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THE DIPTERA OF REDGRAVE AND LOPHAM FENS P . WlTHERS

The insect fauna of the Redgrave and Lopham fen area has been reviewed for certain Orders in the past (e.g. Pierce, 1967 et seq.; George, 1967; Beaufoy, 1969) although none of these authors has given the exhaustive coverage achieved by Pope (1968) who showed the value of using a variety of sampling methods, resulting in an impressive tally of 15-20 thousand specimens, corresponding to 771 species. Since this time, however, very little active recorded entomology has taken place on the fens, and the habitat has changed dramatically, so the value of these past records may be limited. The author has been collecting diptera on the reserve for seven consecutive years, using a variety of methods. These have included sweep-netting, Malaise- and water-trapping, Carrion traps and the rearing of larvae. As it is not proposed to continue systematic surveying on the reserve, the records obtained are here presented, with comments on species of particular interest, as a basis for future work. The nomenclature follows Kloet and Hincks (1976), except in the family Sciomyzidae, where changes of Rozkosny and Elberg (1978) are followed. Collectors who have contributed records are indicated by initials; all other records are the author's captures. N o attempt is made to assign these data to a particular grid Square or county. (G = W. S. George H = M. Hocken) Tipulidae: Tipula (Lunatipula) lunata L., Orimarga juvenilis (Zett.),H H Gonomyia (Ellipteroides) lateralis (Macq.) Psychodidae: Sycorax silacea Curtis, Panimerus albifacies (Tonn.), Psychoda parthenogenetica Tonn. Culicidae: Culiseta (Culiseta) annulata (Schrank). Chironomidae: Monopelopia tenuicalcar (Kieff.), Trissopelopia longimana (Staeg.), Cricotopus (Isocladius) sylvestris (Fab.), Metriocnemus atratulus ( Z e t t . ) , Paralimnophyes hydrophilus (Goet.), Smittia aterrima (Mg.), S. contingens (Walker), S. leucopogon (Mg.), S. pratorum ( G o e t . ) , Chironomus dorsalis auctt., nec Mg., Cryptocladopelma edwardsi (Krus.), Micropsectra atrofasciata Kieff., Paratanytarsus austriacus Kieff., Gymnometriocnemus brumalis (Edwards). Anisopodidae: Sylvicola fenestralis (Scop.), S. punctatus (Fab.) Bibionidae: Bibio anglicus Verrall, B. clavipes Mg., B. ferruginatus (L.), B. hortulanus (L.), B. johannis (L.), B. lanigerus Mg., B. marci (L.), B. nigriventris H a i . , B. varipes Mg., Dilophus febrilis (L.). Stratiomyidae: Beris chalybeata (Forst.), B. clavipes (L.), B. geniculata Curtis, B. vallata (Forst.), Nemotelus nigrinus Fall., Chloromyia formosa (Scop.), Microchrysapolita (L.). Rhagionidae: Chrysopilus cristatus (Fab.), Rhagio lineola Fab., R. scolopacea (L.), R. tringarius (L.).

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 21


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Suffolk Natural History, Vol. 21

