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ADDITIONS TO THE SUFFOLK MARINE FAUNA

LIST

R . G . H U G H E S A N D PETER Q U I N N

The marine invertebrate fauna of Suffolk is relatively poorly known. The beaches, and the sea bed in the shallow offshore waters, are mostly composed of unstable sand and shingle that are both unsuitable habitats for marine invertebrates and relatively uninteresting collecting grounds for naturalists. There is almost no natural intertidal rock and only a few piers and breakwaters to support the variety of marine animals that fascinate both the amateur and professional marine biologist. Nevertheless, Morley (10,1943), in his article 'The Total Living Fauna of Suffolk', listed approximately 500 species of marine and brackish water invertebrates (other than the protozoa), whereas the corresponding list for the Plymouth region (9, Marine Biological Association, 1957), which has a wide ränge of different habitats and is the home of the Marine Biological Association, contains over 5300 species. Morley's records largely reflect the efforts of Victorian and Edwardian naturalists but since the passing of this period of interest in natural history there have been only a few studies on the marine fauna of Suffolk. This article presents a list of species recorded in Suffolk and not listed by Morley. These records are collated from three main sources, (a) a systematic study of the fauna on the breakwater at the southern tip of Languard Point, Felixstowe and neighbouring hard substrata, (b) the collecting of animals washed up on the Strandline, a practice that gives some insight into the composition of the offshore fauna, and (c) from work published since (but in a few cases prior to) Morley's publication. As this list is intended to complement Morley's it is presented in a similar format.* PHYLUM

PORIFERA

Class Calcarea Leucosolenia complicata (Montagu). Dredged from the Orwell Estuary (13, Whitehead, 1910). Sycon ciliatum (Fabricius). Dredged from the Orwell Estuary (13). Class Demospongia Suberites domuncula (Olivi). One specimen washed up on the shore at Bawdsey (PQ); probably this species found by Whitehead (13) in the Orwell Estuary. Halisarca sp. Dredged from the Orwell Estuary (13). PHYLUM

COELENTERATA

Class Hydrozoa Tubularia indivisa L. Common at L.W.S.T. on Landguard breakwater (RH); also found on the anchor of the Shipwash Lightship (off Aldeburgh) May 1979 (RH). * As s o m e publications are q u o t e d many times in the text, the authors' names are given only the first time they a p p e a r ; n u m b e r s are then used for the references. Ed.

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ADDITIONS TO THE SUFFOLK MARINE FAUNA LIST

347

T. ceratogyne (Perez) was also found at these locations but is probably a form of T. indivisa (7, Hughes, 1983). Tubularia crocea (L. Agassiz). On rope close to the Cliff Quay power Station July 1959 (11, Rees, 1963). This warm water species has not often been recorded in Britain and was probably introduced into the Orwell by shipping. Coryne pusilla Gaertner. On tufted algae on Pulpit Rock, a small area of London Clay exposed at low water of spring tides opposite Bent Hill, Felixstowe (RH).

Hydractinia echinata (Fleming). On shells occupied by Eupagurus bernha dus washed up at Minsmere and Walberswick (PQ). Bougainvillea ramosa (Van Beneden). On Laminaria holdfasts on Landguard breakwater and one colony found on the anchor of the Shipwash Lightship (RH).

Amphinema dinema Peron and Leseur. Growing on Tubularia indivisa o Landguard breakwater and on hydroids dredged offshore from Felixstowe (RH). Eudendrium ramosum (L.). Dredged from the Orwell Estuary (13); on algae from Pulpit Rock (RH). Clytia johnstoni (Alder). Common on Laminaria holdfasts on Landguard breakwater also on algae on Pulpit Rock (RH). Clytia paulensis (Van Hoffen). Rare on Laminaria holdfasts on Landguard breakwater but more common on Flustra foliacea dredged from the mouth of the Orwell (RH). This is only the second record of this small hydroid in Britain; thefirstwas from Brixham, Devon. Obelia dichotoma (L.). Common on Laminaria holdfasts and Tubularia indivisa on Landguard breakwater (RH). Obelia bidentata Clarke. Rare on Laminaria holdfasts on Landguard breakwater (RH). Gonothyraea loveni (Allman). On Tubularia indivisa on Landguard breakwater (RH). Halecium beani (Johnston). Growing on Tubularia indivisa on Landguard breakwater and more common on Flustra foliacea dredged from the mouth of the Orwell (RH). Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 19


