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PLANT RECORDS FROM LANDGUARD COMMON (1979-1982) A . CoPPING Landguard Common is a triangular area of land at the mouth of the River Stour to the south of Felixstowe (Nat. Grid TM 285315.) It consists of sand and shingle laid down in medieval times which have been colonised slowly by pioneer and successive forms of Vegetation. From the Second World War to the late 1960'sthe area was occupied by the Ministry of Defence, but, shortly a f t e r t h e Ministry withdrew, parts of the common were enclosed. The largest loss was associated with the development of the Freightliner Terminal on the western side, resulting from the expansion of the port of Felixstowe. Conv e n t i o n s in 1978 between the writer and Mr. Mervyn Bell, Chairman of the Suffolk Trust for Nature Conservation (S.T.N.C.), in which further developments at the common were outlined, led to the conducting of the survey here described, beginning in 1979. The prime purpose was to record, within a specified area, the occurrence of all species of flowering plant, and, secondarily, to note their relative abundance and distribution. Area Surveyed Since the survey would be carried out by the writer based in Diss, and mostly working alone, it seemed wise to limit the area of study to that which could be intensively worked in a period of five to six hours per visit. Consequently that part of the common lying N N E of the fence joining 289328 and 290326 was omitted. The remaining principal areas of exclusion were the land owned by the Harwich Harbour Board at the south and west extremities, the grounds of Landguard Fort, the Freightliner Terminal and the Ministry of Defence Property to the north. The southern part of the recording area contained the S.T.N.C. reserve and the small section of beach roped off during the tern breeding season was also excluded. Since the survey began, various developments have prevented or restricted access to three parts of the recording area. Dates and locations are marked on the map. Habitat Summary At first sight much of Landguard appears to be uniform, but close examination reveals a surprising variety of micro-habitats, each with its own distinctive plant Community. The principal diverse areas are identified by capital letters, A , B, C, . . ., on the map, and have the characteristic features described below. A. From 1980, a small spit of open shingle available for pioneer Vegetation. B. Small area disturbed during the construction of the new road to the Harbour Viewing Area and colonised by a few ruderals. C. Close turf formed mainly of Festuca sp., with a few semi-bare dry, stony areas supporting Sedum sp. D. Like B, but larger, and supporting a greater variety o f ' w e e d ' species.

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PLANT RECORDS FROM LANDGUARD COMMON OLD ROAD TO HARBOUR VIEWING AREA Closed 1980

NEW ROAD TO HARBOUR VIEWING AREA Opened 1980

EXTENSION TO FREIGHT LINER TERI:MINAL (Recordi ng not possible a f t e r April 1980}

(1979-82)

375

LANDGUARD ROAD (Closed t o v e h i c l e s )

CAMPING GROUND RESTRICTED ACCESS AFTER MAY, 1982

ASPHALT SURFACED CAR PARK CONSTRUCTED SPRING, 1982

LANDGUARD FORT

TERN NESTING AREA (No access i n breeding season)

Division of Landguard into habitats A rough Sketch map on a Scale approximately 1 : 18,750 The outline of the recording area is shown dotted.

E. Low lying area with a small, brackish pool at its centre which regularly dries out in summer. F. Area dominated by coarse grasses (e.g. Elymuspycnanthus) and containing other tall herbs, Heracleum, Dipsacus, etc. G. Similar to C but noteworthy for the dominance of Festuca longifolia and the presence of Bromus erectus. H. Short turf broken by sandy areas containing Phleum arenarium, Vulpia fasciculata, Eryngium maritimum, etc.

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J. Long established earth banks, estimated at between fifteen and thirty feet high, dominated by grasses, Poaeangustifolia, Trisetumflavescens, etc., with some Ulex and Sambucus. A short section was cleared of Vegetation in 1980, re-seeded, and roped off. Casuals and ruderals appeared in late 1980 and 1981, but the area is now becoming stable. K. Small, low lying area f o r m i n g a g a p between two sections of J. Apparentiy flooded by the sea in the late 1970's with much Atriplex littoralis present in 1979, but the decline of this and other saltmarsh species suggests no further irruptions have occurred. L. Similar to J, but containing more scrub. M. Low, poorly drained area of mud and shingle. N. Low, grassy bank containing Pastinaca sativa, Senecio erucifolius and other species associated with basic soils. P. Sandy or shingly beach. Q. Area of close turf with much Carex arenaria, and containing both subspecies of Medicago sativa. R. Short, turfy area noted for Carex divisa and Parapholis incurva. S. Very dry, short, intensively rabbit-grazed turf. T. Area of intermittent Vegetation with early colonisation by Hypericum perforatum, Rubus fruticosus s.l., and other coarse species. U. Open sandy area colonised sporadically by assorted species, notably Hypericum perforatum, Tripleurospermum maritimum and Agrostis stolonifera. V. Like P, but with extensive colonies of Crambe maritima. W. Disturbed area arising from building the new road to the Harbour Viewing A r e a . X. (Not marked on map). Raised soil bank, about seven feet high, on east of new road to Harbour Viewing Area. The bank consists of soil displaced in the building of the road. The capital letters A , B, C, . . . are used throughout the 'Catalogue of Species' to indicate where particular species are located and are used in two ways. Firstly, the notation 'H, S' shows that a species is present in H and S; secondly 'P/J' indicates that the species occurs at the boundary of regions P and J, that is, the conjunction of the eastern slopes of the earth bank and beach. Method of Recording In general, on each visit, species were recorded only if observed to be flowering. Sedges were recorded in flower or fruit and grasses were deemed to be in flower from the first emergence of their inflorescences from the sheaths until the dehiscence of their spikelets. Exceptionally, a few species which were neveyr seen in flower (e.g. Hedera helix) were recorded in their vegetative State. No members of the Pteridophyta were seen at any time. Several garden plants have become established and to some extent naturalised on Landguard. Four of these have been excluded from the 'Catalogue' although they have appeared each year. They are species of Narcissus (daffodil), Campanula and Iris, all occurring in small quantity in Q or S/T,

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and a Composite, Anthemis punctata Vahl ssp. cupaniana (Tod. ex Nyman) R. Fernandes, established in the north of F and H. Dates of Visits Recording visits were made on the following dates: 1979: 1 2 - 4 , 1 2 - 5 , 1 0 - 6 , 7 - 7 , 1 1 - 8 , 8 - 9 , 1 3 - 1 0 ; 1980:12-4,10-5,30-5,14-6, 3-8,13-9,18-9; 1981: 2 0 - 4 , 1 6 - 5 , 6 - 6 , 2 0 - 6 , 4 - 7 . 1 - 8 , 2 2 - 8 , 1 7 - 1 0 ; 1982: 5 - 4 , 1 - 5 , 2 2 - 5 , 5 - 6 , 19-6, 3 - 7 , 2 4 - 7 , 2 1 - 8 , 1 8 - 9 , 30-10. The writer was accompanied on 10-6-79 by members of the Lowestoft Field Club, and on 14-6-80 and 21-8-82 by Mr. P. G. Lawson, and gratefully acknowledges their help. On all other occasions he was working alone. No visit could be made in July 1980 nor in September 1981.