Tabanidae: Chrysops caecutiens (L.), Haematopota pluvialis (L.), Hybomitra bimaculata (Mg.), H. distinguenda (Verrall). Asilidae: Dysmachus trigonus (Mg.), Eutolmus rufibarbis (Mg.), Machimus atricapillus (Fall.), Dioctria atricapilla Mg., D. baumhaueri Mg., D. rufipes (Deg.). Therevidae: Therevaplebeia (L.), T. nobilitata (Fab.). Bombyliidae: Bombylius major L. Empididae: Tachypeza nubila (Mg.), Platypalpus agilis (Mg.), P. ciliaris (Fall.), P. coarctacus (Coli.), P. mterstinctus (Coli.), P. maculipes (Mg.), P. nigritarsis (Fall.), Hybos femoratus (Muller), Bicellaria mera Coli., B. vana Coli., Ocydromia glabricula (Fall.), Oedalia stigmatella Zett., Megacyttarsis crassirostris (Fall.), Pararhamphomyia geniculata Mg., Aclonempis albohirta Coli., Xanthempis trigramma Mg., Kritempis livida L., Pachymeria tessellata Fab., P. tumida Mg., Empis chioptera Mg., Hilara discoidalis Lund., H. maura (Fab.), H. nigrina (Fall.), Dolichocephala ocellata (Costa). Dolichopodidae: Sciapus platypterus (Fab.), Dolichopus claviger Stann., D. popularis Wied., Hercostomus brevicornis (Staeg.), H. chrysozygos (Wied.), H. metallicus (Stann.), H. nigripennis (Fall.), Hypophyllus obscurellus (Fall.), Medetera nitida (Macq.), Chrysotus neglectus (Wied.), C. cupreus Macq., Argyra elongata (Zett.), A. vestita (Wied.), Campsicnemus curvipes (Fall.), C. scambus (Fall.), Sympycnus desoutteri Parent, Chrysotimus concinnus (Zett.). Lonchopteridae: Lonchoptera lutea Panz. Platypezidae: Opetia nigra Mg. Pipunculidae: Chalarus spurius (Fall.), Dorylomorpha confusa (Verrall), D. maculata (Walker), D. xanthopus (Thoms.), Pipunculus campestris L a t . , P . spinipes Mg., P. thomsoni Beck., Eudorylassubterminalis Coli. Syrphidae: Syrphus ribesii (L.), S. vitripennis Mg., Epistrophe eligans (Harris), E. grossulariae (Mg.), Metasyrphus corollae (Fab.), M. luniger (Mg.), Dasysyrphus albostriatus (Fall.), D. lunulatus (Mg.), Ischyrosyrphus laternarius (Mßller), 0 Leucozona lucorum (L.), Melangyna compositarum (Verrall), 0 Xanthogramma citrofasciatum (Deg.), X. pedissequum (Harris), Episyrphus balteatus (Deg.), Sphaerophoria menthastri (L.), S. scripta (L.), Chrysotoxum cautum (Harris), 0 C. verralli Coli., Baccha elongata (Fab.), Melanostoma mellinum (L.), M. scalare (Fab.), Platycheirus albimanus (Fab.), P. angustatus (Zett.), P. clypeatus (Mg.), P. fulviventris (Macq.), P. manicatus (Mg.), P. peltatus (Mg.), P. scutatus (Mg.), Pyrophaena granditarsa (Forst.), Pipiza austriaca Mg., Parapenium flavitarsis (Mg.),° Cheilosia albitarsis Mg., C. bergenstammi Beck., C. fraterna (Mg.), C. honesta Rond., C. illustrata (Harris), C. impresso Loew, C. intonsa Loew, C. paganus (Mg.), C. proxima (Zett.), C. scutellata (Fall.), C. soror (Zett.), C. variabilis (Panz.), C. vernalis (Fall.), Rhingia campestris Mg., Ferdinandea cuprea (Scop.), Orthonevra brevicornis Loew, O. geniculata Mg., Neoascia dispar (Mg.), N. aenea (Mg.), N. podagrica (Fab.), Eumerus strigatus (Fall.), Microdon devius (L.), Volucella bombylans (L.), V. pellucens (L.), Xylota segnis (L.), Syritta pipiens (L.), Tropidia scita (Harris), Criorhina floccosa (Mg.),

