AIR

Tutor

Moyshie Elias

Haoyang Yu

ABPL30048 Architecture Design Studio

PART B

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Research Field 10

L-System 16

Bloom Project 18

Composition Design &Aggregation 42

Case Study 2.0 44

Technique Development 64

Technique Proposal 68

Learning Objectives &Outcomes 69

Appendix

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Design Journal

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B1

Genetics Nature has a miraculous ability to preserve good genes and impel creature to evolve stronger, more survivable. Based on Darwinianâ€™s theory of evolution, genetic algorithm simulates natural selection and survival of the fittest, and evolves the optimal solution to the problem through many generations of selection, crossover and mutation rules. Taking biological evolution as an example, biological evolution process is adopted by to solve this problem. The next generation of solutions are generated by copying, crossing and variation, and the solutions with low fitness function value will be gradually eliminated, thus increasing the solutions with high fitness function value. Over countless generations, it is possible to evolve individuals capable of adaptation. Genetic algorithm as an intelligent optimisation algorithm has been successfully applied in engineering. In recent years, with the development of generative design in the field of architecture, genetic algorithm has been introduced into the field of design to deal with optimisation and complexity problems in architectural design. Recursion, in mathematics and computer science, is a way of defining functions in which the functions defined are applied to its own definition. It usually turns a problem of large complex content into a similar problem of smaller scale to solve, the recursion strategy only require a small number of procedures to describe the problem solving process of repeatedly calculation, greatly reduces the amount of program operation. The ability of recursion is to define an infinite set of objects with finite statements. Generally speaking, recursion requires boundary conditions, recursion forward segment and recursion return segment. When the boundary conditions are not met, recursively advance, and return recursively when the boundary conditions are met.

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Design Journal

01

THE EMBRYOLOGICAL HOUSE

Architect : Greg Lynn

The Embryological house designed by American architect Greg Lynn in 1997 to 2002, is a recursive architecture project. Greg Lynnâ€™s embryological housing project proposes six prototype parental homes with different genetic characteristics. Through variation and natural selection of these prototypes, thousands of different houses can be produced. The idea was similar to the principle of nature development: the gene is transferred from parent to child, applying natural selection, and the

adoption of genes from the gene pool. Lynn reconsidered the concept of an artificial house, but shifting from a modular modernist form to an infinitely iterative form derived from the basic form. His goal is to design and manufacture houses that show diversity based on common management principles - â€œmass customisationâ€? to allow mass production of individual unique products at the same time. In the meanwhile, Lynn hopes that new features in computer-aided design and CNC manufacturing can support this design process. Lynn first used

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the Microstation software to establish the parameters of the embryological housing geometry, which are the original curves. Through a series of 12 control points connected to this basic geometry, he established the prescribed limit which the impractical design would be generated if it beyonds the limit. Then the generated geometry file is imported into Maya, a software that allows for smooth rendering surfaces. The physical model of the embryo chamber is made using prototype technology to test the designâ€™s compatibility with existing

manufacturing techniques. The materiality of his model is an important part of the creative process. For example, Lynn deliberately left traces of computer-controlled tools on the surface of the model, which will expose the means of manufacture used. CCA has physical entity models and digital files related to this project. While many of its iterations have been fully developed, allowing some measure of their build potential, but the architecture version of the build has yet to be built.

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Design Journal

01

PRIMITIVES

Architect : Aranda/Lasch

Primitives designed by Aranda and Lasch was exhibited in Venice Biennale in 2010. Aranda and Laschâ€™s algorithmic coding produces systems of identical geometrical shapes configured in a multitude of arrangement. The project is consisted of black and white loosely dispersed furniture elements that look like rock piles. Each element are composed of same universal building block but formed into unique composition. The beauty of recursive algorithms is that they can be used to generate intricate sculptural shapes, through a simple definition. The first iteration starts with an edge condition (an element, object or shape), which is

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not always defined recursively. Following iterations are defined by data loops, in which items are repeated in a self-similar way. Different structures are seen to arise from subtle variations of the function definition, creating forms reminiscent of plants, corals and micro-organisms. Recursive algorithm design had been largely used by Aranda and Lasch, it can be reveal in most of their projects.