CATALOGUE OF SPECIES The nomenclature and order of arrangement follow that of Excursion Flora of the British Isles (Third Edition) by Clapham, Tutin and Warburg (Cambridge University Press, 1981). The name of each species is succeeded by four bracketed symbols forming a permutation of solid and open circles. The symbols correspond to each of theyears 1979,1980,1981 and 1982 in order, a solid circle indicating that the species was recorded, and an open one that it was not seen. For example, Veronica hederifolia ( • • o o ) was recorded in 1979 and 1980butfailed to be observedin 1981 and 1982; ( • • • • ) indicatesa species recorded in each of the four years of study. In the accounts the letters A , B, C, . . ., X may be used to show the areas of the common in which particular species were principally or exclusively recorded. To interpret the use of these letters the reader should refer to the Habitat Notes and the map. Ranunculus repens ( o o « » ) Has become established in areas of disturbance, notably X. R. bulbosus ( • • • • ) Occasional on slopes of J. R. sardous ( o o » » ) Many plants appeared in X during 1981, but very few remained in 1982. R. parviflorus ( ( o o » » ) Discovered in abundance in a restricted part of the east slopes of L. The species continued to thrive in 1982 and 'many thousands' of seedlings were seen on 30th October of that year. R. sceleratus ( • • • • ) One or two plants have appeared each year in the drying mud of the small, brackish pool in E. Papaver rhoeas ( • • • • ) Occasional in areas of disturbance, notably X. P. dubium ( o o o » ) Two plants seen at edge of new road to Harbour Viewing Area, near W.

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P. somniferum ( o o » » ) Single plants each year in L. Glaucium flavum ( • • • • ) General in areas P, V but occasional plants have occurred in S, in surprisingly stabilised areas. Fumaria capreolata ssp. babinglonii ( • • • • ) A small colony of plants beside the road leading to the Harbour Viewing Area has maintained itself throughout the Observation period, but with very limited spread. F. officinalis Occasional plants in disturbed places, notably X, but generally rare. Brassica nigra ( • • • • ) Has appeared regularly in the southern parts of L, and since 1980, abundantly in D and X. Sinapis arvensis ( • • • • ) Occasional to rare in disturbed ground. Diplotaxis muralis ( * o * * ) Rare. Scattered individuals in open places, most notably in the south-east corner of J. D. tenuifolia ( • • • • ) One well established plant in the northern part of S. A second individual was noted beside Landguard Road in 1982. Raphanus raphanistrum ( o * * * ) Occasional plants in areas of recent disturbance. Not common. Crambe maritima ( • • • • ) Well established in the shingle of habitat V with many mature and juvenile plants present each year. Occasional plants occur in a dry ditch at S/T. Cakile maritima ( * o o o ) A Single plant in P. Lepidium latifolium ( • • • • ) Colonies scattered over much of the common, especially in F, H and S. In parts of S achieves dominance. Coronopus didymus ( • • o o ) A few plants seen in well trodden places towards the north-east corner of F and H. Cardaria draba ( • • • • ) Widespread but especially abundant just above the beach at S. Capsella bursa-pastoris ( • • • • ) Occasional plants in disturbed open places, especially L and X. Cochlearia danica ( • • • • ) Abundant in short turfy areas near the sea, especially H and S. A characteristic Landguard species. Erophila verna ( • • • • ) Frequent in all the areas of short sparse Vegetation, especially H and S. Cardamine hirsuta ( o « o * ) Rare. One plant seen near E in 1980 and several in parts o f X i n 1982. Barbarea verna ( • o » * ) A few plants were seen in the western parts of C in 1979 and an extensive colonisation of X occurred in 1981. Reduced, but still present in some quantity, in 1982. Sisymbrium officinale ( • • • • ) Isolated plants found each year in disturbed places on all parts of the common but generally infrequent to rare. S. Orientale ( • • • • ) Has occurred each year at the north-east corner of H and recently alongside the new road to the Harbour Viewing Area. S. altissimum ( o o o » ) Two or three plants appeared on the eastern verge of the new road to the H a r b o u r Viewing Area, growing alongside S. Orientale. Arabidopsis thaliana ( * o o o ) Scattered plants beside the old road leading to the H a r b o u r Viewing Area. Not seen since the road was closed—a surprising rarity in view of the large number of apparently suitable habitats. Reseda luteola ( • • • • ) Scattered over most parts of the common. Frequent.

