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TEXTILE & REVIEW LEATHER

2/2021 Volume 4 Issue 2 2021 textile-leather.com ISSN 2623-6257 (Print) ISSN 2623-6281 (Online)


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Textile & Leather Review ‒ ISSN 2623-6257 (Print), ISSN 2623-6281 (Online) UDC 677+675 DOI: https://doi.org/10.31881/TLR Frequency: 4 Times/Year The annual subscription (4 issues). Printed in 300 copies Published by Seniko studio d.o.o., Zagreb, Croatia Full-text available in open access at www.textile-leather.com

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TEXTILE & LEATHER REVIEW ISSN 2623-6257 (Print)

ISSN 2623-6281 (Online) CROATIA

VOLUME 4

ISSUE 2

2021

p. 61-132

CONTENT ARTICLE 65-75

Development of Adsorbent from Sugarcane Bagasse for the Removal of Pollutants from Chrome Tanning Effluents Razia Sultana, Sobur Ahmed, Fatema-Tuj-Zohra

REVIEW 76-95

Probable Ways of Tannery’s Solid and Liquid Waste Management in Bangladesh ‒ An Overview Biraj Saha, Forhad Ahammed Bin Azam

96-110

Sustainability Issues of Various Denim Washing Methods Md. Khalilur Rahman Khan, Sayedatunnesa Jintun

ARTICLE 111-127

Textile Art Creation as a Tool for Raising Awareness of Corruption in Ghana Solomon Boateng, Benjamin Kwablah Asinyo, Ebenezer Kofi Howard, Edward Apau, Raphael Kanyire Seidu


SULTANA R, AHMED S, ZOHRA FT. Development of Adsorbent from Sugarcane… TLR 4 (2) 2021 65-75.

Development of Adsorbent from Sugarcane Bagasse for the Removal of Pollutants from Chrome Tanning Effluents Razia SULTANA, Sobur AHMED, Fatema-Tuj-ZOHRA* Institute of Leather Engineering and Technology, University of Dhaka, 44-50, Hazaribagh, Dhaka-1209, Bangladesh *fatema.ilet@du.ac.bd; fatema.lpt@gmail.com Article UDC 675.088:677.175 DOI: 10.31881/TLR.2020.24 Received 24 Dec 2020; Accepted 23 Feb 2021; Published Online 26 February 2021; Published 1 June 2021

ABSTRACT The leather sector is the second-largest export earning sector in Bangladesh which contributes to huge employment generation and economic development. However, the current situation of this sector is not good enough for its lack of cleaner technologies and waste management systems. Tanneries are using an ample amount of harmful chemicals that may impose a huge negative impact on human health and the environment. Therefore, it is an emerging requirement for the removal of pollutants from effluents before discharging them to the environment. For this, the development of an adsorbent from agricultural waste is significant for removing pollutants from the tanning effluent and greening the environment. In this study, a low-cost adsorbent is developed and used to remove pollutants from the chrome tanning effluent. The developed adsorbent is prepared from sugarcane bagasse and activated by using NaOH. The study was performed at pH 4, with an adsorption time of 1 hour, and the adsorbent doses of 2.5 g/L. The findings revealed that a considerable amount of pollution was mitigated with the reduction in BOD (42.17%), COD (75.00%), Cr2O3 (41.91%), TSS (81.85%), and TDS (84.24%). KEYWORDS Bagasse, Pyrolysis, Pollutant, Adsorbents, Effluent

INTRODUCTION Tannery effluents are harmful to human health as well as to the natural environment. They have a long term impact on ground water and the environment. In the tannery, raw hides/skins undergo several chemical and mechanical operations, among which tanning is the most important process [1]. Tanning agents are considered as the paramount chemicals in the leather manufacturing. Among all tanning agents, basic chromium sulfate is the most popular as it provides unique properties and good hydrothermal stability to tanned leather [2]. About 90% of the tanneries use basic chromium sulfate (BCS) during tanning [3]. Every year, about 15,000 tonnes of chromium salt (basic chromium sulphate) is used for the production of 18 billion sq. ft. of tanned leather worldwide [4,5]. The previous studies reported that only 60-70% of used chromium is consumed by the pelt in the traditional chrome tanning process and the rest is discharged into the chrome tanning effluent, causing a great waste of chrome and severe environmental pollution [6,7]. Effluent comes from tannery operations, containing huge amounts of pollutants and heavy metals [8]. These pollutants may cause serious environmental pollution and may be considered as one of the biggest challenges for the sustainability of the leather industry [9-11]. However, most of the developing countries do not www.textile-leather.com 65


SULTANA R, AHMED S, ZOHRA FT. Development of Adsorbent from Sugarcane… TLR 4 (2) 2021 65-75.

have the proper technology to treat tannery effluents before discharging it in the natural environment [12]. The leather industries in Bangladesh have relocated to Saver for the betterment of the environment, introducing the Central Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) [13]. Unfortunately, this CETP is not working properly. It is very crucial to make CETP functional for the treatment of tannery effluents as it contains sulphonated oils, phenolic compounds, chromium, etc. [14]. The main pollutants in tanneries are suspended solids, BOD, COD, and heavy metals [15-17]. Currently, tanneries are releasing toxic chemicals to the natural environment and damaging plants and biotics in the water bodies as they do not have a proper disposal system of the tanning waste. The researchers have developed many methods i.e. filtration [18], distillation [19], precipitation, electrolysis [20], oxidation [21] and evaporation, reverse osmosis [22], coagulation [23], flotation, etc. for the treatment of tannery wastewater. Consequently, the development of low-cost adsorbents from natural sources to solve environmental problems has received special attention among researchers [24-26]. Adsorption is widely used for removing pollutants from tannery effluents. It is proven that adsorption can act as a multiple sequestration method of solute separation. Adsorbents may be developed from activated charcoals, wood dusts, agricultural wastes, etc. In this study, sugarcane bagasse adsorbent was developed from natural agricultural wastes, like sugarcane bagasse, to investigate its efficiency in removing pollutants from chrome tanning effluents. The effort was given to investigate the removal efficiency of BOD5, COD, Cr2O3, TSS and TDS from tanning effluents.

EXPERIMENTAL Materials Sugarcane bagasse was collected from a local market in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Further, it was washed with deionized water in order to remove the dust, and then dried completely. Dried sugarcane bagasse was converted into an adsorbent via several processes.

Equipment In this study, locally made Pyrolyser (temperature control from 50 to 600 °C) was used for pyrolysis. The pH of the solution was investigated by using a pH meter (HANNA Instruments). Grinding was carried out by an electric grinding machine. All required shaking was performed by a shaking machine (SK-L330-Pro, DLAB). A scanning electron microscope (JEOL, JSM-6490) was used to investigate the surface morphology of the sugarcane bagasse adsorbent. A Fourier Transform InfraRed spectrometer (IRPrestige-21, Shimadju Corporation, Kyoto, Japan) was utilized to analyse the functional groups on the surface of the adsorbent.

Experimental work methodology Adsorption experiments were conducted in a beaker at a constant temperature. The adsorbent was well mixed with the collected sample in the shaking machine and filtered through a Whatman No.1 filter paper. The residual concentration of pollutants in the filtrate was analysed.

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Adsorption experiments were conducted in a beaker at constant temperature. The adsorbent was well mixed with the collected sample in the shaking machine and filtered through a Whatman No.1 SULTANA R, AHMEDconcentration S, ZOHRA FT. Development of in Adsorbent fromwas Sugarcane… TLR 4 (2) 2021 65-75. filter paper. The residual of pollutants the filtrate analysed.

The adsorption percentages of the pollutants were calculated as follows [27,28]: The adsorption percentages of the pollutants were calculated as follows [27,28]: 𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅 𝑟𝑟𝑅𝑅𝑟𝑟𝑅𝑅 (%) = 𝐶𝐶𝑜𝑜 −𝐶𝐶𝑡𝑡 × 100

(1) (1)

𝐶𝐶𝑜𝑜

where Co and Ct are the concentration of pollutants in the sample solution at the beginning and after the adsorption time respectively. where Co t,and Ct are the concentration of pollutants in the sample solution at the beginning and after

the adsorption time t, respectively.

Preparation of adsorbents

Pyrolysis of raw sugarcane bagasse Preparation of adsorbents Pyrolysis is the carbonatization and charring process which converts the sugarcane bagasse fibres to charPyrolysis of raw sugarcane bagasse coal by decomposition through heating in the absence of oxygen [29]. In this study, sugarcane bagasse was pyrolyzed at 500is°Cthe ± 10carbonatization °C for 2 hours. and charring process which converts the sugarcane bagasse fibres to Pyrolysis In the pyrolysis process, 70% of the mass is discharged into the atmosphere and the remaining 30% is charcoal by decomposition through heating in the absence of oxygen [29]. In this study, sugarcane converted to charcoal. It is noticed that during the carbonization process, water vapor, CO2, methane, and pyrolyzed atare 500released °C ± 10 °C for 2 hours. variousbagasse types of was organic vapours [30-34]. Figure 1(a) shows the raw sugarcane bagasse used in this study andpyrolysis 1(b) shows the sugarcane bagasse charcoal which was produced through process. In the process, 70% of the mass is discharged into the atmosphere and pyrolysis the remaining 30% is

converted to charcoal. It is noticed that during the carbonization process, water vapor, CO2, methane, and various types of organic vapours are released [30-34]. Figure 1(a) shows the raw sugarcane bagasse used in this study and 1(b) shows the sugarcane bagasse charcoal which was produced through pyrolysis process.

(a)

(b)

Figure 1. (a) raw sugarcane bagasse; (b) sugarcane bagasse charcoal

Development of sugarcane bagasse charcoal by chemical activation In this study, the sugarcane bagasse charcoal was activated by chemical treatment. 50 g of sugarcane bagasse charcoal have been taken in a clean beaker filled with 250 ml of water and 10%-sodium hydroxide of analytical grade (5 g) was added to activate and increase the adsorption capacity of the charcoal. The process of chemical activation for the preparation of adsorbent from raw sugarcane bagasse is summarized in the following Figure 2.

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SULTANA R, AHMED S, ZOHRA FT. Development of Adsorbent from Sugarcane… TLR 4 (2) 2021 65-75.

Figure 2. Flow chart of the adsorbent preparation

Figure 3 shows the chemically activated sugarcane bagasse charcoal.

Figure 3. NaOH-activated sugarcane bagasse charcoal

After developing the sugarcane bagasse charcoal by chemical activation, the collected effluent was treated as follows: BOD5 was measured by the OXITOP measurement system; COD was investigated using the standard method (ASTM D1252-06); Cr2O3 was measured using SLC 8 (IUC 8; BS 1309:8) standard method; TDS and TSS were measured consequently using SLC 115 (SLT 2/3c) and SLC 114 (SLT 2/3b) standard procedures.

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SULTANA R, AHMED S, ZOHRA FT. Development of Adsorbent from Sugarcane… TLR 4 (2) 2021 65-75.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION SEM analysis Surface morphologies of the NaOH-activated sugarcane bagasse were explored through SEM (Figure 4). It is expressed that NaOH-activated sugarcane bagasse has lamellar feature, irregular and heterogeneous structure and cavities which favour the adsorption process in aqueous solutions [35].

(b) Figure 4. (a) SEM micrographs of NaOH-activated sugarcane bagasse before adsorption; (b) SEM micrographs of NaOHactivated sugarcane bagasse after adsorption with magnifications of 1000 times (a)

The SEM images (Figure 4) show the morphological structures of the NaOH-activated sugarcane bagasse. It is clearly observed that there is a change in surface morphology before and after the adsorption. The structure of the adsorbent is found to have irregular porosities in the image taken before the adsorption, whereas their porous surface became less visible after the adsorption. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) The functional groups present in the NaOH-activated sugarcane bagasse were characterized using the FTIR. The infrared spectra are taken at a range of 700-4000 cm-1. Previous study shows many functional groups shifted to different frequency levels or disappeared after the adsorption, indicating the possible involvement of functional groups in the uptake of metal cations [36]. Figure 5 shows the FTIR of the NaOH-activated sugarcane bagasse (a) before and (b) after the Cr(III) adsorption. Characteristic frequencies in the range from 3200 cm-1 to 3650 cm-1 may be mainly associated with the stretching vibrations of the hydroxyl group (-OH bond). The possible stretching vibrations of -OH bond for sugarcane bagasse were found at 3603 cm-1 before and at 3597 cm-1 after the Cr(III) adsorption. The frequencies in the range from 1680 cm-1 to 1750 cm-1 were mainly associated with the stretching vibrations of the carbonyl groups (C=O bond). Figure 5 showed peaks at 1689 cm-1 and 1685 cm-1 of (a) and (b) which specify that there may be stretching vibrations of the carbonyl groups. Moreover, the –CH stretching bond was found at 2891 cm-1 for sugarcane bagasse before the Cr(III) adsorption and 1533cm-1 frequencies were found for both (a) and (b) due to the C=C bond.

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SULTANA R, AHMED S, ZOHRA FT. Development of Adsorbent from Sugarcane… TLR 4 (2) 2021 65-75.

(a)

(b)

Figure 5. FTIR of the NaOH-activated sugarcane bagasse

The developed adsorbent was utilized for the treatment of the chrome tanning effluent collected from the Tannery Industrial Estate, Dhaka (TIED). The chrome tanning effluent is mainly contaminated with a large amount of Cr(III) along with other pollutants. Here, some pollutants were reduced in the tanning industry wastewater by using the developed adsorbent.

Physico-chemical parameters of the collected chrome tanning effluent The effluent was analysed in the laboratory. The physico-chemical characteristics of the samples are shown in the following Table 1.

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SULTANA R, AHMED S, ZOHRA FT. Development of Adsorbent from Sugarcane… TLR 4 (2) 2021 65-75.

Table 1. Characteristics of the chrome tanning effluent collected from the Tannery Industrial Estate, Dhaka (TIED) Sl. No.

Parameters

Details

1

pH

4

2

Temperature

28.4°C

3

Colour

blackish blue

4

Cr2O3

504.88044 mg/L

5

BOD5

3320

6

COD

19200

7

Chloride content

0.55692 g

8

TDS

10.2198 g

9

TSS

0.339 g

In this study, the temperature was measured by the direct reading of the thermometer. Colour/odour was measured by visual observation and the pH was measured by a pH meter.

Adsorption Experiments The collected chrome tanning effluent was tested considering the following different parameters: the volume of the effluent (500 mL), the sugarcane bagasse dose (2.5 g/L), the shaking time (1 hour) for the removal of some pollutants, such as BOD5, COD, Cr2O3 content, TSS and TDS. The BOD5, COD, Cr2O3, TSS, and TDS values of the collected sample before and after the adsorption are presented in Figures 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 respectively.

Figure 6. BOD5 values of the collected sample before and after the adsorption

Figure 7. COD values of the collected sample before and after the adsorption

Figure 8. Cr2O3 values of the collected sample before and after the adsorption

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SULTANA R, AHMED S, ZOHRA FT. Development of Adsorbent from Sugarcane… TLR 4 (2) 2021 65-75.

Figure 9. TSS values of the collected sample before and after the adsorption

Figure 10. TDS values of the collected sample before and after the adsorption

Finally, the removal rate of the pollutants by using the NaOH-activated sugarcane bagasse charcoal is presented in Figure 11.

Figure 11. Removal rate of the pollutants by using the NaOH-activated sugarcane bagasse charcoal

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SULTANA R, AHMED S, ZOHRA FT. Development of Adsorbent from Sugarcane… TLR 4 (2) 2021 65-75.