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Design Journal

B 2A

L - System Since the 1960s, great progress has been made in the study of plant simulation, which has aroused the interest of many scholars. They have made extensive studies on the remarkable geometric properties of plants, such as the bilateral symmetry of leaves, the rotational symmetry of flowers, and the spiral arrangement of scales on pine cones. In 1968, the American biologist Aristid Lindermayer proposed the Lindermayer System, or L-system for short term, which was used to describe the mathematical model of plant growth. Its basic idea could be interpreted as an idealized process of tree growth, starting from one branch, producing more new branches, and all the branches will grow out twigs, finally growing leaves. As A typical example of fractal theory, l-system was proposed to describe system of trees from botanical point of view. Since then, many scholars have expanded and improved it and introduced computer graphics, forming many variants of l-system, such as random L-system, open L-system, parameter L-system, etc. L system can be infinitely nested, with high simplicity and multi-level structure. It provides an effective theory and method to describe the morphological and structural characteristics of the tree growth and proliferation process of plants, and has become the mainstream method of plant visual growth modeling.

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Design Journal

CELL- LIKE

AXIOM BRANCHES AD

AXIOM BRANCHES AB

AXIOM BRANCHES BC

AXIOM BRANCHES AD

AXIOM BRANCHES ABC

RULE SETS A=AC B=BD C=AC D=BD

RULE SETS A=AC B=BD C=AC D=BD

RULE SETS A=AC B=AB C=BD D=AD

RULE SETS A=AB B=AB C=CD D=CD

RULE SETS A=AC B=AB C=AC

AXIOM BRANCHES ABC

AXIOM BRANCHES AD

AXIOM BRANCHES ABCD

AXIOM BRANCHES ABC

AXIOM BRANCHES BC

RULE SETS A=ABC B=C C=AB

RULE SETS A=AC B=BD C=AC D=BD

RULE SETS A=BD B=AC C=BD D=AC

RULE SETS A=ABC B=AB C=BC

RULE SETS A=BC B=AD C=A D=BCD

NETWORK

HURRICANE

AXIOM BRANCHES C

AXIOM BRANCHES B

AXIOM BRANCHES A

AXIOM BRANCHES C

AXIOM BRANCHES AD

RULE SETS A=D B=BD C=BD D=ABD

RULE SETS A=CD B=AB C=CD D=A

RULE SETS A=BC B=AC C=B

RULE SETS A=AC B=BC C=AC

RULE SETS A=AC B=ABD C=AC D=BD

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AXIOM BRANCHES ABCD

AXIOM BRANCHES B

AXIOM BRANCHES A

AXIOM BRANCHES D

AXIOM BRANCHES C

RULE SETS A=AB B=BC C=CD D=AD

RULE SETS A=CD B=AB C=CD D=A

RULE SETS A=CD B=AB C=CD D=CD

RULE SETS A=AB B=D C=AC D=AD

RULE SETS A=D B=BD C=BD D=ABD

AXIOM BRANCHES AB

AXIOM BRANCHES ABCD

AXIOM BRANCHES CD

AXIOM BRANCHES A

AXIOM BRANCHES CD

RULE SETS A=BD B=AD C=AC D=AB

RULE SETS A=AD B=CD C=AB D=BC

RULE SETS A=AB B=CD C=CD D=AB

RULE SETS A=ABC B=BC C=AB

RULE SETS A=BC B=AD C=B D=AC

AXIOM BRANCHES AB

AXIOM BRANCHES C

AXIOM BRANCHES BD

AXIOM BRANCHES B

AXIOM BRANCHES BC

RULE SETS A=C B=AC C=CD D=CD

RULE SETS A=AB B=D C=AC D=BD

RULE SETS A=BD B=CD C=AB D=AC

RULE SETS A=CD B=AB C=BC D=A

RULE SETS A=ACD B=A C=BC D=BD

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Design Journal

FLAOTING TENTACLES

AXIOM BRANCHES D

AXIOM BRANCHES BD

AXIOM BRANCHES AD

AXIOM BRANCHES AC

AXIOM BRANCHES AB

RULE SETS A=AB B=D C=AC D=AD

RULE SETS A=AD B=CD C=BD D=AD

RULE SETS A=AB B=D C=AC D=AB

RULE SETS A=AB B=D C=AC D=AB

RULE SETS A=AB B=D C=AC D=AB

HALF-MOON

AXIOM BRANCHES BD

AXIOM BRANCHES AB

AXIOM BRANCHES C

AXIOM BRANCHES AD

AXIOM BRANCHES C

RULE SETS A=AB B=D C=AC D=AB

RULE SETS A=AB B=D C=AC D=AB

RULE SETS A=D B=BD C=BD D=ABD

RULE SETS A=AC B=ABD C=AC D=BD

RULE SETS A=AB B=D C=AC D=BD

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4

AXIOM BRANCHES BD

AXIOM BRANCHES BC

AXIOM BRANCHES A

AXIOM BRANCHES BC

AXIOM BRANCHES BD

RULE SETS A=AB B=D C=AC D=A

RULE SETS A=AC B=BD C=AC D=BD

RULE SETS A=AB B=D C=AC D=AD

RULE SETS A=AC B=D C=AC D=AB

RULE SETS A=AB B=D C=AC D=AB

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AXIOM BRANCHES BC

AXIOM BRANCHES AC

AXIOM BRANCHES BD

AXIOM BRANCHES AD

AXIOM BRANCHES BD

RULE SETS A=AC B=D C=AC D=AB

RULE SETS A=AB B=D C=AC D=AB

RULE SETS A=AB B=D C=AC D=A

RULE SETS A=AC B=BD C=AC D=BD

