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CHANGES IN THE LICHEN FLORA OF THE PARISH OF MENDLESHAM, SUFFOLK, DÜRING THE LAST FIFTY YEARS B . J . COPPINS a n d P . W . LAMBLEY

Introduction DÜRING the years between 1912 and 1921 and especially from 1914 to 1918 Arthur Mayfield collected the lichens from the parish of Mendlesham in central Suffolk. The results of his collecting were published in 1917 (13). His records are supported by specimens now in the herbarium of the Castle Museum, Norwich (NWH) (accession no. 159.954). Because of the detailed work he carried out, and in view of the changes noted elsewhere in the country (2, 5), the opportunity was taken by us to compare the liehen flora of Mayfield's day with that of the present. We made a number of visits during 1972-3 recording and collecting in the parish and our specimens are now in the herbaria of NWH., and BM., and B.J. Coppins. Arthur Mayfield, F.L.S. Arthur Mayfield was born in the city of Norwich in 1869 and taught at St. Phillips Boys' School, Norwich, from 1883-93 and Norwich Boys' Modern School from 1893-6 when he was appointed headmaster of Mendlesham School, a post he retained until his retirement in 1931. He joined the Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' Society in 1893 and contributed papers on Norfolk earthworms and molluscs to its Transactions. He was made an honorary member in 1945 and completed sixty-three years of membership at the time of his death. On taking up work in Suffolk he soon became the county's leading authority on molluscs, mosses, slime-moulds, fungi and lichens and published lists of these in the journals and transactions of Suffolk societies. He became a Fellow of the Linnaean Society in 1921. He died in 1956 and is buried with his wife in the churchyard of Mendlesham Parish Church. He corresponded with Watson and Paulson, two leading lichenologists of his day and the replies to his letters are now in the Castle Museum, Norwich. His collections of lichens are restricted to Suffolk and largely to the parish of Mendlesham although he collected a little from some nearby parishes and also from a few of the Breckland sites. The specimens are given detailed labels and it has been possible to locate many of his sites with the help of Ordnance Survey 2\ inch maps. The parish of M e n d l e s h a m The parish of Mendlesham lies near the centre of the county of Suffolk at latitude 52°14'N and longitude 1°04'E. T h e parish


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CHANGES I N THE LICHEN FLORA AT MENDLESHAM

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lies in two Ordnance Survey National Grid 10 km. squares—62/06 and 62/16 with the village at 62/1065. Like many other East Anglian parishes it is rather poor in habitats suitable for lichens and contains no woodland or parkland. It Covers an area of 3,960 acres (1,064 hectares) and lies at an altitude of between 150 and 210 feet (45-91 m.) and can be considered as the watershed for this part of Suffolk. The northern half of the parish is drained by the Dove, a tributary of the Waveney, and the southern half by sources of the Gipping. The superficial geology is of boulder clay with occasional patches of gravel and brickearth. The average rainfall (1916-1950) for the area is 24-3" (617-2 mm.) measured at Old Newton about 4 miles (6 km.) south-west of the centre of Mendlesham. Temperatures ränge from an average of 4°C in January to 16-8°C in July with mean daily minimum temperature of 1°C in January and a mean daily maximum temperature of 21 °C in July giving a temperature ränge of 20°C. Frosts occur commonly between November and April with the air temperature at 0°C or below on an average of more than fifty days. The agriculture is largely arable with just a few small areas of permanent pasture, and according to local people has apparently changed little from the time of Mayfield. This is verified by landuse maps produced in 1931-2 which show most of the land as arable (this Classification includes fallow, rotation grass, and market gardens). There is an extensive series of green lanes and it was along these that many of Mayfield's records were made. Some of them may have a long history, for instance the Hundred Lane on the southern edge of the parish is an ancient boundary probably dating from at least the first half of the lOth Century (16). The Liehen Flora When Mayfield wrote his paper (13), he was able to State that 'the heavy clay soil of the district is not at all favourable to the growth of ground-loving lichens, and occasions the absence of many plants that are to be found in sandy or peaty area, growing either upon the soil itself or on the flint pebbles that lie exposed upon its surface; but of other associations that prefer the bark of trees, old walls, pales, or gates, there is a fair abundance of plants as regards both variety and profusion of growth. The remoteness from the smoke of towns, and the fact that the trees, though numerous, are chiefly those of hedgerows, ensure two conditions necessary for the promotion of liehen growth, viz, the purity of the atmosphere and abundance of light'. The fact that he was able to collect 129 liehen taxa within the parish testifies to these statements. There have been considerable changes in our understanding of lichens and this has resulted in a good deal of renaming and de-


