9789140697028

Page 1

4

New Levels 4 är ett läromedel avsett för Engelska, nationell delkurs 4 inom kommunal vuxenutbildning på grundläggande nivå samt gymnasiets introduktionsprogram.

• Elevbok, tryckt

40-69702-8

• Elevwebb, individlicens, 6 mån

51-10038-8

• Elevwebb, individlicens, 12 mån

51-10035-7

• Lärarwebb, individlicens, 12 mån

51-10036-4

Ewa Holm är verksam komvuxlärare i engelska, svenska och svenska som andraspråk i Stockholm, samt erfaren textgranskare, redaktör och läromedels­­ författare.

Bryan Stephens är en mycket erfaren lärare, lärarutbildare, utbildnings­ konsult, skolinspektör och författare som har skrivit läromedel i över 30 år.

ISBN 978-91-40-69702-8

9

789140 697028

New Levels 4 1 New Levels

Utöver elevboken finns även en elevwebb med verktyg och ytterligare träningsmöjligheter för eleven, samt en lärarwebb med värdefulla resurser för läraren att använda i undervisningen.

Bryan Stephens Ewa Holm Bryan Stephens Ewa Holm

New Levels

Bryan Stephens Ewa Holm

New Levels

4


Gleerups Utbildning AB Box 367, 201 23 Malmö Kundservice tfn 040-20 98 10 e-post info@gleerups.se www.gleerups.se

New Levels 4 © 2019 Bryan Stephens, Ewa Holm och Gleerups Utbildning AB Gleerups grundat 1826 Redaktör Will Maddox Bildredaktör Ingrid Westman Formgivning och omslag Sten Melin Grafisk Form Omslagsbild Indian women carrying water from a stepwell, Rajasthan, India Första upplagan, första tryckningen ISBN 978-91-40-69702-8 Kopieringsförbud! Detta verk är skyddat av upphovsrättslagen! Kopiering är förbjuden utöver lärares rätt att kopiera för undervisningsbruk om skolkopieringsavtal finns mellan skolhuvudmannen och Bonus Copyright Access. För information om skolkopieringsavtalet hänvisas till utbildningsanordnarens huvudman eller Bonus Copyright Access. Den som bryter mot lagen om upphovsrätt kan åtalas av allmän åklagare och dömas till böter eller fängelse i upp till två år samt bli skyldig att erlägga ersättning till upphovsman/ rättsinnehavare.

Prepress WikingTryck AB, Malmö 2019 Tryck & bind Livonia Print, Lettland 2019


Introduction Welcome to New Levels 4, a course book for Level 4 of the Swedish basic adult English course (Engelska, nationell delkurs 4), and also for students who need to learn or revise basic English language skills. The book has five units, and Unit 1 revises the main grammar from Level 3 (New Levels 3). Each unit is divided into three parts. Each of the five units is based on a general theme and the three parts in each unit are linked to that theme. Each part has the following sections: • Show what you know – exercises allowing you to show what you already know and to practise the key vocabulary of the unit. You can also find extra practice on skills vocabulary in the Focus points section at the end of the book. • Main texts for reading and listening – texts of different types and genres, from different parts of the world, which contain key vocabulary and grammar and help you develop your reading skills. Each text is followed by questions and activities, including Talking points boxes with questions to discuss. After many of the reading texts is a grammar discovery activity called I spy grammar. Here you have the chance to show what you already know about the grammar before it is presented. • Improve your English – presentation of the key grammar, with examples taken from the main texts. You can then practise the grammar in a wide variety of exercises, as well as further tasks and activities to help you develop your pronunciation, listening, speaking and writing skills. There are also additional Read on and Time out pages, which focus on authentic English-language literature and cultural aspects of the English-speaking world. Finally, each unit also contains one or more Web IT! boxes – tasks related to the theme, where you and your classmates have to look for information online and then share it in class. Each exercise also has a small symbol to show you which skill is practised: reading pronunciation

