank in C1. Broad-leaved Dock Rumex obtusifolius Scarce. Found in B6, D4, D5, E4 and E5. Perforate St John's Wort Hypericumperforatum Rare. Only located in El. Square-stalked St John's Wort Hypericum tetrapterum Rare. On damp soil in C2. Musk Mallow Malva moschata Very Rare. Single plant found in C2.

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Common Mallow Malva sylvestris Scarce. Scattered throughout. *Sweet Violet Viola odorata Small colony in scrub near hollow at corner of E5. *Heath Dog-violet Viola canina At least six clumps on recently cleared Gorse area on NW side of B4. Single plant in A3. Wild Pansy Viola tricolor ssp. curtisii Scarce. Scattered colonies located in C2, El and E5. All plants are of the perennial subspecies, locally known as Breckland Pansy. *Hybrid Pansy Viola x contempta A few plants noted with Wild Pansies in E5 and C2. Field Pansy Viola arvensis Scarce. Found on disturbed ground in AI, D6, E l and E5. White Bryony Bryonia dioica Scattered throughout, commonest in D. * White Poplar Populus alba Several plants in hedge line on east side of AI. *Western Balsam Poplar Populus trichocarpa Single tree on east side of AI. Crack Willow Salix fragilis Single tree on edge of C1 near river. *Osier Salix viminalis Single specimen in hedge along AI. *Hybrid Sallow Salix x reichardtii Single specimen near river in E l . *Grey Willow Salix cinerea Very common throughout areas B and C. Also noted in D5. â&#x20AC;˘Creeping Willow Salix repens Small stand of plants in damp hollow at south end of B4. *Tall Rocket Sisymbrium altissimum Occasional plants scattered throughout in disturbed areas. Hedge Mustard Sisymbrium officinale Scattered throughout, mainly on disturbed ground. Flixweed Descurainia Sophia Scattered in all areas except A on disturbed ground. Garlic Mustard Alliaria petiolata Scattered in all areas except A; mainly in scrub. *Thale Cress Arabidopsis thaliana Fairly common throughout area. *Dame's Violet Hesperis matronalis Small colony in hedge line in AI. Wintercress Barbarea vulgaris Common near river in C1 and a few plants in B1 and B2. Watercress Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum In edge of river in C l . Horseradish Armoracia rusticana Colonies noted in A4, B5, D2 and ZI, all close to the road. Hairy Bittercress Cardamine hirsuta Rare. On disturbed ground in B l , B5 and E5. Tower Mustard Arabis glabra Common. Widespread in open grassland and found in all but six areas. Hairy Rockcress Arabis hirsuta Widespread and generally common in D and E. Elsewhere only located in B2 and C2. Honesty Lunaria annua Scattered plants in hedge line in AI. Common Whitlowgrass Erophila verna Scattered in A, B and C and also in D l and ZI. Probably overlooked. *Danish Scurvygrass Cochlearia danica Colony on roadside verge in B5. Shepherd's Purse Capsella bursa-pastoris Common throughout. Shepherd's Cress Teesdalia nudicaulis Widespread on acid soil in A and B. Also in C2 and D3.

