ABPL30048 Architecture Design Studio
Self-Introduction I am Haoyang Yu, a student in the bachelor of Environment, majoring architecture. I grew up in the northwest province of China, Xinjiang. Although my hometown is not well developed, it is full of exotic charm. I have seen different style of architecture like mosque, Chinese temple, and yurt on the prairie, which arouse my passion for architecture. After studying in university of Melbourne, I am interested in sustainable building design. I think sustainability is not that hard to achieve, people can live a sustainable lifestyle by just making small changes or improvement. For architecture, it is an essential part of living that every people should be familiar with. There is large potential for the old style housing to be more green and sustainable in the future. I am looking forward to be part of sustainable architecture designers.
Design Futuring 10
Design Computation 16
Composition /Generation 22
Learning Outcomes 24
Appendix - Algorithmic Sketches
We are numbered in billions, have extractive and materials processing technologies of absolutely enormous capacity coupled with an economy with an insatiable appetite, we are confronting our nemesis - a defuturing condition of unsusitainability.
Tony Fry Design Futuring
Design Futuring How should design be defined, from my point of view, design is when people reviewing, wlearning and self-improving based on existing facts to achieve the predetermined goals. If the future is added into design, it is the challenge that testing humanâ€™s capacities - the perception of the current crisis, the prediction and preparedness for future development. Since 1990s, human has come to realize that the planet we are living on will be nibbled away, and that resources will be consumed up if human only demand endlessly. To save the planet, actually human itself, has become an issue that cannot be ignored any longer. In terms of architecture, this is the basis of human beingsâ€™ living environment, while design futuring endowed a new definition to this object and introduce a new way of existence. Sustainability, was introduced into the concept of architecture. Architects started to take nature, humanity and creations into consideration and to integrate architecture into the natural environment.
ECODUCT â€œTHE BORKELDâ€? Architect : ZJA Architects In the rapid development of human science and technology, plenty products have been created to bring convenience to human beings, such as refrigerators, televisions and vehicles. But at the same time, other species living on the blue planet are also affected. The rapid expansion of railways, highways and other transportation networks have seriously affected the ecological natural environment.
In the past, there were more than 1 million wild animals killed by car collision every day on average. Also, the barrier effect created by road resulted in animals were unable to properly forage and migrate. Since 1970s, Ecoduct, a new idea of architecture, was first introduced in Netherland which was aimed for providing safe pathway for animals to cross the highroad. On the top of Ecoduct, soil, litter, and vegetation are combined and designed to simulate the natural environment. Human pathway is separated from the Ecoduct to minimise the human impact on wild animals. The practice of animal passages has undoubtedly greatly alleviated the ecological pressure of the nature conservation, and also enhanced traffic safety in the expressway area.1 The project operated by ZJA architects shows consciousness that architecture of future should not only consider human beings but also the living environments as well as other species. At that time,
this can be challenge as the ideology of ecological protection was not mature and pervasive. This pioneer architecture design might be a failure if animals refuse to use the green pathway. But the results turned out to be positive as 80% of cars and animals collision reduced on that road.2 The success of “The Borkeld” had proved the essential of animal protection to the world and also demonstrate a new type of furniture architecture. From then on, there are plenty of wildlife crossing bridges been built all around the world. The architects have been improving the forms or appearance of the Ecoduct to fit in various environment and serve for different species. As there are still lots of issue associated with environ ment, animals, and plants, inspired by the Ecoduct architecture, the future of architecture is clear.
1, van der Ree, Rodney, Daniel J. Smith, and Clara Grilo. Handbook of road ecology. (John Wiley & Sons 2015). pp.172-176. 2, Ovaskainen, Otso. “How to develop the nature conservation strategies for The Netherlands?.” De Levende Natuur. 2 (2013), 59-62.