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R. lutea ( o o « » ) About twenty plants beside an old roadway at S/T were discovered in 1982 and a singleton in the south-east corner of S a year earlier. The species had undoubtedly been present each year since 1979. Viola odorata ( o o o * ) One or two plants with white flowers discovered in L. Hypericum perforatum ( • • • • ) Very common in many places. Especially abundant at J/S, T and U. Tamarixgallica ( • • • • ) A few bushes on the southern parts of L. Silene alba ( • • • • ) Scattered here and there in open and disturbed parts of the common. Has appeared regularly at L/S. S. alba x rf;o/cö(****)HasoccurredannuallyatL/S.The5. dioicaparentis absent. S. maritima ( • • • • ) Common in V. Occasional plants occur in the northwestern parts of C. Cerastium tomentosum A few plants established in the northern parts of C. The 1980 omission was probably accidental. C. fontanum ssp. glabrescens ( • • • • ) Found each year in L and occasionally elsewhere. Generally infrequent. C. glomeratum ( • • • • ) Widely distributed among short, sparse Vegetation, but especially common in X and the western parts of C. C. diffusum ( • • • • ) Common and generally distributed in H and S. C. semidecandrum ( • • • • ) Abundant in H and S. One of the major constituents of the short turf in S in early spring. On 5th April 1982, a warm sunny day, countless thousands of flowers carpeted the ground over much of the Suffolk Trust Reserve. Stellaria media ( • • • • ) Frequent in newly disturbed regions, especially roadsides and X. S. pallida ( • • • • ) Widespread in sparsely vegetated areas, notably C. One of the first species to flower in spring. Sagina apetala ( o * * * ) Widely distributed in shortly vegetated areas, especially S. In general a difficult species to locate without very close inspection of the ground. Consequently it is probably commoner than supposed. S. procumbens ( • o • o ) One or two plants found by paths in S, but appears to be rare. Honkenyapeploides ( • • • • ) Common. Confined to P and V. Arenaria serpyllifolia ( • • • • ) Common in sparsely vegetated places, especially S. A. leptoclados ( o « o « ) Much lesscommon than the precedingspecies. Single plants found in S, but, in view of its close similarity to A. serpyllifolia, has probably been overlooked. Spergula arvensis ( o * * o ) A few plants on X, apparently introduced. Montiaperfoliata ( o o « « j One plant in L and about four in X. Chenopodium polyspermum ( o » « o ) A few plants found in X during 1980 and two more in H/J during 1981. The latter appeared near an area of bank which had been re-seeded. C. vulvaria ( o o o * ) About six plants were found near the new car park at the northern end of H , and twelve or more in W, during August 1982. C. album ( • • • • ) Common in all recently disturbed ground.

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C. rubrum ( o o . . ) Single plants in A (1981) and the northern part of H (1982). A very late flowering species. Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima ( • • • • ) Very common in P and V and occasional further inland. Atriplex littoralis ( • • o . ) Abundant in K (1979) but much reduced there in 1980 and absent subsequently. One plant beside the new car park, 1982. The rapid decline of this species is curious. A. patula ( • • o » ) Occasional, mainly in disturbed parts of X and H. A prostrata ( • • • • ) Most common in P but numbers have fiuctuated from year to year. Often difficult to distinguish from the next species. A. glabriuscula ( • • o * ) Usually common on the seaward side of J. None of the specimens found in 1981 could be confidently referred to this species but its absence seems highly unlikely. Halimioneportulacoides ( • • • • ) O n e small colony has persisted in M. Malvasylvestris ( • • • • ) Common and widespread. Most abundant in D and X. M. neglecta ( o o * o ) One or two plants found in S. Geranium dissectum ( o o t t ) Occasional in the disturbed areas of D and X. G. molle ( • • • • ) Generally distributed in disturbed and sparsely vegetated areas—one of Landguard's commonest species. Erodium cicutarium ( • • • • ) Perhaps even more common than the precedmg, in similar places. Flowers continuously from early April to late October Oxalis articulata ( o o . » j A Single plant in T (1981) and another singleton beside the road to the H a r b o u r Viewing Area (1982). Ulex europaeus ( • • • • ) A few bushes occur in J and, until 1980, some plants grew in the western part of C. Cytisus scoparius ( o o o « ) One seedling found in X. Ononis repens ( • • • • ) Occasional, mainly in H and S. Medicago sativa ssp. sativa ( • • • • ) Has occurred each year in the northern part of H . Was formerly frequent in the adjoining Caravan Park, outside the recording area. M. sativa ssp. falcata ( o * * « ) One or two plants in Q appear to be 'pure' examples of this subspecies, but up to a dozen others, with flowers of varying colours, are hybrids with ssp. sativa (see below). M. x varia ( o * * * ) U p to twelve plants in Q. M. lupulina ( • • • • ) Principally in C, H and S, but occurs wherever the competing Vegetation is not too vigorous. Common. M. minima ( • • • • ) Common and widespread in H and S. M. arabica ( • • • • ) Generally distributed in L, H, S but rather less frequent than the two preceding species. Melilotus officinalis ( • • • • ) Abundant in M and occasional elsewhere, especially the northern part of S. M. alba ( * o o o ) One or two plants in M, but has not persisted. Seen more recently close to, but outside, the recording area. M. indica ( o * o « ) Two small colonies seen, in the north-west corner of F a n d on the western slopes of L. Trifolium ornithopodioides ( o o » » ) One colony found in the north-east corner of S, and many plants on the eastern slopes of L. The latter habitat, Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 19


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dry and well-drained, was a surprising one. The plant is, however, elusive and has a short flowering season, so it may well occur more widely. T. glomeratum ( o * o * ) Two plants discovered in 1980 in F. Hundreds appeared in a wheel rut in F/H during 1982. The likelihood is that the plant occurs much more generally in short turf, but is easily overlooked. T. suffocatum ( • • • • ) Widespread and often abundant over much of H and S. The commonest of the 'local' Trifolium species at Landguard. T. dubium ( • • • • ) Occasional to frequent over most of the recording area. T. campestre ( • • • • ) Less common than the preceding but found each year in grassy parts of C, L and H. T. repens ( • • • • ) Has been found each year in M and N and more recently in X. A restricted species. T. arvense ( • • • • ) Scattered throughout C, H and S, often forming extensive 'patches' in places with sparse Vegetation. T. scabrum ( • • • • ) Common throughout the short turfof H and S. T. striatum ( • • • • ) As for the preceding species. T. pratense ( o o o » ) One or two plants appeared in disturbed sites at the north of the common. Rare. Lotus corniculatus ( • • • • ) Widespread and common, especially in S and V where it forms yellow sheets in early summer. The S.T.N.C. Warden suggests it is declining, probably as a result of increasing stabilisation of the dunes. Ornithopusperpusillus ( « o o o ) In short turf but locality not recorded. The rarity or absence of this species is remarkable, since it is common in apparently similar habitats in North Suffolk. Vicia hirsuta ( • • • • ) Widespread, but especially common in F among taller grasses. V. sativa ssp. sativa ( • • • • ) Mainly in H and F and as a ruderal in X. V. sativa ssp. nigra ( • • • • ) Occasional in F and C. V. lathyroides ( • • • • ) Common and widespread in all short turfy areas. In years with frequent rainfalls flowers through to late summer. V. lutea ( o o » » ) First found in a Clearing in C (1981) and up to twenty plants in A (1982). Lathyrus nissolia ( • • • • ) Among tall grasses in F where it is frequent. L. pratensis ( • • • • ) Has appeared regularly in J and N and occasionally in grassy places elsewhere. Rubus caesius ( • • • • ) Occurs in the fence on the eastern side of the road to the Harbour Viewing Area. R. fruticosus sensu lato ( • • • • ) Scattered bushes occur throughout the northern part of the common. No attempt at detailed Classification has been made. Potentilla argentea ( • • • o ) Occasional in L and H. The plant has been discovered only in late autumn when flowering has made it conspicuous. Probably not uncommon in short turf. P. reptans ( • • • • ) Frequent on L and T and not uncommon elsewhere. Agrimonia eupatoria ( • • o o ) Formerly on J but not seen recently. However, no intensive search has been made so it probably still occurs. Aphanes arvensis agg. ( o o » * ) Occasional in short turf, especially in S. Much