CONCLUSION The investigations proved that the adsorption technique is one of the efficient modes of physico-chemical treatment of the tannery wastewater. In this study, the level of pollutants i.e., BOD5, COD, Cr2O3, TSS and TDS were investigated. The findings of the study revealed that BOD5 value was reduced to 42%. It is also noticed that, after the adsorption, the COD value, the Cr2O3 content, TSS and TDS were reduced to 75%, 41.91%, 81.85% and 84.24% respectively. Therefore, it is stated that sugarcane bagasse can be used as an effective adsorbent for the treatment of the chrome tanning effluent. In the future, this study can be extended by taking various samples from multiple tanneries. Furthermore, sugarcane bagasse can be activated by using various chemicals to investigate its efficiency. Author Contribution Conceptualization – Razia Sultana, Sobur Ahmed and Fatema-Tuj-ZOHRA; methodology – Razia Sultana; formal analysis – Razia Sultana, Fatema-Tuj-ZOHRA; investigation – Razia Sultana, Fatema-Tuj-ZOHRA; resources – Fatema-Tuj-ZOHRA and Sobur Ahmed; writing, original draft preparation – Razia Sultana; writing, review and editing – Fatema-Tuj-ZOHRA and Sobur Ahmed; visualization – Fatema-Tuj-ZOHRA; supervision – FatemaTuj-ZOHRA. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. Acknowledgements Authors would like to thank the authorities of the Institute of Leather Engineering and Technology for providing the lab facilities. Funding This research received no external funding. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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[22] Singh S, Garg A. Advanced Oxidation Processes for Effluent Treatment Plants. Elsevier; 2021. 12, Advanced oxidation processes for industrial effluent treatment; p. 255–272. https://doi.org/10.1016/ B978-0-12-821011-6.00012-8 [23] Mahto A, Aruchamy K, Meena R, Kamali M et al. Forward osmosis for industrial effluents treatment – sustainability considerations. Separation and Purification Technology. 2021; 254:117568. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.seppur.2020.117568 [24] Pinto MB et al. Multivariate and multiobjective optimization of tannery industry effluent treatment using Musa sp flower extract in the coagulation and flocculation process. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2019; 219:655-666. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.02.060 [25] Bansal M, Patnala PK, Dugmore T. Adsorption of Eriochrome Black-T(EBT) using tea waste as a low cost adsorbent by batch studies: A green approach for dye effluent treatments. Current Research in Green and Sustainable Chemistry. 2020; 3:100036. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crgsc.2020.100036 [26] Vetriselvi V, Jaya Santhi R. Redox polymer as an adsorbent for the removal of chromium (VI) and lead (II) from the tannery effluents. Water Resources and Industry. 2015; 10:39-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. wri.2015.02.003 [27] Piccin JS, Gomes CS, Mella B, Gutterres M. Color removal from real leather dyeing effluent using tannery waste as an adsorbent. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 2016; 4(1):1061-1067. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2016.01.010 [28] Miretzky P, Cirelli AF. Cr(VI) and Cr(III) removal from aqueous solution by raw and modified lignocellulosic materials: A review. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2010; 180(1–3):1-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. jhazmat.2010.04.060 [29] Bhattacharya AK, Naiya TK, Mandal SN, Das SK. Adsorption, kinetics and equilibrium studies on removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions using different low-cost adsorbents. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2008; 137(3):529-541. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2007.05.021 [30] Foong SY et al.. Progress in waste valorization using advanced pyrolysis techniques for hydrogen and gaseous fuel production. Bioresource Technology. 2021; 320(Part A):124299. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. biortech.2020.124299 [31] Kiliç M, Kirbiyik Ç, Çepelioǧullar Ö, Pütün AE. Adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions by bio-char, a by-product of pyrolysis. Applied Surface Science. 2013; 283:856-862. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2013.07.033 [32] Al-Shannag M, Al-Qodah Z, Bani-Melhem K, Qtaishat MR, Alkasrawi M. Heavy metal ions removal from metal plating wastewater using electrocoagulation: Kinetic study and process performance. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2015; 260:749-756. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2014.09.035 [33] Stals M, Thijssen E, Vangronsveld J, Carleer R et al. Flash pyrolysis of heavy metal contaminated biomass from phytoremediation: Influence of temperature, entrained flow and wood/leaves blended pyrolysis on the behaviour of heavy metals. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis. 2010; 87(1):1-7. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.jaap.2009.09.003 [34] Demirbas A. Heavy metal adsorption onto agro-based waste materials: A review. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2008 157(2–3):220-229. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.01.024 [35] Oliveira JA, Cunha FA, Ruotolo LAM. Synthesis of zeolite from sugarcane bagasse fly ash and its application as a low-cost adsorbent to remove heavy metals. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2019; 229:956-963. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.05.069 [36] Chowdhury ZZ, Zain SM, Khan RA, Islam MS. Preparation and characterizations of activated carbon from kenaf fiber for equilibrium adsorption studies of copper from wastewater. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering. 2012; 29(9):1187-1195. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11814-011-0297-9 www.textile-leather.com 75


SAHA B, AZAM FAB. Probable Ways of Tannery’s Solid and Liquid Waste Management… TLR 4 (2) 2021 76-95.

Probable Ways of Tannery’s Solid and Liquid Waste Management in Bangladesh ‒ An Overview Biraj SAHA, Forhad Ahammed Bin AZAM* Institute of Leather Engineering and Technology, University of Dhaka, 45-50, Hagaribag, Dhaka *duiletforhad@gmail.com Review UDC 675.088:628.3 DOI: 10.31881/TLR.2020.25 Received 29 December 2020; Accepted 22 February 2021; Published Online 3 March 2021; Published 1 June 2021

ABSTRACT The leather industry has been marked as a top-priority sector due to its potential growth and economical contribution in Bangladesh. However, these industries are unable to meet the compliance issue due to the environmental pollution. Leather processing is a complex process based on chemicals and mechanical methods. A substantial amount of solid and liquid wastes is generally produced during the production of leather. As most of the tanneries do not have a central effluent treatment plant and advanced management technologies, they produce 20000 m3 of liquid waste and 232 tonnes of solid waste per day in Bangladesh, which poses a significant risk to the environment and human health unless it gets well treated. In this modern era, it is indispensable to implement new technologies to treat liquid waste properly as well as innovative disposal techniques for solid waste to reduce pollution and health hazards. This study, by using a non-systematic approach based on literature reviews, is designed to summarize the kinds of solid and liquid waste management techniques around the world which should be implemented in the tanneries of Bangladesh to mitigate environmental pollution. We hope that this study can be a great resource and provide a pathway for leather industries in Bangladesh to get familiar with effective treatment technologies of solid and liquid wastes. KEYWORDS Solid waste, Liquid waste, Treatment, Tannery

INTRODUCTION Waste is an unavoidable thing that is created due to human activities, urbanization, development of living standards, and economic evolution [1]. These changes in human activities increase the volume of waste generation as well as the category of waste. The world is producing 7-9 billion tonnes of waste yearly [1,2]. In 2016, around two billion tonnes of municipal solid waste were generated [1]. This wastage is affecting our entire environment and all human beings as well. Considering the situation, this problem needs special attention, not only nationally but also globally. Leather making is an ancient art, whereas its manufacturing process, namely the tanning process, is connected to the generation of huge amounts of waste. The world is producing 7-9 billion tonnes of waste yearly [1,2]. In 2016, around two billion tonnes of municipal solid waste were generated [1]. This wastage is affecting our entire environment and all human beings as well. Considering the situation, this problem needs special attention, not only nationally but also glob-

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ally. Leather making is an ancient art, whereas its manufacturing process, namely the tanning process, is connected to the generation of huge amounts of waste. Tanning is the process of transforming raw hides into a useful product not only by providing the necessary material and energetic input such as heat, chemicals, and water, but also by generating huge amounts of solid waste, liquid waste, and air pollution as an output [3,4]. About 6.5 million Mg (wet salted weight) bovine hides and skin are processed annually all around the world, of which more than 4.3 million Mg was produced by the developing countries. Approx. 750 thousand Mg (dry weight) of goatskins, kidskins, and sheepskins are used in the process. A total of 3.5-4 million Mg (rough calculation) of solid waste is currently generated worldwide [5]. On the other hand, wastewater is also generated by industrial activities as a by-product, which involves a rise in level of various contaminants beyond the limit, such as Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Organotin Carbon (TOC), Total Suspended Solid (TSS) and heavy metals. These are found in neighbouring water bodies and have an adverse effect on the aquatic environment [6]. The process of tannery operation also produces different types of malodour and causes air pollution. It emits ammonia, hydrogen sulfide gas, and volatile compounds such as hydrocarbon, amines, and aldehyde due to biological degradation and chemical substances. The type of air pollution depends on the applied technology and the method of process. Hence, pollution to the ambiance will inevitably happen. Consequently, the pollution caused by leather processing undoubtedly poses a detrimental effect on the environment and human health. So, the primary concern is the treatment or management of this waste [7]. In this study, an overview of solid and liquid waste management will be discussed as it is one of the most unavoidable problems in Bangladesh. Bangladesh has made rapid economic growth in the last few years. The government is positive about the development of the leather sector which made possible the transformation of unstructured leather industries into a structured form. Though Bangladesh tackled the COVID-19 situations remarkably, there is some fluctuation in export earnings of leather and leather-made goods, which are about $1.10 as reported by the Export Promotion Bureau [8]. Nowadays, it is considered one of the leading sectors in Bangladesh.

Tanneries in Bangladesh A small number of tanneries initiated to manufacture crust and then finished leather from putrescible raw hides and skins of domestic animals in Bangladesh. Nowadays there are about 220 of different-sized tanneries in different locations, but only 113 among them are effectively in function. Moreover, among them, 20 factories (fairly 7 units) are considered as large, 45 units are regarded as medium and 53 units are regarded as small, as presented in Table 1. Bangladesh is well reputed for breeding livestock population to provide a big support for the growing leather processing industries. Table 2 shows that cow hides contribute to 56% of the production, 30% comes from goat skins, and buffalo skins are used to make up the rest [9]. Once most of the factories situated at Hazaribagh were regarded as ‘operating tanneries’, operated by owners, and the rest of the factories were run on leasing basis until 2017, but afterward 123 big tanneries shifted completely to the Tannery Industrial State (TIE) situated in Savar and others are planning to go there [10].

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Table 1: Structure of tannery in Bangladesh [9] Number of Tanneries

Typical annual production capacity/ tannery

Total installed capacity/annual

Total actual production/ annual

Share of actual production

7

>5 million sq.ft

40 million sq.ft

30 million sq.ft

17

13

2-5 million sq.ft

60 million sq.ft

52 million sq.ft

29

48

<2 million sq.ft

70 million sq.ft

60 million sq.ft

33

53

<1 million sq.ft

60 million sq.ft

38 million sq.ft

21

230 million sq.ft

180 million sq. ft

100

Total: 113

Table 2: Livestock population for leather Industry [9] Category

Annual kill in millions

Average weight/price in Bangladesh

Total annual production in tonnes

Average area per piece (sq.ft)

Cow/Calf

4.00

12

48000 (56%)

20-22

Goat/Sheep

15.00

1.5-2.0

26000 (30%)

3.75

Buffalo

0.50

20-25

11000 (14%)

32.35

Tanning Process Leather tanning is a process of turning putrescible outer layers of animals to non-putrescible ripen leathers with precise physical and chemical properties so that they can meet the requirements of daily life and industries [11]. This is a complex process, involving different chemicals, salts, and other additional ingredients. Operations are conducted in the beam house, tan yard, and wet processes known as post-tanning operation are operated in other areas, as they are carried out in processing vessels, such as drums. Then, dry finishing operations are carried out accordingly. Leather processing is dependent on the used raw materials and the desired end product. Thus, the environmental pollution caused by the discharge of solid wastes and wastewater contents differs from factory to factory. Raw hide or skin is the primary material for leather processing. The salt is required for preserving the skin/hide, and other hazardous chemicals used in leather processing are lime, ammonium salts, chromium salts, sulphuric acid, ammonium sulfide, and organic tanning agents [6]. Figure 1 shows the various processing steps of leather tanning [5].

TYPES OF POLLUTION DUE TO THE LEATHER INDUSTRIES The leather industry is known as one of the most polluting industries due to its adverse impact on the environment. During processing, a substantial amount of solids, including dissolved and suspended organic matter, contaminate wastewater containing chemicals which are largely responsible for environmental pollution [12]. Different kinds of pollution occur during tanning steps discussed below.

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Table 3: Tanning process with raw materials used in processing and possible solid and liquid pollutants Process Input

Process

Solid Pollutants

Liquid Pollutants

Tanning

Pre-Tanning

Raw Hides/Skins Sorting and Trimming

Trimming waste

Salt

Curing and Storage

Salt

Water

Soaking

Salt

Water, Lime, Sulfide

Liming

Alkali, BOD, COD, TDS H2S gas

Unhairing

Keratinous waste

Hair, Organics, Alkali, TDS

Fleshing

Fleshing waste

Fats, Alkali

Ammonia, Salts, Water

Deliming

Ammonia, Salt

Protease

Bating

Proteoglycans, Organics, Lime

NaCl, Acid, Water

Pickling

Acid, Salt

Cr Tanning Agent, Formate, Bicarbonate

Tanning

Cr, Salts, Low pH, BOD, COD

Samming and Shaving

Shaving dust, Splitting waste

Bicarbonate, Formate, Water

Neutralization

Salts, Cr

Vegetable tannin, Phenol, Cr tanning agent, Syntan

Re-tanning

Cr, Salts, Phenol

Dyes

Dyeing

Dyes

Oil, Fats, Formic Acid

Fatliquoring and Fixing

Oils, Fats, Acid

Finishing Agent

Mechanical Finishing

Coating Agent

Coating

Finishing

Post- Tanning

TDS, Dirt, Dung, Blood, BOD, COD

Leather

Soil Pollution Soil is important for the growth and development of plants and animals. It is very common that soil profile is negatively affected due to the presence of hazardous substances containing organic and inorganic pollutants generated from industrial wastes, especially from the effluents of the tannery. Tannery sludges contain heavy metals such as Cd, Zn, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Mn which can cause metal accumulation in the surface soil, and these metals can bioaccumulate in plants, crops, etc. Chromium concentration in soil is high due to the

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irrigation with wastewater containing a high concentration of chromium-rich tannery effluents [13]. As a substantial amount of NaCl is used as a raw material in the tanneries during leather processing, it discharges a significant amount of chloride into the soil [14]. The pH level of the soil is increased due to the alkalization of soil in the tanning process caused by sodium carbonate, bicarbonate and chloride [15].

Atmospheric Pollution The oxygen contained in the air is an essential part for our healthy life. However, air pollution is common throughout the globe, mainly in developed and underdeveloped countries from 1960 to this day. Polluted air poses a serious risk to human health as it contains particulate matter, heavy metals, carbon monoxide and dioxide, benzene, N2O, PAHs, NH3, etc. from waste generated by tanning processes, especially during post-tanning and the finishing operation [16,17]. Malodour is a common phenomenon in the tanneries. As the salted hides and skins rehydrate, the odour of volatile fatty and amino acid spreads to the environment. The spread of bad smells in ambient air and its circulation to a distance is the primary reason for atmospheric pollution [12].

Water Pollution Effluents from tanneries are a major environmental issue because they are highly responsible for degrading the quality of the water system as they release toxic agents into the system. Tannery waste contains proteins and carbohydrates as the biodegradable organic matter which causes the depletion of dissolved oxygen amount in aquatic systems caused by micro-organism decomposition [18]. The amount of dissolved oxygen is highly reduced which has an adverse effect to aquatic organisms and increases anaerobic function, and causes generation of noxious gases, damaging the nutrient profile of aquatic organisms and finally posing a significant risk to human health by causing waterborne diseases like cholera, infective hepatitis, typhoid, dysentery, and gastroenteritis [19,12].

Types of Waste in Leather Industry Globally, about 4 million tonnes of solid wastes are produced by leather and leather subsidiary industries. Leather and leather goods impose a significant threat from their manufacturing stage to the decomposition stage. Leathermaking is the troublesome stage as it discharges contaminated water and solid wastes [20]. The wastes generated in this process are harmful to living organisms. The effluents from the factories are directly thrown into the water bodies that are responsible for water pollution particularly. Heavy metals such as chromium, cadmium, chlorine, zinc, nickel, and lead are the main components of the effluents. Leather processing waste can be divided into 3 main divisions with a subdivision [21].

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water pollution particularly. Heavy metals such as chromium, cadmium, chlorine, zinc, nickel, and lead are the main components of the effluents. Leather processing waste can be divided into 3 main SAHA B, AZAM FAB. Probable divisions with a subdivision [21]. Ways of Tannery’s Solid and Liquid Waste Management… TLR 4 (2) 2021 76-95. Waste from Leather Industry

Solid Waste

Tanned Collagen

Untanned Collagen

Liquid Waste

Protein Waste

Gaseous Waste

Non-Protein Waste

Figure 1. Types Waste Generated from from Leather Industry Figure 1. of Types of Waste Generated Leather Industry

OBJECTIVES OBJECTIVES This study is designed to summarize the information the technologies latest technologies and methods for This study is designed to summarize the informati on aboutabout the latest and methods for managing the solid and liquid wastes generated from tanning industries around the world. Bangladesh known managing the solid and liquid wastes generated from tanning industries aroundis widely the world. toBangladesh manufacture wet-blue, crust, finished leather in the world but the waste management technique is widely known toand manufacture wet-blue, crust, and finished leather in the world but the in Bangladesh is not up to the mark comparing to the modernization technique available for the treatment of waste discharged from leather industries. So, the primary concern of this study is to discuss the available solid and liquid waste management technologies in the world which should be followed to get the maximum efficiency during waste treatment in the tanneries of Bangladesh.