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*Field Pennycress Thlaspi arvense Rare. A few plants found in E5. Oil-seed Rape Brassica napus ssp. oleifera Common on both roadside verges. Wild Radish Raphanus raphanistrum ssp. raphanistrum Scarce. On roadside verges in Dl, El and ZI. Also on edge of E4 from nearby arable. Weld Reseda luteola Surprisingly rare. Only found in E3. Wild Mignonette Reseda lutea Common throughout, particularly in E. Heather Calluna vulgaris Very rare. Single small area in C2; threatened by uncontrolled grazing from horses. *Black Currant Ribes nigrum Single bush at north edge of D7. Probably birdsown. *Gooseberry Ribes uva-crispa Single clump in thick scrub near north end of D5. Biting Stonecrop Sedum acre Scarce. Only found in six areas. Meadow Saxifrage Saxifraga granulata Large patch in rank grass in C1 and scattered plants elsewhere in Cl. Rue-leaved Saxifrage Saxifraga tridactylites Rare. Small colonies in B5 and Dl although possibly overlooked. *Meadowsweet Filipendula ulmaria Scarce. On damp ground in B6 and Cl. Raspberry Rubus idaeus Scattered colonies in B, D and E. Bramble Rubus fruticosus agg. Scattered throughout but nowhere common. Most frequent in scrubby areas of D and E. *Cut-leaved Bramble Rubus laciniatus Single plants found in B3 and E4. Small colony of plants in A3. Probably bird-sown. *Dewberry Rubus caesius Found in rough grass on west side of riverside path in Cl. Possibly overlooked elsewhere. Silverweed Potentilla anserina Rare. Noted on damp soil in B6 and C l . Creeping Cinquefoil Potentilla reptans Scattered throughout but scarce west of road. Wood Avens Geum urbanum Rare. A few plants scattered in scrub in E5. *Agrimony Agrimonia eupatoria A few plants noted in C2, D5 and E5. Single plant in D3. *Slender Parsley-piert Aphanes inexspectata Fairly common throughout A and B and noted in E l and C2. * Japanese Rose Rosa rugosa Suckers spreading in hedge line in AI. *Red-leaved Rose Rosa glauca Single plant in scrub on west side of D7. Destroyed during scrub clearance in 1995. Probably bird-sown. Dog Rose Rosa canina Scattered throughout, especially in D. *Sweet-briar Rosa rubiginosa Several bushes on eastern edge of scrub in D5. *Cherry Plum Prunus cerasifera Large bushes on west side of B5, along south edge of E5 and on west side of D7. Blackthorn Prunus spinosa Scarce. Mostly confined to hedge line to east of AI, B1 and B6. Also noted in E3. *Wild Plum Prunus domestica Two young bushes found near east edge of scrub in D5. Probably bird-sown. *Wild Cherry Prunus avium Two small seedlings in thick scrub near north end of D5. Strong seedlings, or possibly suckers from former tree in AI. *Rum Cherry Prunus serotina Two large bushes on southern end of A3 destroyed by fire in June 1994. Single bushes also noted in A2 and further along A3 and small seedling in scrub in D5. Probably all bird-sown.

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*Quince Cydonia oblonga Single bush in hedge in AI. Crab Apple Malus sylvestris Scattered in all areas except A and Z. Most frequent in B. * Apple Malus domestica Frequent, probably from discarded cores and perhaps some bird-sown. *Rowan Sorbus aucuparia Occasional seedlings or small trees scattered throughout. *Common Whitebeam Sorbus aria Single seedling on edge of E5. Perhaps bird-sown. *Himalayan Cotoneaster Cotoneaster simonsii Small shrub in scrub in E5 destroyed by scrub clearance in winter 1994/95. *Hollyberry Cotoneaster Cotoneaster bullatus Small tree in scrub in E5 destroyed by scrub clearance in winter 1994/95. Hawthorn Crataegus monogyna Common throughout. Kidney Vetch Anthyllis vulneraria Confined to calcareous soil in D where frequent in D3 to D7. Common Bird's-foot Trefoil Lotus corniculatus Very common in B, D and E. Greater Bird's-foot Trefoil Lotus pedunculatus Rare. Only noted in D5. Bird's-foot Ornithopusperpusillus Frequent in short turf areas in A, B and D l . Also in E4 and E5. Hairy Tare Vicia hirsuta Frequent in all areas except C and Z. Common Vetch Vicia sativa Two subspecies recorded separately as they have been identified as different species in the past: ssp. nigra Common throughout, mainly in short turf in A and B and in calcareous grassland in D. ssp. segetalis Scattered throughout in rough grassland. *Spring Vetch Vicia lathyroides Found in NW corner of B3 and in D l . Possibly overlooked elsewhere. Meadow Vetchling Lathyruspratensis Rare. Only located in C1 and E l . *Broad-leaved Everlasting Pea Lathyrus latifolius Two separate small colonies in rank grassland towards north end of AI. Common Restharrow Ononis repens Very common in D; scattered in E and B5. Plants bearing spines very frequent. *White Melilot Melilotus albus On roadside verge in E l and B5. Ribbed Melilot Melilotus officinalis Common on roadside verges. Also in E4. * Black Medick Medicago lupulina Common throughout calcareous areas. Sickle Medick Medicago sativa ssp. falcata Frequent throughout. Sand Lucerne Medicago sativa ssp. varia Frequent throughout. Lucerne Medicago sativa ssp. sativa Rare. Only found as a roadside casual in El and ZI. White Clover Trifolium repens Very common throughout. Hop Trefoil Trifolium campestre Scattered in D and E in calcareous areas. Lesser Trefoil Trifolium dubium Scattered in C, D and E. Also in AI. Red Clover Trifolium pratense Common in D in calcareous grassland. Also in AI and B6. *Rough Clover Trifolium scabrum Small colony in short grass by wooden posts near road in D l . Hare's-foot Clover Trifolium arvense Scarce. Found in D3, El and E5.