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less common than in apparently similar habitats in North Suffolk. The division into species has not been attempted. Rosa canina group ( • • • • ) Scattered bushes in F and C. Critical identifications have not been made. Prunus sp. ( o o * o ) O n e or two bushes on L were recorded in flower in 1981, but have been ignored in other years. They appear to be some form of P. domestica but have not fruited, although in habit resemble P. spinosa. Identification has proved far from straightforward and they remain undetermined. Crataegus monogyna ( • • • • ) One or two bushes in L. Flowering often persists until late June or early July in this exposed site. Sedum anglicum ( • o « « ) Several plants restricted to two small areas, one in C and the other in H. S. album ( • • • • ) Pientiful in a small area near the southern end of H. 5. acre ( • • • • ) The commonest species at Landguard, especially abundant in C and H , and alongside the road to the Harbour Viewing Area. Saxifraga tridactylites ( • • • • ) Scattered widely over H and S, but unevenly, with heavy concentration in a few restricted areas. Hippophae rhamnoides ( o o o « ) A small vegetative shoot from a cut stump was discovered at the northern extremity of V. Epilobium hirsutum ( o o » o ) One or two plants appeared briefly in A, but the habitat of dry shingle is unsuitable for long term colonisation. E. ciliatum ( o o » » ) Has appeared in some quantity beside the new road to the H a r b o u r Viewing Area. Occasional plants found also in A. Chamerion angustifolium ( o o » » ) A few plants have become established in A. Hedera helix ( o » * » ) A n extensive patch on the southern extremity of J. Has climbed an old post but has not flowered during the three years of Observation. Eryngium maritimum ( • • • • ) Extensive patches and Single individuals at various points on the seaward sides of H and S. Little Variation in abundance has been apparent over the four years. Anthriscus caucalis ( • • • • ) Widespread and common, especially in L. A. sylvestris ( • • • • ) Occasional to frequent, mainly on J. Smyrnium olusatrum ( • • • • ) Dominant over a small part of the western slopes of J. Seedlings appear in abundance, but, surprisingly, no specimens have been seen elsewhere in the recording area. Pimpinella saxifraga ( o o * o ) Two plants were noted in H near the southern extremity of Landguard Road. They did not re-appear in 1982. Aethusa cynapium ( o o » o ) A few plants recorded in X. Foeniculum vulgare ( • • • • ) Occasional plants here and there, notably in F. Conium maculatum ( • • • • ) Has appeared regularly at the southern end of L and occasionally elsewhere. Petroselinum crispum ( » o o o ) One or two plants only, in an unrecorded locality. Sison amomum ( o » * « ) Several plants among tall, coarse grasses in F. Pastinaca sativa ( • • • • ) Apparently restricted to N where there are several plants.

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Heracleum sphondylium ( • • • • ) Scattered throughout F and J, but nowhere frequent. Toriiis japonica ( • • • • ) Mainly confined to F and D where it has occurred regularly in small quantity. Daucus carota ( • • • • ) Frequent in J, L and N and occasional elsewhere. After Anthriscus caucalis probably the commonest Umbellifer on Landguard. Bryonia dioica ( • • • • ) Occasional plants scattered over the entire area, but not frequent. Mercurialis annua ( o * o o ) One or two plants in U. Euphorbia helioscopia Occasional in disturbed places. E. peplus ( • • • o ) As for the preceding species. E. paralias ( o o t » ) One clump found in S. However, many hundreds of plants were seen in 1982 at the southern tip of Landguard, beyond the recording area. Polygonum aviculare agg. ( o « * * ) A few plants seen at the southern end of X and occasionally elsewhere: overall, however, the plant is amazingly rare. 1t has not been possible to determine the species with certainty, since most of the plants found had shed nearly all their leaves at the time of fruiting. P. persicaria ( o o t * ) Confined to disturbed areas, notably A and part of J following re-seeding. P. lapathifolium ( o * * o ) In similar places to the preceding. Plants from J keyed to P. nodosum, now included in this species. Fallopia convolvulus ( o » « o ) Occasional, mainly in X. Rumex acetosella agg. ( • • • • ) Common and widespread, especially abundant in C. R. crispus ( • • • • ) Common in P and V and occasional in X. R. pulcher ( • • • • ) Occasional, mainly in H, L a n d S. R. obtusifolius ( * o * * ) Infrequent in disturbed places, especially A , D and X. R. crispus X obtusifolius ( o o « o ) One plant seen in X, with itsparent species. Urtica urens ( • • • • ) Rare, but usually to be found at the southern end of L. U. dioica ( • • • • ) A major patch in V/S and some plants in L. Absent from most other places. Armeria maritima ( • • • • ) A few plants in H and one non-flowering patch in S: not seen elsewhere. Anagallis arvensis ssp. arvensis ( • • • • ) Common in all dry, sparsely vegetated places, notably the western parts of S. All the plants seen have had red flowers. Syringa vulgaris ( o « * « ) O n e or two bushes on L. Ligustrum vulgare ( • • • • ) As for the preceding species. Cynoglossum officinale ( • • • • ) Occasional, mainly in the southern part of S. Anchusa arvensis ( • • • o ) A few plants at the southern end of L. Myosotis arvensis ( « o « « ) Almost confined to the foot of the eastern slopes of L, where it is usually frequent. M. ramosissima ( • • • • ) Common as a spring ephemeral in all areas with short turf, especially H and S. Echium vulgare ( • • • • ) Scattered over the entire recording area in dry, open