BAT TO W E R
Architect : Joyce Hwang In 2010, a unique shaped yellow wooden tower were built in Griffis Sculpture Park of New York by Joyce Hwang and her collaborators. This bizarre tower stands adjacently to a small lake, attracting tourists with its unusual shape. The tower was designed for the bats, on the now hand, to attract bats to house them, on the other hand for educating visitors to protect this decimated animal. The designers want people to be aware of the harsh living condition of this animal. Bats are effective as natural pesticides, pollinators, and mosquito abatement, however, their survival is greatly threatened. They are affected by both whitenose syndrome, a deadly affliction, and human behaviour, ‘pest control’ activities. 3
The form of the tower is derived from a vertical cave, given the impact of light on the bat, the structure and details are carefully designed by architect. There are five triangular segments connecting to form the building shape, each facade is composited of several aligned plywood panels. The small gaps on the facades and narrow apertures on the roof panel introduce suitable light into the building. Using mainly wood for the whole building is not only environmental friendly but also more attractive for the bats. 4 From the design of bat tower, I started to aware, human beings are no longer playing the protagonist role in design futuring, but considering for other creatures from a new perspective. Architecture gradually outgrows from the habitats of human beings to the habitat of animals and plants, and from the significance of survival to significance of education. 3, Ants of the Prairie, ’10. Bat Tower’, (2010), <http://www.antsoftheprairie.com/?page_id=203> 4, Hsu, C., ‘Architect Creates ‘Bat Tower’ at Local Sculpture Park’, (2010), <http://www.antsoftheprairie.com/?page_id=203>
Design Computation Over hundreds of years, architectural design has evolved from craftsmanship to scale drawings and models then to separate the construction and design, a more professional design. Up to now, human use their intelligence to create computer technology, thus architecture design has reached a new stage. Computer, which has the extreme rational operation and preciseness, is combined with human, which have strong intuition and sensibility, lighting a splendid sparks in the architecture design field. What computer can do is not just helping humans doing calculation, but it gradually is taking over the baton of design. When the inherent conditions are given, computer may adjust could adjust itself according to the constant and new factors, and produce new results. Also, the abilities of computation, calculation and simulation of material characteristics, enable more possibilities for design. In the history of architecture design computation I writing a new chapter.
The integration of digital materiality and performative analysis now theoretically enables such a potential for a contemporary tectonic expression to be derived from the technologies of material design and fabrication.
Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman Theories of The Digital In Architecture
B E I J I N G N AT I O N A L S TA D I U M Architect : Jacques Herzog and pierre de Meuron and Li Xinggang The design of the “Bird’s Nest”, the main stadium of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, was produced through global design tenders. Finally, this giant stadium was jointly designed by the 2001 Pritzker Architecture Prize winners Herzog, De Meuron and Chinese architect Li Xinggang.
The shape of the stadium is like a nest which support life. It also likes a cradle that bearing human beings’ anticipation for the future. The designers did not apply any ornamentation for the national stadium, but exposed the structure frankly which naturally formed the appearance of the architecture. The main body of the design consists of a series of radial steel trusses rotating around the bowl-shaped seating area. The air cushion membrane between the steel structure o the roof is designed to shelter audience from rain and sun. Fully embodied the humanistic care in the design of the bird’s nest, the computation terrace is surrounded by bowl-shaped seating area, regardless of the position of the audience, and the distance of sight between the center points of the playing field and audience is around 140 meters. Also, Designers had also used fluid dynamics to simulate the natural ventilation to experiment the best condition when all spectators can enjoy the same
natural light and ventilation.5 The smooth lines of The Bird’s Nest seems like randomly designed, but in fact the appearance was actually based on complex and rigorous computer calculations and design. The entire structure has no pillar supporting but be proper up by 24 interconnected steel reticular structure system. In the whole design process, the position and height of each steel column was first determined, the height of the highest column is 68.5 meters and the lowest one is 42.8. 6 By means of the aid of computer technology, the designer offset the 24 steel columns in two direction and joined each two to form a central-hollowed saddle structure. In order to stabilise the whole structure,ww trusses structure are added between adjacent column and roof structure. To acwwhieve the nest shape of the structure, the designers decorated aesthetic irregular steel bar on the structure, which form the final appearance.
5, Fan, Zhong, et al. “Simulation analysis on steel structure erection procedure of the National Stadium.” Jianzhu Jiegou Xuebao/Journal of Building Structures 28.2 (2007): 134-143. 6, FAN, Zhong, et al. “Design and research of large-span steel structure for the National Stadium [J].” Journal of Building Structures 2 (2007): 000.
Architect : Danny Karas This project is Danny Karasâ€™s graduation project in Southern California Institute of Architecture guided by Hernan Diaz Alonso and Ivan Bernal. The design is aimed to achieve new form of skyscraper within the modern urban context. The dynamic envelope is a challenge to the stereotype understanding towards modern skyscraper and also an experiment in computation technology.
The design inspiration is from the skin of old people and how the gravity affecting this. The major centre structure is the lift running through the whole building with office area extending to different direction on each floor to form a distortion. The aesthetic outer skin is very flowing and the numerous gaps on the surface reduced the volume of the facade and introduced sunlight into the building. No matter from the inside or the outside, the architecture exhibit a extremely water-like floating space and movement. Karas used computer technology to simulate the effect of earthâ€™s gravity on skin.7 Adding clay onto the basis model, the outcomes turned out to be different as the amount of clay will run to different place due to the gravity action. There is not much imformation about this project and there is possiblity that the model was been 7, (Dpearea.files.wordpress.com, 2018)
made in model-making software but not parametric deisgn. This can be drawed back to the basic question â€œWhat is computaion? and what is computerazition?â€œ While for this project, it is more about the expression of digital production rather than a simple result of transmitting or designing future skyscraper. Just as the machine revolution allowed workers to have eight hours of free time in 1920, this digital computation can give designers extra time to experiment other elements such as materials, texturing and design development. This project is a testament of speed and quality that digital design can bring, and how its speed can give architects a greater opportunity to influence projects beyond form finding. Architects can now control afterwards design sooner and possibly prevent some value engineering and hopefully stop the slow erasure of architects in building.