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Broom Cytisus scoparius Common throughout, especially near extensive stands of Gorse. Gorse Ulex europaeus Present throughout. Extensive stands in A, B and E. Purple Loosestrife Lythrum salicaria Frequent on river bank in Cl. Great Willowherb Epilobium hirsutum Small stands in AI, D3 and D5. Frequent in Cl. Broad-leaved Willowherb Epilobium montanum Rare. Only found in E5. *Square-stalked Willowherb Epilobium tetragonum Single plant on spoil heap near south end of D3. * American Willowherb Epilobium ciliatum Single plant in rank Vegetation towards south end of Cl. Rosebay Willowherb Chamerion angustifolium Present throughout with extensive stands in areas where Gorse has been cleared in the past and on sites of former fires. *Annual Mercury Mercurialis annua Several plants on spoil heap dumped in E5. *Sun Spurge Euphorbia helioscopia Single plant on disturbed ground near south end of El. *Caper Spurge Euphorbia lathyris Single plant in hedge line in AI. *Petty Spurge Euphorbia peplus Single plant on bare soil in AI and noted on spoil heaps in B6 and E5. â&#x20AC;˘Buckthorn Rhamnus cathartica Common throughout in suitable areas. *Flax Linum usitatissimum Single plant on roadside verge in B5. *Fairy Flax Linum catharticum Small colonies in calcareous grassland in D4, D5 and El. â&#x20AC;˘Common Milkwort Polygala vulgaris Small colonies in D3, El and E5. Sycamore Acer pseudoplatanus Surprisingly rare. Single specimen in AI and twoinZl. . *Stag's-horn Sumach Rhus hirta Several suckers found in hedge line in AI. *Cut-leaved Cranesbill Geranium dissectum Small patch in rank grassland in AI and colony near north end of B2. Hedgerow Cranesbill Geranium pyrenaicum Very rare. Only found in B5. Small-flowered Cranesbill Geranium pusillum Rare. On disturbed ground in AI, B6, E4 and ZI. Dove's-foot Cranesbill Geranium molle Very common throughout. *Herb-robert Geranium robertianum Noted in scrub woodland in D5 and E5. Common Storksbill Erodium cicutarium Rare, although common where found. Located in car park in E3 and in short turf throughout ZI. Common Ivy Hedera helix Common in scrub in D and E but elsewhere only located in AI and ZI. *Rough Chervil Chaerophyllum temulum Common in suitable habitat on west side of common. Cow Parsley Anthriscus sylvestris Very common throughout in rank grassland. Bur Parsley Anthriscus caucalis Scattered throughout, most notably where Rabbits distribute seeds. Burnet-saxifrage Pimpinella saxifraga Frequent in calcareous grassland in D and E. Ground-elder Aegopodium podagraria Scarce. Scattered in C, D, E and Z.

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â&#x20AC;˘River Water-dropwort Oenanthe fluviatilis Two or three plants in river near north end of C l . Probably from extensive colony of this species further upriver at Euston. Hemlock Conium maculatum Scattered throughout, especially near roadside. Fool's Watercress Apium nodiflorum Very common along riverside and at south end of C l . Wild Angelica Angelica sylvestris Only located in C l near river. Wild Parsnip Pastinaca sativa Very common throughout, abundant in D and E. Hogweed Heracleum sphondylium Scattered throughout, especially near road. Upright Hedge Parsley Toriiis japonica Scattered throughout, mostly in scrub areas. *Greater Periwinkle Vinca major Found under hedge on east side of A I . *Black Nightshade Solanum nigrum Single plant on freshly dumped builders rubbish in B6. Bittersweet Solanum dulcamara Scattered in scrub in D and E and near river in C. Also found in A3 and B6. *Potato Solanum tuberosum Small clump of shoots sprouting near car park in E3 and Single plant on northern edge of C2. Field Bindweed Convolvulus arvensis Very common throughout. *Hedge Bindweed Calystegia sepium Very common in rough grassland along riverside. Viper's-bugloss Echium vulgare Scarce. Found on disturbed ground in B, D, E andZ. *Russian Comfrey Symphytum x uplandicum Single clump at north end of D2. Bugloss Anchusa arvensis Rare. Found on roadside verge in D l . Water Forget-me-not Myosotis scorpioides Scattered along riverside in C l . Tufted Forget-me-not Myosotis laxa Found in riverside in C l . *Wood Forget-me-not Myosotis sylvatica Small patch found in scrub woodland in E5. Probably of garden origin. Field Forget-me-not Myosotis arvensis Scattered in B, C and E. *Early Forget-me-not Myosotis ramosissima Noted in AI, B3, C2 and D l . Probably more widespread in A and B. *Changing Forget-me-not Myosotis discolor Small colony on bank beside pumping Station track in A3. Perhaps overlooked elsewhere in A and B. Hound's-tongue Cynoglossum officinale Frequent throughout A, B, D and E. Hedge Woundwort Stachys sylvatica Rare. Only found in scrub in D5 and D7. Marsh Woundwort Stachys palustris Rare. Scattered in C l . Black Horehound Ballota nigra Scattered throughout. White Dead-nettle Lamium album Common. Scattered throughout. *Spotted Dead-nettle Lamium maculatum Colonies of garden origin in AI and E5. Red Dead-nettle Lamium purpureum Common. Scattered throughout. Common Hemp-nettle Galeopsis tetrahit See next species. Bifid Hemp-nettle Galeopsis bifida Non-flowering Hemp-nettles were found scattered throughout the whole site. Those that were found in flower in damp areas in B and C all proved to be G. bifida. However, it is likely that many, if not all, plants found on disturbed ground in D and E were G. tetrahit. Ground-ivy Glechoma hederacea Scattered throughout except Z. Very common in D.