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Based upon Ordnance Survey Map tvith the sanction of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Crown Copyright reserved.

Office,


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scribing of new species. However, as Mayfield's records are nearly always supported by specimens it has been possible to verify or rename them and, furthermore, add species which were present but unnoticed amongst his gatherings. Mayfield (13) says that ashes (Fraxinus) and to a lesser extent elms (Ulmus spp.) were the richest trees in numbers of species, and this is borne out by some of his gatherings. Five small pieces of ash bark (about 30 sq. cm. in total area) had eight species including Caloplaca cerina, Physica orbicularis, P. aipolia, P. adscendens, Physconia farrea, Candelariella xanthostigma, Xanthoria parietina, and Lecanora chlarotera. Other interesting species on ash and elm included Anaptychia ciliaris, Physcia aipolia, Ramalina fraxinea (ash), Ramalina fastigiata (ash), and Caloplaca luteoalba (elm). He observed that the liehen flora of young oaks (Quercus) had species such as Arthonia radiata, Lecanora chlarotera, and Opegrapha atra. Middle aged oaks had Ramalina spp., Evernia prunastri, Parmelia sulcata, and Buellia punctata. On very old trunks notable species included Lecanactis premnea, Opegrapha lyncea, and Rinodina roboris. Poplars (Populus spp.), sycamores (Acer pseuoplatanus), and horse chestnuts (Aesculus) were not common in the parish and he says that on the whole they were not very rieh. Old willows (Salix spp.) were worth examining with species such as Bacidia arceutina and Calicium salicinum. Birches (Betula spp.) had no lichens and pines (Pinus) had only a few patches of Lecanora conizaeoides. The smooth bark of beech (Fagus) was generally poor, but that of hornbeam (Cor pinus) was quite rieh with Pertusaria hemisphaerica, Arthonia radiata, Pertusaria leioplaca, Graphis scripta, Enterographa crassa, Lecanora carpinea, Pyrenula nitida, Opegrapha atra, and Schismatomma decolorans. A flora similar to this still occurs on hornbeams at Sotterley Park in north-east Suffolk. Orchard trees and small hedgerow trees such as holly (Ilex), maple (Acer campestre), and hawthorn (Crataegus) generally had few lichens but abundant algae and Mayfield considered that this was because they were damp and shaded. However, on exposed twigs of hawthorn common plants such as Xanthoria parietina, Lecanora expallens, and Lecidella elaeochroma occurred. Most of the saxicolous species were found by Mayfield in the churchyard or on outhouses and walls around the village. There are no natural stone outcrops in the parish. As mentioned earlier terricolous lichens were rare and he found only four species. Sixty-two of the taxa recorded (or collected unwittingly) by Mayfield were not found by us ( T A B L E 1) despite extensive searching in the sites he mentioned. Some of these taxa have not been


