{' '} {' '}
Limited time offer
SAVE % on your upgrade.

Page 1

TEXTILE & REVIEW LEATHER

4/2019 Volume 2 Issue 4 2019 textile-leather.com ISSN 2623-6257 (Print) ISSN 2623-6281 (Online)


TEXTILE & REVIEW LEATHER Editor-in-Chief

Dragana Kopitar, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Croatia

Assistant Editor

Ivana Schwarz, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Croatia

Managing Editor

Davor Jokić, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Croatia

Director & Editor

Srećko Sertić, Seniko studio Ltd., Croatia

Editorial Advisory Board

Emriye Perrin Akçakoca Kumbasar, Ege University, Faculty of Engineering, Turkey Tuba Bedez Üte, Ege University, Faculty of Engineering, Turkey Mirela Blaga, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Textiles, Leather and Industrial Management, Romania Andrej Demšar, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Slovenia Krste Dimitrovski, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Slovenia Ante Gavranović, Economic Analyst, Croatia Ana Marija Grancarić, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Croatia Huseyin Kadoglu, Ege University, Faculty of Engineering, Turkey Fatma Kalaoglu, Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Textile Technologies and Design, Turkey Hüseyin Ata Karavana, Ege University, Faculty of Engineering, Turkey Ilda Kazani, Polytechnic University of Tirana, Department of Textile and Fashion, Albania Vladan Končar, Gemtex – Textile Research Laboratory, Ensait, France Stana Kovačević, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Croatia Aura Mihai, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Textiles, Leather and Industrial Management, Romania Jacek Mlynarek, CTT Group – Textiles, Geosynthetics & Flexibles Materials, Canada Abhijit Mujumdar, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India Monika Rom, University of Bielsko-Biala, Institute of Textile Engineering and Polymer Materials, Poland Venkatasubramanian Sivakumar – CSIR – Central Leather Research Institute, Chemical Engineering Department, India Pavla Těšinová, Technical university of Liberec, Faculty of Textile Engineering, Czech Republic Savvas Vassiliadis, Piraeus University of Applied Sciences, Department of Electronics Engineering, Greece

Language Editor

Jelena Grbavec, Croatia

Technical Editor / Layout

Marina Sertić, Seniko studio Ltd., Croatia

Editorial Office / Publisher - Textile & Leather Review Seniko studio Ltd., Nove Rašljice 2, 10090 Zagreb, Croatia Tel: +385 1 3499 034 Fax: +385 1 3499 034 E-mail: editorial@textile-leather.com URL: www.textile-leather.com

Textile & Leather Review ‒ ISSN 2623-6257 (Print), ISSN 2623-6281 (Online) UDC 677+675 DOI: https://doi.org/10.31881/TLR Frequency: 4 Times/Year The annual subscription (4 issues). Printed in 300 copies Published by Seniko studio d.o.o., Zagreb, Croatia Full-text available in open access at www.textile-leather.com


TEXTILE & LEATHER REVIEW ISSN 2623-6257 (Print)

ISSN 2623-6281 (Online) CROATIA

VOLUME 2

ISSUE 4

2019

p. 169-212

CONTENT ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE 174-182

The Effect of Single and Dual-Core Yarns Produced with Different Core Materials on the Elasticity and Recovery Properties of Denim Fabrics Tuba Bedez Ute, Huseyin Kadoglu

183-195

Design and Computer Construction of Structural Sleeve Forms for Women’s Clothing Jelena Marjanović, Slavenka Petrak, Maja Mahnić Naglić, Martinia Ira Glogar

196-204

Localino T-shirt: The Real-time Indoor Localization in Ambient Assisted Living Applications Stefania Dhamo, Erjula Sinanaj, Stelios A. Mitilineos, Ilda Kazani, Panagiotis Papageorgas, Ilias Skouras, Savvas Vassiliadis

NOTICE 205-206

International Conference on Intelligent Textiles & Mass Customisation – ITMC 2019 Ivana Schwarz, Dragana Kopitar


shoe.com GmbH & Co. KG Ferenc Vasadi . + 36 (0) 30 94 69 123 . ferenc.vasadi@soliver-shoes.com


BEDEZ UTE T, KADOGLU H, The Effect of Single and Dual-Core... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 174-182.

The Effect of Single and Dual-Core Yarns Produced with Different Core Materials on the Elasticity and Recovery Properties of Denim Fabrics Tuba BEDEZ UTE*, Huseyin KADOGLU Ege University, Engineering Faculty, Textile Engineering Department, 35040, Bornova/Ä°zmir, Turkey * tuba.bedez@ege.edu.tr Original scientific article UDC 677.022 DOI: 10.31881/TLR.2019.10 Received 26 November 2018; Accepted 27 November 2019; Published 6 December 2019

ABSTRACT Elastic structures are preferred for improving the elasticity and recovery of the fabrics. Bagging, which is a three-dimensional fabric deformation, is an undesirable appearance of fabrics. The lack of dimensional stability or recovery after pressure on the fabrics causes bagging deformation. In recent years, denim manufacturers prefer double-core yarns to cope with the problem of bagging. In this study, various types of weft yarns were produced by using different core materials in different combinations. Double-core and single-core ring-spun yarns (Ne 18, ae 4,4) were used as weft yarns in weaving. Yarn and fabric samples were conditioned under standard atmospheric conditions and measured according to the related test standards. Yarns were tested and evaluated for important physical and mechanical properties such as evenness, imperfections, tenacity, breaking elongation, hairiness and yarn liveness. For denim fabric samples, all tests were performed after 3 consecutive domestic washing processes. Test results showed that there are significant differences between fabric properties depending on the weft yarn characteristics. By using double-core weft yarns in denim fabric production, consumers can have stretch jeans for improving body movement comfort while exhibiting low growth and shrinkage values. KEYWORDS Core yarns, double-core yarns, elasticity, recovery, bagging, denim

INTRODUCTION Consumers want to look good and feel comfortable in their clothes. The minimum elasticity requirements of the fabrics can be determined with the values of stretch that are encountered during sitting, bending or flexing of knees, hips and elbows. While body is standing at rest, the stretching value is zero and during different actions, back flex is 13-16%, elbow flex (lengthwise) is 35-40%, seat flex is 25-30% and knee flex (lengthwise) is about 35-45%. So, for improving body movement comfort in denim jeans, at least 10-35% elasticity is needed. The amount of extension depends on the end use of the fabric. The percentage of the stretch for loose fitting (comfort stretch) is 30% in course way - 15% in wale way while it is 60% in course way - 35% in wale way for form fitting (semi-support). This is generally accomplished by incorporating elastic fibres into the yarn structure [1]. Depending on body movements, the three-dimensional deformation

174 www.textile-leather.com


BEDEZ UTE T, KADOGLU H, The Effect of Single and Dual-Core... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 174-182.

occurring in certain parts (knee, elbow etc.) of the garments, known as bagging, is an undesirable appearance [2]. The lack of dimensional instability or recovery after prolonged or repeated pressure on the fabrics causes bagging deformation [3]. In recent years, double-core yarns have begun to be produced, especially for denim jeans, to overcome the mentioned problem. Core-spun yarns consist of two different components; a staple sheath and a filament core. If the core filament is an elastic polyurethane filament, it is known as “soft-core yarn” whereas if it is a rigid filament, yarns are known as “hard-core (rigid) yarn” on the market. In recent years, alternatively, multicomponent core-spun yarns, called double-core yarns, are developed in order to cope with the recovery problems of elastane. Double-core (dual-core) yarns are composed of three components; an elastic polyurethane filament (such as Lycra®, Creora® or Inviya® I-300) and a multifilament (such as Lycra® T400®) that are used in the core, which is then covered by a staple sheath. Double-core yarns are used for high quality denim fabrics [4]. Typically, as fabric stretch increases, the tendency for fabric growth or shrinkage increases as well. However, with double-core yarns, by combining elastane and multifilament, higher elasticity and recovery, lower growth and shrinkage values can be achieved [5]. Although it has high production costs compared to soft-core yarns, double-core spun yarns are preferred because of the high value-added denim jeans. Many researchers have been focused on core-spun yarn properties [6-10]. Sarıoğlu and Babaarslan investigated the effects of different filament fineness and yarn count on fatigue behavior of rigid core-spun yarns containing PET textured filament yarn [11]. Telli et al., focused on the usage of core and double-core yarns containing tungsten for electromagnetic shielding [12]. Akankwasa et al. focused on the mechanical properties of cotton/T400® knitted fabrics and reported that fabrics knitted from cotton/T400® yarns are advantageous in breaking elongation, bursting strength and air permeability compared to 100% cotton yarns [13]. Cataloglu stated that, alternative to elastane, using bi-component polyester fibres and poly butylene terephthalate (PBT) has inspired interest with regarding to higher strength due to better chemical resistance, better recovery, dimensional stability and elasticity properties [14]. Sarıoğlu et al. analysed the effect of the false-twist textured polyester-filament yarns with different filament fineness, used as a core component of composite yarn on residual torque [15]. Denim fabrics were produced by using multifilament polyester yarns with different filament numbers and it was reported that yarns that have higher filament number might be problematic concerning elasticity, growth and elastic recovery [16]. Ertaş et al. analysed the effect of the density changes in the use of the double-core threads used in denim fabrics [17]. Bedez Ute analysed the mechanical and dimensional properties of the denim fabrics produced with double-core and core-spun weft yarns with different weft densities [18]. In another study, they investigated the effects of elastane linear density on the mechanical properties of double-core and single-core yarns, spun with different core materials [19]. Many researchers have examined the bagging properties of the fabrics. Ozdil evaluated stretch and bagging properties of denim fabrics containing different rates of elastane [20]. El-Ghezal et al. focused on the effect of elastane ratio and the finishing process on the elasticity of denim made of weft yarns that were cotton covered core-spun yarns containing elastane, having the same twist factor and various elastane ratios [21]. The performance of stretch denim fabrics under the effect of repeated home laundering practices was studied by Kan et al. [22]. Doustar et al. investigated the effect of weave design and fabric weft density on the bagging tendency of woven fabrics using FAST system [23]. In this study, the effects that weft yarn type (double-core, soft-core and hard-core) and core material have on the elasticity and recovery properties of the denim fabrics were investigated.

www.textile-leather.com 175


BEDEZ UTE T, KADOGLU H, The Effect of Single and Dual-Core... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 174-182.

EXPERIMENTAL Materials and Methods With the aim of determining the effect of core material and core yarn production methods on the elasticity and recovery properties of denim fabrics, different types of weft yarns were produced. Double-core and core-spun yarns were used as weft yarns in weaving. Core-spun yarns were produced with two components; a staple sheath (cotton) and a filament core (EME, PES or elastan). Double-core (dual-core) yarns were produced from three components; elastane filament and a multifilament (EME or PES) used in the core, covered by a staple sheath (cotton) (Figure 1). The fineness of the first core (elastane) and the second core (PES or EME) are 44 dtex and 55 dtex, respectively. Their draft ratios are 3,4 and 1,06, respectively. 100% cotton Ne 10/1 Ring slub warp yarns were processed in a conventional denim process; which includes rope TUBA BEDEZ UTE, HUSEYIN KADOGLU. The effect of single and dual core... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 00-00. dyeing, rope opening, sizing etc.

Figure yarn spinning spinningsystem system Figure1.1.Double-core Double-core yarn Table 1. Different weft yarns used in denim fabric production Code

Yarn type

Core type

1st core material

2nd core material

D1

Soft core

Double core

Elastane

PES

D2

Soft core

Double core

Elastane

EME

C1

Soft core

Single core

Elastane

-

C2

Hard core

Single core

-

EME

C3

Hard core

Single core

-

PES

The weaving process was performed with five different weft yarns (Table 1) and the other production parameters were kept constant. Twill 3/1 woven fabrics were treated according to standard denim finishing procedures. Denim fabric production process parameters are given in Table 2.

176 www.textile-leather.com


BEDEZ UTE T, KADOGLU H, The Effect of Single and Dual-Core... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 174-182.

Table 2. Denim fabric production parameters Production parameter

Specifications

Warp yarn specifications

Ne 10/1 Ring slub warp yarn, αe 4.3, 100% cotton Number of warp yarns: 4536

Weft yarn specifications

Ne 18 Ring double-core/ core weft yarn, αe:4.4, Elastane draft ratio: 3.4 PES and EME draft ratio: 1,06 Sheath material: 100% cotton

Weave type

Twill 3/1 Z

Weft density

20 weft/cm

Reed type

60,8x4, ( The reed number is 60,8 dent/10cm, 4 end/ dent), Fabric width: 170 cm

Fabric finishing process

Washing-(desizing) (80C° with dispersing agent) –drying Finishing (50 g/l PE emulsion+15 g/l nonionic softener+2 gr citric acid for ph) Sanforizing (110C° ~10 sec)

Yarn and fabric samples were conditioned under standard atmospheric conditions (65 ±2% RH, 21 ±1C°) and measured according to the related test standards. Yarns were tested and evaluated for important physical and mechanical properties such as evenness, imperfections, tenacity, breaking elongation, hairiness and yarn liveness. Yarn uniformity, the IPI values and yarn hairiness were measured on Uster Tester 5, tensile properties were measured with Uster Tensorapid 4. Fabrics’ weight, elasticity, growth and recovery properties were measured before and after three home laundering cycles [24]. Fabric test methods are given in Table 3. Table 3. Denim fabric tests and methods TEST NAME

TEST METHOD

UNWASHED / WASHED

Weight (g/m2)

ASTM-D 3776-96

UNWASHED & WASHED(3HL)

Elasticitiy & Growth

ASTM-D 3107-Modified (Weight 3lb)

WASHED(3HL)

Recovery

ASTM-D 3107-Modified (Weight 5lb )

WASHED(3HL)

3 Home Laundery (3HL)

Based on AATCC-135 but Washed in 3*60C’

WASHED(3HL)

*UW: Unwashed (before finishing treatment), W: Washed and finished

Fabric samples are prepared according to the test method, shown in Table 4, figures a and b. The apparatus used is a stretch testing instrument, which consists of a part with a fixed clamp at the top and a separate clamp to attach the weight at the bottom of the test sample. Two lines with the distance of 25 cm are marked on the sample (O1) and then stretched under tension for a certain time (Table 4, figure c). A mass of 3 lbs (1.35 kg) was used for applying tension to the denim fabric specimen so as to determine the fabric stretch and fabric growth after applying specific tension. Initially, the specimen is cycled three times to the fixed load with each cycle taking 5 s and then the load is hanged for 30 minutes (Table 4, figure d). After applying tension for 30 min (Table 4, figure e), the resulting distance between the lines is measured, which is A (mm). After the tension is removed and allowing 60 minutes for relaxation, fabric growth is found by measuring the relaxed distance between the lines: distance B (mm). Calculations are explained with an example in Table 4.

www.textile-leather.com 177


BEDEZ UTE T, KADOGLU H, The Effect of Single and Dual-Core... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 174-182.