RULE SETS A=BD B=CD C=AB D=AC

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Design Journal

B 2B

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01

BLOOM

PROJECT

ARCHITECT : Alisa Andrasek / Jose Sanchez

The Bloom project was set up to celebrate the London 2012 paralympic games

and is an ongoing project that is still on exhibition. The toy is made up of three different modules or variants, and participants can choose to build a ring, a spiral, or a distributed branch to form this giant whole. The head of the structure is the long bench structure built by the designer as the seed, from which people start adding their own work and creating new sequences. The building is not a permanent fixture, but a display of unpredictable character and it is pretty interactive. The whole structure can be easily connected and easily dismantled and reused. In the process of designing each component, the designers used computer technology to control and experiment on the shape, which made it easy and cheap to explore the opportunities. Each individual has three points, and at those three points, they can be connected along their contours so that they can be compiled in both two and three dimensions, generating almost unlimited formal potential. As for the form prediction of the whole structure, the designer simulates the outcomes through recursive algorithm, and different results can be obtained simply by controlling the location, rotation and connection of the individual in the digital space. BLOOM is defined as a “ city toy,” “a distributed social game and collective” “gardening” “experience that seeks to engage people in cultivating a variety of forms. The project showed people the possibility of engaging in design, and took a very simple approach to appeal people to get involve in design. In terms of technology, the project demonstrates the advantages of applying recursive algorithm in the form finding in architecture.

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Design Journal

B 2C Component Desigen & Aggregation

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SEA SNAIL

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TWINE

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LEGUME

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WEEZING

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SNAKE

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PAPER PL ANE

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AXIOM BRANCHES D RULE SET A = CD B = AC C = ABC D = AB NUMBER OF GENERATION: 14

THIRD GENERATION SECOND GENERATION FIRST GENERATION

A B C D

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AXIOM BRANCHES C RULE SET A = BC B = AC C = ABC NUMBER OF GENERATION: 16

THIRD GENERATION SECOND GENERATION FIRST GENERATION

A B C

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AXIOM BRANCHES D RULE SET A = BCD B = ACD C = ABD D = ABC NUMBER OF GENERATION: 8

THIRD GENERATION SECOND GENERATION FIRST GENERATION

A B C D

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AXIOM BRANCHES ABC RULE SET A = BC B = ABC C = ABC NUMBER OF GENERATION: 10

THIRD GENERATION SECOND GENERATION FIRST GENERATION

A B C D

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1, set up the start point of aggregation which is the point aggregation start to grow 2. Set up L-shape polyline as the reference for the axiom handle and create plane along the shorter line of the axiom handle 3. Set up Secondary branches which are also drawn in L shape and create planes and the start point of secondary branches should be locate at the origin of axiom handleâ€™s plane

4. Reorient the axiom handle to the start point of aggregation by applying the vector created from the origin to start point 5 create plane along the short line of re-oriented axiom branch as the reference panel for following branches

6. Redraw heuristic handles to set up standard length for handles enable heuristic creation 7. Reorient initial branches by adding the vectors from end point of axiom to the start point of aggregation 8. create planes for re-orientation initial branches to serve as start plane for next generation.