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Class Anthozoa Diadumene cincta Stephenson. In smali pools on the outfall at Minsmere and on the breakwaters at Walberswick and Landguard Point. Occasionally found on washed u p bivalve shells (PQ). Haliplanella lineata (Verrill). Eight anemones found attached to Ulva in a brackish lagoon at Shingle Street Oct. 1981 ( R H ) . PHYLUM NEMATODA T h e N e m a t o d a were part of the Phylum Nematelminthes in Morley's list but are now considered to be a separate Phylum. ...— Class Enoploidea Enoplus brevis Bastian. In the brackish lagoons at Shingle Street (2 Barnes and H e a t h , 1980). Enoplus communis Bastian. C o m m o n among the Laminaria Landguard breakwater (RH).

holdfasts on

PHYLUM SIPUNCULIDA Golfingia minuta Keferstein. Six individuals found in one Laminaria on L a n d g u a r d breakwater ( R H ) .

holdfast

PHYLUM ANNELIDA Class Polychaeta Malmgrenia castanea Mclntosh. O n e specimen found offshore by D a v 1925).

(4,

Gattyana cirrosa (Pallas). O n e specimen f o u n d offshore by Davis (4). Pholoe minuta Fabricius. Off Sizewell (1, B a m b e r and Coughlan, 1980); a m o n g algae on Landguard breakwater ( R H ) . Sthenelais limicola Ehlers. Off Sizewell (1) and further offshore (4). Eulalia sanguinea O e r s t e d . Four specimens found among Laminaria fasts on Landguard b r e a k w a t e r ( R H ) .

hold-

Eteone longa (Fabricius). In sediments off Sizewell (1). Eusyllis blomstrandi (Malmgren). R a r e a m o n g Laminaria Landguard breakwater (RH). Sphaerosyllis hystrix Claparede. R a r e a m o n g Laminaria guard b r e a k w a t e r ( R H ) .

Trans. Suffolk

Nat. Soc. 19

holdfasts on

holdfasts on Land-


A D D I T I O N S TO T H E SUFFOLK MARINE F A U N A LIST

Euneries longissima Nephthys

349

(Johnston). Off Sizewell (1).

cirrosa Ehlers. Scarce in the sediments off Sizewell (1).

Glycera lapidum Quatrefages. In sediments off Sizewell (1). Lumbrineries Scolecolepis

fragilis (O. F. Muller). In sediments off Sizewell (1). cirrata Sars. O n e specimen found offshore (4).

Spiophanes bombyx (Claparede). C o m m o n in the sandy muds in the trench inside the Dunwich and Sizewell Banks (1). Neridines cantabra Rioja. In coarse sandy sediments off Sizewell (1). Scolelepis ciliata Keferstein. In coarse offshore sediments south of the Sizewell power Station (1). Polydora ciliata (Johnston). C o m m o n among Laminaria guard breakwater ( R H ) .

holdfasts on Land-

Magelonapapillicornis O . F. Muller. A common polychaete in the (see below) communities off Sizewell (1).

Polymnia

Streblospio shrubsoli (Buchanan). C o m m o n in intertidal sediments of the Stour (3, Bull, H o n e y m a n and Knott, 1960). Stylarioidesplumosa (O. F. Muller). O n e individual found among holdfasts on L a n d g u a r d breakwater ( R H ) . Diplocirrus

Laminaria

glaucus Hasse. In sediments off Sizewell (1).