Table 4. The test method and calculations for measuring fabric stretch (elasticity) and growth Calculations

An example

Fabric specimen O1 = 25 cm Fabric stretch: 30 min after applying tension 100 × (A ‒ O1) e= (%) O1

e = 20 %

Fabric growth (residual extension): 60 min after relaxation l=

l=4%

100 × (B ‒ O1) (%) O1

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The effects of the core material and weft yarn characteristics on the yarn evenness, yarn hairiness, breaking strength and elongation values, as well as the fabric test results, are given in Table 5 and Table 6. Weft and warp shrinkage values were measured after 3 home launderings. Table 5. Physical and tensile properties of the weft yarns used in denim fabric production Thin places -40 %

Thick places +50 %

Number of neps

Uster H

Uster CV %

Tenacity cN/tex (CV %)

Breaking elongation % (CV %)

2

17

17

5,72

8,5

16,73 (6,55)

9,52 (6,57)

7

11

5,64

7,5

15,96 (5,61)

10,41 (5,43)

6

11

5,79

8,4

16,47 (5,51)

8,84 (6,69)

C2

9

12

5,82

8,1

16,78 (8,26)

8,78 (16,04)

C3

20

17

5,69

8,6

16,5 (11,91)

8,12 (11,88)

Code D1 D2 C1

4

Yarn strength, hairiness, evenness and IPI values of different weft yarns were close to each other and doublecore spun yarns containing elastane & EME showed the lowest yarn unevenness, hairiness and strength but the highest breaking elongation values. Similar results were found in the previous studies [15].

178 www.textile-leather.com


TUBA BEDEZ UTE, HUSEYIN KADOGLU. The effect of single and dual core... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 00-00.

BEDEZ UTE T, KADOGLU H, The Effect of Single and Dual-Core... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 174-182. Weft Code

density/cm* UW*

D1 Code D2

Warp

Fabric weight 2

density/cm

W*

UW*

(gr/m )

W*

UW*

Weft density/cm* Warp density/cm 19,7 22 26,8 30 257

19,7

21,3

26,2

Warp

No of weft

shrinkage

shrinkage

breaks/ 100.000

Table 6. Denim fabric tests results W* Fabric weight 307 2) (gr/m

19,5 UW* 22 W* 26,9UW* 32,3 W* 254 UW* 319 W* C1 20 22 27,3 33 256 312 D1 19,7 22 26,8 30 257 307 C2 19,3 19,2 26,5 29 248 260 D2 19,5 22 26,9 32,3 254 319 C3 19,7 21,3 26,2 27,7 245 272 C1 20 22 27,3 33 256 312 *UW: Unwashed (before finishing treatment), W: Washed and finished C2 19,3 19,2 26,5 29 248 260 C3

Weft

27,7

245

(%)

Weft -15,23 shrinkage -12,53(%)

(%) Warp -1,23 shrinkage -2,8(%)

-24,2 -15,23 -0,0046 -12,53 0,0043 -24,2

-3,2 -1,23 -9,8 -2,8 -2,46 -3,2

1 1,2 3,1 4 5 1

-0,0046

-9,8

3,1

0,0043

-2,46

5

272

weft No1,2 of weft breaks/ 100.000 4 weft

WeftUnwashed and warp densities of treatment), the fabricsW:and fabric *UW: (before finishing Washed andweight finishedincreased after washing. Denim fabrics’ weight values, woven with different weft yarns, were close to each other before washing, but after washing, Weft and warp densities of had the the fabrics andand fabric after washing. Denim weight the fabrics containing EME lowest theweight EME + increased elastane based double-core weftfabrics’ yarns had the values, woven with different weft yarns, were close to each other before washing, but after washing, the highest values. As expected, due to higher weft shrinkage values, fabrics produced with weft yarns fabrics containing EME had the lowest and the EME + elastane based double-core weft yarns had the highest containing elastane due havetohigher weight and weft & warpproduced densities with than weft hard-core weft yarns.elasIt is values. As expected, higherfabric weft shrinkage values, fabrics yarns containing tane have higher weight andweft weft breaks & warpwere densiti es than hard-core weft yarns. is remarkable that remarkable that fabric in general more observed when hard-core weft Ityarns were used in in general more weft breaks were observed when hard-core weft yarns were used in the producti on of the production of denim fabric. denim fabric. Unwashed 52

50,8

Washed

52,8 49,4

34,6

33,8

16,8

D1

D2

Double core

C1 Soft core

12

17

C2

9,2

C3 Hard core

Figure 2.2. Elasticity producedwith withdifferent differentweft weftyarns yarns Figure Elasticity(e(e%) %)values valuesofofthe thedenim denim fabric fabric produced

Before weft yarns containing EME hadhad the the lowest fabric elastielasticity city and Before washing, washing,denim denimfabrics fabricswoven wovenwith with weft yarns containing EME lowest fabric soft-core weft yarns containing elastane had the highest fabric elasticity (Figure 2). After washing, elasticity and soft-core weft yarns containing elastane had the highest fabric elasticity (Figure 2). After washing, values of all the samples decreased and again denim fabrics produced with soft-core yarns showed the elasticity values of all the samples decreased again weft denim fabrics produced soft-core highest elasti city values, whereas fabrics having and core-spun yarns containing PESwith filament in theyarns core showedthe thelowest highest elasticity values, The whereas fabrics having weftwoven yarnswith containing PES showed values, as expected. elasticity values of thecore-spun denim fabrics double-core yarns are in found than thethe elasti city values theexpected. fabrics woven with soft-core higher filament the lower core showed lowest values,ofas The elasticity valuesyarns, of thealthough denim fabrics than the elasticity values of the fabrics woven with hard-core weft yarns.

www.textile-leather.com 179


woven with double-core yarns are found lower than the elasticity values of the fabrics woven with softBEDEZ UTE T, although KADOGLU higher H, The Effect of Single and Dual-Core... TEXTfabrics LEATHwoven REV 2 (4) 2019 174-182. weft yarns. core yarns, than the elasticity values of the with hard-core

6,8

7,8 6,4 3,6

D1

D2

Double core

C1 Soft core

4,4

C2

C3 Hard core

Figure Growth(l/%) (l/%)values valuesofofthe thedenim denim fabric fabric produced Figure 3.3.Growth producedwith withdifferent differentweft weftyarns yarns

However, city of enough for for customer customer satisfaction satisfaction alone, alone, growth growthvalues values However, the the high high elasti elasticity of the the fabrics fabrics is is not not enough should also be at the desired level. The growth values of the denim fabrics woven with double-core yarns should also be at the desired level. The growth values of the denim fabrics woven with double-core are found lower than the growth values of the fabrics woven with soft-core yarns. On the other hand, denim yarns are found with lower than theweft growth of thegrowth fabricsvalues woven with yarns. On the other fabrics produced hard-core yarnsvalues have lower than thesoft-core fabrics produced with doublecore and soft-core weftproduced yarns (Figure Fabrics containing softhave -corelower weft yarns showed highest hand, denim fabrics with3).hard-core weft yarns growth valuesthethan the growth fabrics values whereas based core-spun weft yarns showed the lowest values. produced with EME double-core and soft-core weft yarns (Figure 3). Fabrics containing soft-core weft yarns

showed the highest growth values whereas EME based core-spun weft yarns showed the lowest values.

CONCLUSION

Modern consumers want to look good and feel comfortable in their clothes. For this reason, they expect CONCLUSION them, especially denim jeans, to provide body movement comfort, allow freedom of movement, reduce Modern consumers to look goodcontrary and feeltocomfortable in their clothes. For years, this reason, burden and body shaping. The want opposite is actually the spirit of denim jeans. In recent denim manufacturers preferespecially double-core yarnsjeans, because provide elasti city with the reducedallow bagging problem. they expect them, denim tothey provide body movement comfort, freedom of In this study, the effects of weft yarn type (double-core, soft-core and hard-core) and core material on the movement, reduce burden and body shaping. The opposite is actually contrary to the spirit of denim elasticity and recovery properties of denim fabrics were investigated. It can be concluded that, by using jeans. In recent years, denim manufacturers prefer double-core yarns because they provide elasticity double-core weft yarns in denim fabric production, consumers can have stretch jeans with improved body with the reduced problem. In this that study, the effects of weft type values (double-core, soft-core movement comfortbagging (more than 30% stretch) exhibit low growth and yarn shrinkage at the same time. Although double-core yarnsmaterial have higher on costs compared soft-core yarns, they are preferred and hard-core) and core on producti the elasticity and recoverytoproperties of denim fabrics were in high quality denim jeans since they give satisfactory results in terms of both appearance and comfort. investigated. It can be concluded that, by using double-core weft yarns in denim fabric production,

consumers can have stretch jeans with improved body movement comfort (more than 30% stretch) that Acknowledgments exhibit low andour shrinkage values at the time. Although double-core yarns have higher We would likegrowth to present thanks to the Scienti fic same and Technological Research Council of Turkey-TÜBİTAK, Project number: 116M687 for its financial support.

REFERENCES [1]

Saville BP. Physical testing of textiles. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing; 1999.

[2]

Şengöz NG. Bagging in textiles. Textile Progress [Internet]. 2004;36(1):1-64. Available from: https:// www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1533/jotp.36.1.1.59475 doi: 10.1533/jotp.36.1.1.59475

[3]

Uçar N, Realff ML, Radhakrishnaiah P, Ucar M. (2002). Objective and subjective analysis of knitted fabric bagging. Textile Research Journal [Internet]. 2002;72(11):977-982. Available from: https://journals. sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/004051750207201108 doi: 10.1177/004051750207201108

180 www.textile-leather.com


BEDEZ UTE T, KADOGLU H, The Effect of Single and Dual-Core... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 174-182.

[4] tekstil & teknik. Fashionable dual core yarns: Perfectly spliced and wound [Internet]. Available from: http://www.tekstilteknik.com.tr/fashionable-dual-core-yarnsperfectly-spliced-wound/ [5] Lycra. Lycra dualfx technology [Internet]. Available from: https://connect.lycra.com/en/Technologiesand-Innovations/Woven-Fabric-Technologies/dualFX [6] Su CI, Maa MC, Yang HY. Structure and Performance of Elastic Core-Spun Yarn. Textile Research Journal [Internet]. 2004;74(7):607-610. Available from: https://journals.sagepub.com/ doi/10.1177/004051750407400709 doi: 10.1177/004051750407400709 [7] Vuruskan D, Babaarslan O, Ilhan I. Effect of Production Parameters on Strength and Elongation of the Selected Yarns Containing Elastane. Tekstil ve Konfeksiyon. 2011;21(1):22-29. [8] Babaarslan O. Method of Producing a Polyester/Viscose Core-Spun Yarn Containing Spandex Using a Modified Ring Spinning Frame. Textile Research Journal [Internet]. 2001;71(4):367-371. Available from: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/004051750107100415 doi: 10.1177/004051750107100415 [9] Celik HI, Kaynak HK. An investigation on effect of elastane draw ratio on air permeability of denim fabrics. in: Autex - Shaping the Future of Textiles; 29-31 May 2017; Corfu, Greece. [10] Qadir MB, Hussain T, Malik M, Ahmad F, Jeong SH. Effect of elastane linear density and draft ratio on the physical and mechanical properties of core-spun cotton yarns. The Journal of The Textile Institute [Internet]. 2014;105(7):753-759. Available from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0040 5000.2013.848045 doi: 10.1080/00405000.2013.848045 [11] Sarıoğlu E, Babaarslan O. Fatigue behaviour of core-spun yarns containing filament by means of cyclic dynamic loading. in: Autex - Shaping the Future of Textiles; 29-31 May 2017; Corfu, Greece. [12] Telli A, Daşan Y, Babaarslan O, Karaduman S. Usage of Core and Dual-Core Yarns Containing Tungsten for Electromagnetic Shielding. Advance Research in Textile Engineering. 2017;2(1). [13] Akankwasa NT, Jun W, Yuze Z, Mushtag M. Properties of cotton/T400 and 100%cotton plain knitted fabric made from ring spun yarn. Materials Sceince & Engineering Technology [Internet]. 2014;45(11):10391044. Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/mawe.201400246 doi: 10.1002/ mawe.201400246 [14] Cataloğlu A. A study on elasticity and growth properties of elastane composed denim fabrics [msc thesis] Ege University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences; 2007. [15] Sarıoğlu E, Babaarslan O, Ertek Avcı M. Effect of Filament Fineness on Composite Yarn Residual Torque. AUTEX Research Journal [Internet]. 2018;18(1). Available from: https://www.degruyter.com/ dg/viewarticle/j$002faut.2018.18.issue-1$002faut-2016-0036$002faut-2016-0036.xml doi: 10.1515/ aut-2016-0036 [16] Babaarslan O, Telli A, Karaduman S. Effect of Microfilament Yarns on the Performance Properties of Denim Fabrics. Tekstil ve Mühendis [Internet]. 2015;22(99):7-14. Available from: http://www.tekstilvemuhendis. org.tr/en/2015_-volume-22-/99/effect_of_microfilament_yarns_on_the_performance_properties_ of_denim_fabrics--doi-_10-7216-130075992015229902 doi: 10.7216/130075992015229902 [17] Ertaş OG, Ünal BZ, Çelik N. Analyzing the effect of the elastane-containing dual-core weft yarn density on the denim fabric performance properties. The Journal of The Textile Institute [Internet]. 2016;107(1):116126. Available from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00405000.2015.1016319 doi: 10.1080/00405000.2015.1016319 [18] Bedez Ute T. Analysis of mechanical and dimensional properties of the denim fabrics produced with double-core and core-spun weft yarns with different weft densities. The Journal of The Textile Institute [Internet]. 2019;110(2):179-185. Available from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0040 5000.2018.1470451 doi: 10.1080/00405000.2018.1470451

www.textile-leather.com 181


BEDEZ UTE T, KADOGLU H, The Effect of Single and Dual-Core... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 174-182.

