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A REVIEW OF SUFFOLK PSEUDOSCORPIONS H. MENDEL

Pseudoscorpions belong to the Arachnida, a group of animals which also includes the spiders, mites and true scorpions. They bear a superficial resemblance to the true scorpions, but do not have a sting, are very much smaller (the British species are all less then 4mm) and differ in a number of other, less obvious, though equally important respects. Because of their small size and retiring habits, pseudoscorpions are seldom seen, though it cannot be said that they are rare. They may be found almost anywhere and profitable hunting grounds are, leaf litter, tideline debris, rotten wood, under bark and about old buildings. Some species will cling to the legs of flies, to be carried to new habitats, and by doing so bring themselves to our attention. They feed on a wide variety of very small animals, and before reaching maturity pass through three free-living nymphal stages—the protonymph, deutonymph, and tritonymph. Claude Morley (1911) recorded three species from Suffolk, and in a later review (Morley, 1940) added a further five. Of these, two—Chthonius orthodactylus (Leach) and Chelifer cancroides L.—must now be removed from the Suffolk List (see Species List). To date, fifteen of the twenty-five species on the British List have been found in Suffolk, though two of these—Roncus Iubricus L. Koch and Dendrochernes cyrneus L. Koch—have been reported only once, and the records have yet to be verified. The purpose of this review is to bring together all Suffolk records of pseudoscorpions known to the author, and introduce three species as new to the County. The sources of records are as follows: i. Publications (see References). ii. Collections: a) Claude Morley Collection, his associated diaries and annotated copy of Pickard-Cambridge's monograph 'On the British Species of FalseScorpions' (Pickard-Cambridge, 1892); all held by the Ipswich Museums. b) C. S. Barham Collection. c) The Author's Collection. All of Mr. Barham's and the author's specimens have been determined by either Mr. P. E. Jones, the National Recorder (Pseudoscorpiones), the Biological Records Centre, Monks Wood Experimental Station, or Dr. G. Legg, Keeper of Biology, Booth Museum of Natural History, Brighton. Mr. Jones has also examined the Morley Collection and redetermined specimens where necessary. iii. Ipswich Museums enquiries. iv. Mr. P. E. Jones very kindly supplied me with a list of all other Suffolk records known to him, and gathered during the preparation of national distribution maps. Thanks to this generosity, the author is able to present Trans. Suffolk

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source data relating to all the Suffolk records shown in the 'Provisional Atlas', recently published by the Biological Records Centre (Jones, 1980).

The Species List The order and nomenclature follow the "Provisional Atlas' (I.e.). Species New to Suffolk are marked with an asterisk. A fĂźll record comprises: number of speeimens, sex and/or stage, expert opinion and date, habitat, locality, Ordnance Survey grid reference, vicecounty, collector/recorder and date, and literature citation. The data associated with many of the records are however incomplete. Grid references in S q u a r e brackets have been assigned by the author. Abbreviations used in the list are as follows: C.S.B. E.A.G.D O.G. P.T.H. cJ(<J) male(s)

C. S. Barham P.E.J. P.E.Jones E . A . G.Duffey G.L. G. Legg O . Gilbert H.M. H. Mendel P . T . Harding C.M. C. Morley ad. adult 9 ( 5 ) female(s)