REVIEW METHOD Literature review method was followed to conduct this study. Mainly, the authors used search engines Google Scholar and ResearchGate to complete literature reviews. Different search terms such as “tannery waste management”, “effluent treatment techniques”, “tannery waste to applicable products” were applied to find out the best article in this area on the Internet. This summarized information was based on an apprehensive, coherent, stepwise decision to contemplate this article applicably. As this method is non-systemic, it often avoids the systemic order of summarizing the content of literature on a single topic [22,23]. In contrast, the pragmatic information on a particular issue was summarized from the articles reviewed. Overall, this study is based on the summarized information from highly cited journals focused on the recent technologies that are frequently used worldwide to manage waste from tanneries [23]

PROBABLE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT A significant amount of the solid waste produced by raw hides and skin processing industries is dumped on the side of the street, so the environmental impacts are noticeable and dangerous to humans. About 850 kg of solid waste is generated from the processing of 1000 kg of raw hides and skins. And as a result, only 150 kg of hides and skins are turned into leather. Solid wastes are generally chrome splits, chrome shaving, buffing dust, 35-40%; fleshing, 50-60%; skin trimmings, 5-7%; and hair, 2-5%. Solid wastes in the hides and skins processing contents: beam house, 80%; finishing, 1%; tanning, 19% [24]. A useful by-product from solid waste can be generated in many ways which are represented in Fig. 3.

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Solid Waste Containing Chrome

Alkali hydrolysis may be done to destroy acid mixture hydroxyl and amide substances which is also a The chrome-tanning process releases a signifi cant amount of chromium-containing wastes. These wastes treatment process. Enzymatic hydrolysis requires a high treatment cost, and contain it is difficult to areslow generally generated from shaving, splitti ng, and trimming leather and they mainly chromium and collagen. Inasgeneral, of Cr and 90% of are The present in these wastes [25]. oxidati industrialize it needs1-3% a specific enzyme forcollagen each step. ultrasonic technique can The be used toon named dechromation process is the way to get satisfying efficiency. Acid hydrolysis is another way to get improve the efficiency of dechromation as it has several advantages [26]. results, but it has the disadvantages of hydrolysis of collagen and a slow process. Alkali hydrolysis may be done to destroy acid mixture hydroxyl and amide substances which is also a slow treatment process. Keratin Waste Enzymatic hydrolysis requires a high treatment cost, and it is difficult to industrialize as it needs a specific enzyme step. The ultrasonic technique can be amount used to improve the efficontaining ciency of dechromati Due tofor theeach orthodox unhairing method, a significant of wastewater a high levelon of as it has advantages [26]. is generated because of the dissolution of hair. Biotechnology that was TDS,several BOD, COD and sulfide implemented to treat organic substances in wastewater efficiently is expensive and responsible for Keratin Waste

discharging a large number of sludges. As a result, the advanced unhairing method named hairDue to the orthodox unhairing method, a significant amount of wastewater containing a high level of TDS, saving has been invented and implemented in the leather processing industry, which can efficiently BOD, COD and sulfide is generated because of the dissolution of hair. Biotechnology that was implemented 95% of the hair and mitigate wastewater researchers are concerned to recover treat organic substances in wastewater efficiently ispollutants. expensive Recently, and responsible for discharging a large number sludges. As a result, advanced unhairing has been inventedof and about ofthe treatment of hairthe waste, extraction, andmethod use ofnamed keratinhair-saving [27]. Keratin is composed implemented in the leather processing industry, which can efficiently recover 95% of the hair and mitigate different types of chemical bonds such as hydrogen bond, ionic bond and disulfide bond. Different wastewater pollutants. Recently, researchers are concerned about the treatment of hair waste, extraction, types of physicochemical methods can be applied to destroy these bonds, such as oxidation, acid and use of keratin [27]. Keratin is composed of different types of chemical bonds such as hydrogen bond, ionic hydrolysis, hydrolysis, alkali can hydrolysis, radiation, bond and disulfimechanical de bond. Diffextraction, erent typesenzymatic of physicochemical methods be appliedmicrowave to destroy these bonds, such as oxidatietc. on,and acidthese hydrolysis, mechanical alkali microwave reduction, methods are also extracti efficienton, in enzymati extractingc hydrolysis, keratin from the hydrolysis, hair [27-30]. radiation, reduction, etc. and these methods are also efficient in extracting keratin from the hair [27-30].

Figure 2. Utilization of Solid Waste [10]

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Fleshing Waste A huge amount of solid waste is produced from pre-tanning operations, particularly fleshing of leather processing. Proteolytic activity of pancreatic homogenate presented a 6-fold due to proteolytic activity and increase as proteolysis happens after 7 days against the control. About 80.0 mg/l, 10.64 mg/l, and 72.86 mg/ml protein content, collagen, and free fatty acid respectively were present in hydrolysate supernatant. The required pH is 8.5 for the preparation of the enzyme. Total liquefaction helps to do hydrolysis and then the fleshing is dried subsequently. As a protein origin, hydrolysate may be useful to manufacture animal feeds by mixing with other ingredients [31].

Untanned Solid Waste The solid wastes which are untanned mainly contain waste from trimming operation of hiding and skin after liming and fleshing, containing significant content of grease and protein. Different physical and chemical methods and technologies have been developed to use this protein-containing waste efficiently, particularly concerning the manufacturing of gelatine by mixing additional chemicals, such as acid, alkali, and enzyme. Recently, researchers have found that gelatine made from leather solid waste is highly effective in biomedicine, cosmetic products, and finally in packaging [32-34].

Chrome Shaving Dust Chrome tanned leather, leather splits, and leather scraps have been used to obtain adhesive, gelatine, protein flavour, and composite fibre. Hydrogen peroxide is generally used to make these products as well as to bring a degree of maceration for smooth grinding and extraction to get the by-product to about 95% [35,36]. The proteolytic enzyme is used to treat chrome shaving at 60-65°C with a presence of 5-6% of lime. Then, a filtration technique is imposed to separate protein and leave chrome cake. The hydrolysate (< 4.5 ppm chromium) containing protein is applicable as feed, for making fertilizers, or as an additive in the manufacturing of cosmetics [37]. Chrome cake and hydrolysate can be made from shavings by implementing chemicals or biodegradation. Organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) is found to be effective in adding extra value in the hydrolysate when degrative enzymes are immobilized to degrade organophosphate esters. Extraction of OPH considered as crude from bacteria named Flavobacterium sp. was used to immobilize enzymes onto the hydrolysate films. The continuity and recyclable activity of the resulting films is highly effective in the degradation of the phosphorous compound [38]. Conventional methods can be used to get gelatine from the collagen residues. Leather can be regenerated with what is known as agglomerates by using the collagen hydrolysate with a mixture of latex [39,40].

Tannery Sludge Utilization Sludge is another form of solid waste produced from the tanneries during the making of leather and treatment of wastewater containing a high amount of lime, oil, blood, chromium, sulfide, hair and protein. Due to the high concentration of pollutants, sludge from tanneries was considered hazardous [41]. Several traditional methods are available to dispose of these wastes, like incineration, stacking and landfill, but these cannot eliminate the pollutants and they are also responsible for secondary pollution. Recently, several effective recycling technologies might be the proper solution to mitigate the pollution. Tannery sludge may contain a lot of organic substances and nutrients, which may be used as fertilizers to grow plants [37]. Tannery sludge containing organic matter can be used in anaerobic digestion to convert biodegradable substances to biogas.

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Nowadays, researchers emphasize the advanced digestion procedure by using enzymes [42]. Treated tannery sludge can be used to prepare building materials such as brick, ceramics etc. to reduce the toxicity [43,44].

Finished Leather Waste Tanneries, as well as leather goods factories, discharge finished leather scraps mainly from trimmings, buffing crust leather. In general, footwear and small leather products manufacturing factories produce a bulk amount of solid leather wastes during the manufacture of shoes, bags, belts etc. [43]. To eradicate this issue, well planned governmental guidelines and regulations are required. Besides, it is necessary to establish pragmatic and economical methods to recycle leather wastes after the finishing to keep the environment away from pollution [44].

PROBABLE LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT Characteristics of Tannery Waste Management A vast amount of wastewater is generated in leather production, as most of the tanning process involves the use of a huge amount of water. About 60 m3 of water is required to process one ton of hides and skins. The wastewater contains hazardous chemicals, leached proteins and degradation products of hides and skins. The mechanical treatment of wastewater causes sludge and sediment formation, the disposal of which is, therefore, a difficult and serious problem. They contain moisture, about 45–65%(w/w), 30%(w/w) of organic substances and 2.5%(w/w) of Cr (III) compounds [45]. Table 3 shows the ingredients used in the processing of chrome-tanned leather and its possible output. Many chemical substances like lime, sulfide, ammonia, different salts, acids, and dyes are applied at a high level to process the rawhide and make usable leather. Liquid wastes, generated from the tannery, are rich with high BOD, COD and TDS level. About 90% of tanneries perform the tanning process using chromium salt, basically chromium (III) sulfate which is released with water at an impermissible limit due to the low uptake rate of raw hides. A study in a Kenyan tannery showed that raw effluent contained high levels of pollutants (COD 2437.84mg/L, BOD 1255mg/L, Cl 1725mg/L, sulfides 62.4mg/L) [46]. In another study, Laila et al. characterized wastewater released from six local industries in Bangladesh with a high amount of pollution load and showed a mean result regarding TDS 3450mg/L; TSS 1650 mg/L; BOD 540mg/L; COD 1450 mg/L [47]. These pollutants are making significant changes to our natural ecosystem, whereas effluent containing chromium is posing a major threat to both aquatic life and human circumstances. In a previous study, after an investigation, researchers reported that a considerable amount of heavy metals was found, which was beyond the limit, especially in the case of chromium (374.19 mg/L on average). The effluent was released into the river without any treatment process [49].

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was beyond the limit, especially in the case of chromium (374.19 mg/L on average). The effluent was released into the river without any treatment process [49].

SAHA B, AZAM FAB. Probable Ways of Tannery’s Solid and Liquid Waste Management… TLR 4 (2) 2021 76-95.

Figure 3. Transformation of chromium state and conduction into the ecosystem [48] Figure 3. Transformation of chromium state and conduction into the ecosystem [48]

Bioaccumulation of chromium also occurred in the nearby fish species (2.70mg/kg Cr on the average on fish Bioaccumulation of chromium alsothe occurred in thelimit. nearby species (2.70mg/kg on the average muscle) the value of which was above permissible Asfish heavy metals are toxic, Cr persistent and occur dueon to bioaccumulati on, value they can uence c environmental factors as pH, metals alkalinity, fish muscle) the of infl which wasabioti above the permissible limit.such As heavy arehardness, toxic, oxygen and temperature [49]. Transformati on from Cr (III) to Cr (VI), which is 500 ti mes more toxic, persistent and occur due to bioaccumulation, they can influence abiotic environmental factors suchcan happen under certain conditions and may damage human organs such as kidney, liver, dermatitis and gastroas pH, alkalinity, hardness, oxygen and temperature [49]. Transformation from Cr (III) to Cr (VI), intestinal system [6]. Effluents with higher BOD, TDS, COD and heavy metals may affect our surface water which is 500 times more toxic,hazardous can happen under certain andchain may[49,50]. damageTherefore, human organs as well as irrigati on, and transmit pollutants in theconditions human food proper such as iskidney, liver,before dermatitis and gastrointestinal system [6]. environment Effluents withwhich higherisBOD, COD treatment necessary releasing the wastewater into the nowTDS, discharging without internati onal standards. and maintaining heavy metals may affect our surface water as well as irrigation, and transmit hazardous pollutants in the4: Comparison human food chain [49, 50]. Therefore, is necessary before Table of different parameters in different proper industriestreatment with standards limits Average Concentration of pollutants in Different Industries in Bangladesh

Standard Permissible Limit Parameters

ISW-BDS-ECR (1997) [51]

WHO FAO (2002) [52] (1985) [53]

RMM Leather Industry [52]

Mukti Tannery [54]

Ruma Leather Industry [54]

Dhaka Skin and Hide Industry [54]

Jomila Tannery Industry [54]

pH

6.00 – 9.00

6.00 – 9.00

-

8.30

7.50

3.00

7.00

8.50

EC (µs/cm)

1000.00

1200.00

-

42500.00

6500.00

9000.00

1300.00

1100.00

BOD (mg/l)

250.00

30.00

-

4464.00

190.00

400.00

700.00

550.00

COD (mg/l)

500.00

250.00

-

12840.00

550.00

1000.00

1700.00

1400.00

TDS (mg/l)

2100.00

2100.00

-

21300.00

2910.00

3300.00

3700.00

3740.00

TSS (mg/l)

500.00

600.00

-

1250.00

1250.00

1400.00

1600.00

1700.00

Cadmium (mg/l)

-

2.00

0.01

0.01

-

-

-

-

Copper (mg/l)

-

0.10

0.20

0.41

-

-

-

-

Chromium (mg/l)

2.00

2.00

0.10

10.35

1.20

3.00

19.00

1.00

Iron (mg/l)

-

10.00

5.00

14.66

-

-

-

-

Lead (mg/l)

-

0.10

-

0.18

-

-

-

-

Zinc (mg/l)

-

1.00

2.00

1.52

-

-

-

-

Nickel (mg/l)

-

3.00

-

0.15

-

-

-

-

Sodium (mg/l)

-

-

-

12006.00

-

-

-

-

Chloride (mg/l)

-

1000.00

-

13.80

900.00

1250.00

1100.00

1700.00

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SAHA B, AZAM FAB. Probable Ways of Tannery’s Solid and Liquid Waste Management… TLR 4 (2) 2021 76-95.

Tannery Wastewater Treatment Method Focusing on the Most Useful Methods There are many techniques and technologies used in the treatment process of leather industrial effluent. The conventional process used in Bangladesh, namely the central effluent treatment plant (CETP), is costly, requires high maintenance and does not work properly. Other treatment systems include physical treatment, electrochemical treatment [55], biological treatment [56], coagulation-flocculation [57] and adsorption [58]. SAHA B, AZAM FAB. Probable Ways of Tannery’s Solid and Liquid Waste Management… TLR 0 (0) 2020 00-00.

Physical Treatment objects. In the sedimentation process, larger objects settle down by gravity. Usually, this consists of Physical operations are also called primary treatment and necessary for eliminating coarse material in holding short period in a sedimentati tank under on, suitable conditions, the solidsphysto the liquid effluents effluent. for Thisamethod involves screening, filtratiallowing on, aerati onheavier etc., where settle and separating it from theuents effluent (clarification). Sedimentation solid separation a very ical processes are used to treat effl or remove the polluti on load and for no gross chemical orisbiological conversions are carried out. Coarse out, at which the sedimencommon unit operation and isscreening routinelyis carried employed theeliminates beginninglarger and objects. end ofInwastewater tation process, larger objects settle down by gravity. Usually, this consists of holding effluents for a short treatment operations [59]. period in a tank under suitable conditions, allowing the heavier solids to settle and separating it from the effluent (clarification). Sedimentation for solid separation is a very common unit operation and is routinely Biological Treatment employed at the beginning and end of wastewater treatment operations [59].

Biological treatment of leather industrial wastewater is preferable to other treatment processes, as

Biological Treatment

microbes are used for the decrease of pollutants. As sulfide and chromium are present in the

Biological treatment of leather industrial is preferable to other treatment processes, microbes wastewater, several problems merge wastewater during the biological process. There are two types of as biological are used for the decrease of pollutants. As sulfide and chromium are present in the wastewater, several probtreatment processes included, aerobic process and anaerobic process. The decomposition rate of the lems merge during the biological process. There are two types of biological treatment processes included, aerobic processand is faster than process. the anaerobic [59]. aerobic process anaerobic The decompositi on rate of the aerobic process is faster than the anaerobic [59].

Figure 4. Bar screen, operation principle [60] Figure 4. Bar screen, operation principle [60]

biological treatment methods, the activated sludge process is used for the biodegradation 86In aerobic www.texti le-leather.com of tannery wastewater. Some important parameters are related to this process, such as the growth


SAHA B, AZAM FAB. Probable Ways of Tannery’s Solid and Liquid Waste Management… TLR 4 (2) 2021 76-95.

In aerobic biological treatment methods, the activated sludge process is used for the biodegradation of tannery wastewater. Some important parameters are related to this process, such as the growth of microorganisms and the utilization of substrate based on aeration time, residence time, food to microorganism ratio, dissolved oxygen of the reactor and mixed liquor suspended solids concentration. According to a study, with COD above 80% and 90%, BOD removal had been observed when solid concentration and aeration time were 3500 mg/L and 12 hours respectively [61]. Pathogens like Escherichia coli, Vibrio sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were eliminated with about 98.46%, 87.50% and 96.15% in bacterial counts after treating the effluent. Chrome reduction ability had been shown to be >90% by 10.8% of microbial isolates from the wastewater. In anaerobic biological treatments, the highest performance can be obtained by UASB with an aerobic posttreatment. About 78% of COD was removed in an anaerobic treatment, whereas the combined anaerobic and aerobic treatment system reached 96% [62]. As biological treatment is time-consuming and requires a large space for treatment, it is gradually being replaced with new technologies.