listening

speaking

discovery exercise

writing grammar presentation/rules

At the back of the book there are Focus points pages to practise the main skills vocabulary, and a Language school section with useful information on grammar, writing, speaking, and working with online sources – with examples of the main text types you need to write at Level 4. Finally, there are Fact files of the main characters that you get to know in New Levels 4 and the other books in the series. In the online New Levels 4 Web you can find: • audio files for all main texts, listening and pronunciation exercises (plus Internet links for songs) • the answer key for all exercises and scripts for all listening texts • extra interactive exercises to practise grammar, vocabulary, reading and listening • word lists for each part, with definitions and synonyms in English • an interactive word list that allows you to listen to correct pronunciation We hope that this book can help you take your English to another new level!

three 3


Contents VOCABULARY

GRAMMAR

1.1 The natural world 8

Animals and nature; Verbs and definitions; Time zones (Focus point)

Present simple (be, there is/are, have/ has got, regular verbs); -er suffix

1.2 The force of nature 24

Problems with nature; Adjectives and antonyms; Definitions; Word classes; First aid (Focus point)

Comparatives and superlatives; Adverbs; Modal verbs; Past simple (be, regular verbs)

1.3 The man-made world 38

Natural and man-made environments; Adjectives and synonyms; Word classes; Making a schedule (Focus point)

Present perfect; Relative pronouns

2.1 Youth culture 54

Fashion; Noun to verb; Definitions and synonyms; The language of young people (Focus point)

Every-, some-, any-, no-; Reported speech; Imperatives

2.2 Eating in and eating out 68

Food products and expressions; Definitions and synonyms; Counting the calories (Focus point)

Present continuous

2.3 Changes in leisure 78

Free time; Opposites; Adjective to adverb; Synonyms; Social networking (Focus point)

Used to; Prepositions; Going to

3.1 Books, newspapers and magazines 96

Genres and publishing; Definitions and synonyms; Adjectives; Self-study (Focus point)

Question tags with be; Compound sentences

3.2 Radio and TV 108

TV/radio broadcasting; Verbs and definitions; Preparing for an exam (Focus point)

Verb + gerund/infinitive; First conditional

3.3 Computers and the Internet 120

IT and the Web; Verbs and definitions; Being tech-savvy (Focus point)

Demonstrative pronouns; Zero conditional

4.1 Student life 136

The academic world; Adjectives/verbs and definitions; Nouns; Personal finance (Focus point)

Phrasal verbs; Past simple (irregular verbs); Present perfect

4.2 Settling down 148

Jobs, housing and health; Nouns/words/ phrases and definitions; Making important decisions (Focus point)

Present passive; Modal verbs; Expressing your opinion; Intensifiers

4.3 The ups and downs of life 162

Life events; Phrasal verbs; Verbs/nouns and definitions; Adjectives; Recipe for success (Focus point)

Simple future (will); Giving advice

5.1 Looking your best 178

Appearance, clothing, cosmetics and beauty; Verbs and definitions; Going to the doctor (Focus point)

Verbs as nouns (gerunds); Question tags with do

5.2 What’s in the future? 190

Inventions and development; Verbs and definitions; Adjective-noun phrases; Future diets (Focus point)

Would + verb; Second conditional; Modal verbs

5.3 All’s well that ends well 202

Love and marriage; Definitions; Invitations and speeches; Classified ads (Focus point)

Grammar review

UNIT 1: THE WORLD AROUND US 7

UNIT 2: A CENTURY OF CHANGE 53

UNIT 3: THE MEDIA 95

UNIT 4: LIFE CHANGES 135

UNIT 5: LIVE FOREVER? 177

FOCUS POINTS 218

LANGUAGE SCHOOL Grammar 233  Writing 253  Speaking 265 Contents


ch;

PRONUNCIATION

SPEAKING/WRITING

OTHER

Intonation for questions

Protecting natural habitats – blog post and presentation; Speech to hotel guests

Storyline & Web IT!