Family C H T H O N I I D A E Chthonius ischnocheles (Hermann) (= C. rayi L. Koch) 1, in gras tuft, Hog Highland, Ipswich [TM 1642], V.C. 25, C.M., 17.iv. 1901 (Morley, 1911, 1940); 3 ad. (det. P.E.J., 1980), sand pit, Gisleham [TM 58], V . C . 25, C . M . , 15.ix. 1930 (see Chthonius orthodaetylus); 26 6 (teste P.E.J., 1980), sand pit, Gisleham [TM 58], V.C. 25, C.M., 21.ix.1931; 1 ad. (teste P . E . J . , 1980), sand pit, Gisleham [TM 58], V.C. 25, C.M., 26.viii.1932 (Morley, 1940); Hemley [TM 24], V.C. 25, Bristowe, 1937 (Morley, 1940); in leaf mould, Horringer Court [TL 8362], V.C. 26, O . G . , 1948/9 (Gilbert, 1949); Ickworth Park [TL 86], V.C. 26, O . G . , 1948/9 (Gilbert, 1949); 3 (det. G . L . , 1978), under stones, grassy bank, railway cutting, Lavenham (TL 8948), V.C. 26, H . M . , 21.V.1978; 1? (det. G.L., 1978), litter, hollow log, W o l v e s W o o d , Hadleigh (TM 0544), V.C. 26, H . M . , 9.xii.l978; l d , 1 9 , in leaf litter, G r o t o n Wood, Groton (TL 9743), V.C. 26, iv. 1979. Chthonius orthodaetylus (Leach) 1, sand pit, Gisleham [TM 58], V.C. 25, C.M., 6.viii.l930 (Morley, 1930, 1940); 3, sand pit, Gisleham [TM 58], V.C. 25, C.M., 15.ix. 1930 (Morley, 1930, 1940). T h e three speeimens taken on the 15th September, are in the Morley Collection and are adult C. ischnocheles (det. P.E.J., 1980)â&#x20AC;&#x201D;see that species. The speeimen from the 6th August 1930, though extant is too badly damaged to be reidentified with certainty. However it is reasonable to assume that it is also C. ischnocheles, and that Morley did not know the true C. orthodaetylus, which should now be removed from our list. Trans. Suffolk

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* Chthonius tetrachelatus (Preyssler) Under driftwood, shore, Havergate Island [TM 44], V.C. 25, D. J. Clark 10.vi. 1960; 16 (det. P.E.J., 1979), in rotten oak bough, Gt. Finborough (TM 0158), V.C. 26, H.M., 23.ix.1978; 15 (det. P.E.J., 1980), tideline debris Covehithe Broad (TM 5280), V.C. 25, H.M., 3.viii.l980.

Family N E O B I S I I D A E *Neobisum carpenteri (Kew) 12 (det. P.E.J., 1980), amongst tideline debris, lagoon, Shingle Street (TM 3743), V.C. 25, H.M., 12.x. 1979. Neobisium muscorum (Leach) 19 (teste P.E.J., 1980), in refuse, conifer wood, Wherstead [TM 14], V.C. 25, C . M . , 14.ii.1904 (Morley, 1911, 1940); 19 (det. P.E.J., 1980), amongst rotten wood and leaves, alder carr, Blocka Lane, Fritton [TM 4699], V.C. 25, A. E. Ellis, 16.x.1932 (see Chelifer cancroides); 1 ad. (teste P.E.J., 1980), sand pit, Gisleham [TM 58], V.C. 25, C.M., 8.iv. 1935 (Morley, 1935); 6 (19 teste P . E . J . , 1980), under bark of dead eider, marshes, North Cove [TM 48], V.C. 25, C.M., i. 1936 (Morley, 1940); Many (29 9 teste P.E.J., 1980), manure heaps, Great Glemham [TM 36], V.C. 25, Cranbrook, iii. 1939 (Morley, 1940); leaf litter, Dodnash Wood [TM 13], V.C. 25, Fiatford Mill Field Centre record, 1.vi. 1959; leaf litter, Fishpond Wood, East Bergholt [TM 03], V.C. 25, G. B. T. Abbott, 6.iv.l965; 19, marsh, Sandy Lane, Dunwich (TM 4770), V.C. 25, J. Crocker, 18.ix.1972; 19, marsh, Fen Hill (TM 4673), V.C. 25, M. Crocker, 19.viii. 1980; 3 d 6 , 2 9 9 , marsh, Minsmere River, Middleton (TM 4467), E.A.G.D./J. Crocker, 21.ix. 1972; 19 , in litter, marsh, Dunwich Common [TM 46], V.C. 25, E . A . G . D . , 21.ix. 1972; 36 6, 2 9 2 , 1 tritonymph, marsh, North Warren, Thorpeness [TM 45], V.C. 25, E . A . G . D . , 22.ix.1972; 1 ad. (Det. G.L., 1980), leaf litter, Blaxhall Heath (TM 3757), V.C. 25, C.S.B., 25.viii. 1973; 19 (det. P.E.J.), leaf litter, Melton Lodge Farm, Melton (TM 2851), V.C. 25, R. C. Welch, 18.vii. 1978; 1 9 , marram grass, on river wall, Walberswick (TM 4975), V.C. 25, P.T.H., 24. vii. 1979; lc?, 19 , 1 tritonymph (det. P.E.J., 1980), amongst bark stripped from logs, Thetford Forest, Brandon (TL8086), V.C. 26, H.M., 17.viii. 1980.