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*Basil Thyme Clinopodium acinos A scattered colony of small plants in D7. *Large Thyme Thymus pulegioides Single small colony in calcareous grassland in D5. * Wild Thyme Thymus polytrichus Small colony beside path near south end of A1. Water Mint Mentha aquatica Common in C l . *Spear Mint Mentha spicata Established colony in rank Vegetation at south edge of E l . Much reduced by scrub clearance in 1995 but likely to recover. * Apple Mint Mentha x villosa Small plant near roadside in ZI. *Various-leaved Water-starwort Callitriche platycarpa Frequent along edge of river. Buckshorn Plantain Plantago coronopus Common on well-worn paths in sandier parts of A, B and C. Also in D l , E4 and Z I . Greater Plantain Plantago major Very common on paths throughout. *Hoary Plantain Plantago media Single plant noted in middle of C2. Surprisingly scarce so perhaps overlooked. Ribwort Plantain Plantago lanceolata Very common throughout. *Butterfly Bush Buddleja davidii Single seedling on old bonfire site left during scrub clearance in D6. *Ash Fraxinus excelsior Single small tree in hedge line in AI. Surprisingly scarce! *Lilac Syringa vulgaris Noted in hedge line on east side of AI. Wild Privet Ligustrum vulgare Noted in AI and scattered bushes in calcareous scrub in D. *Great Mullein Verbascum thapsus Three plants on west side of Gorse scrub in E5 and Single plant near north end of B2. Dark Mullein Verbascum nigrum Small colony in grassland in E5. Verbascum x mixtum (V. nigrum x V. pulverulentum) Two plants in colony of Dark Mullein in E5. Hoary Mullein V. pulverulentum occurs nearby on the old Thetford-Bury St Edmunds railway line between Thetford and Bamham. Water Figwort Scrophularia auriculata Found in damp grassland in B1 and Cl. Common Toadflax Linaria vulgaris Frequent throughout except ZI. Thyme-leaved Speedwell Veronica serpyllifolia Rare. Only found in C2. Germander Speedwell Veronica chamaedrys Abundant throughout all grassy areas. Brooklime Veronica beccabunga Scattered along edge of river in C l . Blue Water Speedwell Veronica anagallis-aquatica Found beside river in C l . Pink Water Speedwell Veronica catenata Found beside small ditch at SE corner of C l . Wall Speedwell Veronica arvensis Frequent throughout A, B and C but scarce west of road. â&#x20AC;˘Common Field Speedwell Veronica persica Noted on disturbed ground in AI, D3, E5 and ZI. *Ivy-leaved Speedwell Veronica hederifolia ssp. hederifolia Noted on disturbed ground in E4, E5 and ZI. ssp. lucorum Found in scrub woodland in E4. Eyebright Euphrasia confusa Scattered colonies in calcareous grassland throughout D.