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found in East Anglia recently (i.e., since 1960). These are Bacidia arceutina, Collema fragrans, Gyalecta truncigena, Gyalecta flotowii, and Lecania nylanderiana; L. nylanderiana being the only one which is not corticolous. Among the species which are found elsewhere in East Anglia a number deserve comment. Anaptychia ciliaris is now restricted to eight post-1960 localities. Six of which are in Norfolk and two in Suffolk. T h e nearest localities now being Ickworth Park near Bury St. E d m u n d s where it was found in 1968 by Dr. F. Rose, but could not be found on the same tree in 1971, Sotterley Park in north-east Suffolk, Fritton Common, and Geldestone Hall in south Norfolk. Mayfield recorded it as occurring sparingly on the south sides of ash, poplar, and elm. Caloplaca cerina and Caloplaca luteoalba are two other species which are now very rare in East Anglia, C. cerina being known from only six localities— five in Norfolk and only one in north Suffolk at Thelnetham. C. luteoalba is also uncommon and known only from about ten localities, the nearest to Mendlesham being Thelnetham, Framlingham, and Giffords Hall, near Ipswich. Mayfield records C. cerina on the decaying bark of an old elm and C. luteoalba on the north-east sides of three aging pollards. Parmelia caperata is another species recorded by Mayfield which now appears to be absent in Mendlesham, though it still occurs on the base of an oak in sheltered parkland at T h o r n h a m , 3 miles (5 km.) north of the centre of the parish. This is a species which is still widespread in East Anglia, though it is rarely abundant except in north Norfolk near the coast. Parmelia perlata is now confined to the coastal strip of East Anglia, except for a few inland localities in the Breckland. Mayfield recorded it as occurring on the south-west side of an ash trunk. Parmelia tiliacea was found by Mayfield growing with Parmelia sulcata on the south-west side of an elm. T h e r e are now only two known East Anglian localities, at Ickworth Park and Helmingham Hall Park in Suffolk. Ramalina fraxinea is described by Mayfield as being 'frequent on the trunks of trees, especially ashes'. T h i s is now a very rare species in East Anglia with two Norfolk, two Suffolk, and one Essex localities. In these sites the plants rarely reach 6 cms. in length as they do in his material. Finally, Usnea subfloridana recorded by Mayfield on an old gate is now, like Parmelia perlata, largely confined to north and east Norfolk and east Suffolk. It has not been found on gate posts in our post-1960 studies, but still occurs in fen woodlands, trees in woodland and rarely on dunes.


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In addition to the absence of some species which Mayfield collected a number of others are still present but could not be found by us in the fertile State. For instance there are four fruiting specimens of Buellia canescens in Mayfield's collection. This is now rarely found fruiting in East Anglia and there are only three modern records, all in Norfolk. Other species found fruiting by Mayfield but not by us include, Lecanora expallens and Caloplaca teicholyta which is rarely fertile now, e.g., Merton Church, Norfolk, and possibly was so even then in East Anglia. Lecanora atra was collected from an ash by Mayfield and he considered it to be occasional on trunks of trees. It is now not found on trees except in the south and west of Britain, although in East Anglia it is still common on brickwork and other siliceous substrates. Comparison with specimens in Mayfield's herbarium and those collected by us show that many species especially the corticolous ones are less well developed now. For example, Mayfield's material of Evernia prunastri was up to 4-2 cm. long, whereas the longest material found by us in the area was 1-8 cm. long. A notable feature was the scarcity of Lecanora conizaeoides amongst the material collected by Mayfield. Indeed, it appears that L. conizaeoides, which is now very common throughout the parish on most species of tree and untreated wood, was rare in Mayfield's time. It was recorded by him only on pines and beeches in the Vicarage Plantation, and on a gatepost in Wix's Road. L. conizaeoides was first collected from Britain in the mid-19th Century and has since increased to become exceedingly common in areas experiencing significant levels of sulphur dioxide pollution (5, 12). The present Situation DĂźring our visits to the parish we discovered that many of the lichens seen by Mayfield were no longer to be found. In fact out of the 129 taxa collected by Mayfield sixty-two of these could not be refound (48-1%) (see T A B L E 1). A breakdown of these figures shows that losses have been greater amongst the epiphytic lichens than the saxicolous lichens. Of the sixty-two taxa not refound, fifty-three were epiphytic, five were saxicolous, and four were terricolous. This Situation contrasts with the findings of Hawksworth and Skinner (7) in the Ilsham area of Torquay: 211 species recorded of which 181 were found in 1972-3 (including eighty-six on trees). Only eleven corticolous species were not refound and this was mainly a result of the felling of orchards in an area now occupied by houses. We concentrated our search on the sites which Mayfield found to be most productive, e.g., Babbs Lane, Oak Farm, Blue House Lane, Chapel Road, Hobbies Lane, and the churchyard. Many