Roncus lubricus L. Koch 3, amongst needles at base of large conifer, Horningsheath, Horringer [TL 86], V.C. 25, O . G . , 1948/49 (Gilbert, 1949). In a correction to his original note Gilbert (1951) states that the specimens in fact "came from Nowton [Bury St. Edmunds, TL 86] not Horningsheath". As there seems to have been some doubt as to where exactly these specimens were collected, and as there is no other Suffolk record, the above report is best treated with caution. Although there is no reason why R. lubricus should not occur in Suffolk, confirmation of its presence would be reassuring. Trans. Suffolk

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Family C H E I R I D I I D A E Cheiridium museorum (Leach) Several (2 ad. teste P.E.J., 1980), in collection of foreign insects, Monk Soham [TM 2165], V.C. 25, C.M., ii/viii. 1929 (Morley, 1940); 1 ad. (det. G . L . , 1980), church tower, Ramsholt (TM 3042), V.C. 25, C.S.B., 11 viii. 1970; l d , Cornard Mere (TL 8838), V.C. 26, J. Heath, 16.vii.1977; 1 9 (det. G . L . , 1978), in house, Stowmarket (TM 0458), V.C. 26, M. Taylor (Ipswich Museum E n q . ) , x.1977; 1 (det. G . L . , 1978), in house, Bentons Bildeston (TL 9950), V.C. 26, H.M., 23.V.1978; 19 (det. G . L . , 1979), in house, Bentons, Bildeston (TL 9950), V.C. 26, H . M . , 15.xii.1978.