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Red Bartsia Odontites vernus Rare. Small colony in D7. Possibly overlooked. Common Broomrape Orobanche minor Rare. Small colonies in E2 and E5. *Peach-leaved Bellflower Campanula persicifolia Single plant in grassland in AI destroyed by fire in 1994. Harebell Campanula rotundifolia Very common throughout. Sheep's-bit Jasione montana Very common in A and B. Also in D2 and D3 and E4. Common Marsh Bedstraw Galium palustre Rare. Small colony in damp hollow in B6. Lady's Bedstraw Galium verum Abundant throughout in grassy areas. *Heath Bedstraw Galium saxatile Surprisingly scarce, only found in C2. Cleavers Galium aparine Scattered throughout. Eider Sambucus nigra Scattered throughout. *Snowberry Symphoricarpos albus Spreading colonies in AI and E3. *Lonicera tatarica Large shrub near NE corner of AI. Probably planted. Honeysuckle Lonicera periclymenum Scarce. Found in AI and A2 and scattered in scrub in D5 and D7. Common Cornsalad Valerianella locusta Single small colonies located in C l , D3 and border o f D l / E l . *Common Valerian Valeriana officinalis Single small colony on west edge of Gorse scrub in E5. Field Scabious Knautia arvensis Common throughout in grassy areas, although surprisingly not located in B or Z. Devil's-bit Scabious Succisa pratensis Small colony in B6 and extensive colony in C2. Small Scabious Scabiosa columbaria Scattered in calcareous grassland in B5, D and E. *Greater Burdock Arctium lappa Two plants beside track towards south end of Cl. Lesser Burdock Arctium minus ssp. minus Rare. Only located in D3, D5 and E5. *Welted Thistle Carduus crispus Scattered plants along river bank in C l . Musk Thistle Carduus nutans Scarce. Scattered in all areas except Z. Spear Thistle Cirsium vulgare Scattered throughout except Z. Dwarf Thistle Cirsium acaule Common in calcareous grassland in D and also found in B5 and E l . Creeping Thistle Cirsium arvense Common throughout, especially where disturbance has occurred in the past. Cotton Thistle Onopordum acanthium Noted along hedge line in AI. Greater Knapweed Centaurea scabiosa Common in calcareous grassland in D. Also noted in B5, El and E5. Common Knapweed Centaurea nigra Scattered throughout. Common in calcareous areas of D and E. Nipplewort Lapsana communis Rare. Found in Cl and E5 only. Common Cat's-ear Hypochaeris radicata Very common throughout. *Smooth Cat's-ear Hypochaeris glabra Single plant on spoil heap near south edge of D3. *Autumn Hawkbit Leontodon autumnalis Widespread, especially in calcareous grassland.

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Goat's-beard Tragopogon pratensis Scattered throughout except Z. Perennial Sowthistle Sonchus arvensis Very rare. Single colony found on roadside in B5. Smooth Sowthistle Sonchus oleraceus Scattered in disturbed areas in A, B, D and E. Prickly Sowthistle Sonchus asper Scarce. Scattered on disturbed ground. Prickly Lettuce Lactuca serriola Rare. On disturbed ground in AI, C2 and D l . *Great Lettuce Lactuca virosa Very rare. On recently disturbed ground in D7 in 1995. *Wall Lettuce Mycelis muralis Scattered plants in scrub woodland on west side of E5. Dandelion Taraxacum officinale agg. Abundant throughout. Smooth Hawksbeard Crepis capillaris Abundant throughout. *Beaked Hawksbeard Crepis vesicaria Common around car park in ZI and noted in AI and C l . Mouse-ear Hawkweed Pilosella officinarum Scattered throughout with large colonies in calcareous grassland in D. Leafy Hawkweed Hieracium umbellatum Common in grassland along southern end of D/northern end of E. Also scattered plants in B1, B 2, B5 and A1. *Canadian Goldenrod Solidago canadensis Two stands near road in Dl and small plants in AI and D7. *Early Goldenrod Solidago gigantea Large stands on roadside verge in E3 and in B4 and small stand in AI. One or two goldenrod stands were left unidentified but appeared to show characters of more than one species. *Canadian Fleabane Conyza canadensis Several plants on extreme western edge of E4 bordering arable field. Small numbers noted in AI, B2 and D6 on disturbed ground. Daisy Bellis perennis Rather scattered with plants generally restricted to welltrodden tracks and the mown areas of Z. *Tansy Tanacetum vulgare Colony in long grass near hedge in A1. Mugwort Artemisia vulgaris Scattered throughout, mainly in disturbed areas and roadside verges. Field Wormwood Artemisia campestris Single plant still survives in D. This plant seems threatened by regulär trampling of area in late summer. Yarrow Achillea millefolium Abundant throughout. Oxeye Daisy Leucanthemum vulgare Rare. Only found in D5. Pineappleweed Matricaria discoidea Scarce, but common on roadside verges. Scentless Mayweed Tripleurospermum inodorum Scarce. Only found on roadside verges in A4 and D1. Common Ragwort Senecio jacobaea Abundant throughout in suitable areas. Groundsel Senecio vulgaris Scarce. Found on recently disturbed ground in five areas. *Heath Groundsel Senecio sylvaticus Abundant on disturbed ground throughout site. Hemp Agrimony Eupatorium cannabinum Rare. Located in D7 and E5. Frequent along riverside in C1. â&#x20AC;˘Common Duckweed Lemna minor Abundant in edge of river. Hard Rush Juncus inflexus Rare. Only recorded in C l .