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places. Sporadic flowering occurs until late autumn. Convolvulus arvensis ( • • • • ) Occasional over most of the recording area. Calystegia sepium ( o o o » ) Found scrambling in the fence beside the road to the H a r b o u r Viewing A r e a . The plants combined characters of ssp. sepium with those of ssp. silvatica, and it was not possible to refer them confidently to either subspecies. C. soldanella ( • • • • ) Very common in Q , S and occurs also in H . Flowering is often limited, but in 1982 hundreds of flowers were seen, revealing for the first time an indication of the abundance of this species at Landguard. Lycium barbarum ( o o o * ) O n e small shrub on the western slopes of J. Hyoscyamus niger ( • • • • ) Occasional throughout the area in disturbed or open places, but most regulär and frequent in J/S. Solanum dulcamara ( • • • • ) Thinly scattered over most of the common, especially C, F and S. S. sarrachoides ( o o o * ) O n e plant on the new earth bank separating F and G . S. nigrum ( • • • • ) Occasional in freshly disturbed ground almost anywhere. Generally scarce and less frequent than S. dulcamara. Datura stramonium ( o « o o ) O n e plant in X. Verbascum thapsus ( • • • • ) One or two plants have appeared each year in the north-west corner of S or T. Linaria vulgaris ( o * * * ) O n e small colony in F, bordering Landguard Road. Kickxia elatine ( o o o * ) O n e plant on top of the new earth bank separating F and G . Digitalispurpurea ( o o o « ) O n e plant on the western slopes of L. Veronica chamaedrys ( * o o o ) Recorded by members of Lowestoft Field Club on lOth J u n e , 1979, but not seen by the writer. No further records. V. arvensis ( • • • • ) C o m m o n in short turf or sparsely vegetated places in C, H and S. Most specimens are less than two centimetres tall and some are reduced to one flower. V. hederifolia ( • • o o ) R a r e in disturbed ground, precise localities not recorded. V. persica ( • • • • ) Occasional to frequent in disturbed ground. Has appeared regularly in L and, in 1981, abundantly in parts of X. Much reduced in 1982. Orobanche minor ( o o * o ) O n e plant in F beside Landguard R o a d . Host not determined. Salvia verbenaca ( • • • • ) Frequent on the eastern slopes of J and L and occasional elsewhere in dry, sparsely vegetated places. Ballota nigra ( • • • • ) Widely scattered, but perhaps most f r e q u e n t on X. Lamium amplexicaule ( o o o « ) Two plants on a heap of disturbed soil in H . L. hybridum ( • • • • ) Seen each year in small quantities in L or X. L. purpureum ( • • • • ) Occasional in disturbed places with some extensive patches in X. L. album ( • • • • ) A few plants seen each year in L or X, but generally rare. Teucrium scorodonia ( o o # o ) A small colony in C was discovered in 1981, but has not been re-located. The plant is almost certainly still there, but it is surprising that it is so restricted in such an apparently suitable habitat.

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( 1979-82)

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Plantago major ( * o o • ) One or two plants have appeared beside pathsor as a weed of disturbed ground. Localities not noted. P. lanceolata ( • • • • ) Widely distributed and rather common, especially on J. P. coronopus ( • • • • ) Very common, especially in the driest parts of H and S. Galium verum ( • • • • ) Frequent in H and S. G. aparine ( • • • • ) Appears regularly in L with Urtica dioica and more recently has become established in D and X. Sambucus nigra ( • • • • ) Occasional bushes in H, J and L. Symphoricarpus rivularis ( • • • • ) A small thicket on L. Valerianella locusta ( • • • • ) Occasional to frequent in H and S. Centranthus ruber ( • • • • ) Two clumps noted, one in C and the other in S. Dipsacusfullonum ssp. sylvestris ( • • • • ) Has appeared regularly, with up to about twenty plants each year in the southern part of F. Smaller quantities are usually to be found in T. Senecio jacobaea ( • • • • ) Throughout almost the entire recording area. Common. S. erucifolius ( • • • • ) Apparently restricted to N and the southern part of F: several plants in each of these areas. S. squalidus ( • • • • ) Scattered over much of Landguard but most frequent in X, beside the new road to the Harbour Viewing Area, and at the base of the seaward slopes of J. S. sylvaticus ( o o o * ) Two plants in D. S. viscosus ( • • • • ) Very common in P and V, beside the road to the Harbour Viewing A r e a and on X. Occasional to frequent in open places or on disturbed ground elsewhere. S. squalidus X viscosus ( o o o * ) First noticed beside the new road to the Harbour Viewing Area and later seen in A and P. Once recognised appeared to be not infrequent, usually with the parents close by. Has probably been present each year. S. vulgaris ( • • • • ) Frequent in newly disturbed ground. Became very abundant, even dominant, in parts of X in late 1980 and early 1981, but declined as more permanent species became established. Tussilago farfara ( • • • • ) One colony in M. Pulicaria dysenterica ( • • • • ) One colony in the neighbourhood of E. Erigeron acer ( o o » » ) Recorded in S, U and W , but singletons only on each occasion. E. canadensis ( • • • • ) Occasional in open or disturbed places. Seen most regularly in X. Bellis perennis ( • • • • ) Frequent in H, J and occasional on L. Rare elsewhere. Achillea millefolium ( • • • • ) Occasional to frequent over most of the recording area. Tripleurospermum inodorum ( o * * * ) Appeared in abundance in X in 1980 where it persists, although in decreasing quantities. Occasional elsewhere as a ruderal in disturbed ground. T. maritimum ( • • • • ) Occasional to frequent in P, U and V. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 19