Chemical Treatment Chemical processes are defined as chemical reactions to make some change in the constituents of the pollutant by means of chemical reactions. In general, chemical methods, in comparison to physical methods, are accompanied by an inherent disadvantage. In other words, there is usually a net increase in the dissolved constituents due to the sludge, which can be a significant factor in the case of wastewater reuse. In many cases, the combined physico-chemical process works better. This section will deal with the main chemical unit processes, including advanced oxidation process (AOPs), disinfection, chemical precipitation, and dechlorination [60]. According to a study, the lime pre-treated effluent has been treated using a catalytic reactor where TiO2 was used as a catalyst. The results showed the percentage removal of BOD, COD, and TDS was 87.35%, 89.53% and 92.63% respectively [63]. Another study showed 87% of total organotin carbon (TOC) SAHAby B,using AZAMcavitati FAB. Probable Ways ofwith Tannery’s removal on combined AOPsSolid [64].and Liquid Waste Management… TLR 0 (0) 2020 00-00.

Figure 5. Flowchart of a typical combined (chemical, biological and physical) tannery effluent treatment system [65] Figure 5. Flowchart of a typical combined (chemical, biological and physical) tannery effluent treatment system [64]

Electrocoagulation Process Electrocoagulation is an interdependent and complex process where a metal anode is used to le-leather.com perform as a coagulating agent for the treatment of polluted water. The www.texti electrocoagulation process87

can be divided into three steps: (1) formation of coagulants by electrolytic oxidation of the electrode,


SAHA B, AZAM FAB. Probable Ways of Tannery’s Solid and Liquid Waste Management… TLR 4 (2) 2021 76-95.

Electrocoagulation Process Electrocoagulation is an interdependent and complex process where a metal anode is used to perform as a coagulating agent for the treatment of polluted water. The electrocoagulation process can be divided into three steps: (1) formation of coagulants by electrolytic oxidation of the electrode, (2) destabilization of contaminants, and (3) particulate suspension and breaking of emulsions. Electrocoagulation was found to be effective to treat arsenic, electroplating, dye, phosphate, and textile industry wastewater [66]. The study showed effective removal of pollution load by electrocoagulation processes such as COD (68.0%), ammonia (43.1%), total organic carbon (55.1%), sulfide (96.7%) and colours (84.3%). Another study by using combination of electrocoagulation process and UVC/VUV photoreactor exhibited excellent removal efficiency (COD: 99.52% Cr(T): 100% and sulfide: 98.27%) [67]. Figure 6 graphically represents the mechanism of the method.

Adsorption The adsorption technique uses materials such as activated carbon, charcoal, sawdust and graphene-based material [68-71]. In a study, the colour removal in tannery effluents has found to vary between 95 and 100% SAHAFixed B, AZAM Probable of Tannery’s and Liquid Wasteeff Management… TLRof0dye (0) 2020 by using BedFAB. Column [72].Ways Another study onSolid effluents revealed ective removal (Acid00-00. Brown 414: 71%, Acid Orange 142: 73%). An efficient result was observed using activated biochar from municipal removal haveofbeen found ions. in a recent study where cobalt ferrite-supported solid wasteefficiencies for the removal chromium The maximum removal efficiency was found toactivated be 98.97% [73]. About 98.2% and 96.4%[73]. for Pb (II) ions removal efficiencies have been found in a recent study carbon was usedfor forCr adsorption where cobalt ferrite-supported activated carbon was used for adsorption [74].

Figure 6. Graphical representation of the combined treatment of tannery wastewater [67] Figure 6. Graphical representation of the combined treatment of tannery wastewater [66]

Membrane Technology are newly developed advanced methods for treating dissolved solids in 88Membrane www.textitechnologies le-leather.com effluents. The application of the membrane system in effluent treatment together with UF/RO,


SAHA B, AZAM FAB. Probable Ways of Tannery’s Solid and Liquid Waste Management… TLR 4 (2) 2021 76-95.

Membrane Technology Membrane technologies are newly developed advanced methods for treating dissolved solids in effluents. The application of the membrane system in effluent treatment together with UF/RO, MF/NF, and NF/RO is used for the recovery of chromium [75]. Recovery of chromium and spent liquors in the leather industry decreases the number of pollutants in the unhairing and degreasing process in the biological treatment of tannery wastewater [76,77]. A study on tannery effluent treatment (using nanofiltration NF270 and NF90 membranes), reverse osmosis (BW30 and SW30) and polymeric membrane prepared by coating chitosan (cs) on a polyether sulfone (PES) microfiltration membrane (cs-PES MFO22 support) exhibited excellent removal of chromium ions (>99%) [78]. There are some of the latest technologies which are included in Table 5 that represent possible ways for the treatment of tannery wastewater. Table 5: The possible way for managing tannery wastewater Sl. No.

Treatment process

Material Used for removal toxicants

Removed Toxicants (removal %)

Reference

1

Chemical Treatment

A sonocatalytic reactor, TiO2 as catalyst

BOD(87.4%), COD (89.5%), and TDS (92.6%)

46

2

Biological

An aeration tank

BOD, COD

61

3

Electrocoagulation

Low cell current (<1A) and soluble electrodes (mild steel electrodes and aluminum electrodes)

COD(68.0%), ammonia (43.1%), total organic carbon (55.1%), sulfide (96.7%) and colority (84.3%)

66

4

Biochar Based Filtration

Sand, Biochar, Gravel Stone

Cr(VI) (99.9%)

79

5

Biological

Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus

chromium (88.0%), sulphate (71.0%), phosphate (68.0%) and nitrate (57.0%).

80

6

Adsorption

Activated carbon

Acid Brown 414 (71.1%) and Acid Orange 142 (73.1%)

68

7

Adsorption

Volcanic rocks of pumice and scoria

NO3–N, PO4–P and Cr3+

81

8

A hybrid electrocoagulation/ electrodialysis

aluminum electrodes

COD (92.0%), NH3-N (100%), Cr (100%) and color (100%)

82

9

Chemical Treatment

AOPs

TOC (87.0%)

64

10

Electrocoagulation

electrocoagulation process and UVC/VUV photoreactor

COD: 99.5% Cr(T): 100% and sulfide: 98.2%)

67

11

Adsorption

Fixed Bed Column

Color (between 95.0 and 100% )

72

12

Adsorption

Activated biochar

Cr (98.9%)

73

13

Adsorption

cobalt ferrite-supported activated carbon

Cr (98.2% ), Pb(II) (96.4%)

74

14

Membrane Technology

NF, RO, MF

Cr (>99.0%)

78

www.textile-leather.com 89


SAHA B, AZAM FAB. Probable Ways of Tannery’s Solid and Liquid Waste Management… TLR 4 (2) 2021 76-95.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION There are several pragmatic approaches available in the literature published in the reputed journals for the treatment of liquid and solid waste discharged from leather processing industries that have been summarized in this study. As these industries use a huge amount of chemicals for processing leather that are responsible for the production of significant amounts of solid and liquid wastes, they are known as one of the most polluting industries in Bangladesh and have detrimental effects on the environment as well as human health. Though waste from the leather industry plays a significant role in environmental degradation, a proper treatment of waste can be also beneficial in producing valuable products. This study found that making organic fertilizers, producing energy, developing biomaterials, gelatine, glue, sorbents, adsorbents etc. from solid waste, while removing pollutants from the wastewater, is the practical output from waste by implementing proper treatment technologies in leather industries. However, tannery owners should invest more to implement advanced leather manufacturing technologies for environment-compliant and more efficient solid and liquid waste management techniques, flexible production methods and to improve their operational management efficiencies. The government should reform policy for the betterment of the environment, especially in the case of discharging liquid and solid waste to the environment. The higher authority of Savar Tannery State should be focused on the development of infrastructure, including a functioning and completely operational CETP. Furthermore, a substantial investment should be executed to enhance skills and technical facilities for converting waste to green products. Acknowledgements We would like to thank Institute of Leather Engineering and Technology, University of Dhaka for providing us an excellent platform to enrich our knowledge on solid and liquid waste management from leather industries in Bangladesh. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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[58] Tahir SS, Naseem R. Removal of Cr(III) from tannery wastewater by adsorption onto bentonite clay. Sep Purif Technol. 2007; 53:312–321. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2006.08.008 [59] Kannaujiya MC, Mandal T, Mandal DD, Mondal MK. Treatment of Leather Industry Wastewater and Recovery of Valuable Substances to Solve Waste Management Problem in Environment. In: Bharagava R. (eds) Environmental Contaminants: Ecological Implications and Management. Microorganisms for Sustainability. 2019; 14. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-7904-8_14 [60] Introduction to treatment of tannery effluents. UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION. 2011. Available from: https://www.unido.org/sites/default/files/2011-11/Introduction_ to_treatment_of_tannery_effluents_0.pdf [61] Haydar S, Aziz JA, Ahmad MS. Biological treatment of tannery wastewater using activated sludge process. Pak. J. Eng. Applied Sci. 2007; 1:61-66. [62] Lefebvre O, Vasudevan N, Torrijos M, Thanasekaran K, Moletta R. Anaerobic digestion of tannery soak liquor with an aerobic post-treatment. Water Res. 2006; 40:1492-1500. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. watres.2006.02.004 [63] Kandasamy K, Tharmalingam K, Velusamy S. Treatment of tannery effluent using sono catalytic reactor. Journal of Water Process Engineering. 2017; 15:72–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwpe.2016.09.001 [64] Korpe S, Bethi B, Sonawane SH, Jayakumar KV. Tannery wastewater treatment by cavitation combined with advanced oxidation process (AOP) Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 2019; 59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. ultsonch.2019.104723 [65] Sabumon P. Perspectives on Biological Treatment of Tannery Effluent. 2016. https://doi.org/10.4172/24757675.1000104 [66] Jing-wei F, Ya-bing S, Zheng Z, Ji-biao Z, Shu L, Yuan-chun T. Treatment of tannery wastewater by electrocoagulation. Journal of Environmental Sciences. 2007; 19:1409–1415. https://doi.org/10.1016/ S1001-0742(07)60230-7 [67] Moradi M, Moussavi G. Enhanced treatment of tannery wastewater using the electrocoagulation process combined with UVC/VUV photoreactor: Parametric and mechanistic evaluation. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2019; 358:1038-1046. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2018.10.069 [68] Mella B, Benvenuti J, Oliveira RF, Gutterres M. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon produced from tannery solid waste applied for tannery wastewater treatment. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2019; 26:6811–6817. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-04161-x [69] Siraj S Islam, Das P, Masum, SM, Jahan IA, Ahsan MD, Shajahan M. Removal of Chromium from Tannery Effluent Using Chitosan-Charcoal Composite. Journal of the Bangladesh Chemical Society. 2012; 25(1):5361. https://doi.org/10.3329/jbcs.v25i1.11774 [70] Chowdhury M, Hossain I, Deb AK, Biswas TK. Removal of Toxicants from Leather Industrial Wastewater using Sawdust Filter Media and Ferric Oxide (Fe2O3) Coagulant. Orient J Chem. 2019; 35(2). Available from: https://bit.ly/2GQVAZa [71] Souza EA, Araújo RJ, Silva MVS, Silva LA. Photocatalytic treatment of tannery wastewater using reduced graphene oxide and CdS/ZnO to produce hydrogen with simultaneous sulfide abatement. SN Appl. Sci. 2019; 1:1390. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-019-1376-5 [72] Mouhri GE, Merzouki M, Belhassan H, Miyah Y, Amakdouf H, Elmountassir R, Lahrichi A. Continuous Adsorption Modeling and Fixed Bed Column Studies: Adsorption of Tannery Wastewater Pollutants Using Beach Sand. Journal of Chemistry. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1155 /2020/7613484

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[73] Parañaque JEL, Maguyon-Detras MC, Migo VP, Alfafara CG. Chromium removal from chrome-tannery effluent after alkaline precipitation by adsorption using municipal solid waste-derived activated biochar. IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering2020; 778. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051374 [74] Yahya MD, Obayomi KS, kadir MBA, Iyaka YA, Olugbenga AG. Characterization of cobalt ferritesupported activated carbon for removal of chromium and lead ions from tannery wastewater via adsorption equilibrium. Water Science and Engineering. 2020; 13:202-213. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. wse.2020.09.007 [75] Shaalan HF, Sorour MH, Tewfik SR. Simulation and optimization of a membrane system for chromium recovery from tanning wastes. Desalination. 2001; 141:315–324. https://doi.org/10.1016/S00119164(01)85008-6 [76] Labanda J, Khaidar MS, Llorens J. Feasibility study on the recovery of chromium (III) by polymer enhanced ultrafiltration. Desalination. 2009; 249:577–581. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2008.06.031 [77] Wang H, Wang Y, Zhou L. Purification and recycling of tannery degreasing wastewater by ultrafiltration with polyimide membrane. In: International Conference on Remote Sensing. Environment and Transportation Engineering (RSETE) China. 2011. 569-572. https://doi.org/10.1109/RSETE.2011.5964341 [78] Zakmout A, Sadi F, Portugal CAM, Crespo JG, Velizarov S. Tannery Effluent Treatment by Nanofiltration, Reverse Osmosis and Chitosan Modified Membranes. Membranes. 2020; 10:378. https://doi. org/10.3390/membranes10120378 [79] Deepa A, Prakash P, Mishra BK. Performance of biochar-based filtration bed for the removal of Cr(VI) from pre-treated synthetic tannery wastewater. Environmental Technology. 2019. https://doi.org/10 .1080/09593330.2019.1626912 [80] Vijayaraj AS, Mohandass C, Joshi D. Microremediation of tannery wastewater by siderophore producing marine bacteria. Environmental Technology. 2020; 41(27):3619-3632. https://doi.org/10.1080 /09593330.2019.1615995 [81] Aregu MB, Asfaw SL, Khan MM. Identification of two low-cost and locally available filter media (pumice and scoria) for removal of hazardous pollutants from tannery wastewater. Environ Syst Res. 2018; 7:10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40068-018-0112-2 [82] Deghles A, Kurt U. Treatment of tannery wastewater by a hybrid electrocoagulation/electrodialysis process. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification. 2016; 104:43-50. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.cep.2016.02.009

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Sustainability Issues of Various Denim Washing Methods Md. Khalilur Rahman KHAN*, Sayedatunnesa JINTUN Department of Textile Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Bangladesh University of Business and Technology (BUBT), Dhaka, Bangladesh *khalilbutex@gmail.com Review UDC 677.074:677.027.13:628.515 DOI: 10.31881/TLR.2021.01 Received 5 January 2021; Accepted 25 February 2021; Published Online 8 March 2021; Published 1 June 2021

ABSTRACT Denim washing is increasingly joining the list of indispensable processes of meeting the demands of the world’s shifting fashion industry. Other than this, there is a rising trend in the sustainability perception among both producers and customers in the modern world. However, denim washing is considered to have direct impacts on the environment because of its chemical discharge and many other pollutants emitted during the process which affect water supplies. In the process, the denim industry encounters challenges at every level. Therefore, there is need for studying sustainable problems associated with denim washing. The unseen soul of the denim industry is technology, as nothing can be transformed without technological advancement. Sustainability problems of conventional washing have been addressed in this paper (i.e. pp spray washing, bleaching washing, stone washing, sand blasting etc.). Furthermore, the paper describes how sustainability can be achieved through the most recent washing techniques, such as laser, waterjet, nanobubble, ozone, NoStone, potassium permanganate alternatives etc. The introduction of new technologies has triggered a dramatic shift in the denim washing industry in terms of water usage, electricity and chemicals as well as improved quality. Consequently, it is undoubtful that the recent technologies in denim washing are crucial in making the industry sustainable. Moreover, the paper describes the idea of digitally printed denim and the available software for measuring sustainability in the process of denim washing. KEYWORDS Denim, Washing methods, Sustainability, Enzyme, Ozone, Water jet fading

INTRODUCTION Overall, the textile industry, and specifically the denim industry, has always been a valuable industry, thus its extension expands its centrality in decades to come. Among all the existing textile products, no other kind of fabric has attracted such an acknowledgment as denim. Denim has been used extensively by different generations of people, sexual orientations and classes [1,2]. On the basis of all-time fashion, denim may be considered a fabric and can be exceptionally a stylish fabric. For the sustainment during the fast-changing fashion, denim has undergone consistent advancement [3]. There is a high developing denim demand from the youth, linked to reasons such as denim’s higher quality, strength, comfort level, low maintenance, and simple accessibility. Worldwide, the showcase of denim is expected to rise profusely in the coming years. Denim washing stands out as a part of the essential production processes needed to meet the rapidly rising and changing fashion market’s demands [2].