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Soft Rush Juncus effusus Common in damp hollows in B and C2. Otherwise only noted in E3. *Field Wood-rush Luzula campestris Very common in grassland throughout. Common Club-rush Schoenoplectus lacustris Rare. Single small clump in edge of river. Prickly Sedge Carex muricata ssp. lamprocarpa Rare. Only recorded in B5, D7 and E5. Possibly overlooked. Sand Sedge Carex arenaria Widespread and often dominant in Sandy areas throughout. *Oval Sedge Carex ovalis Small colony on south side of B6. Hairy Sedge Carex hirta Widespread and common throughout. Greater Pond Sedge Carex riparia Forms large stands in C1 and north end of Bl. Glaucous Sedge Carex flacca Quite common in calcareous grassland in D. Also noted in B4. *Spring Sedge Carex caryophyllea Colonies in calcareous grassland in D3, D4 and D7. *Common Sedge Carex nigra Single plant in damp hollow near south edge of B4. Red Fescue Festuca rubra ssp. rubra Abundant throughout. Sheep's Fescue Festuca ovina Abundant throughout. Dominant in acid areas. Perennial Rye-grass Lolium perenne Very common throughout, mainly along tracks. Crested Dog's-tail Cynosurus cristatus Widespread in calcareous areas in D5, D6 and D7. Quaking Grass Briza media Common in calcareous areas in D. Annual Meadow-grass Poa annua Very common throughout, particularly along tracks. Rough Meadow-grass Poa trivialis Common throughout, particularly in ranker areas and shady verges. Smooth Meadow-grass Poa pratensis Widespread throughout. Cock's-foot Dactylis glomeratus Very common throughout, particularly in rank grassland. Reed Sweet-grass Glyceria maxima Found at north end of B1 and extensive stands in C l . Downy Oat-grass Helictotrichon pubescens Widespread and common throughout. Meadow Oat-grass Helictotrichon pratense Widespread but more patchy in distribution than previous species. False Oat-grass Arrhenatherum elatius Abundant throughout. Yellow Oat-grass Trisetum flavescens Very common throughout, particularly in calcareous grassland in D. Crested Hair-grass Koeleria macrantha Widespread and common throughout. Tufted Hair-grass Deschampsia cespitosa Isolated colonies in damper rough grassland in B l , C l , D4 and D5. Wavy Hair-grass Deschampsia flexuosa Widespread. Very common in acid grassland in B, more isolated elsewhere. Yorkshire-fog Holcus lanatus Abundant throughout.

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*Creeping Soft-grass Holcus mollis Noted in deep shade under trees in B1. *Early Hair-grass Aira praecox Common throughout east side but only noted in D l on west side. Sweet Vernal-grass Anthoxanthum odoratum Abundant throughout. Reed Canary-grass Phalaris arundinacea Common in C1 and around damp hollow at south end of B6. Single clump at north of D l . Common Bent Agrostis capillaris Abundant throughout. *Wood Small-reed Calamagrostis epigejos Single spreading colony near SW corner of D3. *Dense Silky-bent Apera interrupta Located on extreme west edge of E5, from nearby arable. *Meadow Foxtail Alopecurus pratensis Widespread but generally in small stands. Timothy Phleum pratense Patchily distributed. Only found in five areas but depauperate specimens possibly overlooked. Smaller Cat's-tail Phleum bertolonii Widespread, particularly in calcareous grassland. Not noted in B. Purple-stem Cat's-tail Phleum phleoides Colonies of this Breckland speciality were found on D3, D4 and D7 in calcareous grassland. Soft Brome Bromus hordeaceus ssp. hordeaceus Widespread and very common. *Upright Brome Bromopsis erecta Large stand in D5 and smaller stands in D4 and D7. *Hungarian Brome Bromopsis inermis ssp. inermis Spreading colony on roadside in E l . *Great Brome Anisantha diandra Abundant along south and west edges of E and west edge of D. Also noted in C l . * Barren Brome Anisantha sterilis Widespread and very common. *False Brome Brachypodium sylvaticum Single plant located in scrub woodland in E5. Possibly the first colonising plant of this shade-loving species. Common Couch Elytrigia repens Several plants of the awned form (var. aristatum on spoil heap in D3 and noted in BI. *Two-rowed Barley Hordeum distichon Scattered plants along roadside verges. Wall Barley Hordeum murinum Very common along wider track sides and road verges. *Bread Wheat Triticum aestivum Several plants on roadside verge in D l . Common Reed Phragmites australis Very common along river edge. Branched Bur-reed Sparganium erectum Common along river edge. Star-of-Bethlehem Ornithogalum angustifolium Located in B5 and D3. Both colonies in disturbed areas and likely to be of garden origin. *Hybrid Bluebell Hyacinthoides non-scripta x H. hispanica Several small patches in E5. The regulär spacing implies these were planted, presumably in a misguided attempt to establish Bluebells H. non-scripta on the site. Garden Grape-hyacinth Muscari armeniacum Garden throw-outs surviving in AI. *Onion Allium cepa Single plant surviving amongst garden refuse dumped in AI. *Few-flowered Garlic Allium paradoxum Two colonies established in scrub in E5.