[19] Bedez Ute T, Kadoglu H. The effects of core material parameters on the mechanical properties of double-core and single-core spun yarns. İn: Aegean International Textile and Advanced Engineering Conference AITAE 2018; 5-7 Sep 2018; Mytilene, Lesvos, Greece. [20] Özdil N. Stretch and Bagging Properties of Denim Fabrics Containing Different Rates of Elastane. Fibres and Textiles in Eastern Europe [Internet]. 2008;66(1):63-67. Available from: http://www.fibtex.lodz.pl/ article105.html [21] El-Ghezal S, Babay A, Dhouib S, Cheikhrouhou M. Study of the impact of elastane’s ratio and finishing process on the mechanical properties of stretch denim. The Journal of The Textile Institute [Internet]. 2007;100(3):245-253. Available from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/ abs/10.1080/00405000701757925 doi: 10.1080/00405000701757925 [22] Kan CW, Yuen CWM. Evaluation of the performance of stretch denim fabric under the effect of repeated home laundering processes. International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education [Internet]. 2009;2(2-3):71-79. Available from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17543260903302329 doi: 10.1080/17543260903302329 [23] Doustar K, Shaikhzadeh Najar S, Maroufi M. The effect of weave design and fabric weft density on bagging behavior of cotton woven fabrics. The Journal of The Textile Institute [Internet]. 2009;101(2):135142. Available from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00405000802309584 doi: 10.1080/00405000802309584 [24] ASTM D 3107- Standard Test Methods for Stretch Properties of Fabrics Woven from Stretch Yarns [Internet]. 2019. Available from: https://www.astm.org/Standards/D3107.htm

182 www.textile-leather.com


MARJANOVIC J et al., Design and Computer Construction of Structural... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 183-195.

Design and Computer Construction of Structural Sleeve Forms for Women’s Clothing Jelena MARJANOVIĆ, Slavenka PETRAK, Maja MAHNIĆ NAGLIĆ, Martinia Ira GLOGAR University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Prilaz baruna Filipovica 28a, Zagreb, Croatia marjanovicjelena87@gmail.com slavenka.petrak@ttf.hr maja.mahnic@ttf.hr martinia.glogar@ttf.hr Original scientific article UDC 687.12:004.896 DOI: 10.31881/TLR.2019.29 Received 22 March 2019; Accepted 19 July 2019; Published Online 26 July 2019; Published 6 December 2019

ABSTRACT The paper presents the research of the development process of a unique women’s clothing collection with complex, structural sleeve forms. Using the 2D/3D CAD systems for computer clothing design, 15 models of women’s clothing with structural sleeve forms were constructed and modeled. Textile patterns were also computer-designed, as a preparation for digital printing on cutting parts of a particular clothing models. The computer clothing design included all the segments of the computer 3D prototype development, with the purpose of investigating the possibilities of modeling and 3D simulations of complex sleeve structures, which in the real manufacturing process require additional fixation of cutting parts. The influence of 3D simulation parameters, in correlation with the applied physical and mechanical properties of textile material, was investigated in order to achieve complex 3D forms of simulated clothing models. Color and textile patterns variations of computerdesigned 3D models were developed with the purpose of achieving a realistic visualization of the designed clothing collection. Original prototypes were made for two selected models from the collection, with computerdesigned textile patterns applied on a model using digital printing technology. KEYWORDS Sleeves, high fashion, 2D/3D CAD system, computer clothing design, digital print

INTRODUCTION The sleeve, as an element of clothing, definitely has a special significance in the fashion history. Through the past, sleeves have changed their shape in line with fashion trends that have marked certain historical periods [1,2]. By exploring the history of the sleeves, an insight into a complete picture of very different shapes and sleeves is made, conditioned by technical possibilities and knowledge of the particular historical period and the rules of dressing and decorating within social communities of a certain time [3,4]. In the haute couture, design of sleeves, as well as the design of a complete garment item, can be very complex considering block pattern modeling process and manufacturing technology, with the aesthetic component as primary, while the functionality of the model can be reduced [5]. The role of today’s haute couture designers is to generate publicity with its extreme and avantgard and to provide inspiration for simplified,

www.textile-leather.com 183


MARJANOVIC J et al., Design and Computer Construction of Structural... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 183-195.

wearable pret-a-porter. Many contemporary haute couture creations are designed for archive and museum collections and more exist as art, but as a fashion [6]. The use of modern 2D/3D CAD (Computer Aided Design) systems for computer design of garment prototypes is still not sufficiently represented in practice, given that it represents a complex computer development process of garment models and requires a broader high-skilled knowledge and experience. Haute couture in particular is characterized by a large proportion of manual labor, given the models complexity in terms of manufacturing process, but also in the segment of block patterns development where the tailors’ dummies and paper pattern modeling directly on the mannequin are still most commonly used. In today’s modern times, the way of using the CAD system in construction preparation is changing, due to the new possibilities that CAD systems provide in the area of models prototypes development, and also because of the globalization that creates a connection between the manufacturers, primarily through the development process. Application of complex computer CAD system includes complete process, from idea and style concept (sketch drawings), through complete computer development of block patterns and 2D/3D design of model prototype, to production and sales, with the planning and monitoring of all stages of preparation and production [7,8]. In doing so, CAD systems connect with CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing) systems to manage and control technological operations in the clothing production, where computer guide and manage a certain technological processes [9]. The research presented in the paper analyzes the possible applications of 2D/3D CAD systems for computer clothing design in the development process of haute couture garment prototypes with complex structural sleeves forms that require more complex pattern modeling and additional reinforcements to achieve complex 3D sleeves forms in the real manufacturing process. The paper describes women’s fashion haute couture garment development process, based on the application of 2D/3D CAD systems for computer clothing design and research on textile materials physical and mechanical properties influence on the achievement of complex 3D structural sleeves forms in the 3D simulation process of garments prototypes.

EXPERIMENTAL Materials and Methods Below are listed the segments of research in the development process of haute couture clothing computer prototypes and the methods and procedures that have been used.

Design development process of women’s clothing collection with structural sleeves forms Drawing or sketch that incorporates new elements are the basis for the design of the clothing art project. Inspiration by which the idea is elaborated, apart from its sketches, the designer finds everything around him, and in order not to be lost in a variety of creativity, he defines the basic points according to which he creates his own art project. At the earliest stage of developing ideas, design sketches should be drawn quickly so that many ideas are created through hand movements. This method is often called brainstorming. The drawings can be presented as flat sketches, i.e. clean lines sketches or flats and technical drawings, to show the exact appearance of the future garment as accurately as possible [10]. After defining ideas and creating sketch drawings, the collection of clothing according to the established rules, in line with fashion trends and appropriate production program of the company is developed through design of art projects, with the aim of satisfying the desire of certain consumers categories and market confirmation through most possible profit [11].

184 www.textile-leather.com


MARJANOVIC J et al., Design and Computer Construction of Structural... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 183-195.

As a basis for the experimental part of the work, the original collection of 15 women’s dresses was initially designed, with a focus on a structural sleeves forms. The models are created according to the key guidelines for creating a collection that begins with research, insight into ideas and art projects design of women’s dresses with interesting and complex structural sleeves. The characteristics of the haute couture clothing collections are in the application of expensive, high-quality materials, garment models that are more complex in terms of design and pattern construction and manufacturing technologies which enable achievement of specific, often complex garment forms. Tab. 1. Presents the technical drawings of designed models with 15 different sleeve forms as original women’s clothing collection. First six models (MODEL 1 to MODEL 6) are based on different, mostly transverse and diagonal sleeve cutting lines. More complex models as MODEL 7 to MODEL 9 intent to achieve characteristic voluminous sleeve form, with expressive structures formed of irregular cutts and significantlly reinforced cutting parts. Irregular sleeve cutts contribute to overall garment MARJANOVIC MARJANOVIC MARJANOVIC MARJANOVIC MARJANOVIC Jet etJJet etet et al., al., al., et JDesign Design al., et Design al., Design and Design and and computer and computer computer and computer computer construction construction construction construction construction ofof ofof of structural... structural... structural... ofstructural... structural... ofstructural... structural... TEXT TEXT TEXT TEXT LEATH LEATH LEATH TEXT LEATH REV REV LEATH REV REV (0) (0) (0) 2019 2019 (0) 2019 (0) 2019 00-00. 00-00. 00-00. 2019 00-00. 00-00. MARJANOVIC MARJANOVIC MARJANOVIC MARJANOVIC Jal., Jal., et et al., JDesign al., et Design al., Design Design and and and computer and computer computer computer construction construction construction construction structural... ofstructural... of structural... of TEXT TEXT TEXT LEATH TEXT LEATH LEATH LEATH REV REV 00(0) REV 0REV 02019 2019 (0) 002019 (0) 2019 00-00. 2019 00-00. 00-00. 00-00. MARJANOVIC MARJANOVIC MARJANOVIC MARJANOVIC JJJ Jet al., JJal., et Design Design al., Design Design and and and computer computer and computer computer construction construction construction construction of of structural... structural... of structural... TEXT TEXT TEXT LEATH TEXT LEATH LEATH LEATH REV REV REV 000REV REV (0) 00(0) (0) 2019 00(0) (0) 2019 00-00. 2019 00-00. 00-00. 00-00. dynamics, while regular and precise pattern construction, material selection and garment production need to ensure stability of threedimensional sleeve form. The emphasis is on selection of more firm materials, which, though cut, ensure stable stand-alone form. More elegant models with round cut lines and raised seams (MODEL 10 to MODEL 15) also require selection of more firm materials and additional reinforcement of parts in order to achieve desired structural forms designed within collection. Table Table Table 1.1. 1. Techical Table Techical Techical 1.Techical Techical drawings Techical drawings drawings drawings drawings ofof of of structural structural structural of structural ofstructural structural sleeves sleeves sleeves sleeves forms forms sleeves forms forms for for for forms women’s women’s for women’s for women’s women’s clothing clothing clothing clothing collection clothing collection collection collection collection Table 1.Techical Techical drawings of structural sleeves forms for women’s clothing collection Table Table Table Table 1. Table Techical Techical 1.Techical 1. 1.1.drawings Techical drawings drawings drawings drawings drawings of structural structural of of structural structural of sleeves sleeves sleeves sleeves forms sleeves forms forms forms for for forms women’s for women’s for women’s for women’s women’s clothing clothing clothing clothing clothing collection collection collection collection collection Table Table 1. Table 1. 1.Techical Techical drawings drawings of structural of structural of structural sleeves sleeves sleeves forms forms forms for for women’s for women’s women’s clothing clothing clothing collection collection collection

MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 11 111 11 MODEL 1 111MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 1 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 1 1

MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 222 MODEL 22 222 22 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 22MODEL 2 2

MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 33 MODEL 333333 33 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 33MODEL 3 3

MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 44 MODEL 44 4444 44 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 44MODEL 4 4

MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 55 MODEL 55 555 555 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 5MODEL 5MODEL 5 5

MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 66 666 66 MODEL 6 666MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 6 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 6 6

MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 777 MODEL 77 777 77 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 77MODEL 7 7

MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 88 MODEL 888888 88 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 88MODEL 8 8

MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 99 MODEL 99 9999 99 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 99MODEL 9 9

MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 10 MODEL 101010 1010 10 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 10 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 10 10 10 10 1010

MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 11 MODEL 111111 11 11 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 11 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 11 11 11 1111 MODEL 1111

MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 12 MODEL 121212 12 12 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 12 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 12 12 12 12 1212 MODEL 12

MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 13 MODEL 131313 13 13 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 13 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 13 13 13 1313 MODEL 1313

MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 14 MODEL 141414 14 14 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 14 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 14 14 14 14 1414 MODEL 14

MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 15 MODEL 151515 1515 15 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 15 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 15 15 15 15 1515 MODEL