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Brundtland (once known as the World Commission on Environment and Development) defines the buzzword, sustainability, as “improvement that meets the present desires without relinquishing future generations’ capacity” [4]. Literally, sustainability refers to the act of preserving scarce and vital natural resources for future generations. Sustainability, in most manufacturing industries, is a primary motive. Sustainable practices explain the involvement beyond the customers and business, while the environment and community are essential [5]. Currently, all are enthused to engage sustainability in the design and manufacturing processes in the continuously changing fashion trends [6]. Sustainability can be identified through three components: environmental, social and financial sustainability. There is a close association between textiles and governance, social and environmental problems. However, the rising awareness of the social and environmental problems affecting the textile sector is the reason behind the increase in sustainability measures’ implementation over the past few years. The crucial consequences of sustainability in the textile industry pertain to denim manufacture as well. In the phase of manufacturing, sustainability is among the key challenges in the denim industry. In the industry, there exists a huge desire to ensure every phase of production is sustainable [7]. However, during the selection of denim garments, customers are influenced by factors such as fashion, attractiveness, and aesthetics. Denim clothing, in the primary process, does not inherit the customer’s desired properties. However, it becomes effective after washing due to its new strength, comfort, softness, look and low cost, leading to the customer’s total satisfaction [8]. Washing is considered an essence of finished denim and is the final stage of denim manufacture. However, different techniques of denim washing are employed to achieve denim’s fading effect, softness, as well as relaxed feeling [9,10]. Besides, the industrial processes are linked to various environmental implications, mainly surrounding the heavy chemical usage and the extensive use of energy and water resources, effective wastewater treatment etc. Jeans or denim are also considered the world’s highest pollutant textile products, as a result of their indigo dying, the amount of water required to achieve excellent washes as well as chemicals used [11]. In terms of achieving sustainability in the denim industry, every kind of washing technique has their own merits and demerits. In the past few years, various washing results have become prominent. Advanced materials, the latest technology and environment friendly washing techniques are establishing the sustainable production of denim. Therefore, a denim producer must be conscious, versatile, effective, and technologically aware of sustainability. Bangladesh’s denim industry’s future set-up will certainly affect the perception of modern technologies of washing. From this perspective, this study aims at expounding on the recent developments in sustainability achievement during denim washing.

METHODS FOR ACHIEVING SUSTAINABILITY IN DENIM WASHING The denim industry discharges vast quantities of wastewater into surrounding streams and bodies of water, thus leaving a large water footprint [2]. With traditional washing recipes, every jean consumes 150 grams of chemicals, 70 litres of water and 1 kWh of power during the stage of denim washing [12,13]. The oldfashioned and time-consuming techniques are, therefore, not ideal for denim mass production and the manufacturing cost also increases [14]. Because of the high costs of manufacturing resulting from energy, chemicals and water usage, an industrial-scale installation is viewed as a big concern for the achievement of a sustainable process. However, sustainability issues in denim washing may be categorized as follows: i) Less water consumption for the blue planet. ii) Elimination of wastewater. iii) Reuse of water.

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iii)

Reuse of water.

iv)

Less chemicals for sustainable future.

v)

Use of environmentally friendly chemicals and materials.

KHAN MKR, JINTUN S. Sustainability Issues of Various Denim Washing Methods. TLR 4 (2) 2021 96-110.

vi) Less energy for efficient manufacturing. iv) Less chemicals for sustainable future. The protection of human v)vii) Use of environmentally friendlyhealth. chemicals and materials. vi)viii)Less energy efficient manufacturing. Shorterfor process. vii) of human health. ix) The protection Process optimization in terms of time, temperatures and raw materials. viii) Shorter process. x) Quality improvement. ix) Process optimization in terms of time, temperatures and raw materials. Increasing productivity. x)xi) Quality improvement. xi)xii) Increasing productivity. Longevity of washing equipment. xii) Longevity of washing equipment.

Figure 1. Significant parameters for sustainable denim washing [15]

Figure 1. Significant parameters for sustainable denim washing [15]

SUSTAINABILITY ISSUES OF CONVENTIONAL DENIM WASHING Sandblasting Sandblasting treatment method washes the denim surface by using rough, high-speed impelling materials. Despite being banned in most countries, it is still employed in some parts of the world, mainly through radar, because it provides an inexpensive and simple technology of generating the anticipated effect on denim [16]. Several brands, attempting to end the fatal method, prohibit the economically favoured sandblasting. If sandblasting is carried out without adequate protective equipment, it can be extremely hazardous to employees’ health. The process produces vast quantities of silica dust that can be inhaled by workers, posing a great risk for a lethal pulmonary disease called silicosis. In an attempt to achieve a worn look, the use of brush or sandpaper strategy exposes workers to work-related asthma hazards because of the dust [17].

Stone Washing For a long period of time, pumice stone has been used in the denim industry in creating an abrasion effect on the denim fabric. The denim style is characterized by a vintage, mildly distressed look. Despite several downsides attached to the use of stones, the abrasion effect remains the best solution. Stones, for instance, could subject denim to wear and tear, specifically on the waistbands and hems. In washing machines, everything is abraded, including the jeans’ rivets and metal buttons. Since the stones are disposed of, the process leads to the challenge of waste from the grit. By washing the denim repeatedly, the stones are supposed to be entirely removed [18]. The use of pumice stones by machinery to abrade denim clothing is harmful. The crucial step of unloading the batch to remove stones incurs a time consuming, laborious process. To avoid stones remaining in the pockets, which can ruin the garments in later steps, the garment must be checked by the operator one by one. Dumping of waste stones is another environmental concern as it needs appropriate landfilling procedures. Stone inventories’ management needs are an additional burden for factories occupying valuable areas of land. Pumice stones are made up of fragments of ferrous and heavy metals 98 www.textile-leather.com


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that should eventually be separated from the garments with repeated washes [19]. Material-based stone washing other than pumice stones leads to serious risks to the health of workers [17].

Bleaching Wash The denim bleach strategy can be utilized in decolorizing indigo from denim, a process that involves a strong oxidative agent. The foremost commonly used chemicals utilized within the industry amid washing, with or without the expansion of stone include potassium permanganate, hydrogen peroxide, calcium hypochlorite, and sodium hypochlorite. The resulting decolorization is largely more apparent, depending on the treatment time, temperature and the intensity of the amount of the bleach liquor. The commonly used technique of denim bleaching is chlorine bleaching through sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Monitoring this process is difficult i.e. the same degree of bleaching may not be easily achieved in repeated runs [20]. However, the release of hypochlorous acid and chlorine is environmentally harmful, as it threatens living organisms and harms the environment. Moreover, since it acidifies, it may cause pulmonary complications like the acute respiratory syndrome (ARDS), due to aspiration that may turn fatal. Despite its success in bleaching itself, it often produces an unpleasant scent in the resultant garment. Notably, sodium hypochlorite is an extreme irritant and can potentially impose substantial chemical burns on workers. After the bleaching process, the remaining hypochlorite should be expelled from the denim. Reducing agent treatment may be used in eliminating residual chlorine, also known as residual hypochlorite, in a process called antichlor process. As a reducing agent, thiosulphate or sodium metabisulfite is used in denim. When mixed with water, it discharges a sharp and unpleasantly smelling gas and SO2-, which harms the ecosystem and spoils water [2]. There is a common problem of yellowing, resulting from the residual chlorine from the process of washing in this case. Therefore, chlorine and manganese, which is a heavy metal, should be evaded for the sake of the environment. Traditional hypochlorite bleaching has been recognized to harm the stretch fibres and potentially leads to complaints [21]. Hydrogen peroxide stands out as the cheapest method of bleaching. Also, during its storage, it has a high degree of whiteness and is difficult to be yellowed. However, it is disadvantageous in that, under alkaline conditions, high temperature bleaching requires energy efficiency improvement and may lead to substantial fibre damage [22].

Potassium Permanganate (PP) Spray Washing Potassium permanganate (PP) is an oxidizing agent used for denim’s local bleaching and finishing. Besides, PP spray is used on jeans for lightening a particular area as well as creating whisker effects on denim. However, potassium permanganate (PP) spray is the most hazardous procedure for staff’s safety and health. When using a spray-gun to convert chemicals to micro-particles, workers performing this strategy absorb the microparticles, which causes lung problems, despite the implementation of various protective precautions [23]. In this method, washing and neutralization consumes huge water volumes. Failure to effectively neutralize leads to yellowing. PP sprays have adverse impacts on laborers, as coming into contact with it bothers and burns the eyes and skin. Therefore, factory staff dealing with this chemical without safety equipment and proper ventilation systems may be at risk of long-term and short-term health problems [24].

Enzymatic Stoning Wash (Bio-stoning) There has been a rise in the global awareness on enzyme use in textile processing aimed at minimizing pollution during textile production resulting from their eco-friendly and toxicity characteristics [25]. For the enhancement of fabrics’ quality and comfort, enzymatic treatment is more effective than a variety of www.textile-leather.com 99


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chemical and mechanical operations. The enzymatic stonewashing technique employing chemicals like cellulase is useful in the production of denim’s stonewash look. The invention of bio-stoning or enzymatic stonewashing entirely or partly replaced stonewashing. With the immense-looking market for distressed jeans’ garments, there is an increase in the use of enzymatic stonewashing. Bio-stone washing has increased the range of available finishes, opening up new opportunities of denim finishing. A small number of enzymes may replace large quantities of pumice stones [26]. The enzymatic stonewashing increases the jean load by up to 50% as well as producing a softer finish and a perfect look [27,28]. This technique improves both the clothing’s contrast and the abrasion effect. With partial or no use of stone, a fancy colour-fenced surface is produced. After the enzyme treatment, its rinsing process is lower than pumice stonewashing. Moreover, it has a lower stonewashing cost [29]. Jeans stonewashed through this process have more durability. Besides, it ensures equal outcome under minimum volume, time, waste, water and machine damage. However, biostoning involves the release of water and chemicals into the effluent, thus the process is not friendly to the environment [30]. Cellulase denim washing is highly precise and effective; with high resulting reproducibility, consistency, and fading effects’ precision, as in the case of productivity [31]. While the outcomes in acidic cellulase are quicker, too much back staining decreases the indigo colour and affects the fabrics’ strength. The best stonewashing choice is the neutral cellulase due to lesser back staining, wider pH profile, and lesser strength loss than the acidic cellulase. It therefore lowers the need for rigid pH control producing a more reproducible wash-to-wash finish [27]. Other cellulase applications in the textile industry include the bio-polishing of garments. Cellulase has the capability to hydrolyse microfibrils that protrude from the garments’ cotton surface. The microfibrils, after being damaged, appear to break away from the main body of the fibre leaving a smoother yarn’s surface [32]. Besides the enzymatic treatment making the fibres’ surface “polished”, it decreases not only the fibres’ flexural rigidity, but also the strength of breaking due to the fibre structure’s degradation [33]. Gokarneshan et al. suggested that, to achieve a desired effect, both stonewashing and biopolishing should be combined, which saves at least 30-50 litres of water per kilogram of denim garments [34].

SUSTAINABILITY ISSUES OF LATEST DENIM WASHING Enzymatic Bleaching Wash (Bio-bleaching) Enzymes have gained popularity as a substitute for chemicals used in shading/bleaching and are definitely advantageous in terms of wastewater treatment and the use of resources.

Laccases Laccases are essential enzymes in the achievement of eco-friendly blue denim bleaching process. They are a part of the enzyme type of oxidoreductase. Generally, laccases do not work independently, but require a chemical mediator to be applied between the enzyme and the indigo. The enzyme is oxidized in the presence of an aqueous medium where it attacks the mediator and converts it to free radicals. Ultimately, the free radicals attack the indigo converting it into oxidized products [2]. Moreover, the primarily used mediators are harmful. However, this enzyme’s benefit is the specific indigo dyes’ treatment and not in the fibre itself. The enzyme breaks down the indigo molecule without affecting other dyes like sulphur, direct or reactive dyes [35].

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DeniLite® Cold DeniLite® Cold is the new cold bleaching solution from Novozymes. The current method is based on enzymes named peroxidases, and operates without extra oxygen from either water or air. This new peroxidase has a high reaction speed, with 90% of the reaction ending in 10 minutes. Based on the gentle bleaching conditions, the cold bleaching technology enhances denim fabric longevity. The enzymatic conditions acting on the fabric’s indigo dye are tremendously precise. This ensures that the fabric’s elasticity and strength, unlike in tougher bleaching chemicals, remains unchanged [36].

Combined Washing Concept Denim washing has substantially reshaped denim fashion’s sales demands and potential. Denim clothing industry’s significant breakthrough lies in the shades and results obtained, beginning from stonewashing to the recent enzyme washing processes and bio-polishing concepts [37]. The rubbing of denim clothing pieces is done through a combination of pumice stones and enzymes, or the utilization of chemicals. Novozymes Denimax® Core, a recent wash processing plan from Novozymes, empowers the handling of the scrabbed area that goes on prior to the combined desizing process. While the conventional process has two rinses and two baths, the combined process has one rinse and one bath, reducing the water usage for more than 50%. As a result of reduced procedures, heat savings may be achieved by shifting from any of the conventional methods procedures to the combined process [38].

NOSTONE®+ NoStone®+, in conjunction with Levi Strauss & Co., is the newly revamped system of denim washing, developed by Tonello. The system is developed to overcome the environmental, mechanical, and economic constraints of stonewashing process. NoStone®+ framework’s premise is the stainless-steel rough drum, which is linked to the washing machine cylinder. The drum is handled in a special way to make it more or less abrasive, depending on the intensity of the desired effect or the needed treatment. The process’s nature is mechanical rather than chemical. The outcomes of NoStone®+ are similar to those of stonewashing, while also reducing the carbon footprint produced from the use of pumice stones. NoStone®+ also minimizes manual labour, preparing time, emissions, generation costs, and water usage. More so, it does not produce sludge nor dust, does not harm the system, and according to Tonello, it produces a uniform effect in both sampling and production [39]. In conjunction to the NoStone® technology, enzymes may also be utilized in the accentuation of NoStone® process’s impact [24].

Potassium Permanganate Alternatives Spray treatment with potassium permanganate is the most conventional and economical method [40]. Despite being an effective technique, it has a high aquatic toxicity, thus imposing risks on health and the environment. Many countries have a duty or stringent rules to offer proof of preventing such misuse [41]. Other developing chemical systems recently developed do not emit manganese into the atmosphere, as it is a heavy, non-biodegradable metal [24].

OrganIQ Product The organIQ bleaching technique, a proprietary of CHT Group, is the first fully biodegradable and purely organic denim bleaching agent that achieves sustainable, remarkable results. Application of this technique www.textile-leather.com 101


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does not require extra neutralization and does not pollute wastewater with hazardous contaminants, when properly used. Under a combination of organIQ bleaching agent and organIQ biopower, there will be no need to use chlorine, potassium permanganate, or stones. Moreover, the really fluffy products become perfectly smooth and develop a precious character [42]. Modern techniques’ combination, such as organIQ + fog application, produces fully effective ecological washing results, and ensures resource protection [43].

Nearbleach Sky White Nearbleach Sky White, designed for localized bleaching, is applied in brush and spray technique, in combination with hydrogen peroxide and the catalyst, Katalin Sky White, to achieve a controlled and quick bleaching for denim garments of high whiteness. In this process, time and water is saved. After application, there is need for only a simple washing step, with no neutralization [44].

Acticell Technology Solution Acticell technology solution is designed to produce bleaching effects, just like potassium permanganate bleach. It also works best as an alternative product in achieving localized bleaching results (Acticell RT, Acticell B3). The desired outcome can also be achieved at any temperature, e.g. 60°C or room temperature. The bleaching effect takes place during a heating operation. The product has been certified by GOTS [45].

Garmon Avol Oxy White Garmon Avol Oxy White is free from all drawbacks associated to potassium permanganate toxicology, including toxicity to aquatic creatures. Moreover, workers’ health is secured. It provides simple application, handling protection, and a stunning consistency. Tumble drying or curing must be avoided as it is inappropriate and results in tensile loss and cotton tearing [46].

Peristal BLI Eco Alternatively, Peristal BLI Eco system is used instead of oxidative spray bleaching, which also ensures sustainability and effectiveness when dealing with denim jeans that are indigo-dyed. This method is effective as it does not contain any heavy metals nor chlorine, thus conforming to most environmental requirements, like bluesign® and ZDHC. Moreover, the products are odourless and free from alkylphenol, formaldehyde, ammonia, and heavy metals’ ethoxylates. Additionally, their oxidizing reactivity is very high. For the workers’ safety and security, there should be strict adherence to the crucial safety measures in the industry [47].