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of our corticolous species were recorded from elm, ash, and maple stumps on the sides of ditches. Opegrapha spp. (O. ochrocheila, O. sorediifera, O. vermicillifera, and O. vulgata) were particularly well developed in this habitat. Also in this habitat occurred the extremely rare Coniocybe sulphurea which has previously only been recorded from four other sites in Britain. Two of these are old records, one from old oaks in the New Forest and one from Teeside. The two modern ones are Black Isle, E. Ross (V.C. 106) on Sambucus and Wychwood, Oxfordshire (V.C. 23) also on Sambucus. A newly recognised and undescribed sterile crustose species probably referable to Schismatomma was found with Chaenotheca brunneola on the stump of an old Salix near Oak Farm. The churchyard flora was found to be little changed and three notable finds on oolitic limestone of the church wall were Opegrapha persoonii on the south wall, and Bacidia egenula and Leproplaca chrysodeta (Vain ex Räs.) Laund. ined. on the north wall. Causes of the changes in the flora A number of possible causes can be suggested for the observed changes in the liehen flora and these can be placed under five main headings. 1. Habitat destruetion. 2. Drainage. 3. Shading. 4. New agricultural practices. 5. Air pollution. Habitat destruetion In Mayfield's day this was responsible for the loss of one species and a considerable reduetion in another. Platismatia glauca was found in 1915 on an old gate, but he states that the gate has since been removed and the plant lost. Lecania nylanderiana was abundant on the south side of a clay-built shed in 1915. Mayfield says that 'the building has since been tarred and the habitat destroyed, but traces of the plant remain on some neighbouring outhouses'. Clay lump, a mixture of clay and straw, was a common building material in parts of Norfolk and Suffolk, but is now usually protected with a coating of tar. Trist (17) says that farm buildings were then in a rather poor State of repair. It is interesting that Petch and Swann (15) note the decline of some bryophytes, e.g., Aloina rigida (Hedw.) Limpr. 'at one time far more frequent on mud-capped walls in some of the north Norfolk coastal villages but the practice of mud-capping has now ceased and the species is now confined to chalk pits'.


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Fences, gates, and gate posts are frequently mentioned by Mayfield and appear to have been an important habitat in his time. He records species characteristic of these habitats such as Cyphehelium inquinans, Calicium abietinum, and Biatorella moriformis: Cyphelium itiquinans, is still quite frequent but the others were not found. Wooden gates are now probably rarer than then, as many have been replaced by iron gates and the wooden ones which remain tend to be removed more frequently and are often creosoted. Concrete posts occur in some places and may have replaced wooden fences in some cases. Mayfield records Arthonia impolita from a barn door in Blue House Lane. This is a species characteristic of old oaks and elms in East Anglia and it is still quite widespread but there are no modern records for it on barn doors which are now normally treated. Barns and other boarded buildings were a very rieh substratum up until the last Century and is evidenced by the collections and writings of early workers. For example, many species, including A. impolita, were listed from this habitat in the Tunbridge Wells area of Kent and Sussex by Jenner (1845) (11). Tree felling has taken place in the parishes as many of the tree stumps in the hedgerows testify, although many of the sites referred to by Mayfield still have species noted by him. Local people say that there has not been a great deal of tree felling from some of his sites such as Blue House Lane and Babbs Lane. Blue House Lane for instance; still has quite a number of hornbeams, as it apparently did in Mayfield's time. In some cases it has been possible to locate with a fair degree of accuracy some individual trees mentioned by Mayfield, e.g., old oak in meadow near Babbs Lane. Drainage T h e Polish lichenologist, the late Dr. Jan Rydzak considered that the impoverished liehen flora of towns and their environs could be attributed to adverse micro-climatic conditions, particularly the lowering of humidity, increased temperature and an increased frequency of drying/wetting regimes. He termed this theory "the Drought Hypothesis" (1). In a rural area such as this there has been no significant change in the area covered by buildings from Mayfield's time. It is true that the drainage of the fields in the boulder clay areas of Suffolk has been improved considerably since the first world war (17). However, drought conditions in this part of Suffolk are nothing new; Mayfield in his paper on the Mollusca of a Suffolk Parish (14) says "in summer the beds of these streams, as far as they lie within the parish, may be trodden dryshod from end to end, and every ditch is also quite dried up. In very dry summers like the last (1901) even the ponds, of which there are a large number, the clay making a good basin for them, are reduced to mere muddy pools". In 1973, in May and again June (a very dry month) some ditches still had a