Computer modeling of women’s dresses with structural sleeves forms

Computer Computer Computer Computer Computer modeling modeling modeling modeling modeling of ofof of women’s women’s women’s ofwomen’s women’s ofwomen’s women’s dresses dresses dresses dresses dresses with with with with structural structural structural with structural structural sleeves sleeves sleeves sleeves sleeves forms forms forms forms forms Computer Computer Computer Computer modeling modeling modeling modeling of of women’s of of women’s dresses dresses dresses dresses with with with structural with structural structural structural sleeves sleeves sleeves sleeves forms forms forms forms Computer Computer Computer Computer modeling modeling modeling modeling of of women’s women’s women’s of women’s dresses dresses dresses dresses with with with with structural structural structural structural sleeves sleeves sleeves sleeves forms forms forms forms Basic block pattern of women’s dress size 38 was used as a basis for pattern modeling of designed clothing Basic Basic Basic Basic block block Basic block block pattern pattern block pattern pattern pattern of ofof of women’s women’s of women’s of women’s women’s dress dress dress dress size size dress size 38 size 38 38 size was was 38 was 38 was used used used was used as as used as as basis basis basis as basis afor for for basis for pattern for pattern pattern pattern pattern modeling modeling modeling modeling modeling of ofof of ofof of collection. Basic pattern construction and complex development of cutting parts for all 15 models was Basic Basic Basic Basic block Basic block block block pattern block pattern pattern pattern pattern of of women’s of women’s of women’s of women’s women’s dress dress dress dress size dress size size size 38 38 size 38 was was 38 was 38 was used used was used used as as used aaas basis aas aaabasis basis abasis for for basis for pattern for pattern for pattern pattern pattern modeling modeling modeling modeling modeling of of ofof Basic Basic Basic block block block pattern pattern pattern of women’s of women’s women’s dress dress dress size size 38 size 38 was 38 was used was used used as as aaaas as basis aabasis basis for pattern for pattern pattern modeling modeling modeling of of designed designed designed designed designed clothing clothing clothing clothing clothing collection. collection. collection. collection. collection. Basic Basic Basic Basic pattern pattern Basic pattern pattern pattern construction construction construction construction construction and and and complex and complex complex and complex complex development development development development development of ofof of cutting cutting of cutting of cutting cutting parts parts parts parts parts designed designed designed designed designed clothing clothing clothing clothing clothing collection. collection. collection. collection. collection. Basic Basic Basic Basic pattern pattern Basic pattern pattern pattern construction construction construction construction construction and and and and complex complex and complex complex complex development development development development development of of cutting of cutting of cutting of cutting cutting parts parts parts parts parts designed designed designed clothing clothing clothing collection. collection. collection. Basic Basic Basic pattern pattern pattern construction construction construction and and complex and complex complex development development development of cutting of cutting cutting parts parts parts for for for all all for all 15 for 15 all 15 models models all 15 models 15 models models was was was performed was performed performed was performed performed using using using using CAD CAD using CAD CAD system system system CAD system system Optitex Optitex Optitex Optitex Optitex [12]. [12]. [12]. [12]. Considering Considering [12]. Considering Considering Considering the the the complexity the complexity complexity the complexity complexity of ofof of the the the ofthe of the the for for for all for all 15 all 15 all models 15 models 15 models models was was was performed was performed performed performed using using using CAD using CAD CAD system CAD system system system Optitex Optitex Optitex Optitex [12]. [12]. [12]. Considering [12]. Considering Considering Considering the the the complexity the complexity complexity complexity of of the of of the the for for for all all for all 15 15 all 15 models models 15 models models was was was performed performed was performed performed using using using using CAD CAD CAD system CAD system system system Optitex Optitex Optitex Optitex [12]. [12]. [12]. [12]. Considering Considering Considering Considering the the the complexity complexity the complexity complexity of of the the the of the www.textile-leather.com 185 sleeves sleeves sleeves sleeves sleeves forms, forms, forms, forms, the forms, the the modeling the modeling modeling the modeling modeling of ofof of cutting cutting of cutting of cutting cutting parts parts parts parts for for parts for each each for each for each sleeve sleeve each sleeve sleeve pattern sleeve pattern pattern pattern pattern required required required required required carefully carefully carefully carefully a carefully carefully defined defined defined defined defined sleeves sleeves sleeves sleeves forms, forms, forms, forms, the the the modeling the modeling modeling modeling of of cutting of cutting of cutting cutting parts parts parts parts for for for each for each each sleeve each sleeve sleeve sleeve pattern pattern pattern pattern required required required required carefully acarefully aaacarefully carefully acarefully defined defined defined defined sleeves sleeves sleeves sleeves forms, forms, forms, forms, the the the modeling modeling the modeling modeling of of cutting cutting of cutting cutting parts parts parts parts for for for each each for each each sleeve sleeve sleeve sleeve pattern pattern pattern pattern required required required required aaaaacarefully aacarefully defined defined defined defined methodology, methodology, methodology, methodology, methodology, whereby whereby whereby whereby whereby the the therequired the required required the required required experience experience experience experience experience inininthe the in thein development the development development the development development ofofofmore more of more of more complex more complex complex complex complex garment garment garment garment garment


MARJANOVIC J et al., Design and Computer Construction of Structural... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 183-195.

performed using CAD system Optitex [12]. Considering the complexity of the sleeves forms, the modeling of cutting parts for each sleeve pattern required a carefully defined methodology, whereby the required experience in the development of more complex garment became apparent. Since the focus of the whole collection is on sleeves, minimal modifications in terms of length change, A form or dart adjustment were MARJANOVIC J et al., Design andpattern computer of structural... TEXT LEATH 2019 00-00. performed regarding basic block on construction front and back part of women’s dress.REV Fig.01(0) presents modeling of sleeve for MODEL 12.

Figure 1. Sleeves modeling - MODEL 12 Figure 1. Sleeves modeling - MODEL 12

Determination of mechanical and physical fabric properties From an aesthetic standpoint, the of clothing is evaluated with the level of manufactured garment Determination of mechanical andappearance physical fabric properties quality, garment drape and fit or visual garment forms, and it depends directly on the type and properties of From an cut aesthetic standpoint, the appearance of clothing is evaluated with level of the used fabric, construction and production quality [13]. All models of sleeves in the the collection require application ofgarment firm, non-elastic, weightdrape material, be achieved adhesive manufactured quality, low garment andwhich fit orcan visual garmentwith forms, and itinterlining. depends Basic characteristics of fabric selected for simulation are presented in tab. 2. directly on the type and properties of the used fabric, cut construction and production quality [13].

All models of sleeves in the collection application ofof firm, low weight material, Tablerequire 2. Basic characteristics fabricsnon-elastic, used which can be achieved with adhesive interlining. Basic characteristics Weaving densityof fabric selected for simulation Designation /

Raw material

areFabric presented 2. type in tab. composition F1 – fabric Designation /

Type of fabric weave

[cm-1]

Warp

Weft

Fabric thickness h [mm]

63 % polyester fibre Table 2. Basic of 33 % viscose Twillcharacteristics 2/1 35fabrics used28 0.90 4 % elastan fibre Raw material Type of fabric Weaving density Fabric thickness

Mass per unit area m [g m-2]

28,61 Mass per unit

Fabric type composition weave [cm-1] determined h [mm] area m [gsystem m-2] Table 3. Parameters of physical and mechanical fabric properties by the KES evaluation Warp Type of parameter F1 – fabric 63 % polyester fibre Twill 2/1 35 Sample length 33 % viscose 4 % elastan fibre max. elongation at warp direcion Tensile properties max. elongation at weft direcion

Weft Abbr. 28

cm

Measured value 28,61 5

EMT - X

%

21,540

EMT - Y

%

0.90

Unit

22,050

0,0297 bending rigidity at warp direction B-X cN cm cm Bending properties -2 -1 cm bending rigidity at weftfabric direction B-Y cmevaluation Table 3. Parameters of physical and mechanical properties determined by thecNKES system 0,0240 -2

Shear properties

shear rigidity Type of parameter mass per area unit

Weight Sample length Compression properties Tensile properties

thickness max. elongation at warp direcion max. elongation at weft direcion Bending properties bending rigidity at warp direction bending rigidity at weft direction Shear www.textile-leather.com properties shear rigidity 186 Weight mass per area unit Compression properties thickness

-1

0,610 cN cm-2 (degree)-1 Unit Measured value 2,861 W g cm-2 cm 5 mm EMT - X T0 % 21,540 0,900 EMT - Y % 22,050 -2 -1 B-X cN cm cm 0,0297 -2 -1 B-Y cN cm cm 0,0240 -2 -1 G cN cm (degree) 0,610 -2 W g cm 2,861 T0 mm 0,900 Abbr.

G


MARJANOVIC J et al., Design and Computer Construction of Structural... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 183-195.

Objective evaluation of selected fabric was performed using system for objective evaluation KES-FB [13], whereby seven parameters of physical and mechanical properties were measured and evaluated, tab. 3. For the simulation process, It is necessary to convert the results of determining mechanical properties using the KES-FB evaluation system into the units that are supported by the CAD system and program for 3D simulation, for which the converter Fabric Editor Optitex was used [12].

Defining parameters of cutting parts and parameters of 3D simulation in CAD system for 3D design As a preparation for research on 3D simulation possibilities of model prototypes with structural sleeves forms from the original collection, it is necessary to define the properties of the parametric body model and to adjust it according to body measures for the clothing size 38. 3D simulation enables computer, threedimensional visualization of desired garment model on the customized 3D body model, before the model is manufactured [14-16]. That way, it is possible to evaluate garment design, test the pattern construction and modeling, predict behaviour of textile material of ceratin physical and mechanical properties, test the tension and stretch of garment on body, in whole to completely verify prototype of garment model [17]. In order to performe a sucessful simulation, it is neccessary to define list of cutting parts parameters and set parameters for 3D simulation, as well as investigate the influence of physical and mechanical parameters adjustment, for the purpose of simulation of reinforced cutting parts. Parameters of cutting parts include defining information on cutting parts such as name, quantity, pair parts, fold lines and so on. In order to ensure regular joining of cutting parts in the 3D simulation process, it is neccessary to define properties of joining segments, fig. 2, and to properly position cutting parts against the body model, before starting the simulation. It is neccessary to investigate influence of polygon mesh density, that is simulating 3D surface of cutting parts, on realistic folding simulation and visualization of garment. Initial deformation and cylindrical form of cutting parts must also be defined before starting the simulation. Position of every cutting part is defined against the body model as well as garment layers. The appearance of the seams in terms of holding, bending, or stretching the seam, depending on the desired effect, may be affected by changing the values of the seam constrain parameter. Values of physical and mechanical parameters can be adjusted in CAD system, which affects the visualization of simulated 3D model prototypes. If it is intention that the 3D garment model is presenting real textile material behaviour, than the simulation process includes application of parameters values obtained by the measurement system for objective evaluation of textiles. If the particular cutting parts need to be reinforced to achieve specific form, as for example the use of interlining technology in the manufacturing process, it is neccessary to investigate the influence of adjustment of one or several parameters on desired visualization of simulated 3D prototype.

www.textile-leather.com 187


interlining technology in the manufacturing process, it is neccessary to investigate the influence of MARJANOVIC J et al., Computer Construction of Structural...of TEXT LEATH REV (4) 2019 183-195. adjustment of one or Design severaland parameters on desired visualization simulated 3D 2prototype.

Figure 2. Parameters of joining segments properties

Figure 2. Parameters of joining segments properties

Since the designed dresses collection, for most of the models includes sleeves that are designed as different, Since the designed dresses collection, for most of the models includes sleeves that are manly reinforced structural 3D forms, prior to the simulation process it was neccessary to research the infludesigned different, parameters manly reinforced structural 3D forms, priorshear to the process itand wasconseence ofas mechanical adjustment regarding bending, andsimulation tensile properties, quent adjustment of weight and fabric thickness asparameters physical properties. neccessary to research the influence of mechanical adjustment regarding bending, shear Irregularities during the simulation process can be caused by several reasons: incorrect positioning of cutting and tensile properties, and consequent adjustment of weight and fabric thickness as physical parts, incorrect construction and modeling, incorrect parameters of material or joining segments and so properties. on. Simulation process is repeated until the all irregularities are corrected and until appropriate 3D simuladuring the simulation process can be caused by several reasons: incorrect tion ofIrregularities garment model is obtained. In the finalofpart, variations of collection models were the application different colors positioning cutting parts, incorrect construction andperformed modeling,using incorrect parametersofof material or and fabric patterns, textures, seams, elements like stripes and buttons on simulated 3D models. Fabric patterns joining segments and so on. Simulation process is repeated until the all irregularities are corrected and prints are designed using the CAD system for textile design. and until appropriate 3D simulation of garment model is obtained.

Digital cutting partsof collection models were performed using the application of In printing the finalon part, variations different colors fabric patterns, seams,that elements likeon stripes andcutting buttons on simulated In addition to and the garments design,textures, fabric pattern is applied sleeves parts by textile InkJet was and also prints created. printing performed the digital 3Dprinting models.technology Fabric patterns areDigital designed using was the CAD system using for textile design.printing machine Azon Tex Pro with micro-piezo writing head and water-based pigment printing ink. Before the printing, the textile material pretreated Digital printing onwas cutting parts by applying an acrylic polymer base. In the printing process, the surface of the textile material intend to be printed with multicolored pattern is printed with a white pigment, forming a substrate that covers the dyeing of the textile material and prevents the interaction between substrate In addition to the garments design, fabric pattern that is applied on sleeves cutting parts by color and the color of the pattern. The pigment inks are transparent and do not have appropriate coverage textile InkJetsoprinting technology wastextiles also created. Digital printing was performed using the digital property, on the darker colored substrate has the strong influence on reproduction of printed pattern. In order to achieve brilliant color of the pattern, the textile material first treated printing machine Azon Tex Prodesired with micro-piezo writing head and water-based pigmentisprinting ink. with polymeric binder and printingwas process, a whitebypigment layer printed as a substrate a multiBefore the printing, theduring textilethe material pretreated applying an is acrylic polymer base. Infor the colored sample [18,19]. printing process, the surface of the textile material intend to be printed with multicolored pattern is printed with AND a white pigment, forming a substrate that covers the dyeing of the textile material and RESULTS DISCUSSION prevents the interaction between substrate color and the color of the pattern. The pigment inks are For each of the 15 designed dress models with different structural sleeves forms, a separate preparation for 3D simulation has been performed, including the adjustment of fabric physical and mechanical parameters values, depending on the desired structural sleeve shape on a particular model. For models in which the design implies a stronger structure and sleeves shape that require additional reinforcement of the cutting parts and seams in the real manufacturing process, the following parameters were adjusted: bending stiff188 www.textile-leather.com


model. model.For Formodels modelsininwhich whichthe thedesign designimplies impliesaastronger strongerstructure structureand andsleeves sleevesshape shapethat thatrequire require additional additionalreinforcement reinforcementofofthe thecutting cuttingparts partsand andseams seamsininthe thereal realmanufacturing manufacturingprocess, process,the the MARJANOVIC J et al., Design and Computer Construction of Structural... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 183-195.

following followingparameters parameterswere wereadjusted: adjusted:bending bendingstiffness, stiffness,shear shearstiffness stiffnessand andstretching stretchingasasmechanical mechanical properties propertiesand andweight weightand andthickness thicknessasasphysical physicalproperties. properties. ness, shear stiffness and stretching as mechanical properties and weight and thickness as physical properties. Tab. Tab. 44presents presents values values ofphysical physicaland andmechanical mechanical properties properties applied applied onparticular particular cutting cutting Tab. 4 presents values of physical andof mechanical properti es applied on particular cuttion ng parts, based on the example two sleeves with specific of 3D that needwith additispecific onal reinforcement, parameters adjustparts, parts, of based based on on the the example example offorms two two sleeves sleeves with specific 3D 3D forms forms or that that need need additional additional mentreinforcement, in order to achieve desired look. reinforcement, ororparameters parameters adjustment adjustmentininorder ordertotoachieve achievedesired desiredlook. look. Table Table4.4.The Thephysical physicaland andmechanical mechanicalproperties propertiesparameters parametersand andthe theadjustment adjustmentofofvalues valuesononthe theexample exampleofoftwo twosleeves sleeves