Scalibregma inflatum R a t h k e . R a r e in offshore sands (4) but locally abundant off Sizewell in sandy inshore sediments (1). Ophelia bicornis Savigny. O n e specimen found among Laminaria on L a n d g u a r d b r e a k w a t e r ( R H ) .

holdfasts

Ophelia limacina ( R a t h k e ) . Regularly found offshore by Davis (4). Capitella capitata (Fabricius). O n e individual found off Suffolk by Davis (4). Owenia fusiformis Sizewell Pectim. Ampharete (4).

Deila C h i a j e . C o m m o n offshore (4) and also found off

i belgica (Pallas). R e c o r d e d off Sizewell (1). acutifrons

( G r u b e ) . O n e specimen found off Suffolk by Davis

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Natural History,

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Cirriformia tentaculata (Montagu). C o m m o n in intertidal muds of the Orwell (8, Kay and Knights, 1975). Polymnia nebulosa Sizewell (1).

(Montagu). Locally abundant in muddy sands north of

Hydroid.es norvegica ( G u n n e r u s ) . A Single live worm on a goose-barnacle (Lepas anatifera) cast up on Minsmere beach, N o v e m b e r 1982 ( P Q ) .

PHYLUM PHORONIDA Phoronis muelleri de Selys-Longchamps. A b u n d a n t in the sand communities off T h o r p e n e s s (1).

PHYLUM BRYOZOA Class

Cyclostomata

Crisia eburnea (L.). C o m m o n on Flustra foliacea in the Orwell ( R H ) . Class Gymnolaemata Scruparia chelata (L.). R a r e on the algae and hydroids on Landguard breakwater (RH). Conopeum reticulum (L.). O n buoys in the Orwell and three colonies on the anchor of the Shipwash Lightship ( R H ) . Scrupocellaria scruposa (L.). On Tubularia indivisa on Landguard breakwater; c o m m o n on Flustra foliacea in the Orwell where S. reptans is also common (RH). Bugula avicularia (L.). C o m m o n on Flustra foliacea in the Orwell ( R H ) . Bugula fulva Ryland. Possibly this species recorded off Sizewell (1). Cryptosula pallasiana (Moll). O n e colony on a Laminaria Landguard breakwater (RH).

holdfast on

Alcyonidium polyoum (Hassall). O n Tubularia indivisa on L a n d g u a r d b r e a k w a t e r ; c o m m o n on weed on the buoys in the Orwell ( R H ) . Bowerbankia imbricata ( A d a m s ) . C o m m o n on Flustra foliacea in the Orwell and on Tubularia indivisa on Landguard breakwater ( R H ) . Bowerbankia pustulosa the Orwell ( R H ) .

Trans. Suffolk

(Ellis and Solander). C o m m o n on Flustra foliacea in

Nat. Soc. 19


A D D I T I O N S TO T H E SUFFOLK MARINE FAUNA LIST

351

PHYLUM CRUSTACEA Class Ostracoda Paradoxostoma obliquum Rock ( R H ) .

G . O . Sars. Rare among the small algae of Putoit F

Class Copepoda Dinematuraproducta O. F. Muller. Parasitic on the Porbeagle shark Lamna (6, Ellis, 1934 as Dinemoura). Class Cirripedia Elminius modestus Darwin. This barnacle was introduced to Britain from Australia during or just after the second world war. First found in Southampton Water it spread around all our coasts and has now reached Shetland. It probably reached Suffolk in the early 1950s where it is now common on hard intertidal substrata. Sacculina carcinii Thompson. Parasitic on Carcinus maenas at Gorleston (6). Peltogasterpaguri (6).