Family C H E R N E T I D A E * Lamprochernes godfreyi (Kew) 1 (det. G . L . , 1981), on leg of fly (Musca domestica L.), Monk Soham [TM 2165], V . C . 25, C . M . , 2.vi.l944; 1 ad. (det. G . L . , 1980), Staverton Thicks, Butley (TM 3550), V.C. 25, C.S.B., ll.vi.1961. Lamprochernes nodosus (Schrank) Several ( 2 9 9 , teste P.E.J., 1980), clinging to legs of House-fly ( d Musca domestica L.), shop, Framlingham [TM 2863), V.C. 25, C. Greaves, 21.x. 1929 (Morley, 1929, 1940); 2, on leg of House-fly ( 9 M. domestica), house, M o n k Soham [TM 2165], V.C. 25, C . M . , 21.ix. 1940; 1, attached to harvest-man (Phalangium opilio L.), East Bergholt [TM 03], V.C. 25, J. Sankey, 1948; 1 9 , pitfall trap, Haughley, Stowmarket [TM 06], V.C. 26, P. T. Harding, vii. 1970; l d , o n fly, Haughley, Stowmarket [TM06], V.C. 26, P . T . H . , 5.viii. 1970; 2 9 9 , on fly (Pliysiphora demandata (F.)), Cavenham Heath ( T L 7672), V.C. 26, P. J. Chandler, 8.ix.l973; 19, suction trap, Higham ( T L 7565), V.C. 26, W . A. Thornhill, 29/30.vi. 1977; 1 9 , in house, Burthorpe G r e e n , Barrow (TL 7763), V.C. 26, W. A. Thornhill, 3.ix. 1977; 7 9 9 , (det. G . L . , 1978), compost heap, Christchurch Park, Ipswich (TM 1645), V.C. 25, H . M . , 29.viii. 1978; 2 d d , (det. P.E.J., 1979), on legs of fly (Physiphora demandata (F.), det. A. G . Irwin, 1981), in house, Little Blakenham (TM 1048), V.C. 25, K. Dakin (Ipswich Museum Enq.), 20.vii. 1979; l d (det. P . E . J . , 1980), compost heap, Christchurch Park, Ipswich (TM 1645), V.C. 25, H . M . , 12.vi.1980. Pselaphochernes scorpioides (Hermann) Bury St. E d m u n d s [TL 86], V.C. 26, W. H. Tuck, 1909; several in leaf mould, Horringer Court, Horringer [TL 8362], V.C. 26, O . G . , iv.1949 (Gilbert, 1951); 19 (det. G . L . , 1979), in rotten poplar log, Icklingham Plains (TL 7573), V . C . 26, H . M . , 17.vii. 1979. Allochernes dubius (O.P.-Cambridge) 1, Wherstead [TM 14], V.C. 25, C.M., 29.x. 1903 (Morley, 1911, 1940); 1 (det. G . L . , 1981), rot hole in poplar tree, Icklingham Plains (TL 7573), V C 26, H . M . , 28.iii. 1981. Trans. Suffolk

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Allochernes wideri (C. L. Koch) I S , 2 2 2 , in leaf litter, hollow oak, Staverton Park, Butley (TM 3550), V.C. 25, P . T . H . & E . A . G . D . , 5.X.1972 (Harding, 1975); 1 S (det. G . L . , 1978), under bark of dead cherry tree, Groton Wood, Groton (TL 9742), V.C. 26, H . M . , 7.iii. 1978. Dinocheirus panzeri (C. L. Koch) In leaf mould, Horringer Court, Horringer [TL 8362], V.C. 26, O . G . , 1948/ 49 (Gilbert, 1949); in owl pellet material in tree, East Bergholt (TM 03), R. H . L . Disney, 1.ix. 1962; 2 2 9 , 1 deutonymph, 1 tritonymph (det. G . L . , 1978), inside pellet of tawny owl, barn, Bildeston (TL 9950), V.C. 26, H . M . , 24.vii.1978; 1 S , 2 9 2 , 1 tritonymph (det. P . E . J . , 1980), old nest material, rot hole in elm, C o d d e n h a m (TM 1254), V.C. 25, H . M . , 26.v. 1980. Gilbert (1951) later decided that his record of D. panzeri should be referred to Dendrocherties cyrneus (L. Koch) (see that species), and that it came from Ickworth Park [TL 86] in August 1948, and not Horringer. This record seems to be unreliable and should be disregarded. Chernes eimieoides (F.) 1<J, u n d e r hawthorn bark, Ickworth, Bury St. Edmunds [TL 86], V.C. 26, O . G . , 16.ix. 1953; 1 ad. (det. G . L . , 1980), Friday Street, Rendlesham Forest (TM 3551), V . C . 25, C.S.B., 21.vii. 1963; I l d e ? , 9 2 2 , rotten beech tree, B r a n d o n (TL7886), V . C . 26, E. Crowson, 10.ix. 1963; 1 2 . a m o n g d r y w o o d o f dead holly, Staverton Park, Butley (TM 3550), V.C. 25, P . T . H . , 24.viii. 1972 (Harding, 1975); 2S S, under bark of fallen willow, Redgrave Fen (TM 0479), V . C . 25, R. C. Welch, 26.V.1977; 1 (det. G . L . , 1979), rot hole in elm log, Christchurch Park, Ipswich (TM 1645), V.C. 25, H . M . , 20.X.1977; 1<?, 12 (det. G . L . , 1980), under bark, oak log, Thorpe Common, Trimley (TM 2537), V . C . 25, H . M . , 28.ix.1980. Dendrocherties cyrneus (L. Koch) Ickworth Park [TL 86], V.C. 26, O . G . , viii. 1948 (Gilbert, 1951). T h e specimen(s) to which this record refers was originally identified as Dinocheirus panzeri. D. cyrneus is the largest of the British species, and one of the rarest, and is normally found under bark in ancient woodland. Because of the confusion over locality (Horringer Court v. Ickworth Park), and because "leaf-mould" seems to have been the micro-habitat (Gilbert, 1949), confirmation of the presence of this species in Suffolk is highly desirable.