Table 4. The physical and mechanical properties parameters and the adjustment of values on the example of two sleeves

22 33 Parameters Parametersofof physical physicaland and mechanical mechanical Parameters of properties properties/ / physical and values values mechanical converted convertedinto into properties / units units values converted recognizable recognizablefor for into units the the CAD CAD system system recognizable for the CAD system BB- X- X[gfcm] [gfcm] B - X [gfcm] BB- Y- Y[gfcm] [gfcm] GG[dyn/cm] [dyn/cm] B - Y [gfcm] EMT EMT- X- X[%] [%] G [dyn/cm] EMT EMT- Y- Y[%] [%] T T[cm] [cm] EMT - X [%] 22 WW[g/m [g/m) ) EMT - Y [%]

33

22 33

11

11 Basic fabric Basic Basicfabric fabric F1 F1F1 1 11 29,14 29,14 29,14 23,54 23,54 34,95 34,95 23,54 430,80 430,80 34,95 441,00 441,00 0,09 0,09 430,80 2,86 2,86 441,00

MODEL MODEL MODEL77 7

MODEL MODEL MODEL888 Adjusted values Adjusted Adjustedvalues values

22 2 6000,00 6000,00 200,00 300,00 300,00

6000,00 6000,00 6000,00 6000,00 200,00 200,00 300,00 300,00 300,00 300,00 0,15 0,15 3,2 3,2

333

1000,00 1000,00 1000,00 1000,00 1000,00 200,00 200,00 1000,00 300,00 300,00 200,00 300,00 300,00 0,10 0,10 300,00 3,20 3,20 300,00

T [cm]

0,09

0,15

0,10

W [g/m2)

2,86

3,2

3,20

Distinction Distinctionininthe thefinal finalsimulation simulationcan canbe beseen seenon onthe theexample exampleofofMODEL MODEL77and andMODEL MODEL8,8,due due

totothe theadjustment adjustmentofofmechanical mechanicalparameters parameterssuch suchasasbending bendingand andshear shearstiffness stiffnessorormatrial matrialstretch. stretch. On Onon MODEL MODEL the the cutting cutting parts marked marked asasthe material material 22have have significantly significantly increased increased values values ofofadjustbending bending Distincti in the 7, fi7, nal simulati onparts can be seen on example of MODEL 7 and MODEL 8, due to the ment of mechanical parameters such as bending and shear stiffness or matrial stretch. On MODEL 7, the cutting parts marked as material 2 have significantly increased values of bending and shear stiffness, reduced stretching and increased thickness and weight values. In this way, the effect of the applied interlining is simulated, thus achieving the desired strength of the cutting parts which lie horizontally against the body and define the sleeve shape. On the cutting parts marked as material 3, the value of bending stiffness is less increased, thus achieving the desired shape and conical hang while retaining the minimum fabric softness, tab. 4. In real manufacturing process, such reinforcements can be achieved by applying adhesive interlining of different thicknesses. Material properties measured using the KES evaluation system, whose values are converted into the units of CAD system for garment simulation are applied on the other parts of the dress (Fabric 1). The values of material 3 are also applied to the sleeve cutting parts of MODEL 8, thereby achieving the inflated form of sleeves standing against the body. In most cases, the parameter values for each cutting part of a single model are different depending on the visual effect that is achieved with it. Certain models within the collection (MODEL 7 - 9 and 12 - 15) have a more complex threedimensional sleeve form that does not fit to the body, but opens to the free space. The higher the values of the bending and shear stiffness, the simulated fabric will be less deformable, while at stretching, the higher the parameters value represents the greater fabric stretching. Additionally, the www.textile-leather.com 189


greater fabric stretching. Additionally, the density of the cutting parts polygon meshs were optimized greater fabric stretching. Additionally, the density of the cutting parts polygon meshs were optimized depending on the applied mechanical properties in order to achieved realistic visualization of the depending on the applied mechanical properties in order to achieved realistic visualization of the MARJANOVIC J et al., Design and Computer Construction of Structural... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 183-195. simulated models. simulated models. Tab. 5 presents final results of art and computer design of structural sleeves forms for haute Tab. 5 presents final results of art and computer design of structural sleeves forms for haute density of the cutting parts polygon meshs were optimized depending on the applied mechanical propercouture women’s clothing, on a example of four models selected from the collection. Visual couture clothing, a exampleof of models selected from the collection. Visual ties in orderwomen’s to achieved realisticon visualization thefour simulated models. verification of simulated 3D prototypes involves evaluation of sleeves 3D forms, fabric drape at the Tab. 5 presents results3Dofprototypes art and computer of structural forms for haute verification of final simulated involvesdesign evaluation of sleevessleeves 3D forms, fabric drape couture at the front and back, appearance of of folds and fit to the body.from the collection. Visual verification of simuwomen’s clothing, on a example four models selected front and back, appearance of folds and fit to the body. lated 3D prototypes involves evaluation of sleeves 3D forms, fabric drape at the front and back, appearance of folds and fit to the body. Table Results of art and computer design of sleeves structural sleeves forms for hautewomen’s couture women’s colthing on a Table 5. Results of5.5. art and computer of structural forms forforms hautefor couture colthingcolthing on a example Table Results of art anddesign computer design of structural sleeves haute couture women’s on a of a four from the example of amodels four models fromcollection the collection example of a four models from the collection

Art Artdesign design Art design

Simulated Simulated3D 3Dprototype prototype Simulated 3D prototype

MARJANOVIC J et al., Design and computer construction of structural... TEXT LEATH REV 0 (0) 2019 00-00. MARJANOVIC J et al., Design and computer construction of structural... TEXT LEATH REV 0 (0) 2019 00-00. MODEL 7 MARJANOVICJ Jetetal., al.,Design Designand andcomputer computerconstruction construction ofstructural... structural... TEXTLEATH LEATHREV REV00(0) (0)2019 201900-00. 00-00. MARJANOVIC TEXT MODEL 7 ofMODEL 7

MODEL 9 MODEL 9 MODEL9 9 MODEL

MODEL 9

MODEL 13 MODEL 13 MODEL1313 MODEL 13 MODEL

190 www.textile-leather.com MODEL 14


MARJANOVIC J et al., Design and Computer Construction of Structural... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 183-195. MODEL 13 MODEL 13

MODEL 14 MODEL 14 MODEL 14

Duringthe the research influence the adjusted physical andmechanical mechanicalparameters parameters values, ofof ofofthe adjusted and values, During theDuring research ofresearch influence ofinfluence the adjusted physical andphysical mechanical parameters values, the 3D simuthe 3D simulations were repeatedly performed until the 3D model prototype that clearly reflex the latithe ons3D were repeatedly performed untiperformed l the 3D model that clearly reflex theclearly designers in simulations were repeatedly untilprototype the 3D model prototype that reflexidea the terms of the shape is achieved for parti cular model. Tab. 6 presents resultsTab. of models variatithe ons designers ideainin termsofofthe theevery shape achieved forevery every particularthe model. presents designers idea terms shape isisachieved for particular model. Tab. 6 6 presents the in colors and patterns of different textile materials, whereby the applied patterns are previously designed resultsofofmodels modelsvariations variations incolors colors andpatterns patternsofofdifferent differenttextile textilematerials, materials,whereby wherebythe theapplied applied in results CAD program and prepared in for textileand digital printing. MARJANOVIC MARJANOVIC MARJANOVIC MARJANOVIC MARJANOVIC J et J et al., J Jet al., J et et Design al., al., Design al., Design Design Design and and and computer and and computer computer computer computer construction construction construction construction construction of structural... of structural... of of structural... structural... structural... TEXT TEXT TEXT LEATH TEXT TEXT LEATH LEATH LEATH LEATH REV REV REV 0REV REV (0) 0 (0) 02019 00(0) 2019 (0) (0) 2019 00-00. 2019 2019 00-00. 00-00. 00-00. 00-00. patterns arepreviously previously designed in CAD program andof prepared fortextile textile digital printing. patterns are designed inand CAD program and prepared for digital printing. MARJANOVIC MARJANOVIC MARJANOVIC MARJANOVIC MARJANOVIC J et J et Jal., Jet Jet al., etDesign al., al., al., Design Design Design Design and and and and computer computer computer computer computer construction construction construction construction construction ofof structural... of of structural... ofstructural... structural... structural... TEXT TEXT TEXT TEXT TEXT LEATH LEATH LEATH LEATH LEATH REV REV REV REV 0REV (0) 0 (0) 002019 0(0) (0) 2019 (0)2019 2019 2019 00-00. 00-00. 00-00. 00-00. 00-00.

MARJANOVIC JDesign etDesign al., Design and computer construction of structural... TEXT LEATH 02019 (0) 2019 00-00. MARJANOVIC MARJANOVIC MARJANOVIC MARJANOVIC J etJ Jet al., Jetet al., al., al., Design Design and and and computer and computer computer computer construction construction construction construction of of structural... of of structural... structural... structural... TEXT TEXT TEXT TEXT LEATH LEATH LEATH LEATH REV REV REV REV 0 (0) 0REV 0(0) 02019 (0) (0) 2019 2019 00-00. 00-00. 00-00. 00-00. Table 6. Results of the collection models variations using application of different colors and computer designed patterns Table 6. Results of the collection models variations using application of different colors and computer designed patterns Table 6. Results of the collection models variations using application of different colors and computer designed patterns

MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 11 1 1 11 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 1 1 111 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 1 1 11 1

MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 2 22 2 22 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 2 2 222 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 2 2 22 2

MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 3 3 33 33 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 3 3 333 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 3 3 33 3

MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 4 4 4444 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 4 4 444 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 4 4 44 4

MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 5 5 5 555 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 5 5 555 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 5 5 55 5

MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 6 6 6 66 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 66 6 666 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 6 6 66 6

MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 7 7 7 77 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 7 7 777 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 7 7 77 7

MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 8 8 8 88 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 8 8 8888 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 8 8 88 8

MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 9 9 9 99 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 9 9 99 9 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 9 9 99 9

MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 10101010 10 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 101010 10 10 MODEL 10 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 10 1010 10 10

MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 11111111 11 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 111111 11 11 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 11 11 11 MODEL 111111

MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 12121212 12 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 121212 12 12 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 12 12 12 12 12 MODEL 12

MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 13131313 13 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 131313 13 13 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 13 1313 13 13 MODEL 13

MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 14141414 14 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 141414 14 14 MODEL 14 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 14 1414 14 MODEL 14

MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 15151515 15 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 151515 15 15 MODEL 15 MODEL MODEL MODEL MODEL 15 1515 1515 MODEL

After After After After After the the the complete the the complete complete complete complete computer computer computer computer computer verification verification verification verification verification ofof the of the of ofthe designed the the designed designed designed designed 3D3Dmodels 3D 3D models 3Dmodels models models prototypes prototypes prototypes prototypes prototypes from from from from from the the the collection, the the collection, collection, collection, collection, After After After After After the the the the complete the complete complete complete complete computer computer computer computer computer verification verification verification verification verification ofofthe of of the ofthe the designed the designed designed designed designed 3D3Dmodels 3D 3D 3D models models models models prototypes prototypes prototypes prototypes prototypes from from from from from the the the the collection, the collection, collection, collection, collection, After the complete computer verification of the designed 3D models prototypes from the collection, After After After After the the the complete the complete complete complete computer computer computer computer verification verification verification verification of of the of of the the designed the designed designed designed 3D 3D 3D models 3Dmodels models models prototypes prototypes prototypes prototypes from from from from the the the collection, the collection, collection, collection, fig. fig. fig. 3, fig. fig. 3, two 3, two 3, 3, two real two two real real models real real models models models models were were were were were developed, developed, developed, developed, developed, with with with with design with design design design design fabric fabric fabric fabric fabric patterns patterns patterns patterns patterns applied applied applied applied applied using using using using using digital digital digital digital digital printing printing printing printing printing fig. fig. fig. fig. 3,fig. 3,two 3, 3,two 3,two two real two real real real models real models models models models were were were were were developed, developed, developed, developed, developed, with with with with with design design design design design fabric fabric fabric fabric fabric patterns patterns patterns patterns patterns applied applied applied applied applied using using using using using digital digital digital digital digital printing printing printing printing printing www.texti le-leather.com 191 fig. 3, two real models were developed, with design fabric patterns applied using digital printing fig. fig. fig. fig. 3, 3, two 3, 3, two two two real real real real models models models models were were were were developed, developed, developed, developed, with with with with design design design design fabric fabric fabric fabric patterns patterns patterns patterns applied applied applied applied using using using using digital digital digital digital printing printing printing printing technology, technology, technology, technology, technology, fig.fig. 4. fig. fig. fig. 4.4.4. 4. technology, technology, technology, technology, technology, fig. fig. fig. 4. fig. fig. 4.4. 4.4. technology, fig. technology, technology, technology, technology, fig.fig. fig. 4. fig. 4. 4.4. 4.


MARJANOVIC J et al., Design and Computer Construction of Structural... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 183-195. MARJANOVIC J et al., Design and computer construction of structural... TEXT LEATH REV 0 (0) 2019 00-00.

After the complete computer verifiand caticomputer on of theconstruction designed 3Dofmodels prototypes fromREV the0collecti fig. 3, MARJANOVIC J et al., Design structural... TEXT LEATH (0) 2019on, 00-00. two real models were developed, with design fabric patterns applied using digital printing technology, fig. 4.

Figure 3. 3D prototypes of models with applied fabric patterns, selected for real garment manufacturing

Figure 3. 3D prototypes of models with applied fabric patterns, selected for real garment manufacturing Figure 3. 3D prototypes of models with applied fabric patterns, selected for real garment manufacturing

Figure 4. Prototypes of two selected dress models Figure 4. Prototypes of two selected dress models

192 www.textile-leather.com

Figure 4. Prototypes of two selected dress models


MARJANOVIC J et al., Design and Computer Construction of Structural... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 183-195.

