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NINETEENTH CENTURY RUBUS SPECIMENS FROM SUFFOLK CAROL A .

GREEN

The history of the study of the brambies of Suffolk has four distinct phases. The first comprehensive list was compiled by W. M. Hind (1889) in the Flora of Suffolk. This list was substantially amended by C. E. Salmon (1907) who, with the helpof the Revd. Wm. Moyle Rogers, examinedHind's "Herbarium of Suffolk Plants" at Ipswich Museum in 1906. This herbarium was compiled by Hind and contains the voucher specimens for his Flora. The subject then lay dormant until E. S. Edees (1975) produced a list of brambies from Suffolk of thirty-nine species. His list comprised mainly recent records, although he took into account the earlier work of Hind and Salmon and quoted seven records from the nineteenth Century, from herbarium sheets in Ipswich Museum. A. L. Bull has now advanced considerably the study of this group in Suffolk through his ten year survey of the brambies of East Anglia. Since Hind compiled the original list the brambies have been the focus of intensive study, in Britain and in Europe, and many changes have occurred. If his, and other, early records are to usefully Supplement and provide a historical background to the more recent work, it is necessary to return to and check the original specimens. Edees (1975) states that the specimens Salmon examined are no longer at Ipswich and that their present location is unknown. This Statement can now be partially repudiated, as almost half of these specimens have been found in the Ipswich Museum Herbarium. The records that follow are all taken from specimens in the herbarium collections of Ipswich Museum. They come from three sources, firstly, specimens from Hind's "Herbarium of Suffolk Plants". Secondly, specimens from Hind's collection of British Plants, and thirdly, specimens from three other nineteenth Century herbaria. Each specimen in the text is primarily named according to the original determination; for specimens from the first two sources this is Hind's determination. This name is followed by locality, date, and later determinations and opinions using the abbreviations, WMR— W. M. Rogers, ESE—E. S. Edees, ALB—A. L. Bull, and with the author's interpretations in Square brackets. In cases where the nomenclature has been updated Bull has provided the name currently in use (Comm. Edees, 1980). "Herbarium of Suffolk Plants"—W. M. Hind Forty-eight voucher specimens of Rubus are marked in Hind's Flora and therefore should be contained in the "Herbarium of Suffolk Plants". In 1906 Rogers examined these specimens and commented on or redetermined thirty-eight of them. Edees (1975) stated that the specimens were no longer at Ipswich. Now twenty-one of them have been relocated in the Ipswich Museum Herbarium and were examined by A. L. Bull in February 1981. Four of the specimens are annotated by Rogers, but are not quoted by Salmon, because Rogers agreed with the original determinations. Fifteen specimens Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 18 part 3.