Ozone Washing Ozone washing is an innovative waterless technology. The ozone imposes crucial effects on clothing as well as the environment [48. 49]. The ozone is a triatomic molecule with three oxygen atoms. One of the artificial methods of producing the ozone is corona discharge. The gas fades dyed textile fabrics by rupturing the chromophores of natural or synthetic fibres. Due to the high oxidation ability of the ozone (E=2.07 eV), it can easily decompose complex aromatic rings of dyes, resulting in decolorization. In order to generate ozone (a strong oxidant gas), only air and electric energy is used [11]. On treated products, the ozone does not leave secondary derivative products, because it is chemically unstable. The garment may be bleached through this technique. During denim garment bleaching, the ozone is dissolved in the water in the washing machine. Moreover, denim garment bleaching and fading may be done via the use of the ozone gas in closed 102 www.textile-leather.com


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chambers. When compared to other oxidizing bleaching agents, the use of the ozone gas is much faster, as it only takes 15 minutes, while conventional bleaching takes 30-50 minutes [2]. While the ozone finishing uses two to three washes and rinses, stonewashing or chemical bleaching uses six to seven. Despite the inability of the ozone to eliminate water use during jeans finishing, it greatly lowers water consumption. By decreasing the temperature needed and the amount of water that should be heated for wet finishing, it decreases energy consumption. Besides the reduction of chemical and water consumption from 85% to 95%, and energy from 70% to 80%, Jeanologia’s G2 Dynamic technology is designed to guarantee a detoxed and sustainable fabric. For instance, if 15 to 20 litres of water are required per kilogram of fabric, the whole process will only require 0.5 to 3 litres of water per kilogram with G2 Dynamic [50]. G2 technology, by using ambient air, develops the garments “sun-washed” effect with the real look of outdoor use. In addition, using the ozone instead of some conventional finishing eliminates the effluent as well as the generation of sludge from the pumice stones. This technique is simple and friendly to the environment, because after laundering, the UV radiation may deozonize the ozonized water [18]. Additionally, the ozone is applicable beyond shading, such as in stonewashing, to replicate other processes of denim finishing. This approach is sustainable due to its high quality, comparably better performance, long-lasting effects of the operation, low maintenance costs, simple installation, minimal bleaching production costs, and high production capacity and efficiency. Nonetheless, safety procedures and features should be key in the avoidance of workers’ deadly or dangerous accidental exposure to the ozone gas. Since it runs in dry conditions, the system enhances whiteness and eradicates the jeans pockets’ back staining as well as other potential organic spots [51].

Nanobubble e-Flow Technology Nanobubble e-Flow technology can handle raw clothing and apply different chemicals, move the clothing with the use of micro-nanobubbles (MNB) as the chemical product vehicle capable of directly getting inside the fibres [52]. The process involves injection of atmospheric air into the electro-flow reactor and then subjecting it to an electromechanical shock to generate wet air flow and nanobubbles [53]. Different chemical products such as dyes, antimicrobials, liquid repellents, wrinkle-free resins, softeners etc. are used to pass functional properties to the denim. Through the application of this modern technology, the revolutionary feature is that certain items get into contact with garments with minimum water amount [54]. The nanobubbles’ skin has a duty to transport the chemicals to the garments [12]. Water and chemicals are homogeneously blended with the help of microbubbles and spread on the garment [55]. Nanobubble technology boasts of significant success such as 86% water use reduction, 97% wastewater reduction, extremely low liquor ratio of 1:1, the recycling of steam/water, energy use reduction up to 80%, 50% chemical products saving, related chemical wastage reduction, reduction of the washing and drying process, as well as necessary temperature reduction and reduction in CO2 emissions [54,56]. The method is, therefore, cost effective. It can create a washed look by laser as well as the wet ozone process creates a bleached look over the denim [56]. The e-Flow process provides pre-shrinkage of the fabric, thus avoiding high shrinkage during washing at home. Moreover, it improves the colour fastness to rubbing properties [53]. If the surface of the fabric is meant to achieve a stonewashed effect by enduring a high degree of abrasion, the e-Flow technology, on the basis of aesthetics and sustainability, is a commercially viable choice. However, it is important to consider the productivity factor. Chemical suppliers have produced cellulase enzymes usable in e-Flow, such as the DyStar’s Lava® Cell NEF [57].

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Water Jet Fading Conventionally, the jeans’ abrasion and whitening processes are done either with manual brushing or permanganate sprays, whereby the two techniques are harmful to the respiratory system, skin and the eyes. By using water during whitening, Tonello’s Water Brush tackles the above disadvantages [58]. Hydro jet treatment often needs hydro jet nozzles’ contact to the one or both surfaces of fabric. There is much relationship between the degree of colour washout, pattern clarity, resulting fabric softness and the nature of the dye in the fabric and the manner and degree of fluid impact energy added to the fabric. Blue indigo dyed denim produces exceptionally essential outcomes [18]. Fascinatingly, Tonello’s water brush uses water, but does not absorb it. The water used in garment whitening is gathered by a large tank under the spray robot. The tank filters the water then recycles it back to the robot. Again, the highlights include its zero influence on the workers and the ecosystem, and the reduction of resource use [58]. Tonello has an aim of replacing the manual and permanganate brushing techniques with highly pressurized water through Water Brush incorporation in finishing processes to create the same worn effect without applying heavy chemicals. The chemicals not only pollute the environment but also pose risks to the workers involved in the process.

Laser Technology To avoid some of the shortcomings of the traditional technologies, a new revolutionary approach has been established under laser technology’s advent in the textile industry [59]. It is another sustainable option in the denim washing field. This is the fastest growing and approved technology of the denim industry, and has made denims go green [13]. Laser finishing is referred to as denim spray painting. Lasers are employed during laser engraving as well as laser marking. The method is often used to replace environmentally disadvantageous and potentially hazardous typical dry techniques, such as grinding, destroying, hand sanding, sand blasting etc. [59]. Via this technique, the dye on the surface is decomposed by the laser beam and the subsequent components are converted to vapour and expelled away. The efficiency of fading is dependent on the wavelength of the laser beam, pulse duration and power density [3]. Laser technology provides infinite exploration and innovation possibilities for designers. This technique creates patterns carried out by computer-managed processes, such as even images, text, lines and dots [13]. Therefore, it can be used in creating personalized patterns and designs or generating worn-out effects like rips, abrasions and whiskers. It is also capable of providing detailed duplicability of the applied results. Moreover, laser engraving is useful in fabrics’ burning and colour fading to generate embroidered designs in the cloth. Lasers are preferred for low-cost sealed CO2 and laser engraving [60]. There is a possibility of pre-programming the laser with designs that may exactly replicate the anticipated look obtained through manual sandblasting and sanding with considerably minimal labour and physical hazards. To produce a variety of denim looks, it requires less water, chemicals and electricity. For an enhanced laser effect to mimic heavier bleaching applications, an addition of laser boosters to the fabric may be effective [24]. Furthermore, it reduces production costs and saves time. According to experts, these technologies have led to 500% production increase per workplace and 50% fabric strength loss [13]. Moreover, the software, such as E-Mark and CarbonLaze, increases industrial efficiency, gives room for more innovation, simplifies design, and decreases steps of pre-production process. In conjunction to an eco-washing system, laser technology for finishing jeans has led to outstanding environmental benefits. This new technology saves 85% of chemical products, 67% of water, and 62% of electricity [13]. The most complex issue associated to laser processes is the inaccuracy of the laser beam magnitude. When low, it is difficult to obtain the effect, and on high laser strength, it may destroy the fibre bonds, leading to tearing and chemical damage [1]. Furthermore, the fading process is linked to a high eye 104 www.textile-leather.com


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damage potential [3]. It was hard to operate and maintain the early laser systems. However, the current laser systems are easier in terms of service and maintenance [60].

Plasma Treatment With a wide range of sustainable technologies, many would consider the plasma treatment as an effective way of replacing traditional chemical processes, because it facilitates the achievement of the desired outcome using an appropriate reactive gas, and it is a dry process as well. Avoiding chemical waste is the key attraction of plasma in industrial operations. Saving vast amounts of water, chemicals and electricity is another benefit [61]. The plasma is an incompletely ionized gas, and is often referred to as the fourth state of matter. Upon the exposure of a substance to the plasma, a number of plasma particles (neutrals, radicals, ions, and electrons), as well as UV photons reaching the surface with various energies’ distribution, bombard the surface. A number of these active species are energetic enough to detach chemical bonds and prompt fibre surface reactions [62]. The RF and Corona’s low-pressure treatments resulted in an improvement in denim lightness, implying elimination of indigo dye from the fabric surface. To achieve a worn look for indigo-dyed denim fabric, corona treatments and low-pressure plasma may serve as a viable alternative to the traditional bio-stoning. However, further research is required in order to prevent harsh fabric handle emergence and the upsurge of yellowness [63].

Sustainability Issues of Digitally Printed Denim On its sustainability journey, the textile industry is gradually inclining towards digitalization [64]. Digitally printed denim uses a mechanism that can bring denim to a new level, by using textile inkjet printing as an artistic method [65]. Digital printing can create precise image data, with the use of millions of colours in infinite motif format. Under this technology, it is possible to create visually convincing design specifics that mimic the real thing, like abrasion areas, whiskers, and yarn slubs [66]. Digi Denim is a completely ‘waterless’ kind of denim. Among the traditional washing processes are pre-treatments, enzyme washing, bleaching, and neutralizing. Every step in this process requires a significant amount of water. The digitization of denim industry contributes to sustainable practices. Without any natural resource or material waste, digital design can create countless pairs of jeans, thus lowering waste levels and the environmental impact. Digi Denim provides a huge cost decrease and the overall lead time. It is a sustainable and cost-effective option as opposed to the traditional denim finishing and colouring techniques [1].

SOFTWARE FOR MEASURING SUSTAINABILITY IN WASHING The control of the cost of energy, chemicals, and water in the production process is aimed at developing an ethical, productive and environmentally friendly denim washing system. Through the evaluation of the current impacts, the defining interventions and areas of change are easily recognizable, and can thus be tracked for sustainability.

Environmental Impact Measuring (EIM) Software EIM software is used in the assessment of the environmental impact of finishing processes for garments in categories such as: the use of water, the use of energy, the use of chemical products and health of the workers. With regard to water, a low-impact process is defined by the EIM as consuming less than 35 litres of water per garment. The EIM takes a product’s toxicology into consideration. It penalizes the use of more

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chemicals for contaminants, regardless of the amount of the substance used. The environmental effect of a complete finishing process can also be calculated by the EIM. The individual can clearly see the key cause of the environmental hazards with this tool, giving them the requisite data to move towards a more environmentally friendly process. The EIM also enables the consumer to compare various processes and determine their resulting outcomes in terms of sustainability issues [67].

Environmental Score (eScore) Software VAV Technology developed the eScore Software for denim manufacturing industries that calculate and compare the quantities of chemical, electricity, and energy reference values, as consumed by the machines based on the prescriptions. It provides data on the lower and upper limits to protect the environmental and human health, data on the system effort and utilization of ability. Based on each company’s water and chemical consumption, eScore Software ranks the companies and categorizes their scores as follows: i) 0-33 Score: Environment-Friendly Production, ii) 33-66 Score: Acceptable Production, iii) 66-99 Score: Limit Value, iv) 100 and more: Non-Environment-Friendly Production [68].

CONCLUSION Different kinds of mechanical or dry-washing processes and chemical or wet-washing processes create a lucrative outlook for the denim washing system. Relating to sustainability concerns, the traditional washing methods are linked to tremendous health and environmental risks. However, with new technologies and approaches to denim washing, sustainable and attainable solutions are currently available, capable of supporting the environment, the consumer and the company. Following the denim industries’ adoption of new technologies in the manufacturing process, there has been a drastic decrease in the use of energy, chemicals and water during the washing of denim fabrics. It is worth stating that these new technologies, including waterjet, ozone, and laser technologies, have presented themselves as excellent options for denim washing regarding the expense, time, durability, consistency, and efficiency. As a result, the denim industry will soon experience dramatic changes following the new developments. However, there is need for further advancement in denim washing techniques to enhance sustainability of the industry. Author Contributions Conceptualization – M.K.R.K.; methodology – S.J.; resources - M.K.R.K. and S.J.; writing-original draft preparation – M.K.R.K. and S.J.; writing-review and editing – M.K.R.K. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. Funding This research received no external funding. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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BOATENG S, et al. Textile Art Creation as a Tool for Raising Awareness … TLR 4 (2) 2021 111-127.

Textile Art Creation as a Tool for Raising Awareness of Corruption in Ghana Solomon BOATENG1, Benjamin Kwablah ASINYO2, Ebenezer Kofi HOWARD2, Edward APAU1, Raphael Kanyire SEIDU* Department of Visual and Industrial Art, FBEAA, Sunyani Technical University, Sunyani-Ghana Department of Industrial Art, CABE, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi-Ghana *seiduraphael@gmail.com 1 2

Article UDC 677:74:328.185 DOI: 10.31881/TLR.2020.23 Received 23 December 2020; Accepted 17 March 2021; Published Online 26 March 2021; Published 1 June 2021

ABSTRACT Textile art possesses the ability to communicate with the viewer in as much as the viewer understands the visual images. It involves art made of textiles or about textiles by utilising techniques such as embroidery, patchwork, quilting, applique, tapestry, dyeing, and painting, among others. This study explores the use of conventional and non-conventional textile materials in a mixed-media technique in the production of artefacts aimed at raising awareness of corruption in Ghana; a national canker that is retarding the country’s growth. It employed a practice-based research approach to gain new ideas or knowledge in the study through practice. The study revealed that the artefacts serve as an effective communication tool to create awareness of the dangers of corruption in the country, thereby expanding the frontiers of textile art by exploiting various techniques and materials. KEYWORDS Textile art, Conventional and non-conventional materials, Mixed-media, Corruption

INTRODUCTION Corruption has become a universal phenomenon that goes beyond national boundaries. It has increasingly become a household word discussed by politicians, media houses and the entire citizenry. Corruption remains as a canker for economic development and ought to be given keen attention in a country’s developmental agenda. According to Knoema [1] and Trading Economics [2], in 2020, Ghana scored 43rd in the corruption perceptions index. In Ghana, the quest to deal with this economic menace has been pivotal among governments of the Fourth Republic, which led to numerous establishments of committees and implementation of rigorous policies to curb the canker, for example, the Commission for Human Rights and Administrative Justice (CHRAJ) in 1993, the Serious Fraud Office (SFO) now known as Economic and Organized Crime Office (EOCO) in 2010, the Citizen Vetting Committee, the Public Tribunal, the National Procurement Authority (NPA) and the office of the Special Prosecutor (SP) in 2017. Regardless of these efforts, corruption seems too predominant in Ghana. It can be stated that corruption can increase a country’s brain drain problems. Curtailing it is only possible with the support of a wide range of stakeholders and the citizenry.

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CHRAJ is the national institution for protecting and promoting fundamental rights and freedoms and administrative justice in Ghana. It combines the Anti-Corruption Agency’s work, the Ombudsman, and the human rights commission under one umbrella. However, the commission exists to enhance the scale of good governance, democracy, integrity, peace and social development by promoting, protecting and enforcing fundamental human rights and freedoms and administrative justice for all persons in Ghana [3]. It is mandated to investigate the abuse of power and “all instances of alleged or suspected corruption and the misappropriation of public monies by officials’’ [3]. Yet, new commissions have been established, including the Special Prosecutor (SP) in 2017. This notwithstanding, corruption remains a significant problem in the country [4, 5]. Corruption is a decay that allows a decision-maker (an official) to deviate from his/her decision-making and consent for bribes [6]. Iyanda [7] asserts that corruption is the illegal use of power by a public official/ individual for enriching him or herself or for other reasons at the expense of the public, contrary to the laws that are in force. Society stigmatises corruption and attributes its tendencies to political offices and government institutions, yet the length and breadth of corruption extend to private establishments and even the home. The repercussions of corruption do not always receive condemning utterances, especially if the corrupt person extends the amassed wealth to a group of people. This is evident when Frunzik [8] indicated that “the use of public office for private gain” is not always perceived in a given community to be corruption since the individual that has personal gain is directly making a positive impact on the community. In this instance, the community may see it as acceptable and may sometimes reward the individual. Heidenheiner [9] categorised corruption into “black, white and grey”. He explained that White acts are more or less accepted by both officials and citizens and do not attract any form of punishment. In contrast, Gray acts are considered corruption, but the public’s opinions differ from that of the decisionmakers. Thus the opinions between the citizens and public officials are divided. Black, on the other hand, is seen as wrong and condemned by both officials and citizens. Corruption exists in bribery, kickbacks, extortion, embezzlement, favouritism, nepotism and patronage. The influence corruption has on developing countries cannot be overemphasised; hence the consequences are often hazardous. For example, the eleven (11) years of war in Sierra-Leone were attributed to persistent corruption in governance’s domains. According to Smith [10], corruption jeopardises some of the nation’s potential assets, the eagerness, idealism and empathy of its youth. Corruption can have diverse effects on human capital formation, thereby decreasing tax administration, leading to tax evasion and exemptions, lower education level and a poor health care system. Mauro [11] opines that corruption affects economic development by influencing the choice of projects undertaken by governments. Moreover, Onongha [12] posits that corruption is a severe challenge in the contemporary world which demoralises good governance, basically distorts public policy and leads to misallocation of resources. Bright Tetteh Ackwerth is a Ghanaian-born contemporary satirical illustrator whose work style is a satirical representation of socio-political and religious issues in an incisive manner that provokes conversation and sparks debate and elicits a response. He published an art piece (Plate 1) that provoked the Chinese ambassador to Ghana to write a letter to the President of Ghana and the Minister of Natural Resources. In the image, China’s president, Xi Jinping, can be seen doling out dirty brown water from a vase bowl held by the Ghanaian president and Natural Resources minister. Besides the Chinese president, there is the Chinese ambassador to Ghana smiling and holding gold. This art piece has an empirical meaning that Ghanaians are sitting on gold but begging for sand.