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Matricaria recutita ( ( • • • • ) Recorded each year from D, X or the verge of the new road to the Harbour Viewing Area, but always in small quantity. M. matricarioides ( o » « « ) Has appeared in small quantity after disturbance by contractors: apparently absent from stable parts of the common. Artemisia vulgaris ( • • • • ) Scattered over much of the recording area: perhaps most frequent in N and X. Arctium minus group ( » o * « ) A few plants between J/L and the road to the Harbour Viewing Area. Allocation to a subspecies has not been attempted. Carduus tenuiflorus ( • • • • ) Widely distributed and especially common in H, S and X. C. nutans ( o o * * ) One or two plants only in S and X. Cirsium vulgare ( • • • • ) Scattered over much of Landguard but most abundant in X. C. arvense ( • • • • ) Widely distributed but most frequent in S/V. Silybum marianum ( o o * o ) A few plants in L and X. Onopordum acanthium ( • • • • ) Present in small quantity towards the southern end of L. Centaurea nigra ( • • • o ) Rare with a few plants in H and J, and possibly elsewhere. ' C o m m o n ' plants are frequently overlooked by recorders and this probably explains its apparent absence in 1982. Lapsana communis ( o o o « ) One or two plants in X. Hypochaeris radicata ( • • • • ) Scattered over most of the recording area, especially C and H. Leontodon taraxacoides ( • • • • ) Frequent in parts of H and S. Picris echioides ( • • • • ) Frequent in X and also occasional along the drift line and at the foot of the eastern slopes of J. Tragopogon pratensis ( • • • • ) Rather rare but has appeared most regularly in N and the neighbouring parts of H . Lactuca serriola ( o o o « ) First distinguished reliably from L. virosa in 1982 so that some earlier records may be of this species. Confined to D , X and the verge of the new road to the Harbour Viewing Area. Not uncommon in this restricted region. L. virosa ( • • • • ) C (1979) and subsequently in the same localities as L. serriola. In 1982 L. virosa was the commoner and more widespread of the two species and commenced flowering significantly earlier. Sonchus arvensis ( o o * * ) A few plants have become established in X. S. oleraceus ( • • • • ) Occasional throughout the recording area in dry, open or recently disturbed places. S. asper ( • • • • ) Equally common as oleraceus and found in similar places. Hieraciumpilosella ( • • • • ) Almost exclusively in C, where there are several extensive 'patches'. Crepis vesicaria ssp. haenseleri ( • • • • ) Frequent in J and occasional elsewhere. C. capillaris ( • • • • ) Generally distributed and frequent over much of H and S, and on the verges of the new road to the Harbour Viewing Area. Occasional elsewhere. Commences flowering significantly later than the preceding species and continues to do so until late autumn.

Trans. Suff olk Nat. Soc. 19


PLANT RECORDS FROM L A N D G U A R D COMMON ( 1 9 7 9 - 8 2 )

387

Taraxacum (Section Erythrosperma) ( • • • • ) Occasional plants in H and S. Taraxacum (Section Vulgaria) ( • • • • ) Occasional, but more widely distributed than Section Erythrosperma. Classification of Taraxacum into microspecies has not been attempted. Hyacinthoides sp. ( o * * * ) A few plants occur at J/S beside a well used path. T h e flowers have blue anthers but unequal stamens and may be hybrids between H. non-scripta and H. hispanica. They are almost certainly escapes f r o m cultivation. Allium vineale ( • • • • ) Frequent in H and rare to occasional elsewhere. Asparagus ofßcinalis ssp. officinalis ( o * « « ) One or two plants in Q . Juncusgerardi ( • • • • ) O n e or two plants maintain a precarious existence at the margin of the small, brackish pool in E. J. maritimus ( • • • • ) Several clumpsin E and its immediate neighbourhood. Carex otrubae ( o * o o ) O n e or two infiorescences seen in E. C. arenaria ( • • • • ) F r e q u e n t in H and common in Q and S, often locally dominant. C. muricata ssp. lamprocarpa ( o o « o ) O n e clump located in T on 20th June, 1981. In spite of repeated searching it has not been re-discovered. C. divisa ( • • • • ) A m o n g tall grasses in F, immediately to the north of E , where it is not infrequent. A few plants also occur at R, the southernmost tip of the recording area. Festuca rubra ( • • • • ) C o m m o n and widely distributed. In the northern parts of C and F ssp. rubra occurs almost exclusively, while in H and S several colonies of ssp. pruinosa (Hackel) Piper are to be found. In P and V plants of ssp. arenaria (Osbeck) Syme are scattered here and there. H o w e v e r , the subspecies have not been examined intensively and it is possible that the above account does not accurately reflect the true distribution. F. juncifolia ( * o o o ) O n e or two plants seen in P, but not re-found subsequently. N o voucher specimen was taken, and, in view of the close similarity with F. rubra ssp. arenaria, some doubt surrounds the record. F. ovina ( • • • • ) A b u n d a n t to dominant in much of C and the northern parts of F. Occasional to f r e q u e n t in H and S. T h e plants have not been examined critically and it is possible that F. tenuifolia is also present. F. longifolia ( • • • • ) A b u n d a n t in G and present in much smallerquantity in the north-west of C. T h e future of the species in G is uncertain because of frequent close mowing, trampling and camping. U p to 1980 the identification of the L a n d g u a r d plants presented no problems, as the keys in Grasses, 2nd edition, ( H u b b a r d , 1968) and Flora of the British Isles, 2nd edition, (Clapham, Tutin and W a r b u r g , 1962) both led indisputably to F. longifolia. With the publication of Flora Europaea, Volume 5, in 1980 and Excursion Flora of the British Isles, 3rd edition, in 1981 the difficulties grew. Both publications key F. trachyphylla, F. guestfalica and F. lemanii in addition to F. longifolia. T h e characters distinguishing the four species are far f r o m clear cut, and it has not been possible to eliminate any of the four with confidence when considering the Landguard material. T h e identification is, therefore, provisional and tentative. Lolium perenne ssp. perenne ( • • • • ) Rare. A few plants beside well used path at J/S and occasional on X. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 19