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little water in them. The drought hypothesis does not explain the decline of many of the species lost in Mendlesham from other parts of East Anglia where drainage has not occurred, for example, Usnea subfloridana is less common than it was in the late 1930s at Wheatfen, near Norwich (teste. Dr. E. A. Ellis). It seems very unlikely that drainage has had any significant effect on the lichens of the parish since Mayfield's time.

Shading In his paper it is apparent that Mayfield appreciated many liehen species require or prefer well lit situations, and that the absence of lichens from some situations could be explained by this. One of Mayfield's sites, Babbs Lane, is now very overgrown and some species may have been lost through shading. However, this does not explain the loss of many lichens from trees in well lit situations.

Agricultural practice As mentioned earlier, in Mayfield's time the parish was a largely arable one with only a few areas of permanent pasture. Land use has not changed a great deal since then. However, since the Second World War there has been a revolution in farming practice, particularly in the use of agricultural chemicals. T h e widespread use of natural and artificial fertilisers particularly those rieh on ammonium salts, phosphates, and nitrates is resulting in an increasing eutrophication of the environment. James (1971) (10) demonstrated that the effect of applying superphosphate to lichens on wayside trees was probably not of direct physiological damage, but that it led to an increase in algal (Pleurococcus) growth over the liehen thalli. In foliose and crustose species the older parts of the thalli were earliest affected leading to progressive die-back. T h e enrichment of bark by moderate amounts of natural fertilisers (e.g., horse manure) is favourable to many lichens and results in species rieh "Xanthorion", communities characterised, for example, by Anaptychia eiliaris, Parmelia acetabulum, Xanthoria parietina, and many Physcia spp. However, the application of modern fertilisers, whose constituent chemicals are immediately available, results in species poor communities composed of only a few species tolerant of the competition from algae and possible direct physiological effects (5). Some of the lichens found by us exhibited similar signs and this may explain the absence of certain species which occur on acid bark such as Chaenotheca ferruginea and Pertusaria amara, and the poor development in places of Hypogymnia physodes.

Air pollution It has long been known that lichens are sensitive to air pollution see (2) and recent work has shown that it is now possible to correlate


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the distribution of lichens around air pollution sources with mean levels of pollutants. T h e work of Hawksworth and Rose (3, 6) has shown that it is possible to construct zone maps using easily recognisable species which become abundant or appear at different levels of air pollution on well illuminated tree trunks. T h e y constructed a scale from 0-10 with 0 being equivalent to the highest levels of air pollution and 10 the lowest. Their scales also took into consideration the heights that lichens reached up the trunk and included some geographical variations. As differences have been noted between eutrophicated and noneutrophicated bark on trees, Hawksworth and Rose proposed separate but parallel scales for the two types. Our findings show that lichens characteristic of zones 6 and above are now absent from Mendlesham. This contrasts with the Ilsham area of T o r q u a y where the communities are zone 9 (although only 1 i miles f r o m the centre of Torquay) and an air pollution gauge 1 ÂŁ miles north-west indicates a mean winter S0 2 value of about 28 jig/m 3 (7). Lichens absent f r o m Mendlesham include Ramalina fraxinea, Caloplace cerina (both appear in zone 9); Parmelia perlata, Gyalecta flotowii (both appear in zone 8); Physcia aipolia, Anaptychia ciliaris, Bacidia rubella, Ramalina fastigiata, Usnea subfloridana, Rinodina roboris, and Arthonia impolita (all appear in zone 7). Lichens characteristic of zone 6 are also absent, e.g., Parmelia caperata, P. tiliacea, Pertusaria spp. (except for a little P. leioplaca), Physconia pulverulenta, P. grisea, Caloplaca luteoalba, and Lecania cyrtella. Lichens of zone 5, however, are still present and in some cases frequently, e.g., Lecanora chlarotera, Haematomma ochroleucum var. porphyrium, Opegrapha vulgata, and Evernia prunastri. The previously mentioned presence of Parmelia caperata at T h o r n h a m Park and the relative abundance of some of the species of zone 5 (e.g., Evernia prunastri) suggest that the parish is near the top of zone 5 or at the bottom of zone 6. This is correlated in Hawksworth and Rose's paper with a winter mean sulphur dioxide value of about 50 [J.g/m3. T h e nearest air pollution measurements available are at Framlingham 11-5 miles (18-4 km.) east of Mendlesham. T h e r e are limited measurements here for the years 1968-9 (18). Average winter mean S0 2 [ig/m 3