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Plate 1. “We dey beg” [13]

Abdoulaye Konate is another Malian contemporary artist who is committed to his own culture and his textile sculptures offer a limitless source of artistic and spiritual expression. He utilises a traditional Malian fabric which he dyes with pigment and cuts into strips. Playing with volume, depth and colour, he layers and superimposes these strips into large-scale abstract and figurative compositions. In most of his art pieces, he delivers his interpretation of world events and references his cultural history. For instance, in his series titled ”Generation Biometrique” (Plate 2), which was completed in 2017, he reflected on the generalised government method of processing immigrants. He highlighted the plight and conditions of African immigrants entering the EU and America.

Plate 2. “Generation Biometrique”, 2008, applique - Abdoulaye Konate [14]

Victor Ehikhamenor is a Nigerian textile artist whose primary source of inspiration is his ancestral home, Udomi-Uwessan in Edo State. His works depict abstract, symbolic and politically motivated motives, as can be seen in the piece he entitled ”Girls of Aba” where he campaigned for the release of a group of girls captured by Boko Haram. He uses mixed media, paint, textiles, photographs, thread, rosary beads, or anything pertinent to his message. His works are heavily titled, which assists the viewer in understanding the situation, the character and the intention behind the art piece as seen in Plates 3 and 4.

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Plate 3. Castrated History, 2016

Plate 4. ”Girls of Aba”

Mixed media on canvas, 180 x 15 by Victor Ehikhamenor [14]

Ai Weiwei is considered among contemporary artists to be allied with political activism (Plate 5). Most of his artworks speak about corruption practices in China and other political issues. Some of his outstanding works which tackle social issues include “The study of perspective” and the installation “Remembering” where he campaigned on behalf of those who fell victim to the 2008 earthquake in China. Even though he has faced many criticisms, he uses his artworks to speak for the many [15].

Plate 5. Remembering, 2009 [16]

Pyotr Andreyevich Pavlensky (Plate 6) is often referred to as a ‘living pain’ artist. He is a Russian contemporary artist and a publisher of Journal Political Propaganda. He chooses performance art that usually takes the form of extreme acts as his political language. Some of his stunts involve sewing his mouth, shut-in political protests against the incarceration of Pussy Riot members, wrapping himself naked in barbed wire as a commentary on a series of laws suppressing civic activism and intimidating the population. Blurring the boundaries between art and his anti-Kremlin views, he sets himself apart from other similar artists [17].

Plate 6. Untitled [17]

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Considering the works of the aforementioned artists, who create awareness of the unscrupulous practices and issues affecting society’s well-being, this study employs the mixed-media technique coupled with conventional and non-conventional textile materials to produce textile artworks to campaign against corruption in Ghana. Since corruption exists in all governance branches, and there is often a lack of probity and accountability, the culprits often enjoy impunity [4]. This is a matter of great concern for individuals and policymakers who are trying to minimise corruption in order to achieve economic growth.

MATERIALS AND METHODS The study employed practice-based research and relied on studio activities for the execution of the projects. According to Mills [18] studio activity requires the use of materials, techniques, tools and aesthetic analysis to gain new ideas or knowledge through practice and achieve the result of that practice [19]. Carving, painting, applique and bonding were the techniques employed for the execution of the results. Materials used were wood, foam, plywood, and adhesives, with fabrics being the chief materials. Tools used included a stapler, cutting knife, jigsaw, pair of scissors, pressing iron, hammer and brush. Some of the materials used were collected as scrap or waste from tailors and refrigerator repairers. The fabrics scraps selected were mainly African prints to show the artists’ originality and the art pieces. They were employed in the art pieces for identification and originality. According to Howard [20], African prints are clothes with designs that depict images of proverbs, local emblems relating to kingship traditions or authorities of chiefs and designs with educational significance. Ghana is one of the leading countries in the production of African prints. It is of interest to note that these fabrics are designed to mirror various African cultures and traditions. Most of these fabrics produced in Ghana have local names such as ”efie mmosea”, Yaw Donkor, and of fellow Ghanaians. Both the motifs and the colours have symbolic connotations which reveal the ethics of Ghanaian culture. Table 1 shows some selected African prints and their symbolic meanings. Table 1. Names and symbolism of the selected African prints used [21] African Prints

Name

Meaning

Sika wo Antaban

“Money has wings” is the literal translation of this print. Indeed, money has wings, and if one does not handle it well, it will fly.

Akyekydee akyi

This design was deduced from the proverb “Huriye si akyekyedee akyi a, osi ho kwa”, which translates as, “the tsetse fly sits on the tortoise’s back in vain, it cannot suck any blood through the hard shell”. This suggests that engaging in futile enterprise serves one no good.

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Nsubra

Nsubra is an Akan name for a well. The tiny dots in the spiral form resemble the ripple made in a well after water is fetched from it or when a stone drops into its depth.

Efie mmosea

Efie mmosea means “house pebbles”. Proverbially, it suggests that it is more painful for a relative to hurt you than an outsider.

Highlife

This fabric represents the most famous music genre in Ghana. This genre is loved by many, due to its originality and the quality of sound made by most of the highlife musicians.

Aniwa

This is an Akan word for eye. The meaning behind this print is to be careful with your actions. Although people may be silent, they are watching you when you do something wrong. It can also mean that God watches over the action of every individual.

A suitable Design Thinking model [22] was adopted, of which a new model was constructed for the study (Figure 2). The model evolves through empathy, ideation, prototyping, evaluation and production. According to Clarke [23], a model identifies basic thoughts and defines the reality and the situation under study.

Figure 2. Design Thinking Process

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Empathy Phase According to Waloszek [24], empathy is the foundation of the human-centred design process where one makes an observation and interacts with users to uncover their needs. A structured interview was the tool used to obtain relevant information to develop concept-based images on corruption and to ascertain the respondents’ level of understanding of corruption. A face-to-face interview was conducted with sixty (60) respondents via the purposive sampling technique. The study revealed that bribery, the act of taking or receiving from people before offering or granting them help or favour, is the most common form of corruption in Ghana. Further, it became apparent from the findings that 97.8% of the respondents were ignorant that demanding sex or any other materials aside from money is also a form of corruption. However, 54.8% of the respondents stated that the best remedy to curtail corruption in Ghana is to abstain from paying bribes to corrupt officials. When asked whether textile art could play a role in the campaign against corruption in Ghana, 85.5% of the respondents affirmed that it would be an excellent and interesting idea.

IDEATION PHASE This stage entails the generation, development and conceptualisation of ideas. Textile art is an area of art that requires a high sense of creativity in the manipulation and arrangement of different materials [20]. Therefore, sketches (Figure 3) were made to guide the creation of the art pieces.

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

f)

g) Figure 3. (a) Behind Bars; (b) Keep Quiet; (c) My Integrity; (d) Resistance; (e) Mutuality; (f) Percentage; (g) Wrong Benefits

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Relevant Adinkra symbols were used to enhance the visual communication of the artefacts. Adinkra symbols are visual notations with historical and philosophical significance printed initially on cloths. These symbols serve as a shorthand for communicating deep truths in visual forms. They were contextually added in the art pieces to understand the discussion (Table 2) better. Table 2. Adinkra symbols used and their meanings [25] Symbol

Name

Nsa ko, na nsa aba

This represents the cooperation and the support shown by people who come together and offer help in working towards the promotion of a good cause.

Nyansapo

This symbol is a reserved symbol of the Akans and is a symbol of wise leadership, ingenuity and intelligence.

Epa

This symbol represents handcuffs, a symbol of bondage. The symbol reminds offenders of the uncompromising nature of the law. It also discourages all forms of slavery.

Akoben

Warhorn, a symbol of a call to action or readiness to be called to action, and voluntarism.

Akofena

A symbol of state authority, legality, the legitimised authority of a ruler, and recognition of the gallantry of heroic deeds.

Obi nka bi

Bite not one another. It symbolises justice, fairness, freedom, peace, forgiveness, unity, harmony, and the avoidance of a conflict or strife.

Boa me na mmoa wo

It is a symbol of cooperation and interdependence.

Mate masie

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Meaning

This symbol represents the prudence of taking into consideration the conspiracy about a person.


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Developing Ideas into Compositions According to Howard [20], in developing suitable concepts for textile art, the following factors are vital: • The elements and principles of design should be interplayed in conformity to obtain a good result. • Irrespective of the kind of textile art one is creating, a theme or concept is crucial in starting a good project. • Non-realistic and simple designs should be used for textile artworks. Thus, realistic designs should be redeveloped into semi-abstract forms to suit the selected techniques and media. • It is also essential for the textile artist to bear in mind the types of media, tools, and techniques to be employed when designing for mixed-media textile art. This helps the designer to modify his or her subject to suit the selected techniques and media. This in turn helps to limit problems that are liable to crop up during production. The idea behind these designs (Figure 4) was chosen and developed by considering the various forms of corruption. To fully convey a message about the forms of corruption, visual images that are communicative enough about corruption were used.

a)

b)

c)

d)

Figure 4. (a) Me man nti - For the sake of my country; (b) The Perspective of Corruption; (c) Behind the Scene; (d) Consequences

Prototype Phase A prototype can be defined as an early model or a sample of a released product which is built to test a concept or a process [26]. A prototype is a term which can be used in different settings to assess a new design to enhance precision. In this vein, a prototype was produced to solicit information from the public whether the topic under consideration has achieved its intended purpose. It was also to know the feasibility of non-conventional textile materials intended for the work. This aided in the choice of materials to be used for the execution of the art pieces.

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Evaluation Phase Evaluation, according to Maheshwari [27], is the process that allows one to make a general judgment about the value of a thing through observation, interviews, questionnaires, amongst others. To obtain relevant comments, the artworks were exhibited at the reception centre of the Faculty of Art Building at KNUST-Ghana, to students, artists and the teaching staff to obtain their thoughts and comments. Generally, viewers expressed their disappointments in how corruption has destroyed the economic fortune and growth of Ghana. Further exhibition was done via online survey (Facebook and WhatsApp) for additional views. Participants (which comprises people with and without art background) were overwhelmed and stated that the art pieces were insightful, contextual and interesting for educating the general populace on corruption since the works attract viewers’ attention and communicate visually on the issues of corruption. However, it was observed that the art pieces could only be used indoors, since the adhesives used are water-soluble. Moreover, the fabrics used may also fade over time due to the exposure to sun and rain. The study revealed that fabric waste could be recycled into a useful art product for economic and artistic purposes. The use of fabric scraps and Styrofoam in the execution of the art pieces was aimed at combating corruption problems confronting the country.

Production Phase This phase explains the production stage of the work where different kinds of base materials (fabrics) with different dimensions were used for the works. A base material with a dense width was used for the project to ensure that the background of the work is stable. The procedures used in the execution of each work are discussed in the next section of the paper.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Four major art pieces were created to depict and combat corruption. These have been philosophically named and discussed to sensitise the general populace and create the needed awareness of corruption issues confronting the country.

Production and Philosophical Underpinning of the Textile Artworks Artwork One - Me man nti, 3ny3 me nti (For the Sake of My Country) An illustration of people rejecting bribes was made. The techniques employed were painting, carving and applique. Materials used were canvas fabric, fabric scraps, Styrofoam and papers. To achieve a three-dimensional effect, thick Styrofoam was used for the skins of all the figures. The figures were then traced onto the Styrofoam and carved out using a cutting knife. The figures, as well as the background of the work were painted. The fabric scraps were cut to conform to the Adinkra symbols that were fixed onto the canvas with an adhesive (Bond 99). The figures were all wrapped with fabrics and then left to dry. The money was cut out from brown papers and painted to simulate the Ghana cedis currency (GH ₵50), as shown in Figure 5.

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Figure 5. Me man nti, 3ny3 me nti (For the Sake of My Country)

The work in Figure 5 is titled “Me man nti, 3ny3 me nti”, which means “for the sake of my country, not my own”. It is said that where there are bad nuts, there are also good nuts. While some will resort to collecting bribes, others will reject it. Considering the multi-coloured background of the design, it connotes that corruption can be avoided irrespective of our background or the type of job we do. Moreover, since most corrupt practices are done in the dark, the multi-coloured background suggests that corruption’s true nature can be revealed. This confirms (John 1:5) which says, “The light will shine in darkness and darkness will not understand it”. The work suggests that corruption can emerge from anywhere regardless of one’s personality. The figure on top wearing a suit represents a few politicians who are patriotic and do reject bribes. When corruption is mentioned, it is mostly attributed to politicians with the notion that they are corrupt [5]. However, not every politician is corrupt or is involved in such practices. The other figure also illustrates a person trying to influence a traditional leader with money. Nevertheless, the traditional leader being mentally strong has objected and does not even want to look at it to be persuaded. The choice of two (2) Adinkra symbols in the design sought to strengthen the idea of campaigning against corruption. Abissah (Personal communication March 26, 2019) asserts that Adinkra symbols have proverbial meanings which portray historical events, human behaviour and attitudes. The first Adinkra symbol at the top is called “Nyansapᴐ” which means “wisdom knot”. This symbol is a symbol of good leadership, ingenuity and intelligence. It teaches that a person can choose the best means to accomplish a goal. The second Adinkra symbol is known as “Akoben” which means “war horn”. This sign, according to Adinkrahene [28], is used to sound a battle cry. The sound warns others of the impending danger so they can prepare for an attack and set up a defence to protect their territory from an enemy. Corruption is an enemy to a nation, and every citizen has to rise to fight against it from all spheres of life, hence the use of the “Akoben” symbol in this respect.

Artwork Two - The Perspective of Corruption Sketches were made on paper to ascertain the outcome of the final piece (Figure 6). Materials used for the art piece’s execution include plywood, fabrics, foams (Styrofoam and latex) and papers. Techniques adopted for the execution are carving, adhesive bonding, painting and applique. Plywood was carved out in a concave shape in the form of a spectacle. To achieve the concave effect of the spectacle, a flat latex foam was fixed on the plywood and then covered with a piece of black velvet fabric. This was transferred onto the prepared spectacle glasses and then traced and carved onto the Styrofoam. The carved images were glued onto the spectacles with an adhesive. The background, as well as the carved images, were painted with acrylic paint using bristle brushes to give the work a special touch and appeal. The colours were carewww.textile-leather.com 121


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fully arranged from darker to lighter tones. Fabric scraps were cut and subsequently used to clothe each image. The documents, monies and envelopes were all cut and pasted with an adhesive. The monies were painted to simulate the currency of Ghana and the canvas for the spectacles was prepared by priming and painting. With the help of a stapler, the spectacles were fixed onto the canvas. Lastly, flexible plastic trimmings were used along with the frame of the spectacles.