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annotated by Rogers and two unannotated specimens are quoted by Salmon All specimens were collected by Hind. Rubus Lindleianus Lees; Redgrave [TM 07], 1882 Teste WMR 1906, ALB 1981. Rubus rusticanus Merc.; Troston [TL 87], 1881 T^ste WMR 1906, (= R. ulmifolius Schott) ALB 1981. Rubus leucostachys Sm.; Wiston [TL 93], 1888 Teste WMR 1906, (= R. vestitus Weihe & Nees) ALB 1981. Rubus corylifolius var. R. conjungens Bab.; Honingto n [TL 97], 1882 Teste WMR 1906, ALB 1981, [= R. conjungens (Bab.) W. C. R. Wats.] Rubus rosaceus var. R. Hystrix Weihe; Fakenham [TL 97], 1881 Det. R. rosaceus ssp. infecundus Rogers WMR 1906. Teste ( = R . rufescens Muell. & Lefev.) ALB 1981. Rubus rosaceus Weihe & Nees; Fakenham Wood [TL 97], 1885 Det. R. rosaceus ssp. infecundus Rogers WMR 1906. Teste (= R. rufescens Muell & Lefev.) ALB 1981. Rubus pendulinus P. J. MĂźll.; Polstead [TL 93], 1888 Det. R. foliosus Weihe & Nees WMR 1906. Teste (= R. flexuosus Muell. & Lefev.) ALB 1981. Rubus carpinifolius Weihe & Nees; Honington [TL 97], 1882 Det. R. pulcherrimus Neum. WMR in Salmon (1907). Teste (= R. polyanthemus Lindeb.) ALB 1981. Rubus fusco-ater Weihe; Ixworth Thorpe [TL 97], 1882 Det. R. dumetorum Weihe & Nees (sp. coli.) WMR 1906. "R. dumetorum agg." ALB 1981. Rubus mutabilis Genev.; Honington [TL 97], 1885 Det. R. dumetorum Weihe & Nees WMR 1906. "R. dumetorum agg. ' ALB 1981. Rubus caesius var. R. ligerinus Genev.; Fakenham [TL 97] 1881 Det. R. caesius L. WMR 1906. Teste ALB 1981. Rubus Radula Weihe; Wiston [TL 93], 1884 Det. R. dumetorum Weihe & Nees (sp. coli.) WMR 1906. "This looks like an unnamed member of the Triviales group which is widespread in Suffolk." ALB 1981. Rubus Balfourianus Blox.; Dunwich [TM 47], 1881 "Very doubtful. Too imperfect for positive determination." WMR 1906. "Probably R. balfourianus Bloxam ex Bab." ALB 1981. Rubus corylifolius var. R. sublustris Lees; Dunwich Heath [TM 46], 1881 "Too imperfect to name." WMR in Salmon (1907). l R. sublustris Lees." ALB 1981. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 18 part 3.


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Rubus nitidus Weihe & Nees; Gorleston [TG 50], 1882. Det. R. affinis Weihe & Nees W M R 1906. Rubus villicaulis Weihe & Nees; Honington [TL 97], 1881 Det. R. leucostachys Sm. W M R 1906. Rubus macrophyllus var. R. glabratus Bab.; Fakenham [TL 97], 1882 D e t . R. pulcherrimus Neum. W M R 1906. Rubus corylifolius var. R. fasciculatus P. J. Müll.; Honington [TL 97], 1881 D e t . R. dumetorum Weihe & Nees W M R 1906. Rubus deltoideus P. J. Müll.; Troston [TL 87], 1881 "Probably a hybrid." W M R 1906. Rubus caesius var. R. umbrosus Bab.; Fakenham Wood [TL 97], 1881 " T o o imperfect for determination." W M R 1906. Rubus caesius var. R. tenuis Bell. Salt.; Troston [TL 87], 1882 •"Apparently a caesian hybrid." W M R 1906.

Collection of British Plants—W. M. Hind This collection contains twenty specimens of Rubus from Suffolk. All specimens were collected by Hind. Thirteen of the specimens are annotated by E d e e s , although he only quoted five of these (1975). All specimens were e x a m i n e d b y A . L. Bull in February 1981. Rubus Lindleianus Lees; Polstead [TL 93], 1888 Teste E S E , A L B 1981. Rubus rusticanus Merc.; Honington [TL 97], 1881 Teste ( = R. ulmifolius Schott) ESE, A L B 1981. Rubus corylifolius var. R. sublustris Lees; Gorleston [TG 50], 1882 Teste E S E , A L B 1981, [= R. sublustris Lees], Rubus corylifolius var. R. conjungens Bab.; Acton [TL 84], 1886 Teste E S E (1975), A L B 1981, [= R. conjungens (Bab.) W. C. R. Wats.] Rubus nitidus Weihe & Nees; Beiton [TG 40], 1886 D e t . R. selmeri Lindeb. ESE (1975). Teste ( = R. nemoralis P. J. Muell.) A L B 1981. Rubus

leucostachys

var. R. conspicuus

P. J. Müll.; Coney Weston [TL 97],

1886 D e t . R. vestitus Weihe & Nees E S E (1975). Teste ALB 1981. Rubus leucostachys Sm.; Wiston [TL 93], 1888 D e t . R. vestitus Weihe & Nees ESE (1975). Teste A L B 1981. Rubus leucostachys Sm.; Polstead [TL93], 1888 D e t . R. vestitus Weihe & Nees ESE. Teste A L B 1981. Trans. Suffolk

Nat. Soc. 18 part 3.