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 21


T H E DIPTERA O F REDGRAVE A N D LOPHAM FENS

25

Merodon equestris (Fab.), Helophilus hybridus Loew, H. pendulus (L.), Eoseristalis arbustorum (L.), E. horticola (Deg.), E. intricarius (L.), E. nemorum (L.), E. pertinax (Scop.), Eristalis tenax (L.), Eristalinus sepulchralis (L.), Myiatropa florea (L.) Conopidae: Conops quadrifasciatus Deg., Sicus ferruginatus (L.). Tephritidae: Chaetorellia jacae (Rob.-Desv.). Micropezidae: Calobata (Compsobata) cibaria (L.). Megamerinidae: Megamerina dolium (Fab.). Psilidae: Psila (Chamaepsila) rosea (Fab.), P. (C.)pallida (Fall.), P. (Tetrapsila) obscuritarsis Loew. Lauxaniidae: Trigonometopus frontalis (Mg.), Minettia rivosa (Mg.), Lyciella afĂ&#x;nis (Zett.), L. laeta (Zett.), Calliopum aeneum (Fall.), C. elisae (Mg.), Tricholauxaniapraeusta (L.). Heleomyzidae: Suillia bicolor (Zett.), S. collini Hack., Heteromyza rotundicornis (Zett.), Oecotheapraecox Loew. Sepsidae: Themiralucida(Staeg.), T. putris (L.), Nemopodanitidula (Fall.), Sepsis fulgens Mg., S. orthocnemis Frey, S. violacea Mg. Sciomyzidae: Pherbellia albocostata (Fall.), P. argyra Verb., Pteromicra angustipennis (Staeg.), DichaetophorafinlandicaVerb., Elgiva sundewalli Kloet & Hincks, Euthycera fumigata (Scop.), Tetanocera fuscinervis (Zett.), Trypetopterapunctulata (Scop.). Sphaeroceridae: Olinea atra (Mg.), Fungobia nitida (Mg.), Copromyza equina (Fall.), C. stercoraria (Mg.), Leptocera curvinervis (Stenhamm.), Rachispoda breviceps var. cryptochaeta (Duda), R. limosa (Fall.), R. lutosa (Stenhamm.), Pteremis fenestralis (Fall.), Opacifrons coxata (Stenhamm.) Coproica ferruginata (Stenhamm.). Lonchaeidae: Lonchaea contigua Coli., L. corusca Cz. L. flavidipennis Zett. Piophilidae: Parapiophila vulgaris (Fall.). Opomyzidae: Geomyza majuscula (Loew), G. tripunctata Fall., G. balachowskyi Mesn., Opomyzaflorum (Fab.), O. petrei Mesn. Anthomyzidae: Anthomyza gracilis Fall. Asteiidae: Leiomyza scatophagina (Fall.). Ephydridae: Psilopa nitidula (Fall.), Limnellia quadrata (Fall.), Coenia curvicauda (Mg.), C. palustris (Fall.). Clusiidae: Clusiodes albimana (Mg.). Diastatidae: Campichoeta basalis (Mg.). Drosophilidae: Scaptomyza graminum (Fall.), Parascaptomyza pallida (Zett.), Drosophila testacea von Roser. Agromyzidae: Agromyza mobilis Mg., A. nana Mg., A. nigrescens Hend., A. phragmitidis Hend., Liriomyza orbona (Mg.), Napomyza nigritula Zett., Phytomyza anemonea Hering, P. aquilegiae Hardy, P. ramosa Hend., P. ruftpes Mg., P. varipes Macq., Dizygomyza luctuosa (Mg.), Poemyza incida (Mg.). Chloropidae: Lipara lucens Mg., Calamoncosis aprica (Mg.), C. minima (Strobl), Caviceps trilineata (Mg.), Dicraeus vagans (Mg.), Platycephala planifrons (Fab.), Cetema cereris (Fall.), Chlorops hypostigma Mg., C. pumilionis (Bjerk.), Cryptonevra flavitarsis (Mg.). Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 21


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Suffolk Natural History, Vol. 21