Family C H E L I F E R I D A E Chelifer cancroides L. 1, a m o n g rotten wood and leaves, alder carr, Blocka Lane, Fritton [TM 4699], V . C . 25, A . E. Ellis, 16.x. 1932 (Morley, 1932, 1940). T h e speeimen to which the above record refers is in the Morley Collection. It is a female Neobisium muscorum (det. P . E . J . , 1980)â&#x20AC;&#x201D;see that species. T h e r e is no authentic Suffolk record of C. cancroides, a doubtfully indigenous, synanthropic species in Britain. Trans. Suffolk

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Dactylochelifer latreillei (Leach) Several (2 ad. teste P.E.J., 1980), at roots of marram grass denes, Thorpness [TM 45], V.C. 25, C.M., 22.vii.1931 (Morley, 1931,1940); abundant, dunes, Thorpeness [TM 45], V.C. 25, O.G., ix.1949 (Gilbert, 1949, 1952); sand dunes on beach, Thorpeness [TM 45], V.C. 25, G.L., viii. 1969; 31 ad. among bases of marram grass, top of shingle beach (TM 4760), V.C. 25, A. J. Rundle, 13. viii. 1978. Acknowledgements I thank Mr. P. E. Jones and Dr. G. Legg for identifying the many specimens I have sent to them, and Mr. C. S. Barham for allowing me to include his records. Howard Mendel, The Museum, High Street, Ipswich.

Fig. 1 Neobisium muscorum (Leach) x 25â&#x20AC;&#x201D;an originaldrawingofa pseudoscorpion by Mr W. A. Thornhill.

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References Gilbert, O . (1949). Some spiders new to Suffolk, ii Chlonethida. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 7, 17. Gilbert, O . (1951). Observations. New Suffolk Arachnida. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 7, 127. Gilbert, O. (1952). Three examples of abnormal segmentation of the a b d o m e n in Chelifer Latreilli (Leach, Chelonethi). Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. 5 (12th. series), 47. H a r d i n g , P. T. (1975). A preliminary list of the fauna of Staverton Park, Suffolk, Part 3. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 16, 399. J o n e s , P. E . (Ed.) (1980). Provisional atlas of the Arachnida of the British Isles. Part 1, Pseudoscorpiones. Biological Records Centre. Morley, C. (1911). Arachnida in the Victoria History of the Counties of England: Suffolk. 1, 152. Morley, C. (1930). Observations: Arachnida. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 1,140. Morley, C. (1931). Observations: Arachnida. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 1.255. Morley, C. (1932). Observations: Arachnida. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 2,79. Morley, C. (1935). Proceedings. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 3, xxxiv. Morley, C. (1940). The remaining Arachnida. Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 4. 165. Pickard-Cambridge, O . (1892). On the British species of false-scorpions. Dorsel nat. Hist. antiq. Fld. Club. 13, 199.

Trans. Suffolk

Nat. Soc. 18 part 3.

A review of Suffolk pseudoscorpions  
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