Past simple verbs ending in -ed

Summary of an article; Natural disasters – article and presentation

Intonation for questions and answers

Life on the Palm – email and discussion

Sentences with -body and -thing

Subcultures – informative text and (team) presentation

Continuous verbs ending in -ing

Summary of a talk; Eating habits – discussion and article

Weak vowel sounds in prepositions

How to use free time – discussion and online post; Extra writing (Read on/Time out) – letter, advice, poem

Question tags with be – up or down?

Summary of a presentation; Modern magazines/newspapers – informative text; Reading habits – who is it?

Read on: Daffodils & The Glory of the Garden (poems) Time out: Big Yellow Taxi (song)

Storyline & Web IT! Read on: Billy Elliot (novel & screenplay) Time out: If I Had My Life to Live Over Again (poem)

Storyline & Web IT! Read on: The Time Machine & Frankenstein (novels)

Sentences with verb + gerund/infinitive

My TV viewing habits/preferences; Which film tonight?

Is the preposition stressed?; Tongue twister

Using the Internet – discussion and letter to the Editor

Stressed prepositions in phrasal verbs

Life changes – descriptive text and presentation

Sentences with and without intensifiers

Life in 10 years’ time – discussion and essay

Short forms of will (not)

Talk about Greta’s problems; Email/letter to (and from) an agony uncle/aunt

Question tags with do – up or down?

Appearance in different situations – interview, report and presentation

Storyline & Web IT!

Tongue twister

Views of the future – agree or disagree? / report and presentation

Time out: All You Need Is Love (song)

More question tags

Speech for a special event – write and perform; Extra writing (Read on) – love story

Time out: Radio Ga Ga (song)

Storyline & Web IT!

Working with the Internet 267 Contents

Read on: The Same Stars (novel)

Read on: Love Actually (novel)

FACT FILES 268

five 5


We are the students and teachers in New Levels 4. Nice to meet you!

Students

Alia

Ana

Ivan

Mamdouh

Hamid

Mona

Teachers

Jim

6 six

Linda

Maria

Sam


1

Unit 1 The world around us

1.1 The natural world (pages 8–23) 1.2 The force of nature (pages 24–37) 1.3 The man-made world (pages 38–49) Read on Daffodils by William Wordsworth and The Glory of the Garden by Rudyard Kipling (pages 50–51) Time out Big Yellow Taxi by Joni Mitchell (page 52) Focus points Time zones, First aid, Making a schedule (pages 218–220)

seven 7


1

1.1 The natural world Show what you know A1. Match the words with the photos. 1

5 6

branch cactus cage 1

2 3

4

7

9

8

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

cattle crops fishing net

frog lake logs

marsh miner ornament

panda polar bear pond

stream turtle

  Focus point 1.1: Time zones (page 218)

8 eight

1.1 The natutal world / Show what you know


1 A2. Match the verbs with the meanings. 1. congratulate

A. continue to live when there is danger or a difficult situation

2. adapt

B. hang and move back and forward, or from side to side

3. breed

C. separate into smaller groups or parts

4. swing

D. express pleasure at a person’s success or happiness

5. survive

E. change something to suit different conditions or uses

6. hunt

F. make something exist again or happen again

7. recreate

G. mate (animals) and then produce babies

8. raise

H. take possession of something

9. capture

I. take care of a young person or animal until it is fully grown

10. cover

J. feel or be in a situation

11. divide

K. catch other animals for food

12. experience

L. spread or lie over an area

A3. Complete the sentences with the correct words. harsh fertilizers

source habitats

danger breed

animals specific

inches while

ranch doctorate

breed

1. Sea turtles _______________ on special beaches. 2. A _______________ is a large farm with cattle or other animals. 3. They destroyed many fish and other _______________ in the sea. 4. She got her _______________ for her research into how people survive dangerous situations. 5. Successful _______________ need to be near to water. 6. In winter, the climate in the north of Sweden is very ____________________. 7. Cutting down trees is a ____________________ to the rainforest. 8. They use ____________________ on the fields, which then pollute the rivers. 9. I’m busy now but I’ll help you in a ____________________. 10. Should we go to a ____________________ place or can we go anywhere we want? 11. The sun is a good ____________________ of heat and light. 12. Two ____________________ is about the same as 5 centimetres. 1.1 The natutal world / Show what you know

nine 9


1

Natural habitats A habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives. It is characterized by both physical and biological features. A species' habitat is those places where it can find food, shelter, protection and mates for reproduction.