Tachinidae: Athrycia trepida (Mg.), Ceromyia bicolor (Mg.), Brachichaeta strigata (Mg.), Nilea hortulana (Mg.). Sarcophagidae: Sarcophaga subvicina (Rohdend.). Calliphoridae: Lucilla illustris (Mg.), L. richardsi Coli., Pollenia rudis (Fab.). Scathophagidae: Norellisoma spinimanum (Fall.), Nanna fasciata (Mg.), N. inermis (Beck.), N. tibiella (Zett.), Cleigastra apicalis (Mg.), Trichopalpus fraternus (Mg.), Scathophaga furcata (Say), S. inquinata Mg., 5. stercoraria (L.). Anthomyiidae: Pegomyzapraepotens (Wied.). Fanniidae: Fannia hamata (Macq.). Muscidae: Mesembrina meridiana (L.), Heiina duplicata (Mg.), Gymnodia humilis (Zett.), Hebecnema umbratica (Mg.), Mydaea nebulosa (Stein), Graphomyia maculata (Scop.), G. picta (Zett.), Lispe tentaculata (Deg.), Lispocephala erythrocera (Rob.-Desv.), Schoenomyza littorella (Fall.), Coenosia infantula Rond., C. mollicula (Fall.), C. tigrina (Fab.), C. tricolor (Zett.). Notes on selected species Eutolmus rufibarbis An old record exists for this rare and local robberfly, found only in eastern counties. As it is difficult to imagine that so large and obvious a fly would not have been seen during this survey, it may now have gone from the area. Bicellaria mera Apparently a true fenland species, recorded also from Wicken and Chippenham fens. Pararhamphomyia geniculata An inhabitant of marshy localities, previously recorded from Wicken and Woodwalton fens. Dolichocephala

ocellata

This aberrant empid is rare and not recorded for the area by Collin (1961). Hercostomus

chrysozygos

Common in the reserve, but seemingly a local fly nationally. Argyra elongata Rather scarce nationally. Recorded from Wicken fen; not known from Suffolk according to Fonseca (1979). Melangyna compositarum Species of Melangyna are notoriously difficult to identify in either sex, and compositarum and labiatarum have a confusing relationship, making them impossible to separate, except when one has both available for comparison. It is perhaps best to regard the record as 'doubtful', since the species seems commonest in coniferous woodland.

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 21


THE DIPTERA OF REDGRAVE AND LOPHAM FENS

27

Parapenium flavitarsis A species closely resembling Pipiza or Pipizella, themselves difficult genera, P.flavitarsisis to be found on boggy moorland or fenny localities, commonly in Scotland and Ireland, but becoming increasingly local as one progresses towards SE England. Sphaerophoria menthastri In his 1967 paper, George recorded 5. rueppelliifrom the reserve. This was a little surprising to the present author, as this is primarily a coastal saltmarsh species. I have now examined the male specimen on which this record is based. It is S. menthastri. Orthonevra brevicornislO. geniculata In the opinion of George (op. cit.), if the marshland genus Chrysogaster s.s was absent from the reserve, it would be very surprising. It is pleasant to record that he was correct in this assumption; further, these two members of the subgenus Orthonevra are among the rarest of our native hoverflies. O. brevicornis is a species of damp deciduous woodland, the males visiting flowers of trees, such as crab-apple (Pyrus malus). O. geniculata has an o recorded distribution, with a number of records from Scotland, and English captures from Oxon., Surrey and Hants., cited in Coe (1953). Tropidia scita This striking hoverfly is rarely found away from acid or neutral wetland, where it is often quite common. It appears to be associated with Iris pseudacorus. Criorhina floccosa An unexpected capture, as this genus is associated with old deciduous woodland. Normally elusive, Aying high and fast around tree tops, I took a male and female on successive days on bramble leaves. This species serves to highlight the importance of maintaining what little old woods remain, both as live and dead wood. Tetrapsila obscuritarsis Collin (1944) discusses this distinctive species and its synonymy with Psila rufa Mg. Neither species, however, appears in the Kloet and Hincks check list. Found also at Chippenham fen. Trigonometopus frontalis An abundant fenland lauxaniid, whose larvae feed on Phragmites. Calliopum elisae Apparently aflymore typical of Scottish locales, although it has been taken at Chippenham fen. Pteromicra angustipennis A rare species of snail-killingfly,recorded from only six British counties by Stevenson and Knutson (1970). This record, like the next species, is based on material taken at a mercury vapour light trap.