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L. perenne ssp. multiflorum ( o o « « ) One or two plants on the verge of the new road to the Harbour Viewing Area. Vulpia fasciculata ( • • • • ) Frequent in the north-eastern part of H and P. The new car park has encroached on one of its strongholds. V. bromoides ( • • • • ) Occasional over much of H, S and X. V. myuros ( o o o * ) T w o plants in X had ciliate lemmas. ( V . megalura (Nutt.) Rydb.) and one plant on the verge of the new road to the Harbour Viewing Area the usual glabrous ones. These three individuals represent the total population recorded to date. The almost complete absence of this species is curious. V. ciliata ssp. ambigua ( • • • • ) Frequent in the southern part of H and abundant to dominant in places in S and T. The commonest Vulpia sp. on Landguard. Desmazeria rigida ( • • • • ) Frequent in short, sparse Vegetation over much of H, J, L and S and occasional elsewhere. D. marina ( • • • • ) Confined to P/J, K and V/S where it is frequent. Poa annua ( • • • • ) Road and path sides and disturbed ground almost anywhere, but generaliy uncommon to rare. P. compressa ( o o * * ) A few plants seen in T and at the northern end of L/S. P. pratensis ( • • • • ) Common over much of the area. Populations have not been studied critically but tall plants in X and other disturbed places are almost certainly referable to P. pratensis s.s. It is possible that the dwarfed plants which are widespread and frequent over large parts of C, H and S are P. subcaerulea. P. angustifolia ( • • • • ) Abundant in the northern parts of C and G and on the seaward slopes of J. It begins flowering in late April or early May, about a fortnight earlier than P. pratensis and P. subcaerulea. This together with its narrow leaves make it the most easily identifiabie of the P. pratensis agg. P. trivialis ( • • • • ) Appears regularly in L with Urtica dioica and Galium aparine. Has also become well established in X. Rare elsewhere. P. bulbosa ( • • • • ) Mainly confined to H and the top of J. Abundant over much of these areas but often fails to flower. Most readily identified in May when the leaf biades turn brown. Dactylis glomerata ( • • • • ) Widely distributed over most of Landguard. Rather frequent in J and occasional elsewhere. Cynosurus cristatus ( o * o * ) Two plants in N/J. Not found elsewhere. C. echinatus ( • • • • ) Frequent on the eastern slopes of J and occasional in H. Bromus diandrus ( • • • • ) Has occurred each year in the north-east corner of H. The plants have been short with contracted inflorescences resembling B. rigidus. Seed was collected in 1980 and sown in a pot at Roydon, Diss alongside seed of 'normal' B. diandrus collected at Diss, which served as a control. Grown under identical conditions the plants from both sources grew tall and became indistinguishable. The normal very lax panicle of B. diandrus was evident in both. It was concluded that the dwarf plants found in H are a habitat form. Typical B. diandrus has also been recorded in D. B. sterilis ( • • • • ) Frequent in J/P and X and occasional elsewhere. B. madritensis ( o * * * ) Discovered in some quantity on the southern slopes of J overlooking S. It has persisted, but has heavy competition from B. sterilis

Trans. Suff olk Nat. Soc. 19


PLANT RECORDS FROM L A N D G U A R D COMMON ( 1 9 7 9 - 8 2 )

389

and o t h e r tall species. Its f u t u r e here seems s o m e w h a t precarious. B. erectus ( o * * # ) Several d o z e n plants in G . Close mowing in 1982 and the pressures of c a m p e r s t h r e a t e n their existence. O n e clump was f o u n d in P in 1982 and a n o t h e r on the roadside near the M . O . D . Houses, outside the recording a r e a . B. hordeaceus ssp. hordeaceus ( o « » * ) H a s a p p e a r e d regularly in B and occasionally in d i s t u r b e d places elsewhere (notably X). B. hordeaceus ssp. thominii ( H a r d . ) M a i r e & Weiller ( • • • • ) F r e q u e n t in fairly o p e n , sandy places in H , less so in S. Much c o m m o n e r than ssp. hordeaceus. B. commutatus ( o o » i ) A substantial colony of several h u n d r e d plants discovered on the eastern slopes of J and descending to the beach. Present in similar n u m b e r s in 1982. Elymus repens ( • • • • ) Established h e r e and there in A , X, S and probably elsewhere. E. pycnanthus ( • • • • ) A b u n d a n t to d o m i n a n t in parts of F, especially those n e a r E , and occasional to f r e q u e n t in H , J , Q and S. O n e of L a n d g u a r d ' s principal species. E. farctus ( O O M ) R a r e in P, V and S. T h e species hybridises readily with E. pycnanthus and very little g o o d material is to be f o u n d (see below). E. farctus x E. pycnanthus ( • • • • ) F r e q u e n t in the older d u n e s o f H a n d S , and occasional in P and V. It would a p p e a r , f r o m the relative a b u n d a n c e of this hybrid, that E. farctus has been c o m m o n e r in the past. It is possible that t h e d u n e s h a v e b e c o m e t o o stable for it to persist. E. pycnanthus x E. repens (*oo%) Plants of this hybrid häve been f o u n d in F a n d S, and it m a y be f r e q u e n t w h e r e t h e p a r e n t s grow together. N o serious e f f o r t has b e e n m a d e to assess the size of t h e p o p u l a t i o n . Hordeum secalinum ( * o o * ) A few plants occur in the n o r t h e r n part of F. T h e y w e r e d o u b t l e s s p r e s e n t in 1980 and 1981 but their site is difficult to locate. H. murinum ( • • • • ) P r e s e n t in small quantity each year in B and the n o r t h e r n b o u n d a r y of H . R a r e elsewhere. H. jubatum ( o o o * ) T w o plants on the western slopes of J in an area previously r e - s e e d e d . Avenafatua ( o o o * ) T w o plants in a soil h e a p left by contractors in north H . Arrhenatherum elatius ( • • • • ) C o m m o n in F, J, less so in P, V and occasional e l s e w h e r e . Trisetum flavescens ( • • • • ) Occasional to f r e q u e n t in C , F, H and J with isolated p l a n t s f u r t h e r s o u t h . Aira praecox ( • • • • ) C o m m o n in s h o r t , sparse turf in C, H and S and occasional e l s e w h e r e . A. caryophyllea ( o * * * ) M u c h rarer than A. praecox. F o u n d in D (1980), a n d m o r e recently in fair quantity b e t w e e n L and the road leading to the H a r b o u r V i e w i n g A r e a . T h e species is difficult to spot and could occur m o r e widely. Holcus lanatus ( • • • • ) Widely distributed and occasional to f r e q u e n t in C, F , H , J, L, S and X . Agrostis capillaris ( • • • • ) F r e q u e n t on the eastern b o r d e r s of C , decreasing