1968-9 25

Some highest daily figures for it are: 1968 1969 Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. April 38 58 44 ' 68 43 41 —

1969-70 20

May 57

June 30

T h e s e figures seem to be on the low side for the observed effects on lichens. However, these are only two years figures and the


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site is rather lower than Mendlesham parish (100' 30m) and therefore more sheltered. Evidence from the liehen flora also indicates that lower levels of air pollution are reached in the Suffolk coastal strip than elsewhere in the county. Ramalina fraxinea, Parmelia perlata, and Usnea subfloridana for instance all occur within this area. There are no major sources of sulphur dioxide in the vicinity of Mendlesham, the nearest being the power Station at Ipswich 16 miles (25-6 km.) to the south. Neither Ipswich nor Norwich (28 miles 44 • 8 km. north-north-east of Mendlesham) are apparently major sources of air pollution. Parmelia caperata for instance occurs at Shrubland Park 6 miles (9-6 km.) north of Ipswich and Parmelia perlata, Usnea subfloridana, and Usnea intexta occur 5 • 5 miles (9 km) north of the centre of Norwich. T h e London conurbation lies 70 miles (112 km.) south-west of Mendlesham and because of the poor liehen communities now in most of Essex it is reasonable to assume that this is the major source of air pollution for the Mendlesham area. A marked deterioration in the liehen flora seems to have begun relatively recently in Norfolk and Suffolk. Hedgerow shrubs still had Opegrapha atra and Arthonia radiata in the late 1930s (collections in N W H ) at Spixworth 4 miles (6-4 km.) north of Norwich. Düring and after the war there has been a tendency to increase the height of sulphur dioxide emmissions from major sources such as power stations in order to reduce the concentrations nearby at ground level. This coupled with a general increase in sulphur dioxide emmissions (4) seems to be one of the main factors for the decline of the epiphyte communities in Mendlesham.

Summary A comparison is made between the liehen flora of the Suffolk parish of Mendlesham as recorded by Arthur Mayfield between 1912 and 1922 and by us in 1972 and 1973. A total of 160 taxa have been recorded from the parish by Mayfield and ourselves. Mayfield recorded and collected 129 of which sixty-two (48-1%) were not refound by us, the majority of which were epiphytes. However, thirty-three taxa were added to the parish by us, mostly ones which were not generally recognised in Mayfield's time. Other changes were noted including a decline or loss of fertility and poor growth of some lichens. T h e causes of these changes are discussed and air pollution, accompanied by the effects of agricultural chemicals, is considered to be the most important factor responsible. We are very grateful to Dr. D. L. Hawksworth and Dr. F. Rose for their valuable criticism of the original manuscript.


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References 1.

Coppins, B. J. (1973). T h e Drought Hypothesis. Air Pollution and Lichens (Ed. B. W . Ferry, M . S. Baddeley, and D. L. Hawksworth) 124-142, Athlone Press, London.

2.

Ferry, B. W., Baddeley, M . S., and Hawksworth, D. L. (1973). Pollution and Lichens, Athlone Press, London.

3.

Hawksworth, D. L. and Rose, F. (1970). Qualitative scale for estimating sulphur dioxide air pollution in England and Wales u s m g epiphytic lichens. Nature, Lond. 227, 145-148.