CONCLUSION The idea is the starting point in the creation of every garment model. It derives from inspiration shaped in sketches, which are then further elaborated, for the purpose of further work and collection creating. Computer construction and modeling of garment patterns, greatly facilitate and accelerate the process of construction preparation, with more precision compared to the conventional clothing construction method. Complete computer 2D/3D design of model prototype is a demanding process requiring knowledge and expertise in the use of CAD systems, but also the need for wider knowledge and skills in the field of clothing construction and technology, textile materials from the aspect of physical and mechanical properties and application and processing of textile materials for a specific purpose. The 3D simulation of the prototype enables visualization of the actual textile material behavior within a particular garment and can be useful for assessing the applicability of a particular material for a particular garment design. However, the designer can also adjust the values of certain mechanical or physical material properties to achieve visualization of the desired model shape. This can be a basis for further model development and planning of the selection of textile materials and the technological manufacturing process to obtain the desired model shape. The realistic visualization of simulated 3D models is visualy enhanced with the application of colors and textures, designed in the CAD program for textiles design. In addition, computer-based preparation of pattern design on cutting parts was performed for digital printing on the actual fabric. The application of colors and textures on virtual garment prototypes opens up the possibilities of evaluating clothing in aesthetic sense, unlike conventional method where model visualization takes place only in the creative mind of the designer and it is necessary to create a real prototype in order to evaluate the design, pattern construction and modeling as well as material selection. In that sense, the use of modern 2D/3D CAD system for computer-aided design allows the fashion designer to investigate all the important parameters on a computer garment prototype, which significantly simplifies and accelerates the design and development of clothing collections. At the same time, it is possible to reduce the producing cost of the test samples, which is also an environmentally friendly way of products development, as it reduces the consumption of materials, energy and waste, resulting from the real process of producing model samples. If all segments of the model prototype computer design have been performed correctly, it is ultimately enough to create one real model sample in the final stage of development process, as verification of all the model elements. Digital printing on cutting parts contributes to the rapid prototype development, a quick time response to market demands, and enables easier and faster changes and modifications in the process of test samples production. It also contributes to the ecological type of production, since such printing does not pollute the environment, as the conventional textile printing. In the process of digital textile printing there are no phases of template making, which means a significant reduction of wastewater and the wastewater chemicals. From this point of view, we can talk about digital printing as an environmentally friendly technology. In addition, the „Drop on Demand� technology in digital printing enables very precise dosing of printing inks optimized according to the requirements of the pattern and there is no surplus printing paste as in conventional printing technology. From the aspect of design and reproduction capabilities, the application of digital printing technology into textiles removes all the design limitations that conventional technology has set and allows reproductions of unlimited number of colors and unconstrained imaginative shapes.

www.textile-leather.com 193


MARJANOVIC J et al., Design and Computer Construction of Structural... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 183-195.

REFERENCES [1] Grau FM. Povijest odijevanja. Zagreb: Jesenski i Turk; 2008. [2] Boucher F. 20,000 Years of Fashion The History of Costume and Personal Adornment. New York: Harry N. Abrams; 1987. [3] Tortora PG, Eubank K. Survey of Historic Costume: A History of Western Dress. 5th edition. New York: Fairchild Books; 2011. [4] Simončić KN. Prilog poznavanju povijesti odijevanja: zakoni protiv raskoši i njihov utjecaj. In: Hošić I. editor. Zbornik radova Pažnja! Odjeća, umjetnost, identitet; 07-08 October 2013; Bihać, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bihać: Univerzitet u Bihaću, Tehnički fakultet; 2013. p. 13-29. [5] Zmeškal K, Brlobašić Šajatović B, Petrak S, Šabarić I. Modeliranje rukava ženske odjeće inspiriranih elementima arhitekture. In: Hodžić A, Hodžić, D. editor. Zbornik radova XI međunarodne naučne konferencije o proizvodnom inženjerstvu - RIM 2017; 04-07. October 2017; Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bihać: Univerzitet u Bihaću, Tehnički fakultet; 2017. p. 489-494. [6] Bancroft A. Fashion and Psychoanalysis: Styling the Self. London: I.B.Tauris & Co. Ltd; 2012. [7] Burke S. Fashion Computing: Design Techniques and CAD. UK: Burke Publishing; 2006. [8] Petrak S, Mahnić M, Rogale D, Ujević D. Computer Design of Textile and Clothing Collection - Assumption of Contemporary Remote Business. In: Adolphe CD. editor. Book of Proceedings of 11th World Textile Conference AUTEX 2011; 08-10 June 2011; Mulhouse, France. Mulhouse: Ecole Nationale Superieure d Ingenieurs Sud-Alace; 2011. p. 1162-1168. [9] Aldrich W. Metric pattern cutting for women’s wear. Oxford: Blackwell publishing; 2008. [10] Ireland PJ. New Encyclopedia of Fashion Details: Over 1000 Fashion Details. London: Batsford; 2008. [11] Vinković M. Likovno projektiranje odjeće I. 2. Izdanje. Zagreb: Sveučilište u Zagrebu Tekstilno-tehnološki fakultet; 2014. [12] Optitex [Internet]. [cited 07. 11. 2018]. Available from: http://www.optitex.com/, Accessed:. [13] Geršak J. Objektivno vrednovanje plošnih tekstilija i odjeće. Zagreb: Sveučilište u Zagrebu Tekstilno – tehnološki fakultet; 2014. [14] Goldstein Y. Transforming Clothing Production into a Demand-driven, Knowledge-based, High-tech Industry. London: Springer; 2009. Virtual Prototyping: From Concept to 3D Design and Prototyping in Hours; 95-139 p. [15] Petrak S et al. Garments Prototype Development Using an Innovative Computer Technology. In: Dragčević Z. editor. Book of Proceedings of the 5th International Textile, Clothing and Design Conference – Magic World of Textiles; 03-06 October 2010; Dubrovnik, Croatia. Zagreb: University of Zagreb Faculty of Textile Technology; 2010. p. 488-493. [16] Wu YY et al. An investigation on the validity of 3D clothing simulation for garment fit evaluation. In: Concheri G, Meneghello R, Savio G. editors. Proceedings of the IMProVe - International conference on Innovative Methods in Product Design. 15-17 June 2011; Venice, Italy. Padova: Libreria Internazionale Cortina Padova; 2011. p. 463-468. [17] Petrak S et al. Research of the Motorcycle Trousers Functionality Depending of Construction Parameters of Cutting Parts. In: Dragčević Z, Hursa Šajatović A, Vujasinović E. editors. Book of Proceedings of the 8th International Textile, Clothing & Design Conference 2016 – Magic World of Textiles. 02-05 October 2016; Dubrovnik, Croatia. Zagreb: University of Zagreb Faculty of Textile Technology; 2016. p. 260-265. [18] Dawson T. InkJet Printing of Textiles Under Microscope. Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists. 2006 June;116(2):52-59. 194 www.textile-leather.com


MARJANOVIC J et al., Design and Computer Construction of Structural... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 183-195.

[19] Glogar MI et al. Some Aspects of Ink Jet Printing on Dark Garment. In: Dragčević Z, Hursa Šajatović A, Vujasinović E. editors. Book of Proceedings of the 8th International Textile, Clothing & Design Conference 2016 – Magic World of Textiles. 02-05 October 2016; Dubrovnik, Croatia. Zagreb: University of Zagreb Faculty of Textile Technology; 2016. p. 165-171.

www.textile-leather.com 195


DHAMO S et al., Localino T-shirt: The Real-time Indoor Localization‌ TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 196-204.

Localino T-shirt: The Real-time Indoor Localization in Ambient Assisted Living Applications Stefania DHAMO1, Erjula SINANAJ1, Stelios A. MITILINEOS2*, Ilda KAZANI1*, Panagiotis PAPAGEORGAS2, Ilias SKOURAS2, Savvas VASSILIADIS2 Polytechnic University of Tirana, Department of Textile and Fashion, Nr. 1, Mother Teresa Square, 1000, Tirana, Albania University of West Attica, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Campus 2, No. 250, Thivon str., P.C. 12244, Athens, Greece *smitil@uniwa.gr *ikazani@fim.edu.al

1

2

Original scientific article UDC 687.25:681.586 DOI: 10.31881/TLR.2019.08 Received 23 October 2018; Accepted 11 October 2019; Published 6 December 2019

ABSTRACT In the last decade, smart textiles have become very popular as a concept and have found use in many applications, such as military, electronics, automotive, and medical ones. In the medical area, smart textiles research is focused more on biomonitoring, telemedicine, rehabilitation, sport medicine or home healthcare systems. In this research, the development and localization accuracy measurements of a smart T-shirt are presented, which will be used by elderly people for indoor localization in ambient assisted living applications. The proposed smart T-shirt and the work presented is considered to be applicable in cases of elderly, toddlers or even adults in indoor environments where their continuous real-time localization is critical. This smart T-shirt integrates a localization sensor, namely the Localino sensor, together with a solar panel for energy harvesting when the user is moving outdoors, as well as a battery/power bank that is both connected to the solar panel and the Localino sensor for charging and power supply respectively. Moreover, a mock-up house was deployed, where the Localino platform anchors were deployed at strategic points within the house area. Localino sensor nodes were installed in all the house rooms, from which we obtained the localization accuracy measurements. Furthermore, the localization accuracy was also measured for a selected number of mobile user scenarios, in order to assess the platform accuracy in both static and mobile user cases. Details about the implementation of the T-shirt, the selection and integration of the electronics parts, and the mock-up house, as well as about the localization accuracy measurements results are presented in the paper. KEYWORDS Indoor localization, wearable localization sensors, smart T-shirt, RTLS

INTRODUCTION Albania is a developing country with population over 3 million. According to INSTAT available data, the 2009 population of elderly people in Albania (65 years or older) is 10 % and is expected to be 15 % of the total population in 2030. Based on this data, it can be projected that the total population of the people aged 60+ will increase by more than a hundred percent [1].

196 www.textile-leather.com


DHAMO S et al., Localino T-shirt: The Real-time Indoor Localization‌ TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 196-204.

Living as an elderly person has its own difficulties. Being old reduces cognitive functions and this situation may put the elderly in emergency situations needing help in unforeseen ways. Family members and healthcare professionals need to know the real condition of the elderly and location information might be a key factor for providing healthcare in a critical situation [2]. Different groups have worked on the study issues associated with the implementation of a real-time WiFi localization system for an indoor environment [3-4]. Heng et. al. [3] has studied the issues associated with the implementation of a real-time WiFi localization system for an indoor environment. In this system they have used smart antennas to receive signal strength from a mobile target (access point) and send the signal strength information to a data processing station. Moreover, Chelseer et. al. [5] has demonstrated bTracked, a field deployable tracking system for mobile BLE device bearers using BLE beacon signals. His group exploited in particular not only range estimations but also the pose of the BLE device bearer for tracking. Furthermore, Wang et.al. [2] has done a review of the state-of-the-art wearable technologies that can be used for elderly care. He has categorized these technologies into three types: indoor positioning, activity recognition and real time vital sign monitoring. Lopez et. al. [4] has worked on the application of e-textiles which allows monitoring different physiological parameters and tracking the location of a group of patients within hospital environments. In this context, it is proposed to develop the means for providing seamless, unobtrusive localization information of elderly people (as well as toddlers or even adults that may require so), and a means to do so is in the form of a wearable platform. We propose a smart T-shirt that is able to detect the location and movement of its user and communicate with a centralized localization platform for the monitoring and triggering of further action. The T-shirt is considered to be applicable in cases of elderly or toddlers in indoor environments for which a continuous real-time localization is critical. Application examples may include localization of elderly people that live alone or in pension houses and need monitoring by their family or medical staff; localization of toddlers for supervision and monitoring purposes; or localization in general for recreation or security purposes. In the future, the proposed T-shirt platform is intended to be integrated with a GPS sensor and a host unit for seamless localization handoff in both indoor and outdoor environments, as well as an optional tactile actuator sub-system for providing feedback to visually impaired people. The proposed T-shirt integrates a localization sensor, namely the Localino sensor that is part of an open-source localization platform. The Localino sensor is used together with a solar panel for energy harvesting when the user is moving outdoors, as well as a battery/power bank that is both connected to the solar panel and the Localino sensor for charging and power supply respectively. It was implemented using cotton fabric and is designed in order to host all the electronic parts needed for the proposed application. An energy harvesting solar panel module is located at the back of the T-shirt while the power supply and the Localino sensor are hosted in small pockets at the front. Cabling and electronics parts interconnections are concealed within the T-shirt fabric in order to assure comfort and ease of use from the user’s point of view. Furthermore, a mock-up house was deployed within the premises of the University of West Attica, including a mock-up living room, kitchen, bedrooms and bathroom. The Localino platform anchors were deployed at strategic points within the house area and accuracy measurements were obtained using the Localino sensor in all the house rooms. Moreover, the localization accuracy was also measured for a selected number of mobile user scenarios, in order to assess the platform accuracy in both static and mobile user cases. Details about the implementation of the T-shirt, the selection and integration of the electronics parts, and the mock-up house, as well as about the localization accuracy measurements results are presented in the following sections of this paper.

www.textile-leather.com 197


SYSTEM OVERVIEW THEThe MOCK-UP DHAMO S et al., LocalinoAND T-shirt: Real-timeHOUSE Indoor Localization… TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 196-204. The Localino localization platform is dependent upon the measurement of the time-of-flight of the ultrashortOVERVIEW pulses that are broadcasted by a number of fixed anchor points and are received by tags SYSTEM AND THE MOCK-UP HOUSE that are attached to the person or object that is to be located. As such, and knowing the speed of

The Localino localization platform is dependent upon the measurement of the time-of-flight of the ultrashort pulses

light, is straightforward to calculate range of each theby specified and then use that areitbroadcasted by a number of fixedthe anchor points and tag are from received tags thatanchors are attached to the person triangulation or trilaterion techniques in speed orderoftolight, calculate the position to ofcalculate the tag the in the orstandard object that is to be located. As such, and knowing the it is straightforward range of each tag from specified anchors andanchors then use astandard triangulation trilaterion techniques ordertwoto calcuspace. Withthe a minimum of three localization service ormay be provided in ain flat late the position of the tag in the space. With a minimum of three anchors a localization service may be provided in

dimensional space while three-dimensional localization requires at least four anchors [6].

a flat two-dimensional space while three-dimensional localization requires at least four anchors [6].