Trans. Suffolk

Nat. Soc. 19


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Vol. 19

f u r t h e r west. N o t seen e l s e w h e r e . T h e restricted distribution of this species is puzzling. A. stolonifera ( • • • • ) A b u n d a n t in p a r t s of C and occasional to f r e q u e n t e l s e w h e r e , notably H , S, T and U . In U in particular, w h e r e the Vegetation is very s p a r s e , the long stolons are especially striking. Ammophila arenaria ( • • • • ) Scattered clumps in P, S and V. Phleum pratense ssp. pratense ( o o o * ) A b o u t t h r e e or f o u r plants at t h e s o u t h e r n end of X , almost certainly i n t r o d u c e d . P. pratense ssp. bertolonii ( o o * * ) O n e or two plants in X. P. arenarium ( • • • • ) S c a t t e r e d colonies in H and S. R a t h e r f r e q u e n t . Alopecurus myosuroides ( o o * « ) A few plants in X. This grass, t o g e t h e r with both subspecies of Phleum pratense, a p p e a r e d in a very restricted p a r t of t h e s o u t h e r n e n d of X , suggesting s i m u l t a n e o u s introduction. A. pratensis ( o o » t ) A few plants in D. A. geniculatus ( o o * o ) Individuais a p p e a r e d in o n e o r t w o places at t h e top of X. T h e y failed to persist in this dry and inhospitable place! Parapholis incurva ( o * * * ) F r e q u e n t to a b u n d a n t in K. Smaller quantities o b s e r v e d on a trackside in S and at t h e s o u t h e r n tip of R . P. strigosa ( • • • • ) Restricted to t h e north-east c o r n e r of H . O n e or t w o plants only in 1979, 1980, but relatively plentiful (20 t o 30 plants) in 1981. In 1982 t h e n e w car p a r k almost d e s t r o y e d the h a b i t a t , but one or two plants survived n e a r the e d g e of the asphalt. Additional species recorded at Landguard since 1970, but not seen on the survey Simpson 's Flora of Suffolk contains m a n y r e c o r d s f r o m L a n d g u a r d C o m m o n , a large n u m b e r u n d a t e d and s o m e relatively old (pre-1950). A m o n g t h e post-1970 d a t e d r e c o r d s are r e f e r e n c e s to five species either not seen or not positively identified by t h e writer during the f o u r year study. T h e s e species are: Silene conica R e c o r d e d by Simpson in 1980. T h e habitat of dry, o p e n shingle 'ditches' in which this species occurs at A l d e b u r g h is f o u n d also at L a n d g u a r d so its p r e s e n c e t h e r e is t o be e x p e c t e d . Rosa rubiginosa All roses seen in t h e recording area have b e l o n g e d to R. canina g r o u p . It is possible that R. rubiginosa occurs n e a r t h e fort or in s o m e o t h e r e x c l u d e d p a r t of t h e c o m m o n . Polygonum arenastrum T h e plants described in the ' C a t a l o g u e ' u n d e r P. aviculare agg. could well b e of this species. Bromus rigidus P l a n t s resembling this species have a p p e a r e d regularly in H , but t h e writer r e m a i n s u n c o n v i n c e d and p r e f e r s to regard t h e m as a habitat f o r m of B. diandrus, f o r r e a s o n s explained in t h e C a t a l o g u e . Agrostis gigantea Suitable disturbed places a b o u n d on L a n d u g a r d and it is a most likely species t o be p r e s e n t .

Trans. Suffolk

Nat. Soc. 19


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391

Noteworthy species seen outside the recording area By extending the boundaries of the recording area to the south and west several additional species would have appeared in the 'Catalogue', most of which are c o m m o n or, like Lathyrus japonicus in the south-east corner, have had their presence well documented. Two exciting discoveries were made, however, in 1982. Firstly, near Landguard Point, the S.T.N.C. Warden found one young plant of Crithmum maritimum which flowered in late summer. (Simpson's Flora describes it as extinct there.) Secondly, near Landguard Fort, Mr. G . W. Maybury located a well established clump of Dittrichia viscosa (L.) W. G r e u t e r . T h e find was confirmed by E. J. Clement who c o m m e n t e d that the Landguard plant was only the second reported in Britain since 1972.

Comments and Conclusions In all, 283 species have been recorded at Landguard in the four years of the survey. T h e n u m b e r of species found each year has increased from 202 in 1979 to 259 in 1982. T h e r e are two main reasons for this. Some species with restricted distributions were first found by accident. In subsequent years, however, it has been possible to re-visit their sites and confirm their continued presence there. Secondly, the disturbance associated with development has led to the appearance of a great number of ruderals and adventives. The increasing pressures have so far caused the loss of only one species, Arabidopsis thaliana, buried under the asphalt of the extension to the Container terminal. This common plant could, of course, turn up elsewhere at any time. Nevertheless the future of Landguard as an area of great botanical interest must be in jeopardy. It is hoped that the present survey will have provided a base against which future changes can be measured. T h e writer intends t o c o n t i n u e the record in 1983, and beyond, in order to see for himself what patterns of decline or growth emerge. Whatever happens in the future it is remarkable that an area so favoured with Compositae and Gramineae (almost one third of the British grasses have been recorded) is incapable of producing Leontodon autumnalis and Anthoxanthum odoratum\

Voucher Specimens With the discovery of rare or critical species and hybrids taking place at an increasing rate, voucher specimens were collected in 1981 and 1982 and sent to Mr. Mark H y d e as follows: 1981: Ranunculus parviflorus, Carex muricata ssp. lamprocarpa, Poa compressa, Bromus commutatus and Bromus madritensis. 1982: Chenopodium vulvaria, Melilotus indica, Trifolium glomeralum, Senecio squalidus, Senecio viscosus, Senecio squalidus x viscosus, Vulpia myuros

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(inciuding forms with both glabrous and ciliate lemmas), Bromus diandrus (cultivated in 1981 from seed collected during 1980 (see 'Catalogue')) and Bromus hordeaceus ssp. thominii (Hard.) Maire & Weiller.

References Clapham, A . R., Tutin, T. G. and Warburg, E. F. (1962). Flora ofthe British Isles. (Second Edition). Cambridge University Press. Clapham, A. R., Tutin, T. G. and Warburg, E . F. (1981). Excursion Floraof the British Isles. (Third Edition). Cambridge University Press. H u b b a r d , C. E . (1968). Grosses. (Second Edition). Penguin Books. Lousley, J. E. and Kent, D. H. (1981). Docks and Knotweeds ofthe British Isles. Botanical Society of the British Isles. Prince, S. D. and Carter, R. N. (1977). Prickly Lettuce (Lactuca serriola L.) in Britain. Watsonia 11, 331. Simpson, F. W. (1982). Simpsons Flora of Suff olk. Suffolk Naturalists' Society. Smith, P. (1968). The Bromus mollis aggregate in Britain. Watsonia 6, 327. Tutin, T. G . et al., eds. (1964,1968,1972,1976,1980). Flora Europaea, 1 - 5 . Cambridge University Press. A . Copping, The Nook, The G r e e n , Roydon, Diss, Norfolk IP22 3SD.

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 19

Plant records from Languard Common (1979-82)  
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