B1. Read and listen to the classroom dialogue (in two parts). Answer the questions after each part.

Alia

Ana

Hamid

Maria Ivan

Mamdouh

Mona

Part 1 Maria: I’d like to start our first lesson of the new course today with the topic of natural habitats. So, let’s begin by asking our own expert, Dr Abadi, to talk to us about it. By the way, Mamdouh, we all congratulate you on getting your doctorate over the summer holidays. Alia: Yes, congratulations, Dr Abadi. We are all so pleased for you! Mamdouh: Thanks everybody. But you really don’t need to call me Dr Abadi. I’m happy with just Mamdouh! Maria: That’s great. OK. So, are you ready, Mamdouh? Can you tell us briefly what a ‘natural habitat’ is? Or do you need a bit of time to think about what you’re going to say? Mamdouh: No, I’m fine. No problem. I suppose a simple definition is that it’s the many different places where animals and plants live.

Ana: And different animals have got different natural habitats? Is that right?

Mamdouh: Yes, a natural habitat is simply an area where animals live. To help you understand this, just think of a zoo. The designers of a zoo need to study where animals live in the wild, so that they can recreate the animals’ natural habitats in the zoo. Monkeys, for example, need to have trees in their cages, so they can swing from the branches and search for food.

Mona: So, there aren’t just a few natural habitats?

10 ten

1.1 The natural world / Natural habitats


1 Mamdouh: No, there are thousands. There are as many different types of natural habitat as there are different animals.

Ivan: Is it easy for animals to adapt to a habitat over time?

Mamdouh:

That’s a good question. Different animals adapt to different habitats over time. Think again about a zoo. Some pandas don’t have babies when they are first captured and put into cages, but after a while they start to have babies. All animals need a specific natural habitat where they can raise their family in safety. Generally, the most important thing is for habitats to be warm and near to water. If a habitat hasn’t got enough water, most animals won’t choose it.

Hamid: So, what are the main types of habitat?

Mamdouh: Well, I suppose the most common natural habitats are the forests. A forest is a habitat that has got lots of trees, of course. There are forests all over the world and many different animals live there. In order for a forest to survive, it needs to have plenty of water for the trees.

B2. Answer the questions with full sentences. 1. What is the topic of the first lesson? 2. Why does the teacher call Mamdouh ‘Dr Abadi’? 3. What is a natural habitat? 4. Why do monkeys have cages with trees, if they live in a zoo? 5. What things are important for a successful habitat?

Part 2

Alia: Is that why rainforests have got so many different animals?

Mamdouh:

Yes, of course. Tropical rainforests only cover 10% of the Earth, but they are home to over half of all plants and animals. They have got lots of water and high temperatures throughout the year. Frogs, for example, love the streams, ponds and rivers in the rainforests. They need lots of water because their babies grow up in it.

Maria: You know so much about this topic, Mamdouh. Are you happy for us to continue to pick your brains or shall I take over the lesson? Mamdouh: I’m happy to try to answer any questions, if people find my answers useful and interesting. Also, if my English is good enough! Ana: Please carry on, Mamdouh. It’s great to have our own expert. And your English is great! Can you tell us about another natural habitat? Mamdouh: Sure, well, wetlands are another habitat for many animals. A wetland can be a marsh, where there’s lots of water for at least part of the year. The water can be in the form of ponds, streams, rivers or lakes.

Alia: Do turtles need places like marshes to survive?