Figure 6. The Perspective of Corruption

This work (Figure 6) reveals the types of corruption which, according to Andvig et al. [29] are grand or political corruption, petty corruption and private corruption. The various types of corruption are depicted in this work. The activities on the right side of the spectacles identified political or grand corruption of which Elaine [30] revealed that it involves decision-makers and law enforcers abusing their power or using their office to acquire wealth. It can be observed from the artefact that some top officials are seen taking bribes before awarding contracts. This scenario is one of the many examples which normally happen before a contract is awarded. One has to pay a certain percentage of money before being awarded with a contract. Furthermore, an Adinkra symbol “Nsa kᴐ, na nsa aba” which means “hand go and hand come” was used in the work to strengthen the communication. This symbol encourages and teaches citizens to lend a helping hand to those in need. It also represents the cooperation and support shown by people who come together to offer help in working towards the promotion of a cause. Contextually, this Adinkra symbol connotes that one has to offer something before he or she can also get something in return. Another Adinkra symbol seen beneath the figures, “Boa me na me mmoa wo’’ which means “help me to help you” supports the idea of “hand go, hand come”. It is a symbol of collaboration and interdependence. The symbol represents the need to transform the world by creating a space that promotes interdependence and cooperation among a group of people working towards a greater goal. However, the Adinkra symbol was chosen in this context to enlighten the popular saying “you scratch my back, I scratch your back” which implies that you have to give what you have to get what you want. These practices have a diverse effect and dig deep into the economic fabric of a nation, resulting in the misallocation of resources [30]. The left eye of the spectacle explains another type of corruption which is petty or minor corruption [5]. Petty corruption, also known as bureaucratic corruption, is the day-to-day corruption in which bureaucrats demand or take money from civilians to satisfy their basic needs. Riley [31] affirms that petty corruption is the contribution of small monies that aids junior officials in the public service. Although it is called petty and the amounts involved are often small, the accumulated amount often reaches billions of dollars [32]. This affirms the quotation from the Songs of Solomon (2:15) “catch all the foxes because little foxes spoil the vine”. This means petty corruption should be nipped in the bud because its pettiness will later grow to become grand. In the artefact, a police officer who is a law enforcer is seen accepting a bribe. The Adinkra symbols “Mmra krado”, which represents justice and authority and “Nokore”, which represents truth, speak of how people or citizens see police officers and judiciary as an epitome of enforcement and peace-making. 122 www.textile-leather.com


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These symbols inspire truth and transparency in everything we do as citizens in a country. However, these institutions that were established to be the epitome of law enforcement and peace-making are ranked as the most corrupt institutions in Ghana [33]. According to Amankwah, Bonsu and White [34], a renowned and investigative journalist in Ghana, Anas Aremeyaw Anas, exposed some corrupt judges and magistrates who were caught accepting bribes. The spectacles were then fixed on a plywood board to act as a support and hold them together. In between the spectacles is a nose which, metaphorically, is a road full of potholes. This shows some negative effects of corruption. Tanzi and Davoodi [35] opine that corruption leads to the misappropriation of resources and also affects economic growth by diverting state properties for personal gain. Abstracted Adinkra symbols which were used include “Akofena” (symbol of authority), “Akoben” (readiness and preparedness for action), “Mmra krado” (symbol of justice) and “Mete masie” (symbol of knowledge and wisdom) on the supporting canvas. All these symbols have, contextually, added to the debate against corruption in Ghana as projected in the work.

Artwork Three - The Oppressors Rule A sketch was made and transferred onto a canvas. The required images were transferred onto the Styrofoam and then carved out. The carved-out figures were then fixed onto the canvas and painted in various tones. Fabric scraps were then cut to conform to the respective image size which was then fixed onto each image (Figure 7).

Figure 7. The Oppressors Rule

Ghana is believed to be among the top countries in Africa practising democracy. A portion of the anthem of Ghana reads “to resist the oppressors’ rule” meaning the dictatorship rule is not encouraged in the country. Moreover, Ghana’s constitution calls for a system where there are checks and balances, the share of power between a President, a single-house parliamentary system, a council of state and an independent judiciary system which are being put to practice [36]. It is believed that people are seen practising corruption in workplaces, but, due to some circumstances, we cannot voice it out. Holmes [37] reveals that fear is a factor that facilitates people to act corruptly. For instance, junior staff may fear losing the job if he or she does not act like the corrupt superior. Under this circumstance, it is either you join them or stay away. Figure 7 portrays an elderly person who is trying to comment on a wrong social act, but he has been silenced by the strong and powerful hands of leading figures in society. Arguably, there have been some instances where some media personalities have been persecuted in their attempt to unveil bad practices in society. Holmes [37] suggests that nepotism is another factor that contributes to corruption. Thus, “blood is thicker than water” syndrome is a factor that contributes to corruption and there is also an Akan adage

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that supports the above statement, “Bebia a y3 didi ko no, y3nnsei ho”, which means “the hands that feed you should not be condemned”. So, it will be very difficult to expose a person who helped or is helping you. Therefore, oppression and superiority are significant factors of corruption.

Artwork Four- Behind Bars A sketch was made on a canvas and then traced onto Styrofoam for carving. The carved-out Styrofoam images were glued onto the canvas with the Bond 99 adhesive. The background was then painted and followed by the main figures, which are the hands and the metal bars (simulated prison bars). It was dried for a while and afterwards various tones of colours were painted. An Adinkra symbol was also traced onto a piece of fabric, cut out to the conformed image on the canvas and then glued. Finally, a black wire was used to frame the work to give it an appealing effect (Figure 8). The techniques employed for this art piece include applique, carving, adhesive bonding and painting. This work highlights the consequences of corruption. In life, every choice has its consequences. In supporting this statement, Galatians 6:7 says, “any person will reap what he sows” (The Good News Bible). This composition shows a person behind bars, creating awareness of the consequences of practising corruption. The two hands holding the iron bars represent the end of the corruption journey for each individual. The background of the work was painted in black to symbolise being “out of sight”. When there is a blackout in one’s life, everything comes to a standstill. Additionally, the Adinkra symbol beneath the bars with the African print symbolises the originality of the work and the end-users as well. The Adinkra symbol is known as “Epa” and it represents handcuffs, a symbol of bondage which creates awareness that there is punishment for any person who practices corruption.

Figure 8. Behind Bars

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Corruption is an enemy to any state and for that matter should be curtailed. In Ghana, many Presidents and various institutions have tried their best to solve or bury corruption but to no avail. The study revealed that textile art communicates ideas and expresses feelings and, therefore, can be used as an alternative medium to help create awareness in the fight against corruption. Communication is the act of relaying information from one person to another by using mutually understood symbols and signs. To achieve this, visual images were selectively used to communicate the direct meaning and the impact of corruption. It highlights the various forms of corruption in the country. The study however identified bribery as the major form of corruption, indicating that the respondents are oblivious to the other forms of corruption. Ghanaian anti-corruption law primarily criminalises active and 124 www.textile-leather.com


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passive bribery, extortion, wilful exploitation of public office, use of public office for private gain and bribery of foreign public officials [38]. The study concludes that the fight against corruption is not the duty of the President alone, the law enforcement agencies, the judiciary system and the media houses, but that citizens also have a role to play. In this respect, textile art can be used as a means to educate people on corruption through art exhibitions. Textile art can act as a medium through which societies can come together to share ideas and thoughts. It serves as a good platform for awareness creation and a campaign against corruption. Textile art provides the conditions for awakening humanity by providing a medium of knowing, experiencing and learning. Art works produced are used to educate and create awareness on issues of great concern to the society. The study, therefore, urges other artists to explore various media and techniques and come out with art pieces that tackle social issues such as corruption. It is also recommended that textile art producers also consider concept-based textile art to help deal with corruption and other social menaces in the society. The teaching of concept generation in art should be encouraged at the elementary, secondary, tertiary, technical and public institutions in Ghana to enhance the level of creativity among students in combating issues the society is confronted with. Author Contributions Conceptualization – S.B., B.K.A. and E.K.H.; methodology – S.B., B.K.A. and E.K.H.; formal analysis – S.B., B.K.A., E.K.H., E.A. and R.K.S.; investigation – S.B., B.K.A., E.K.H., E.A. and R.K.S.; resources – S.B., B.K.A., E.K.H., E.A. and R.K.S.; writing-original draft preparation – S.B., B.K.A., E.K.H., E.A. and R.K.S.; writing-review and editing – S.B., B.K.A., E.K.H., E.A. and R.K.S.; visualization – S.B., B.K.A., E.K.H., E.A. and R.K.S.; supervision – S.B., B.K.A., E.K.H., E.A. and R.K.S. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. Funding This research received no external funding. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS EDITING YOUR MANUSCRIPT Please use our template to edit your article before submitting for review. • Volume of a manuscript should not exceed 10.000 words, without Tables, Figures and Images. • Title of a manuscript should not exceed 15 words. • Full names and surnames of the authors, as well as full names of the author’s affiliation – university, institute, company, department, town and country should be clearly given. Corresponding author should be indicated, and their e-mail address provided. • Abstract of a manuscript should be no longer than 250 words. • Keywords should contain 3-7 items. • SI units should be used throughout. • Abbreviations should be used according to IUPAC and ISO standards and defined when first used. • Footnotes should be avoided. When their use is absolutely necessary, they should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals and appended at the end of the manuscript. • References should be cited using Arabic numbers in square brackets,  according to the Vancouver referencing style. Please use our Quick Reference Guide (or look at the next page) • Figures and illustrations with a title and legend should be numbered consecutively (with Arabic numerals) and must be referred in the text. Images should be numbered as Figures. Additionally, Figures should be supplied as a separate file saved as jpg or tif at 300 dpi minimum. Type size in the description of axes should be proportional to the size of the Figure. • Tables with a title and optional legend should be numbered consecutively and must be referred in the text. • Acknowledgements may be included and should be placed after Conclusions and before References.

CATEGORIZATION OF ARTICLES Distinguishing scientific from professional articles The importance of usefulness of a article is not determined by whether it is scientific or professional. The difference between a scientific and a professional work is the originality of the results of research, debate and conclusions obtained by verified scientific methods. A professional paper can be more important for spreading knowledge and profession and economically more useful in application, but this does not mean it is a new contribution to the increase of scientific knowledge. The received manuscripts are categorized into: Original scientific papers means it is the first publication of original research. It must be presented so that the research can be repeated giving results with equal precision within the limits of the trial error, which means that the correctness of analyses and conclusions can be checked. Scientific review is a complete review of a issue or a field of research based on already published work but contains original analyses synthesis or suggestions for further research. It has a more comprehensive introduction than the original scientific paper. Preliminary communication includes new scientific results demanding urgent publication while the research is underway. This kind of article does not have to ensure the repetition and checking the presented results. It is published only with the author’s obligation to publish the original scientific paper when the research is completed.

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Conference paper is the work presented at a professional conference organized on local, regional or state level. It will be published if it has not been published in full in Proceedings, as a report, a study etc. Professional paper deals with the issues in the profession. It gives professional instructions and suggestions for how to solve the issue (technique, technology, methodology). Professional review is a complete review of a professional issue (technique, technology, methodology) based on already published work indicating the best ways for solving the issue. The papers that are not categorized include: Presentation and communication from practical experience deals with solving the problem of particular laboratory, institution or industry and serve to inform interested parties of the solution applied. Position paper is an essay that presents an arguable opinion about an issue. Commentary is paper connected with actual news and condition in science and textile/clothing industry.

QUICK REFERENCE GUIDE Vancouver referencing style consists of: • citations to someone else’s work in the text, indicated by the use of a number, • a sequentially numbered reference list at the end of the document providing full details of the corresponding in-text reference. In-text citations • Insert an in-text citation: o when your work has been influenced by someone else’s work, for example: ▪ when you directly quote someone else’s work ▪ when you paraphrase someone else’s work • General rules of in-text citation: o A number is allocated to a source in the order in which it is cited in the text. If the source is referred to again, the same number is used o Use Arabic numerals in square brackets [1], [2], [3], … o Superscripts can also be used rather than brackets o Reference numbers should be inserted to the left or inside of colons and semi-colons o Reference numbers are placed outside or after full stops and commas Multiple works by the same author: Each individual work by the same author, even if it is published in the same year, has its own reference number. Citing secondary sources: A secondary source, or indirect citation, occurs when the ideas on one author are published in another author’s work, and you have not accessed or read the original piece of work. Cite the author of the work you have read and also include this source in your reference list.

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In-text citation examples The in-text citation is placed immediately after the text which refers to the source being cited: ...and are generally utilized as industrial textile composites.[1] Including page numbers with in-text citations: Page numbers are not usually included with the citation number. However should you wish to specify the page number of the source the page/s should be included in the following format: …and are generally utilized as industrial textile composites.[1 p23] Hearle [1 p16-18] has argued that... Citing more than one reference at a time: The preferred method is to list each reference number separated by a comma, or by a dash for a sequence of consecutive numbers. There should be no spaces between commas or dashes For example: [1,5,6-8] Reference List • References are listed in numerical order, and in the same order in which they are cited in text. The reference list appears at the end of the paper • Begin your reference list on a new page and title it References • The reference list should include all and only those references you have cited in the text • Use Arabic numerals [1], [2], [3], … • Full journal titles are prefered • Check the reference details against the actual source - you are indicating that you have read a source when you cite it Scholarly journal articles • Enter author’s surname followed by no more than 2 initials (full stop) • If more than 1 author: give all authors’ names and separate each by a comma and a space • For articles with 1 to 6 authors, list all authors. For articles with more than 6 authors, list the first 6 authors then add ‘et al.’ • Only the first word of the article title and words that normally begin with a capital letter are capitalized. • Use Full journal titles • Follow the date with a semi-colon; • Abbreviate months to their first 3 letters (no full stop) • Give the volume number (no space) followed by issue number in brackets • If the journal has continuous page numbering through its volumes, omit month/issue number. • Page numbers, eg: 123-129. Digital Object Identification (DOI) and URLs The digital object identifier (DOI) should be provided in the reference where it is available. Use the form as it appears in your source. Print journal article – Ferri L de, Lorenzi A, Carcano E, Draghi L. Silk fabrics modification by sol-gel method. Textile Research Journal. 2018 Jan;88(1):99-107. ▪ Author AA, Author BB, Author CC, Author DD. Title of article. Title of journal. Date of publication YYYY Mon DD;volume number(issue number):page numbers.

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Electronic journal article – Niculescu O, Deselnicu DC, Georgescu M, Nituica M. Finishing product for improving antifugal properties of leather. Leather and Footwear Journal [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2017 Apr 22];17(1):31-38. Available from: http://revistapielarieincaltaminte.ro/revistapielarieincaltaminteresurse/en/ fisiere/full/vol17 -nr1/article4_vol17_issue1.pdf ▪ Author AA, Author BB. Title of article. Title of Journal [Internet]. Date of publication YYYY MM [cited YYYY Mon DD];volume number(issue number):page numbers. Available from: URL Book – Hu J. Structure and mechanics of woven fabrics. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Ltd; 2004. 61 p. ▪ Author AA. Title of book. # edition [if not first]. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year of publication. Pagination. Edited book - Sun G, editor. Antimicrobial Textiles. Duxford: Woodhead Publishing is an imprint of Elsevier; 2016. 99 p. ▪ Editor AA, Editor BB, editors. Title of book. # edition[if not first]. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year. Pagination. Chapter in a book - Luximon A, editor. Handbook of Footwear Design and Manufacture. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Limited; 2013. Chapter 5, Foot problems and their implications for footwear design; p. [90-114]. ▪ Author AA, Author BB. Title of book. # edition. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year of publication. Chapter number, Chapter title; p. [page numbers of chapter]. Electronic book – Strasser J. Bangladesh’s Leather Industry: Local Production Networks in the Global Economy [Internet]. s.l.: Springer International Publishing; 2015 [cited 2017 Feb 07]. 96 p. Available from: https://link. springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-319-22548-7 ▪ Author AA. Title of web page [Internet]. Place of Publication: Sponsor of Website/Publisher; Year published [cited YYYY Mon DD]. Number of pages. Available from: URL DOI: (if available) Conference paper – Ferreira NG, Nobrega LCO, Held MSB. The need of Fashion Accessories. In: Mijović B. editor. Innovative textile for high future demands. Proceedings 12th World Textile Conference AUTEX; 13-15 June 2012; Zadar, Croatia. Zagreb: Faculty of Textile Technology, University of Zagreb; 2012. p. 1253-1257. ▪ Author AA. Title of paper. In: Editor AA, editor. Title of book. Proceedings of the Title of the Conference; Date of conference; Place of Conference. Place of publication: Publisher’s name; Year of Publication. p. page numbers. Thesis/dissertation – Sujeevini J. Studies on the hydro-thermal and viscoelastic properties of leather [dissertation]. Leicester: University of Leicester; 2004. 144 p. ▪ Author AA. Title of thesis [dissertation]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year. Number of pages Electronic thesis/dissertation – Covington AD. Studies in leather science [dissertation on the internet]. Northampton: University of Northampton; 2010. [cited 2017 Jan 09]. Available from: http://ethos.bl.uk/ OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.579666 ▪ Author AA. Title of thesis [dissertation on the Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year. [cited YYYY abb. month DD]. Available from: URL This quick reference guide is based on Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (2nd edition). Please consult this source directly for additional information or examples.

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Textile and leather review 2 2021  

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