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Rubus erubescens Wirtg.; Mellis [TM 17], 1887 " A Triviales species." ESE. ALB 1981 agreed with this comment. Rubus macrophyllus Weihe & Nees; Fakenham [TL 97], 1882. Det. R. polyanthemus Lindeb. ESE (1975). Rubus scabrosus P. J. Müll.; Fakenham [TL 97], 1883 "Possibly R. tuberculatus Bab." ESE. Rubusplicatus Weihe & Nees; Fritton [TG 40], 1882 "No!" ESE. Rubus Balfourianus Blox.; Fakenham [TL 97] 1882 "No!" ESE. Rubus Radula Weihe; Ixworth Thorpe [TL 97], 1885 Det. R. raduloides (Rogers) Dallman ALB 1981. Rubus rosaceus Weihe & Nees; Polstead [TL 93], 1888 "This is an unnamed plant, frequent in the Stour Valley and North Essex. In most cases the leaves are ternate though I have seen it myself at Polstead with quinate leaves. A. Newton considers it to be a form of R criniger (E F Linton) Rogers." ALB 1981. Rubus thysiflorus var. R. philyrophyllus Müll.; Honington [TL 97], 1885. " A Triviales species." ALB 1981. Rubus dumetorum var. R. diversifolius Lindl.; Honington [TL 97], 1893 Rubus diversifolius Lindl; Ixworth Thorpe [TL 97], 1885. Rubus pendulinus P. J. Müll.; Polstead [TL 93], 1888 Rubus caesius var. R. ligerinus Genev.; Mellis [TM 17], 1886 Other Nineteenth Century Herbaria Edees (1975) quoted two other specimens from the Ipswich Museum Herbarium. These belong to two collections the Compilers of which are, at the moment, unknown. A. L. Bull in February 1981 examined the Rubi of these collections and of three other collections in the Ipswich Museum Herbarium. The first specimen Edees quoted comes from a nine volume Hortus Siccus of British Plants. Rubus suberectus; Belstead Wood [TM 14], 1858 Det. R. gratus Focke ESE (1975). Teste ALB 1981. A second specimen from this collection was redetermined by Bull. Rubus fruticosus; Ipswich [TM 14], 1831 Det. R. ulmifolius Schott ALB 1981. The collectors of the above specimens are unknown. The second specimen Edees quoted is "Rubus ulmifolius Schott. . . . There is an unlocalised Suffolk specimen collected by D. E. Davy in 1795 as Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 18 part 3.


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Suffolk Natural History, Vol. 18, Part 3

R. fruticosus." (Edees, 1975). There is no evidence that this specimen was collected in Suffolk and therefore its inclusion in the records for Suffolk of this species is invalid. Of the Rubi in the other three collections examined, although Bull was able to comment on a number of specimens only one can be definitely attributed to Suffolk. This specimen comes from an eighteen volume collection of British Plants and was collected by Lady Blake. Rubus rusticanus Merc.; Barton [TL 86/96], no date Teste ( = R. ulmifolius Schott) ALB 1981. Study of these nineteenth Century specimens has elucidated and expanded the historical records for this genus in Suffolk. Relocation and reexamination of a portion of the Rubus voucher specimens for Hind's Flora has revealed that on the whole Rogers' redeterminations are valid. It is hoped that the Rubus voucher specimens still missing will be located and similarly re-examined. Acknowledgements I wish to thank Mr. A. L. Bull for kindly examining all the specimens mentioned in the text and for allowing me to include his determinations and comments. References Edees, E. S. (1975). The Brambles of Suffolk. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 16, 338. Hind, W. M. (1889). Flora of Suffolk. Gurney & Jackson. Salmon, C. E. (1907). Notes upon Hind's Flora of Suffolk. J. Bot. 45, 388.

C. A. Green, B.Sc., A.M.A. The Museum, High Street, Ipswich.

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 18 part 3.

Nineteenth century Rubus specimens from Suffolk  
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