A3 When architects have a sufficient understanding of algorithmic concapts, when we no longer need to discuss the digital as something different, thencomputation can become a true method of design for architecture.
Peter Brady Computation works
Composition/ Generation In the history of architecture development, we have witnessed the geometry and symmetry style of Mies Van De Roheâ€™s building, and also seen the rise of highly dynamic streamlined architecture from Zaha Hadid. All of this should be attributed to humanâ€™s incessant exploration and application of computation. In todayâ€™s society, scripting programming software is ubiquitous and parametric design is in vogue, architects are more or less riding on the power of the computer technology. It is undeniable that computation brings great convenience to designers in many ways, at the same time, computation creates plenty of opportunities for designing. With the help of computation, building performance is analysed better, materials properties are easily to experiment, and the crazy design ideas get the chance to be achieved. Also, dulling this process, computation is gradually integrated into design even guide that design outcomes.
THE HYGROSKIN METEOROSENSITIVE PAVILION
Architect : Achim Menges The Hygroskin meteorosensitive pavilion, experimenting for six years, was exhibited in FRAC centre in France vividly demonstrating the new architecture of a combination of computer technology and computation design. The designer, Achim Menges, aimed to create a climate-responsive architecture without relying on elaborate technical equipment.
Living creatures, whether humans, animals or plants, have always been complex but fascinating individuals, and humans have studied them for a long time to simulate the ability applying to other objects to work autonomously like they do. Nature has evolved a great variety of dynamic systems interacting with climatic influences and Menges utilised this ability to achieve climate-responsiveness in architecture. In spruce cones, people are able to spectate an interesting moisture-driven movement, which happens through a passive response to humidity changes but not require any “sensoryk, system or motor function”.8 The building skin is applying natural material, wood, making use of its natural behaviour. When the building exposed to natural environment, the building skin will response when the micro climate and humidity changes. When the humidity increase, the “window” of the building will open up and eventually affecting the illumination and ventilation
movement between the building and outside environment. Computation design is applied when simulating the material movement and behaviour to achieve the best results. The envelope, which is also the load-bearing structure for the building, is been experimented for its elastic bending behaviour by computer to reach the shape applied today. For this architecture, it is not only showing the integration of material behaviour and design computation, but also reveal this is no longer an idealized goal but a feasible proposition. It also demonstrates how focusing the computational design process on material behaviour rather than geometric shape allows for an unfolding of performative capacities and material resourcefulness that expands the design space towards hitherto unexplored architectural possibilities.9
8, Architect, A. M., Krieg, A. D., Reichert, S., ‘HygroSkin-Meteorosensitive Pavilion’, (2013), <https://www.archdaily.com/424911/hygroskin-meteorosensitive-pavilion-achim-menges-architect-incollaboration-with-oliver-david-krieg-and-steffen-reichert> 9, Johnson, N., Chua, G., ‘Pavilion’s meteorosensitive architecture opens and closes in response to weather changes’, <https://www.architectureanddesign.com.au/news/pavilion-s-meteorosensitivearchitecture-opens-and>
ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAV I L I O N 2014 -15
Architect : ICD/ITKE Institute In 2014, The ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion was exhibited on campus showed people an unusual type of construction technology that combines the living habits of animals with the experimental capabilities of machines, and the results were quite gratifying.
The design teams studied and learnt from water spider on how they build underwater nests. Water spiders use clever technology to build a “submerged fibre-reinforced pneumatic habitat”, in simple terms, spiders build air bubbles in the water and reinforce the bubble from interior with fibre. This can be seen as extremely hard as the flowing water creates a dynamic environment for spider to operate. People are amazed at the control and adaptability animals have over the structure and dynamic change, and tried to apply this to machine. The natural production process shows how the adaptive fabrication strategies can be utilized to create efficient fiber-reinforced structures. For the transfer of this biological formation sequence into a building construction application, A process was developed in which an industrial robot is placed within an air supported membrane made of ETFE. By robotically reinforcing the inside with carbon fiber, it is gradually stiffened into a self-supporting monocoque structure.10 Initially, the geometry of the shell and the main fibre position have been calculated and supplied to the machine as the input of the algorithm. The robot has to go through the position, strength, and variation of the force coming from the sensor, to design for next step self-directly, so on and so forth, to reach the final shape. This project greatly challenged the flexibility and adaptability of the machine, and also tested the possibility and feasibility of machine in the architectural design independently. In the past, machines were considered to be extremely rational and unable to carry out creative actions. However, with the development of computer technology and the popularity of algorithms, machines have been given creative power. Compared to human beings, computation is more accurate in the calculation of data, and it can react faster in the face of flexible design factors.