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 21


28 Suffolk Natural History, Vol. 21 Dichaetophora finlandica Stevenson and Knutson (loc. cit.) only record this species from Herefords. and Yorks. Geomyza majuscula A striking opomyzid typical of fenland areas of East Anglia. Recorded from Chippenham and Burwell fens. As the known opomyzid larvae are found in grass stems, it is reasonable to suppose that this species inhabits a grass largely confined to fens. Agromyza phragmitidis A localised leaf-miner of Phragmites communis, recorded from Dev Oxon., and Hunts, by Spencer (1972). Phytomyza anemonea Another local agromyzid, previously recorded from Gloucs. and Sussex. As the specific epithet suggests, an associate of Anemone spp., but particular A. nemorosa, the wood anemone. Cleigastra apicalis A dungfly of wetlands, very common in the reserve. The larvae are atypical of the family, being predatory, and may be significant in Controlling the reed gall fly, Lipara lucens.

Summary The present survey records 318 species of Diptera for Redgrave and Lopham fens. Because the author has worked entirely alone for seven years, the list is of necessity not as large as he would be liked. Personal preference has determined to a great extent what was captured and hence recorded. The list could be greatly improved. For example, many more empids remain to be added, the list of dolichopodids, chloropids and agromyzids is not by any means exhaustive, and chironomids, along with most other small nematocera have merely been casually examined. Perhaps the most depressing statistic is that this list represents just 4% of the British fauna. What is clear from this preliminary investigation is that a wide variety of habitats must exist within the reserve and environs to support such a diverse fauna. Any future management should have as its prime objective the maintenance of this habitat diversity. Acknowledgements I would like to thank the following people for their considerable help in preparation of this paper: Dr M. C. D. Speight identified some critical Syrphidae; Dr A. G. Irwin kindly agreed to identify all the material of Tachinidae to Muscidae (except Scathophagidae) and Ephydridae; J. M. Ismay similarly treated the Chloropidae. D. Henshaw helped with the Agromyzidae and A. C. M. d'Assis Fonseca was very helpful in discussing a number of Dolichopodidae. Howard Mendel of Ipswich Museum allowed me to search the Society's records and Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 21


THE DIPTERA OF REDGRAVE AND LOPHAM FENS

29

the BRC facility for relevant data, and was instructive in criticism of a draft of this paper. The Suffolk Trust for Nature Conservation have been particularly generous in granting permission for this work to be carried out, and for allowing me to litter the landscape with white washing-up bowls! Finally, I must pay tribute to the patience exhibited by my wife during the period of final typing, and for a critical proof-reading. Bibliography Beaufoy, S. (1969). The butterflies of Lopham and Redgrave fen. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 14, 219. Coe, R. L. (1953). Syrphidae, Handbooks for the identification of Bri Insects. Collin, J. E. (1961). British Flies VIEmpididae. Cambridge University Press. Fonseca, A. C. M. (1979). Dolichopodidae, Handbooks for the identifica of British Insects. George, W. S. (1967). A survey of the Syrphidae (Hover-flies) of Redgrave and S. Lopham fens. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 13, 400. Hocken, M. (1945). Dipteraof Suffolk. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 5,184. Kloet, G. S. & Hincks, W. D. (1975). A checklist of British insects. Handbooks for the identification of British Insects (Diptera and Siphonaptera). Pierce, C. W. (1967 et seq.). Moths of Redgrave and Lopham fens. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 14,41. Pope, R. D. (1968). Apreliminary survey ofthe Coleoptera of Redgrave and Lopham fens. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 14, 25. Rozkosny, R. & Elberg, K. (1978). Taxonomic and distributional notes on some palaearctic Sciomyzidae. Scripta fac. sei. natur. Ujep. Brunensis 47. Spencer, K. (1972). Agromyzidae, Handbooks for the identification of Br Insects. Stevenson, J. W. & Knutson, L. (1970). The distribution of snail-killing flies (Dipt., Sciomyzidae) in the British Isles. Entomologist's mon. Mag. 106, 16.

P. Withers, 27 Beech Way, Dickleburgh, Diss, Norfolk.

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 21

The Diptera of Redgrave and Lopham Fens  

Withers, P.

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