STEFANIA DHAMO et al., Localino T-shirt: The real-time indoor localization…TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 00-00. STEFANIA DHAMO et al., Localino T-shirt: The real-time indoor localization…TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 00-00.

(a)(a)

(b) (b)

(a)

(b)

(c) (c)(c)

(d)(d) (d)

Figure 1: (a) mock-up house anchorlocations locations representation the mock-up house Figure 1: The (a) The mock-up houselayout layout with with anchor (b)(b) 3D3D representation of theofmock-up house (c) The Figure 1: (a) The mock-up house layoutofwith locations representation of thehouse mock-up house (c) The (c) The dimensions the anchor mock-up house (b) (d) 3D Photo of the mock-up dimensions of the mock-up house (d) Photo of the mock-up house dimensions of the mock-up house (d) Photo of the mock-up house

198 Furthermore, www.textile-leather.com a mock-up house was implemented within the premises of the University of West Furthermore, a mock-up house was implemented within the premises of the University of West

Attica, in order to resemble the interior of an actual living space. A general overview of the proposed Attica, in order to resemble the interior of an actual living space. A general overview of the proposed


DHAMO S et al., Localino T-shirt: The Real-time Indoor Localization… TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 196-204.

Furthermore, a mock-up house was implemented within the premises of the University of West Attica, in order to resemble the interior of an actual living space. A general overview of the proposed localization application platform together with a layout of the mock-up house is displayed in Figure 1 (a). Three Localino anchors are placed in fixed positions that are known to the Localino server, while the mobile tag is attached to the user’s T-shirt. There is also a localization server that is part of the Localino platform and is hosted in a standard laptop, as well as a WiFi standard router that interconnects the server and the Localino anchors. A 3D layout of the house implemented with the Sketch 2014 Suite is displayed in Figure 1 (b) and its dimensions are displayed in Figure 1 (c). Also, a photo of the mock-up house on the 2nd floor of the Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering of the University is displayed in Figure 1 (d).

RTLS AND PERIPHERAL PARTS 1. RTLS Real-Time Localization Systems (RTLS) are generally used in indoor and/or confined areas, such as buildings and do not provide global coverage like GPS. RTLS tags are affixed to mobile items to be tracked or managed. RTLS reference points, which can be either transmitters or receivers, are placed throughout a building to provide the desired tag coverage. In most cases, the more RTLS reference points installed, the better the location accuracy, until the technology limitations are reached [7]. Nowadays, there exists a wide range of RTLS solutions offered on the market. Most of them are closed, proprietary systems that usually come with restrictions in usability, deployment and billing. In some cases, intervention in the localization procedure is allowed through a dedicated API (Application Programming Interference), but with strong limitations.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 2: (a) Nanotron (b) Notch and (c) Localino RTLS tags

During our research, we investigated various market-available RTLS solutions; currently, there exists a large variety of such solutions and products. Nevertheless, we would like to point out three specific products that in our opinion are among the most promising currently market-available candidate solutions for indoor localization. One of these is the RTLS eco-system provided by Nanotron; a tag example is illustrated in Figure 2(a). The Nanotron RTLS was originally developed for professional applications and provides monitoring attendance, movement and care center service delivery. Tags are configurable via a wireless interface and supports Time-of-Arrival (ToA) and Time-Difference-ofArrival (TDoA) based triangulation. The developing company claims an outstanding accuracy of down to 10 cm for 90 % of localization events [8]. The notch is another system that is able to measure movement, speed and acceleration of the user. A set of 6 tags may be attached to various positions on the user’s body and provide accurate localization, capable of tracking user’s limbs and their relative positioning. Furthermore, this technology is equipped with wireless connectivity abilities that will connect to smartphones, allowing the user to view their fitness performances and analyze movements [9]. A set

www.textile-leather.com 199


DHAMO S et al., Localino T-shirt: The Real-time Indoor Localization‌ TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 196-204.

of 6 Notch tags side-by-side with a snapshot of the respective app on an Android phone is illustrated in Figure 2(b). Finally, Localino is an open-source platform for indoor localization and RTLS [10]. It is open-source with respect to both hardware and software points of view and offers an unparalleled freedom of customization and programming. The claimed accuracy of the Localino RTLS is down to 10 cm for indoor environments, which is similar to that of Nanotron. Figure 2 (c) displays a Localino anchor and tag; physically, anchors and tags are the same device and they are assigned a specific role by the RTLS server system. The selection of Localino indoor localization platform was based on the criterion of open source availability and ease of use for customized solutions developers. This feature and its localization accuracy, which is similar to that offered by Nanotron, were the two main factors that affected our decision to use Localino with our proposed T-shirt development.

2. SOLAR PANEL AND POWER BANK SUPPLY A power bank and solar panel combination is used to supply the necessary power to the Localino tag. More specifically, the power supply (bank) is charged either by a normal wall-mounted charger or by the solar panel when the user is moving in outdoor environments. The idea is that the user will use the T-shirt throughout the day and when she/he is found outdoors, then the T-shirt will charge the power bank in order to extend its operational lifetime. A market research revealed a large variety of solar panels available that are suitable for our application. The requirements that were set during our research were for a panel with a size that will easily fit on the back of the T-shirt and will provide an output of 5-6 V and at least 500 mA of current. The larger the current the faster the charging, but given the size constraints it was decided that a current of 1000 mA would be suitable (a wall-mounted fast charger normally provides an output current of 2.0-2.1 A). A summary with the information on the solar panels that were found on the market is shown in Table 1. Table 1: Market-available solar panels for the proposed application Dimensions (mm)

Weight (gr)

Output Voltage (V)

Output Current (mA)

Price ($)

Other Characteristics

Jiang [7]

100 x 200

27

6

160

20

Ultra flexible, waterproof, efficient lifetime

Sunwalk [8]

260 x 170

125

5

1000

14

Semi-flexible, regulator included

Sunpower [9]

275 x 200

244

5

1200

40

Semi-flexible, USB output and regulator included

Powerfile [10]

45 x 59

5

6

100

-

-

Brand / Model

Drawing from Table 1 it can be concluded that two possible candidates would be the Sunwalk and Sunpower solar panels. In the case where a smaller output current would be sufficient, one might opt to use more than one Jiang panels in parallel and provide a larger output current; this would also come with the extra benefit of a flexible configuration and maybe smaller size too. Nevertheless, taking into account the market and shipping constraints, it was selected to proceed with the Sunpower panel that was sufficient for our power requirements, had a USB plug-and-play output and was also the easiest to order, ship and deliver in due time during the duration of our Project. In similar fashion, a market research revealed a large variety of available power bank supplies for our application. In this case, the most important criteria for us were its size and weight since a power bank of large capacity will come with extra size and weight. After an extensive research it was concluded that the best market-available solution at that moment was a power bank offered by Sandberg [11], mainly due to its design, which is small, similar to a credit card and light. It has a capacity that is equal to 2500 mAh.

200 www.textile-leather.com


DHAMO S et al., Localino T-shirt: The Real-time Indoor Localization‌ TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 196-204.

STEFANIA DHAMO et al., Localino T-shirt: The real-time indoor localization‌TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 00-00. Figure 3: Sandberg Excellence power bank supply

T-SHIRT FABRICATION DETAILS AND INTEGRATION

implemented at the back in order to host the power bank device. Photos of the implemented T-shirt

The proposed T-shirt was fabricated using 1 m2 of cotton textile fabric. A small pocket was implemented in the front

are given in Figure 4 for the front and the back side (Figure 4 (a) and 4 (b) respectively).

of the T-shirt in order to host the Localino tag unit, and a larger pocket was implemented at the back in order to host

Furthermore, the solar panel charger was mounted on the back of the T-shirt and on top of the back

the power bank device. Photos of the implemented T-shirt are given in Figure 4 for the front and the back side (Figure

pocket, as respectively). shown in Figure 4 (c). The solar panel is equipped with four adjustment holes in its 4 (a) and 4 (b)

Furthermore, solar panel was mounted back the T-shirt and on topby of hand. the back pocket, as shown perimeter, the so these holescharger were used in orderon tothe sew theofpanel on the T-shirt in Figure 4 (c). The solar panel is equipped with four adjustment holes in its perimeter, so these holes were used in order to sew the panel on the T-shirt by hand.

Figure 4: Photos of implementation steps for the developed T-shirt (a) front side pocket (b) back side pocket and (c) back

(a)

side with the adjusted (b)solar panel charger

(c)

Figure 4: Photos of implementation steps for the developed T-shirt (a) front side pocket (b) back side pocket and (c) back side with the adjusted solar panel charger

Finally, fabric lining is sewn over the T-shirt in order to host the cables that will connect the solar panelfabric withlining the power onT-shirt the one handtoand bank the Localino tag on thetheother Finally, is sewn bank over the in order hostthe thepower cables that willwith connect the solar panel with power hand. Details of the strip bank linings and interconnecting cables areDetails shown in Figure 5. More bank on the one hand andfabric the power with thethe Localino tag on the other hand. of the fabric strip linings and the interconnecting cables are shownthe in Figure 5. Morecable specifically, Figure 5 (a1-a2) the back specifically, Figure 5 (a1-a2) displays back pocket that will connect the displays power bank withpocket the

cable that will connect the power bank with the solar panel and Figure 5 (b1-b2) displays the front pocket cable that

solar panel and Figure 5 (b1-b2) displays the front pocket cable that will connect the power bank

will connect the power bank with the Localino tag.

with the Localino tag.

(a1)

(a2)

(b1)

(b2)

Figure 5: Photos of T-shirt details for (a1-a2) the back pocket cabling and (b1-b2) the front pocket cabling Figure 5: Photos of T-shirt details for (a1-a2) the back pocket cabling and (b1-b2) the front pocket cabling

www.textile-leather.com 201

LOCALIZATION ACCURACY MEASUREMENTS RESULTS


DHAMO S et al., Localino T-shirt: The Real-time Indoor Localization… TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 196-204.

LOCALIZATION ACCURACY MEASUREMENTS RESULTS The Localino platform includes a localization server that calculates the position of the user tag using the ranging measurements provided by Localino anchors, stores the output data in csv files and displays the anchors and tag locations in a real-time updated output diagram. A photo of a laptop that was loaded by the Localino server and a sample output diagram with the tag and anchor locations are illustrated in Figures 5 (a) and 5 (b) respectively.

Figure 5: (a) Laptop with the Localino platform (b) A sample output diagram of anchors and tag locations Table 2: Anchor real positions coordinates Xreal (m)

Yreal (m)

Anchor 1

4

0.8

Anchor 2

12

0.7

Anchor 3

1.9

-7.4

The anchor’s real position coordinates during the experiments are shown in Table 2. Furthermore, the test points’ real coordinates and their respective real distances with respect to the three anchors are shown in Table 3. Table 3: Test points’ real coordinates and real distances to anchors Xreal (m)

Yreal (m)

Distance to Anchor 1 (m)

Distance to Anchor 2 (m)

Distance to Anchor 3 (m)

Point 1

9.60

1.36

4.01

6.25

5.49

Point 2

8.70

5.54

8.07

7.93

8.08

Point 3

5.40

1.60

5.54

5.10

4.98

Point 4

0.70

2.28

5.55

6.18

6.09

Point 5

3.40

6.45

5.93

5.95

5.92

Furthermore, Figure 6 illustrates the mean distance between each test point and the respective anchor in a total number of 100 distance measurements. From Figure 6, it becomes evident that the achieved localization accuracy using the proposed Localino platform was outstanding. As an example, the mean distance between test point #1 and anchor #1 is approximately equal to 4.0 m as can be seen from the blue bar at the leftmost side of the chart in Figure 6, while the real distance between the test point #1 and anchor #1 is equal to 4.01 m; this translates to a localization accuracy error of 1 cm or 0.25 % (percentage calculated as localization error vs. real distance). Moreover, the mean measured distances between test point #1 and the remaining anchors #2 and #3 were equal to 6.20 m and 5.46 m

202 www.textile-leather.com


DHAMO S et al., Localino T-shirt: The Real-time Indoor Localization… TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 196-204.

Figure 6: Mean distance measurements results between each test point (from test point #1 to #5) and anchor (from anchor #1 to #3) respectively, which translates to corresponding localization errors equal to 5 cm (0.80 %) and 3 cm (0.55 %) respectively. Similar results hold for the remaining test points and anchors.

CONCLUSION A smart T-shirt for real-time indoor localization is presented in this paper. The smart T-shirt comprises a Localino tag for indoor localization, as well as a power bank and a solar charger for power supply and charging respectively. The proposed T-shirt is open source due to its design and also due to the utilization of the Localino localization platform that is open source from both the hardware and the software point of view. The proposed T-shirt may be used for indoor localization and healthcare in ambient assisted living of elderly and toddlers or for recreation purposes. Future work includes the integration of GPS sensors for outdoor positioning, as well as a tactile actuator sub-system for providing feedback to visually impaired people. Acknowledgements Students Stefania DHAMO and Erjula SINANAJ would like to thank the Erasmus+ ICM KA-1 2017-2019 Programme between the Polytechnic University of Tirana and the University of West Attica, which gave them the opportunity to do their internship secondment at the Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of West Attica, Athens, GREECE.

REFERENCES [1] INSTAT Instituti I Statistikave. Publikime [internet]. Available from: http://www.instat.gov.al/al/ publikime/ [2] Wang Z, Yang Z, Dong T. A Review of Wearable Technologies for Elderly Care that Can Accurately Track Indoor Position, Recognize Physical Activities and Monitor Vital Signs in Real Time. Sensors [internet]. 2017;17(2):341. Available from: https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/17/2/341 doi: 10.3390/s17020341 [3] Lim CH, Wan Y, Ng BP, Samson CM. Real-Time Indoor WiFi Localization System Utilizing Smart Antennas. IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics [internet]. 2007;53(2):618 – 622. Available from: https:// ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/4266950 doi: 10.1109/TCE.2007.381737 [4] López G, Custodio V, Moreno JI. LOBIN: E-Textile and Wireless-Sensor-Network-Based Platform for Healthcare Monitoring in Future Hospital Environments. IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine [internet]. 2010;14(6):1446-1458. Available from: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/ document/5512630 doi: 10.1109/TITB.2010.2058812 www.textile-leather.com 203


DHAMO S et al., Localino T-shirt: The Real-time Indoor Localization… TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 196-204.