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9. Applying preset number of generation and rule sets to simulate “tree growth” aggregation with the help of “Anemone” plug in.

10. set up component brep make it to mesh for quicker calculation and reference designed component to the axiom handle

11. Orient the component brep to the initial branches so that it will generate component along the initial branches. 12. Set up obstacles, any brep collide with obstacles(decided by surface closet point) will be delete and will not grow next generation. 13. Brep intersection will be determined, the delete rule is set to eliminate the subordinate brep.

B3

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Design Journal

AXIOM BRANCHES ABCD RULE SET NO.1 A=C B = AC C=B D =ABC NUMBER OF GENERATION: 25 This component is suitable for laser cut technology because the module is 2d and flat. The material will be MDF.

THIRD GENERATION SECOND GENERATION FIRST GENERATION

A B C D

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B4

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Design Journal

AXIOM BRANCHES C RULE SET NO.2 A = AD B = AC C = AB D = BD NUMBER OF GENERATION: 16 As the material is timber and the component is light and thin so the component can be slide into the gap of the component and joining agent such as pin or clear fishing lean will be used to secure the structure.

THIRD GENERATION SECOND GENERATION FIRST GENERATION

A B C D

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Design Journal

The size of the secondary component is determined by the height of secondary component to the ground. It is designed for a quiet gentle and soft outcome.

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Different from the first secondary component, this one is more peculiar to experiment various outcome. Contrast to the primary component, secondary component is solid and dynamic. The size of the secondary component is determined by the height from the component to the ground.

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AXIOM BRANCHES BC RULE SET NO.1 A = ACD B = AC C = AB D = ABC NUMBER OF GENERATION: 11 As this component is curved, so it will be better using 3D print technology. Also, for the material, silicone will be using for structure reason. The main structure are supported by several branches so that it requires high load bearing capacity material. The secondary component is spike whose orientation is determined by a certain point created before in the air. The size of the spike is decided by the height of each component.

THIRD GENERATION SECOND GENERATION FIRST GENERATION

A B C D

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AXIOM BRANCHES BCD RULE SET NO.1 A=C B = AB C = AC D =ABC NUMBER OF GENERATION: 25

THIRD GENERATION SECOND GENERATION FIRST GENERATION

A B C D

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B5

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Design Journal

Technique Proposal Lovell Chen Lounge is located at the west side of the

MSD building extruded from the second floor and suspended in the air. For such a long time, the existence of this area is not strong, as a study area, it does not show a great potential. The red desk is not suitable for students to study and the natural light brought by the huge glass window is not controllable in the daytime. Such an environment is not comfortable for studying. However, my design idea is take over the space make the structure strongly occupied this space, forming a relatively closed environment for students to relax and rest between classes. Large glass Windows provide ample light and interact with the entire structure and produce interesting light and shadow to add dynamics into this boring space. The wild growing canopy extends out from the lounge and takes over the aerial space and merged with the surroundings rather than work as a rigid exhibit structure. I am expecting this structure can provide student a fancy space to rest and â€œdreamingâ€œ.

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B7

Learning Outcomes These weeks of l-system study have greatly improved

my computer skills, especially for grasshopper. The study of recursive algorithm and genetic architecture gave me a deeper understanding of architecture. Architecture is no longer a design based on personal preference, but integrated with computer technology, and human make use of genetic algorithm in architectural design to achieve the purpose of screening, which is more rational and accurate. The concept of screening by â€œgeneâ€? is unfamiliar and hard to understand for me by now, but it enrich my understanding towards architecture. L-system enables me to experiment with new design techniques and methods and interesting forms can be implemented by simple algorithm. I am looking forward to learning more afterwards, so that I can have more design skills.

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B8 Appendix - Algorithmic Sketches

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Design Journal

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CONTOUR

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TREE

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