Rathke. Parasitic on Eupagurus bernhardus at Gorleston

Class

Malacostraca

Order

Cumacea

Bodotria arenosa (Goodsir). Rare among the Laminaria west shore of Landguard Point (RH).

holdfasts on the

Diastylis rathkei (Kroyer). Found in grab samples off Sizewell (1). Diastylis lucifera (Kroyer). Found in grab samples off Sizewell (1). Order Tanaidacea Tanais cavolini Milne-Edwards. Occasionally found among fucoid seaweeds on Landguard breakwater ( R H ) . Order Isopoda Paragnathicaformica (Hesse). Common in the mud of the northern shore of the Stour at Brantham where the praniza larvae (and some adults) are common in summer night plankton ( R H ) . Idotea granulosa Rathke. Common among seaweed on Landguard breakwater and Pulpit Rock ( R H ) ; on the sluice outflow at Minsmere (PQ). Idotea chelipes (Pallas). A brackish water species abundant in the lagoons at Shingle Street (2) also found at Minsmere (PQ).

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 19


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Natural History,

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Idotea pelagica Leach. Rare among Laminaria shore of Landguard Point ( R H ) .

holdfasts on the western

Order Amphipoda Orchomeme nana (Kroyer). Occasionally found on Flustra foliacea f r o m the m o u t h of the Orwell ( R H ) . Hippomedon

denticulatus

dredged

(Bäte). Offshore from Suffolk (4).

Bathyporeia pelagica (Bäte). In sand on the Sizewell Bank and close to the outfall of the power Station (1). Haustorius

arenarius (Slabber). Offshore f r o m Suffolk (4).

Urothoe elegans (Bäte). In coarse sands off Sizewell (1). Metopa alderi (Bäte). Occasionally on Tubularia breakwater ( R H ) .

indivisa

on Landguard

Stenothoe marina (Bäte). C o m m o n on Tubularia b r e a k w a t e r , particularly in summer ( R H ) .

indivisa

on Landguard

Stenothoe

brevicornis

Panoploea (RH).

G . O . Sars. O f f s h o r e from Sizewell (1).

minuta ( G . O . Sars). On Flustra foliacea f r o m the Orwell Estuary

lphimedia obesa R a t h k e . A m o n g hydroids and sponges dredged off Felixstowe ( R H ) . Synchelidium

intermedium

G . O . Sars. Offshore f r o m Sizewell (1).

Apherusa jurinei (Milne-Edwards). Occasionally on algae on Landguard breakwater and Pulpit Rock ( R H ) . Nototropis swammerdami (Milne-Edwards). Offshore from Sizewell (1); on Flustra foliacea in the Orwell Estuary ( R H ) . Nototropis

velodomensis

(Bäte and Westwood). Offshore f r o m Sizewell (1).

Nototropis

falcatus (Metzger). Offshore from Sizewell (1).

Dexamine spinosa (Montagu). Dredged f r o m the Orwell Estuary (13); in brackish lagoons at Shingle Street (2). Orchestia gammarella Minsmere ( P Q ) .

Trans. Suffolk

(Pallas). In the Orwell Estuary (13); on the sluice at

Nat. Soc. 19


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Hyale nilssoni ( R a t h k e ) . C o m m o n among the fucoid weeds of Landguard breakwater ( R H ) . Aora typica Kroyer. In the Orwell Estuary (13) and off Felixstowe on hydroids ( R H ) . Jassafalcata (Montagu). Although recorded by Morley (as7. pulchella) this amphipod is worthy of mention here for it is clearly more abundant in the Orwell than it used to be and now smothers available substrata, buoys, piles etc. with its small mud tubes ( R H ) . Unciola crenatipalma

(Bäte). Present in the Orwell (13).