[5] Chesser M, Chea L, Ranasinghe DC. Field Deployable Real-Time Indoor Spatial Tracking System for Human Behavior Observations. In: SenSys ‘18 Proceedings of the 16th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, Shenzhen, China, 2018. p. 369-370. [6] Mitilineos SA, Kyriazanos DM, Segou OE, Goufas JN, Thomopoulos SCA. Indoor localization with wireless sensor networks. Progress in Electromagnetic Research [internet]. 2010;109:441-474. Available from: http://www.jpier.org/PIER/pier.php?paper=10062801 doi: 10.2528/PIER10062801 [7] Larsson M. RTLS – Real time location systems: an inventory study for agriculture applications and requirements. [Master Thesis]. Uppsala; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 2010. [8] Nanotron a sensera company. Real-Time Tracking [internet]. Available from: https://nanotron.com/ EN/real-time-tracking/ [9] Notch. Smart motion caption for mobile devices [internet]. Available from: https://wearnotch.com/ [10] Localino Solutions for indoor localization. The RTLS world of Localino [internet]. Available from: https:// www.localino.net/ [11] Cosmodata. Sandberg Excellence power bank [internet]. Available from: http://www.cosmodata.gr/ product/290187/

204 www.textile-leather.com


SCHWARZ I, KOPITAR D, ITMC 2019, International Conference on Intelligent‌ TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 205-206.

International Conference on Intelligent Textiles & Mass Customisation – ITMC 2019 Ivana SCHWARZ*, Dragana KOPITAR University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Zagreb, Croatia *ivana.schwarz@ttf.hr Notice

The 7th edition of the International Conference on Intelligent Textiles and Mass Customization - ITMC 2019 was held in the Marrakech, Morocco, from 13th to 15th November 2019. The Conference was organized by the Higher School of Textile and Clothing Industries (ESITH), in partnership with Ghent University in Belgium, the National School of Arts and Textile Industries (ENSAIT) in France, Shinshu University in Japan and CTT Group of Canada. The ITMC 2019 conference interdisciplinary approach is the key to maximizing the potential and development of textile materials for various applications. The purpose of the conference is to explore new ideas, effective solutions and collaborative partnerships for business growth by catalyzing the creation of a beneficial synergy between designers, manufacturers, suppliers and end-users from all sectors and making full use of this potential. The themes of the ITMC conference focus on smart textiles and mass personalization: advanced manufacturing, comfort, digital tools, design methodologies, connected composites, mass customization, e-textile and e-commerce, smart and functional textiles, education and training, funding opportunities, supply chain management and logistics, sustainable production and recycling. On November 13th and 14th, inspiring speakers from industry, academia, governments and corporations were shed light on new opportunities and challenges, providing global statistics and successful experiences in

www.textile-leather.com 205


SCHWARZ I, KOPITAR D, ITMC 2019, International Conference on Intelligent… TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 205-206.

science and high technology. During two fruitful days participants had the honor of attending 105 oral and 44 poster presentations of the most recent scientific researches. Inspiring speakers from industry, academia, governments and society gave lectures about cutting edge science and technology, global statistics, innovation through co-operation, education and training. On November 15th, the 7th edition of the Smart Textiles Salon - SDS 2019 was held in organization of the Higher School of Textile and Clothing industries (ESITH) and Ghent University and supported by the organizing committee of ITMC 2019. 18 participants presented their textile-based prototypes or prototypes being compatible with intelligent textile systems.

This event were also marked by renowned international key-note speakers who present the latest cries of intelligent textile development and mass personalization in the world: • Prof. Vladan Končar, National School of Arts and Textile Industries (ENSAIT), France • Prof. Bijoya Kumar Behera, Textile Technology Department, Indian Institute of Technology, India • Eric Perlinger, President of the world leader in the manufacture of high performance technical yarns, FilSpec™, Canada • Emmanuel Cox, Digital transformation officer SNCF, French National Railway Company, France • Rachid Yazami, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University Location, Singapore • Hicham Bouzekri, Director of R&D and Industrial Integration at the Moroccan Solar Energy Agency (MASEN), Morocco • Prof. Toshihiro Hirai, Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, Japan • Kris Van Peteghem, Textile and Apparel Advisor at Fedustria, Belgium • Prof. Savvas G. Vassiliadis, Piraeus University of Applied Sciences, Greece. The International Conference on Intelligent Textiles and Mass Customization - ITMC meets every two years, where the organization rotates among the 5 coordinating countries (Belgium, Canada, France, Japan and Morocco). We are looking forward to the ITMC 2021 conference to be held in Canada.

206 www.textile-leather.com


Instructions for Authors TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 207-210.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS EDITING YOUR MANUSCRIPT Please use our template to edit your article before submitting for review. • Volume of a manuscript should not exceed 10.000 words, without Tables, Figures and Images. • Title of a manuscript should not exceed 15 words. • Full names and surnames of the authors, as well as full names of the author’s affiliation – university, institute, company, department, town and country should be clearly given. Corresponding author should be indicated, and their e-mail address provided. • Abstract of a manuscript should be no longer than 250 words. • Keywords should contain 3-7 items. • SI units should be used throughout. • Abbreviations should be used according to IUPAC and ISO standards and defined when first used. • Footnotes should be avoided. When their use is absolutely necessary, they should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals and appended at the end of the manuscript. • References should be cited using Arabic numbers in square brackets,  according to the Vancouver referencing style. Please use our Quick Reference Guide (or look at the next page) • Figures and illustrations with a title and legend should be numbered consecutively (with Arabic numerals) and must be referred in the text. Images should be numbered as Figures. Additionally, Figures should be supplied as a separate file saved as jpg or tif at 300 dpi minimum. Type size in the description of axes should be proportional to the size of the Figure. • Tables with a title and optional legend should be numbered consecutively and must be referred in the text. • Acknowledgements may be included and should be placed after Conclusions and before References.

CATEGORIZATION OF ARTICLES Distinguishing scientific from professional articles The importance of usefulness of a article is not determined by whether it is scientific or professional. The difference between a scientific and a professional work is the originality of the results of research, debate and conclusions obtained by verified scientific methods. A professional paper can be more important for spreading knowledge and profession and economically more useful in application, but this does not mean it is a new contribution to the increase of scientific knowledge. The received manuscripts are categorized into: Original scientific papers means it is the first publication of original research. It must be presented so that the research can be repeated giving results with equal precision within the limits of the trial error, which means that the correctness of analyses and conclusions can be checked. Scientific review is a complete review of a issue or a field of research based on already published work but contains original analyses synthesis or suggestions for further research. It has a more comprehensive introduction than the original scientific paper. Preliminary communication includes new scientific results demanding urgent publication while the research is underway. This kind of article does not have to ensure the repetition and checking the presented results. It is published only with the author’s obligation to publish the original scientific paper when the research is completed.

www.textile-leather.com 207


Instructions for Authors TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 207-210.

Conference paper is the work presented at a professional conference organized on local, regional or state level. It will be published if it has not been published in full in Proceedings, as a report, a study etc. Professional paper deals with the issues in the profession. It gives professional instructions and suggestions for how to solve the issue (technique, technology, methodology). Professional review is a complete review of a professional issue (technique, technology, methodology) based on already published work indicating the best ways for solving the issue. The papers that are not categorized include: Presentation and communication from practical experience deals with solving the problem of particular laboratory, institution or industry and serve to inform interested parties of the solution applied. Position paper is an essay that presents an arguable opinion about an issue. Commentary is paper connected with actual news and condition in science and textile/clothing industry.

QUICK REFERENCE GUIDE Vancouver referencing style consists of: • citations to someone else’s work in the text, indicated by the use of a number, • a sequentially numbered reference list at the end of the document providing full details of the corresponding in-text reference. In-text citations • Insert an in-text citation: o when your work has been influenced by someone else’s work, for example: ▪ when you directly quote someone else’s work ▪ when you paraphrase someone else’s work • General rules of in-text citation: o A number is allocated to a source in the order in which it is cited in the text. If the source is referred to again, the same number is used o Use Arabic numerals in square brackets [1], [2], [3], … o Superscripts can also be used rather than brackets o Reference numbers should be inserted to the left or inside of colons and semi-colons o Reference numbers are placed outside or after full stops and commas Multiple works by the same author: Each individual work by the same author, even if it is published in the same year, has its own reference number. Citing secondary sources: A secondary source, or indirect citation, occurs when the ideas on one author are published in another author’s work, and you have not accessed or read the original piece of work. Cite the author of the work you have read and also include this source in your reference list.

208 www.textile-leather.com


Instructions for Authors TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 207-210.

In-text citation examples The in-text citation is placed immediately after the text which refers to the source being cited: ...and are generally utilized as industrial textile composites.[1] Including page numbers with in-text citations: Page numbers are not usually included with the citation number. However should you wish to specify the page number of the source the page/s should be included in the following format: …and are generally utilized as industrial textile composites.[1 p23] Hearle [1 p16-18] has argued that... Citing more than one reference at a time: The preferred method is to list each reference number separated by a comma, or by a dash for a sequence of consecutive numbers. There should be no spaces between commas or dashes For example: [1,5,6-8] Reference List • References are listed in numerical order, and in the same order in which they are cited in text. The reference list appears at the end of the paper • Begin your reference list on a new page and title it References • The reference list should include all and only those references you have cited in the text • Use Arabic numerals [1], [2], [3], … • Full journal titles are prefered • Check the reference details against the actual source - you are indicating that you have read a source when you cite it Scholarly journal articles • Enter author’s surname followed by no more than 2 initials (full stop) • If more than 1 author: give all authors’ names and separate each by a comma and a space • For articles with 1 to 6 authors, list all authors. For articles with more than 6 authors, list the first 6 authors then add ‘et al.’ • Only the first word of the article title and words that normally begin with a capital letter are capitalized. • Use Full journal titles • Follow the date with a semi-colon; • Abbreviate months to their first 3 letters (no full stop) • Give the volume number (no space) followed by issue number in brackets • If the journal has continuous page numbering through its volumes, omit month/issue number. • Page numbers, eg: 123-129. Digital Object Identification (DOI) and URLs The digital object identifier (DOI) should be provided in the reference where it is available. Use the form as it appears in your source. Print journal article – Ferri L de, Lorenzi A, Carcano E, Draghi L. Silk fabrics modification by sol-gel method. Textile Research Journal. 2018 Jan;88(1):99-107. ▪ Author AA, Author BB, Author CC, Author DD. Title of article. Title of journal. Date of publication YYYY Mon DD;volume number(issue number):page numbers.

www.textile-leather.com 209


Instructions for Authors TEXT LEATH REV 2 (4) 2019 207-210.

Electronic journal article – Niculescu O, Deselnicu DC, Georgescu M, Nituica M. Finishing product for improving antifugal properties of leather. Leather and Footwear Journal [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2017 Apr 22];17(1):31-38. Available from: http://revistapielarieincaltaminte.ro/revistapielarieincaltaminteresurse/en/ fisiere/full/vol17 -nr1/article4_vol17_issue1.pdf ▪ Author AA, Author BB. Title of article. Title of Journal [Internet]. Date of publication YYYY MM [cited YYYY Mon DD];volume number(issue number):page numbers. Available from: URL Book – Hu J. Structure and mechanics of woven fabrics. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Ltd; 2004. 61 p. ▪ Author AA. Title of book. # edition [if not first]. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year of publication. Pagination. Edited book - Sun G, editor. Antimicrobial Textiles. Duxford: Woodhead Publishing is an imprint of Elsevier; 2016. 99 p. ▪ Editor AA, Editor BB, editors. Title of book. # edition[if not first]. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year. Pagination. Chapter in a book - Luximon A, editor. Handbook of Footwear Design and Manufacture. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Limited; 2013. Chapter 5, Foot problems and their implications for footwear design; p. [90-114]. ▪ Author AA, Author BB. Title of book. # edition. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year of publication. Chapter number, Chapter title; p. [page numbers of chapter]. Electronic book – Strasser J. Bangladesh’s Leather Industry: Local Production Networks in the Global Economy [Internet]. s.l.: Springer International Publishing; 2015 [cited 2017 Feb 07]. 96 p. Available from: https://link. springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-319-22548-7 ▪ Author AA. Title of web page [Internet]. Place of Publication: Sponsor of Website/Publisher; Year published [cited YYYY Mon DD]. Number of pages. Available from: URL DOI: (if available) Conference paper – Ferreira NG, Nobrega LCO, Held MSB. The need of Fashion Accessories. In: Mijović B. editor. Innovative textile for high future demands. Proceedings 12th World Textile Conference AUTEX; 13-15 June 2012; Zadar, Croatia. Zagreb: Faculty of Textile Technology, University of Zagreb; 2012. p. 1253-1257. ▪ Author AA. Title of paper. In: Editor AA, editor. Title of book. Proceedings of the Title of the Conference; Date of conference; Place of Conference. Place of publication: Publisher’s name; Year of Publication. p. page numbers. Thesis/dissertation – Sujeevini J. Studies on the hydro-thermal and viscoelastic properties of leather [dissertation]. Leicester: University of Leicester; 2004. 144 p. ▪ Author AA. Title of thesis [dissertation]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year. Number of pages Electronic thesis/dissertation – Covington AD. Studies in leather science [dissertation on the internet]. Northampton: University of Northampton; 2010. [cited 2017 Jan 09]. Available from: http://ethos.bl.uk/ OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.579666 ▪ Author AA. Title of thesis [dissertation on the Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year. [cited YYYY abb. month DD]. Available from: URL This quick reference guide is based on Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (2nd edition). Please consult this source directly for additional information or examples.

210 www.textile-leather.com


Profile for Suvremena trgovina - online

Textile & Leather Review 4 2019  

Textile & Leather Review

Textile & Leather Review 4 2019  

Textile & Leather Review

Advertisement