10, Doerstelmann, M., Knippers, J., Koslowski, V., Menges, A., Prado, M., Schieber, G., & Vasey, L. ‘ICD/ITKE research pavilion 2014–15: Fibre placement on a pneumatic body based on a water spider web’. Architectural Design, 5 (2015), 60-65
Conclusion Part A of the journal demonstrate three ideas, Design Futuring, Design Computation and Composition/Generation. By learning from the precedents, we started to see the current trends of architecture and future development. With Design Computation, the architecture design has reached a new level that computation and algorithm were involved into design process and playing the essential part in determining the design outcomes. At the same time, computation has bringing lots of connivence towards human as it has great speed of calculation, better ability to handle shifting environment, and ability to simulate different situation. With help of these, architects get more freedom in the designing process and more crazy ideas are able to be achieved. For the future, more contexts are considered in architecture. Designers are learning, experimenting and self-improving from the surrounding. The precedents show us the creative thoughts and application that derivate from other creatures and the successful attempt.
Learning Outcomes Over the past three weeks of study, the lecture and precedents study had expend my understanding of architecture design. Initially, I did not understand how the parametric design works and how significant role parametric design and computation play. Computation and parametric design are largely in used in architecture design for its autonomy when facing challenges and ability of fast calculation. By learning the grasshopper, I am able to do some easy tasks which encourage me to challenge more. Grasshopper is a useful tool to deal with some simple parametric design at my stage, and it reveal a convenient and efficient way of designing creative objects. The precedents had provide lots of interesting ideas and inspiration to me. Now, I am looking forward to the next task and can not wait to have a go with actual design.
Appendix - Algorithmic Sketches
BIBLIOGRAPHY Anderson, Anthony B., and Clinton N. Jenkins. Applying nature’s design: corridors as a strategy for biodiversity conservation. (Columbia University Press 2006), p.189. Ants of the Prairie, ’10. Bat Tower’, (2010), <http://www.antsoftheprairie.com/?page_id=203> Architect, A. M., Krieg, A. D., Reichert, S., ‘HygroSkin-Meteorosensitive Pavilion’, (2013), <https:// www.archdaily.com/424911/hygroskin-meteorosensitive-pavilion-achim-menges-architect-incollaboration-with-oliver-david-krieg-and-steffen-reichert> Doerstelmann, M., Knippers, J., Koslowski, V., Menges, A., Prado, M., Schieber, G., & Vasey, L. ‘ICD/ITKE research pavilion 2014–15: Fibre placement on a pneumatic body based on a water spider web’. Architectural Design, 5 (2015), 60-65 Dpearea.files.wordpress.com. (2018). [online] Available at: https://dpearea.files.wordpress.com/2016/11/ morits-article_2.pdf [Accessed 10 Aug. 2018]. FAN, Zhong, et al. “Design and research of large-span steel structure for the National Stadium [J].” Journal of Building Structures 2 (2007): 000. Fan, Zhong, et al. “Simulation analysis on steel structure erection procedure of the National Stadium.” Jianzhu Jiegou Xuebao/Journal of Building Structures 28.2 (2007): 134-143. Fry, Tony, Design Futuring (London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2014) Hsu, C., ‘Architect Creates ‘Bat Tower’ at Local Sculpture Park’, (2010), <http://www.antsoftheprairie. com/?page_id=203> Johnson, N., Chua, G., ‘Pavilion’s meteorosensitive architecture opens and closes in response to weather changes’, <https://www.architectureanddesign.com.au/news/pavilion-s-meteorosensitivearchitecture-opens-and> Newalkar, R., ‘Sustainability through plant and animal ethics: Informing design for coexistence in a sustainable architectural environment’, (2016), <https://www.researchgate.net/profile/ Rucha_Newalk ar2/publication/314377656_Sustainability_through_plant_and_animal_ ethics_Informing_design_for_coexistence_in_a_sustainable_architectural_environment/ links/58c139624585156790277c2c/Sustainability-through-plant-and-animal-ethics-Informing-designfor-coexistence-in-a-sustainable-architectural-environment.pdf> Ovaskainen, Otso. “How to develop the nature conservation strategies for The Netherlands?.” De Levende Natuur. 2 (2013), 59-62. Oxman, Rivka, and Robert Oxman, Theories Of The Digital In Architecture, pp. 1-10 van der Ree, Rodney, Daniel J. Smith, and Clara Grilo. Handbook of road ecology. (John Wiley & Sons 2015). pp.172-176.