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Wild Onion Allium vineale Common in grassland in A and found in E5. *Snowdrop Galanthus nivalis Small colonies of garden origin found in AI, D7 and E2. *Hybrid Daffodil Narcissus cultivars Several clumps scattered in AI. *Garden Asparagus Asparagus officinalis ssp. officinalis Single plant near hedge in AI. *Bearded Iris Iris germanica Single plant from garden refuse dumped in AI. Yellow Iris Iris pseudacorus Common along river side in Cl. (376 taxa) Other Taxa For completion, I include here notes on other species which have been reported from the site but not found by myself in 1994/95. Some previous recorders have included an area of scrub and grassland to the west of Barnhamcross Common which is not part of the site. Those species marked with an asterisk have a genuine case for inclusion on the site list. Bracken Pteridium aquilinum On BCCCV newsletter list but not seen in 1994/95. Abundant on adjacent site. *Hemp Cannabis sativa Used by fishermen as bait and has been found growing beside the river. *Procumbent Pearlwort Sagina procumbens Not found in 1994/95 but likely to occur on well-walked tracks. *Perennial Knawel Scleranthus perennis ssp. prostratus Known to have previously occurred but long since gone. Unlikely to occur again but could be re-established. *Spanish Catchfly Silene otites Known to have previously occurred along the roadside in D. Careful management could see it reappear. *Equal-leaved Knotgrass Polygonum arenastrum Not likely to be common but perhaps occurs on roadside verges. Goat Willow Salix caprea Listed previously in error for Salix cinerea. Not likely to occur on this site. *Cowslip Primula veris A Single plant known to be present in Section E. Probably of garden origin. *Tormentil Potentilla erecta Likely to occur in acid grassland. *Parsley-piert Aphanes arvensis All parsley-pierts examined critically proved to be A. inexspectata. However, the current species is likely to occur also. *Holly Hex aquifolium Listed in Barnhamcross Common newsletter but not located in 1994/95. Bird-sown seedlings could occur in scrub. *Wild Carrot Daucus carota Surprisingly not located during the current survey. However, likely to occur in calcareous grassland. Garden Honeysuckle Lonicera x italica Previously recorded for the site but in fact this specimen is in the adjoining scrub area. Marsh Thistle Cirsium palustre Probably recorded in error for Carduus crispus which occurs along the river. *Spreading Meadow-grass Poa humilis This tricky group was not examined in detail in 1994/95. Likely to occur at a number of locations. *Creeping Bent Agrostis stolonifera Likely to be common in damp areas, particularly in C l .

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â&#x20AC;˘Loose Silky-bent Apera spica-venti Likely to be only a scarce casual from nearby arable. Overall, this gives a total of 389 taxa recorded on the site, with at least 376 taxa still present at the time of the survey. For comparison, at Landguard Nature Reserve, a site of comparable size which has received intensive coverage, 283 species were recorded in the first four years and 454 over ten years. That site is likely to have a far higher number of ruderals and introduced species, as well as coastal specialities. Thus, the present total highlights the significant botanical importance of Barnhamcross Common. Pressures on the Site Although designated a SSSI, the pressures on the site are intense with many illegal activities taking place. Section C is currently grazed by tethered horses. Whilst grazing is usually of benefit to grassland communities, intensive and prolonged grazing by horses may well be detrimental to the flora of the site. Many plants are being grazed off before having a chance to flower and the Single, small area of Heather is threatened. Horses frequently break loose and are left to graze freely over the whole site for often weeks on end before recapture. Cars are frequently driven onto various parts of the site, particularly El and E5 for a variety of reasons and garden refuse is continually dumped, most regularly on AI, B6 and E5. The amount of material dumped on some occasions implies that commercial gardeners/landscapers are using the site instead of paying to use municipal tips and, in addition, heaps of builders rubble occasionally appear. Fire is a constant hazard during the summer with at least five lunchtime blazes being tackled by the Fire Brigade during June/July 1994 alone. The timing of these blazes and the proximity of the local school are not unrelated. Smaller fires have also been caused by the dumping and burning of stolen cars and motorcycles. Motorcycle scrambling occasionally takes place and picnickers can also cause problems. The north-east corner of C1 is used as an illegal car park by people going to swim in the river. Unfortunately, some trampling of Vegetation has also occurred by over-zealous naturalists visiting the Field Wormwood and other rare plants. The Future With a local management committee now in place, the future of the site looks reasonably secure. However, the committee will be severely hampered without the fĂźll backing of local authorities and the general public. Management regimes should be implemented that are suitable for the conservation of such species as Field Wormwood and Purple-stem Cat's-tail. Conservation of species-rich grassland in Section D and the preservation of stone-striping in Section E are important for the continued value of the site, both for its wildlife and educational value. Being common land, it is not possible to erect fences that would restrict access, or to prevent public 'enjoyment' of the site so education would appear to be the key. The current attitude of local people to this site as a 'piece of waste