4.

Hawksworth, D. L., Rose, F., and Coppins, B. J. (1973). Changes in the liehen flora of England and Wales attributable to pollution of the air by sulphur dioxide. Air Pollution and Lichens (Ed. B. W Ferry, M . S. Baddeley, and D. L. Hawksworth) 330-367, Athlone Press, London.

5.

Hawksworth, D. L., Coppins, B. J., and Rose, F. (in press). Changes in the British liehen flora. The Changing Flora and Fauna of Britam (Ed. D. L. Hawksworth), Academic Press, London and New York.

6.

Hawksworth, D. L. (1973). Mapping studies. Air Pollution and Lichens (Ed. B. W. Ferry, M . S. Baddeley, and D. L . Hawksworth) 38-76, Athlone Press, London.

7.

Hawksworth, D. L. and Skinner, J. F. (1974—in press). T h e Liehen flora and Vegetation of Black Head, Ilsham, Torquay. Trans. Proc. Torquay Nat. Hist. Soc. 16.

8.

James, P. W. (1965). A Lichenologist 3, 95-153.

9.

James, P. W. (1966). and corrections, 1.

10.

new

check

list of British

Air

Lichens.

A new check list of British Lichens: additions Lichenologist 3, 242-247.

James, P. W. (1973). T h e effect of air pollutants other than hydrogen fluonde and sulphur dioxide on lichens. Air Pollution and Lichens (Ed. B. W. Ferry, M . S. Baddeley, and D. L. Hawksworth) 143-175, Athlone Press, London.

11.

Jenner, E. (1845).

12.

L a u n d o n , J. R. (1973). U r b a n Liehen studies. Air Pollution and Lichens (Ed. B. W . Ferry, M . S. Baddeley, and D . L. Hawksworth) 109-123, Athlone Press, L o n d o n .

A Flora of Tunbridge

13.

Mayfield, A. (1917). T h e Lichens of a boulder-clay area. Ipswich Distr. Field Club 34-40.

Journ

14.

Mayfield, A. (1912). T h e Mollusca of a Suffolk parish. Norfolk and Norwich Nat. Soc. 7, 3 4 8 - 3 5 2 .

Trans.

15.

Petch, C. P. and Swann, E. L. (1968). Sons, Norwich.

16.

Scarfe, N . (1972). London.

17.

Trist, P. J. O. (1971). A Survey of the Agriculture Royal Agricultural Society.

18.

Warren Spring Laboratory (1961-71). The investigation of air pollution, National Survey, smoke and sulphur dioxide, Stevenage, Herts.: D e p a r t m e n t of T r a d e and Industry.

The Suffolk

Wells.

Flora of Norfolk.

Landscape.

Jarrold &

H o d d e r & Stoughton, of Suffolk.

The


332

Suffolk Natural History, Vol. 16, Part 5 TABLE 1

N o m e n c l a t u r e follows J a m e s (1965) (8, 9), except for a few s u b s e q u e n t changes in which case authors are given. Mayfield igi2-2i

Name

Coppins and Lambley J 9 7 2 - 3

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•I Acarospora fuscata Anaptychia ciliaris Arthonia impolita Arthonia lobata agg. Arthonia radiata Arthonia spadicea Arthopyrenia alba Arthopyrenia biformis Bacidia arceutina Bacidia egenula Bacidia incompta Bacidia phacodes Bacidia rubella Bacidia sabuletorum Bacidia umbrina Biatorella moriformis Buellia aethelea Buellia alboatra Buellia canescens Buellia griseovirens Buellia punctata Calicium abietinum Calicium salicinum Calicium sp. Caloplaca aurantia Caloplaca aurantiaca Caloplaca cerina Caloplaca citrina Caloplaca decipiens Caloplaca heppiana Caloplaca holocarpa Caloplaca luteoalba Caloplaca saxicola ( H o f f m . ) N o r d i n (C. murorum) Caloplaca teicholyta Candelariella aurella Candelariella medians Candelariella vitellina Candelariella xanthostigma Catillaria griffithi Catillaria lenticularis Cetraria glauca Chaenotheca brunneola Chaenotheca ferruginea Chaenotheca hispidula (Ach.) Zahlbr