Corophium bonelli G . O . Sars. Dredged in the Orwell (13); one specimen found in Laminaria holdfasts on Landguard breakwater ( R H ) . Corophium insidiosum Crawford. R a r e among Laminaria other algae of Landguard breakwater ( R H ) .

holdfasts and

Corophium acherusicum A . Costa. O n Laminaria holdfasts and other algae of Landguard breakwater. M o r e common than the previous species ( R H ) . Caprella linearis (L.). A b u n d a n t in the Orwell (13) and still c o m m o n , particularly on hydroids on Landguard breakwater ( R H ) . Dulichia monacantha Metzger. A m o n g hydroids growing on the tubes offshore f r o m Sizewell (1). Order

Phoronis

Mysidacea

Gastrosacus spinifer (Goes). Occasionally found offshore (4). Praunus flexuosus (Muller). In the Shingle Street lagoons (2). Order

Decapoda

Crangon crangon (L.). Off Sizewell (1). Ebalia tuberosa (Pennant). Occasionally found offshore (4). Thia polita Leach. O n e specimen f o u n d offshore (4). Portunus latipes (Pennant). In grab samples of sediments off Sizewell (1). Hyas araneus (L.). Off Sizewell (1); common o n Landguard breakwater ( R H ) ; live specimens cast u p at Walberswick ( P Q ) .

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 19


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PHYLUM ARACHNIDA Class Pycnogonida Nymphon gracile Leach. A m o n g the bryozoans on Tubularia Landguard breakwater, not common ( R H ) .

indivisa

on

Nymphon brevirostre Hodge. A dominant epifaunal sea spider among Phoronis tubes and hydroids offshore from Sizewell (1). Callipallene brevirostris (Johnston). Common on Flustra foliacea from the Orwell and on the algae on Landguard breakwater ( R H ) . Anoplodactyluspetiolatus (Kroyer). A m o n g hydroids offshore f r o m Sizewell (1); c o m m o n on Laminaria holdfasts on Landguard breakwater ( R H ) . Anoplodactylus (RH).

angulatus

( D o h m ) . On Flustra foliacea

from the Orwell

Anoplodactylus pygmaeus (Hodge). A few specimens from the holdfasts on the west side of Landguard Point ( R H ) .

Laminaria

Phoxichilidium femoratum ( R a t h k e ) . Dredged from the Orwell (13); among hydroids off Sizewell (1); rare a m o n g Laminaria holdfasts on Landguard breakwater ( R H ) . Phoxichilidium virescens Hodge. R a r e among the small algae at L. W.S.T. on L a n d g u a r d breakwater ( R H ) . Achelia echinata Hodge. Probably our commonest sea spider. A m o n g hydroids and seaweed f r o m the Orwell (13) (as Ammothea)\ off Sizewell (1); c o m m o n hydroids and bryozoans on Landguard breakwater and Pulpit Rock (RH). Achelia longpipes H o d g e . On Laminaria holdfasts and algae on Landguard b r e a k w a t e r and Pulpit R o c k ; on Flustra foliacea in the Orwell ( R H ) .

PHYLUM MOLLUSCA Class Gastropoda Cingula semicostata Orwell (RH).

(Montagu). Occasionally found on Flustra foliacea in the

Cingula semistriata (Montagu). Occasionally found on Flustra foliacea in the Orwell also on Laminaria holdfasts on Landguard breakwater (RH). Aporrhais pes-pelecani Minsmere (PQ).

Trans. Suffolk

(L.). A Single shell (not a fossil) washed up at

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Clathrus clathrus (L.). Shells washed up. usually singly, between Walberswick and Landguard Point (PQ). Urosalpinx cinerea (Say). A single specimen washed up at Landguard Point (PQ). This species, the American Oyster Drill, was accidentally introduced to the Essex oyster beds at the end of the nineteenth Century. Class Opisthobranchia Onchidoris muricata (Muller). O n e specimen dredged up with hydroids and bryozoans off Felixstowe ( R H ) . Class Lamellibranchia Chlamys distorta (da Costa). A single specimen (confirmed by Dr. Llewellyn Jones) washed up at Bawdsey Manor (PQ). Cerastodermaglaucum

(Poiret). A b u n d a n t in the Shingle Street lagoons (2).

Acanthocardia echinata (L.). A few specimens found washed up dead at Walberswick and Minsmere (PQ). Montacuta ferruginosa

Montagu. Off Sizewell (1).