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ground' needs to be changed; local school children have an excellent area to learn about conservation right on their doorstep and it is at this level that educating others about the value of the site needs to start. I hope that this paper gives enough detail on the botanical value of this site for a suitable management regime to be implemented. Correct management of scrub and grassland are essential to maintain the integrity of this important site. Acknowledgements 1 should like to thank Caroline Dudley for making me aware of this site and supplying me with copies of the newsletter; Nick Gibbons for giving me the original inspiration for the survey and for taking time to give me background information and Martin Sanford for help with this paper. References Simpson, F. W., (1982). Simpson's Flora of Suffolk. Suffolk Naturalists' Society, Ipswich. Stace, Câ&#x20AC;&#x17E; (1992). New Flora ofthe British Isles. CUP, Cambridge. Trist, P. J. O., (ed.) (1979). An Ecological Flora of Breckland. EP Publishing, Wakefield. M. D. Crewe, 29A Quilter Road, Felixstowe, Suffolk

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Yellow Archangel with variegated leaves Lamiastrum Galeobdolon ssp. Argentatum DĂźring the past 25 years there has been a considerable spread of the Yellow Archangel with white markings or blotches on its leaves. Little is known of the origin of this form. Some botanists regard it as a separate species. It is certainly a more vigorous and aggressive plant and will grow in habitats where the usual Suffolk plants, L. galeobdolon ssp. montanum, never occurred or would be unlike to survive. It withstood the drought of 1995 much better. It also hybridises freely, but the hybrids are difficult or almost impossible to identify. In years to come this subspecies or its hybrids are likely to become common plants of many woods, lanes and various other habitats. Now a frequent garden plant it will soon extend its boundaries naturally or by thrown-away specimens. Records 1974 1976 1981 1984 1989 1991 1992

1993

â&#x20AC;&#x17E;

1994

1995

F. W.

Shotley, TM23. Burgate Wood, TM07. E. M. Hyde Hadleigh, TM04 Ubbeston, TM37. Spreading from gardens near church. F. W. Simpson Foxhall. TM24. Large colony growing among gorse, brambles and birches, F.W.S. Playford, TM24. In poplar plantation by River Fynn. F.W.S. Westleton, TM46. Edge of village off Dunwich Road, G. Kitchener. Walberswick, TM17. By wall alongside watercourse leading to the Fiats. G.K. Woodbridge, TM24. Abundant in lane from Cumberland Street to Fen Meadow and in Warren Hill Wood. M. D. Crewe. Aldeburgh, TM45. Garden escape on southern side of North Warren, M.D.C. Ufford, TM25. Garden escape on roadside verge. M.D.C. Hasketon, TM27. Beside footpath. M.D.C. Nacton, TM24. Abundant edge of lane alongside Shepherd & Dog, E.M.H. Woolverstone, TM13. Abundant bottom of Mannings Lane, E.M.H. Blyford Wood, TM47. Abundantly naturalised. G. Peck comm. P. G. Lawson. Dunwich, TM47. Entrance to picnic site. E.M.H. & F.W.S. Icklingham, TL77. Icknield Way by footpath. E.M.H. Gt. Bealings, TM24. Small new colony in ancient wood. F.W.S. Martlesham, TM24. Beacon Hill grounds, F.W.S. Simpson

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 32 (1996)


Plate 10: Tower Mustard, Arabis glabra (L.) Bernh., a nationally scarce plant which occurs in good numbers at Bamhamcross Common (p. 65).

A preliminary survey of the flora of Bamhameross Common  

Crewe, M. D.

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