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333

CHANGES IN THE LICHEN FI.ORA AT MENDLESHAM

Mayfield 1912-21

Name

Coppins and Lambley 1972-3

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I Cladonia chlorophaea Cladonia macilenta Cladonia pocillum Cladonia scabriuscula Collema auriculatum Collema crispum Collema fragrans Collema tenax Coniocybe sulphurea Cyphelium inquinans Cyphelium sessile Diploschistes scruposus Enterographa crassa Evernia prunastri Graphis scripta Gyalecta flotowii Gyalecta truncigena Haematomma ochroleucum var. porphyrium (Pers.) L a u n d . Hypogymnia physodes Lecanactis premnea Lecania cyrtella Lecania erysibe Lecania nylanderiana Lecanora atra Lecanora calcarea Lecanora campestris Lecanora carpinea Lecanora chlarotera Lecanora cotiizaeoides Lecanora contorta Lecanora crenulata Lecanora dispersa Lecanora expallens Lecanora muralis Lecanora polytropa Lecanora Varia Lecidea fuscoatra var. grisella Lecidea granulosa Lecidea lucida Lecidea quernea Lecidea scalaris Lecidea sulphurea Lecidea tumida Lecidea uliginosa Lecidella elaeochroma (Ach.) Hazsl. (Lecidea limitata) Lecidella stigmatea (Ach.) Hert. and L e u c k . (Lecidea stigmatea) Lepraria candelaris

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334

Suffolk Natural History, Vol. 16, Part 5 Mayfield

Name

c >-] Lepraria incana Lepraria cf. membranacea Leproplaca chrysodeta (Vain. ex Räs.) Laund. ined. Ochrolechia yasudae Opegrapha atra Opegrapha chevallieri Opegrapha herbarum Opegrapha niveoatra Opegrapha ochrocheila Opegrapha persoonii Opegrapha sorediifera Opegrapha varia Pers Opegrapha vermicellifera Opegrapha vulgata Parmelia acetabulum Parmelia caperata Parmelia glabratula ssp. fulginosa Parmelia isidiotyla Parmelia perlata Parmelia subrudecta Parmelia sulcata Parmelia tiliacea Peltigera canina Pertusaria albescens var. corallina Pertusaria amara Pertusaria coccodes Pertusaria flavida Pertusaria hemisphaerica Pertusaria hymenea Pertusaria leioplaca Pertusaria pertusa Phlyctis argena (Spreng.) Flot Physcia adscendens Physcia aipolia Physcia caesia Physcia dubia Physconia farrea (Ach.) Poelt Physconia grisea (L.) Poelt Physcia nigricans Physcia orbicularis agg Physcia pulverulenta Physcia tenella Porina chlorotica var. carpinea Protoblastenia monticola Protoblastenia rupestris Pyrenula nitida var. nitidella Ramalina farinacea var. hypoprotocetrarica (Culb.) D. Hawks

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CHANGES IN THE LICHEN FLORA AT MENDLESHAM

Mayfield igi2-2i

Name

Ramalina fastigiata Ramalina pollinaria Rhizocarpon obscuratum var. reductum Rinodina exigua Rinodina roboris Rinodina subexigua (Nyl.) Oliv Rinodina teichophila Schismatomma decolorans Schismatomma sp Thelidium decipiens Thelidium incavatum Toninia aromatica Toninia caradocensis Trapelia coarctata (Sm.) Choisy (Lecidea coarctata) Usnea subfloridana Verrucaria glaucina Verrucaria hochstetteri Verrucaria nigrescens Verrucaria sphinctrina Verrucaria viridula Xanthoria aureola Xanthoma candelaria Xanthoria parietina Xanthoria polycarpa Total

Coppins and Lambley 1972-3

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43

4

41

P. W. Lambley, Castle Museum, Norwich. B. J. Coppins, Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.

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Changes in the Lichen Flora of the Parish of Mendlesham, Suffolk, during the last Fifty Years  
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