Gari tellinella (Lamark). O n e specimen found offshore (4). Tellina donacina L. D r e d g e d offshore (4). Ensis arcuatus (Jeffreys). Single shells found washed up at Minsmere and Landguard Point ( P Q ) . Cultellus pellucidus

P e n n a n t . Dredged off Sizewell (1).

Hiatella arctica (L.). R a r e among the Laminaria holdfasts on Landguard breakwater ( R H ) ; occasionally found in hard mud and corralline crag at Thorpeness (PQ).

PHYLUM ECHINODERMATA Class Ophiuroidea Amphiura chiajei Forbes.- Off Sizewell (1). Amphipholis squamata Shingle Street (2).

(Deila Chiaje). A b u n d a n t in one brackish lagoon,

Ophiura affinis L u t k e n . Off Sizewell (1). Ophiura sarsi Lutken. Off Sizewell (1).

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 19


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Class Holothuroidea Synapta sp. This burrowing sea cucumber was found in one location in the Orwell by Sorby (12, 1901). PHYLUM CHAETOGNATHA Sagitta elegans Verrill. C o m m o n in the plankton of the Southern North Sea (RH). PHYLUM HEMICHORDATA Class Ascidia Molgula manhattensis (De Kay). A b u n d a n t on Landguard breakwater where it covers large areas of rock; also common on buoys and Flustrafoliacea in the Orwell ( R H ) . Molgula oculata Forbes. O n e specimen found on Flustra foliacea Orwell ( R H ) .

in the

Molgula citrina Alder and Hancock. Possibly this species found by (1) off Sizewell.

References 1. B a m b e r , R. N. & Coughlan, J. (1980). A s u r v e y of the marine benthos in the vicinity of Sizewell Power Station, June 1976. Lab. Note cent. Elect. Res. Lab. R D / L / N 40/80. 2. Barnes, R. S. K. & H e a t h , S. E . (1980). T h e shingle-foreshore lagoon system of Shingle Street, Suffolk: a preliminary survey. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 18,168. 3. Bull, F., H o n e y m a n , H . & Knott, S. (1960). A n investigation of the mud f a u n a of the Stour Estuary. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 11, 223. 4. Davis, F. M. (1925). Q u a n t i t a t i v e s t u d i e s o n t h e f a u n a o f t h e s e a b o t t o m . N o . 2 Results of investigations in the southern North Sea. Fish. Inv. Ser. 2. (8) No. 4. 5. Ellis, E. A . (1933). Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 2, 172. 6. Ellis, E. A . (1934). Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc, 2, 285. 7. H u g h e s , R. G . (1983). T h e life-history of Tubularia indivisa L. (Hydrozoa; Tubulariidae) with observations on the status of Tubularia ceratogyne (Perez). J. Mar. Biol. Am. U.K. 63, (in press). 8. Kay, D . G . & Knights, R. D . (1975). T h e macro-invertebrate fauna of intertidal soft sediments of South East England. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 55,811. 9. Marine Biological Association (1957). Plymouth Marine Fauna, 3rd ed. 457pp. Plymouth. 10. Morley, C. (1943). T h e total living fauna of Suffolk. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 5, 74. Trans. Suffolk

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11. Rees, W . J. (1963). Tubularia crocea L. Agassiz in British waters. Nature, L o n d . 197, 1223. 12. Sorby, H . C. (1901). On the variations in numbers and habitat of marine animals on the coast of Essex in the last ten or twelve years. Essex Naturalist. 12,17. 13. Whitehead, H . (1910). Report on marine specimens dredged f r o m the estuaries of the Orwell and Stour on the occasion of the clubs dredgi-v, expedition, 23 July, 1910. Essex Naturalist. 16, 193. Dr. R. G . Hughes, D e p a r t m e n t of Zoology, Westfield College, University of L o n d o n , London N W 3 7ST. Peter Quinn, Kelsale Teachers Centre, Saxmundham, Suffolk IP17 2 N U .

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 19

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