1.1 The natural world / Natural habitats

eleven 11


1 Mamdouh: Yes, a marsh is a perfect home for turtles, because it offers both water and land for them to live in. Marshes are home to many small birds too. There are also lots of insects that live around marshes, which are an excellent food source for all of the animals. Mona: You said that being close to water was one of the most important things to make a successful habitat, so what about deserts? Surely a desert isn’t a good habitat. Deserts haven’t got much water. Mamdouh:

Hamid: What about very cold parts of the world?

Mamdouh:

Interesting question, Mona. Deserts have got some water, but they usually get less than ten inches of rainfall per year and so they are very dry. So, they aren’t the ideal habitat for most animals. In fact, only very special animals can call a desert home. A lot of animals that live in the desert spend most of their time underground and hunt during the early morning or at night. The plants in the desert are often types of cactus that don’t need much water to survive. Yes, Hamid. The arctic tundra is a very special habitat. It has very short days and long nights for most of the year. The climate is very harsh and only very tough animals and plants can survive there. And the growing season is only two months long. But it is still the natural habitat of many animals, such as polar bears.

Ivan: Do these animals experience any problems with life in such a cold habitat?

Mamdouh: No, none at all.

Maria: Would you say a few words about the biggest natural habitat now, Mamdouh?

Mamdouh:

Yes, I kept the biggest and most important habitat till last. As you all know, nearly three quarters of the Earth is covered by the sea, which makes that the biggest habitat of all. We divide the sea into coastal and open-ocean habitats. Most sea life doesn’t live in the open ocean. It lives in coastal habitats, which represent only seven per cent of the total ocean area.

Maria: Many thanks, Mamdouh! It’s great to have you back, by the way!

B3. Are sentences 1–12 true or false? Correct the false ones! 1. Tropical rainforests are a habitat for over half of all plants and animals. 2. Tropical rainforests are cool in the spring. 3. Frogs need lots of water for their babies. 4. A wetland can have lots of ponds, streams, rivers or lakes. 5. Turtles need habitats that have both water and land. 6. Lots of insects usually live around marshes. 7. A lot of desert animals hunt during the daytime. 8. The plants in the desert need a lot of water to survive.

12 twelve

1.1 The natural world / Natural habitats


1 9. Only very tough animals and plants can survive in the arctic tundra. 10. Polar bears like living in a very cold habitat. 11. The biggest natural habitat is the sea. 12. Most sea animals live near the coast.

B4. Which habitat? Label the pictures. arctic tundra

coastal

desert

ocean

rainforest

wetland

wetland

1_________________________ 2_________________________ 3_________________________

4_________________________ 5_________________________ 6_________________________

Talking point What animals do you think will die out in fifty years’ time? Give your reasons.

B5. I spy grammar!  Look again at the two parts of the dialogue. Find positive and negative sentences and questions with: 1) the verb ‘be’; 2) ‘have/has got’.

Web IT! Find information about an endangered species. Why is it in danger of dying out? What are people doing to stop the species dying out?

1.1 The natural world / Natural habitats

thirteen 13


1

Environment in focus C1. Read and listen to two articles about threats to the environment. Answer the questions after each article (exercises C2 and C3 on page 16).

DANGERS TO THE RAINFOREST Rainforests around the world are in danger, because farmers and ranchers (people who own ranches) cut down the trees to grow crops and to make fields for their cattle. In the Amazon, eighty per cent of areas without trees are now used for cattle. In addition, the fertilizers used on the fields pollute rivers. The people who live in the rainforests need to fish for food and to earn money, but now big companies are catching fish, which they export to foreign countries. Large, industrial fishing boats catch thousands of fish with big nets. Then they throw away over half of the fish, because they are too small. Another big problem is poachers, who catch or steal wild animals illegally, and smugglers, who sell stolen plants and animals abroad as pets or food, for medicine, or to make jewellery and ornaments. They do not share the money they earn with the local people and the trade in wildlife, especially, puts more animals in danger because of habitat destruction and pollution.

14 fourteen

Since 1970, loggers have cut down trees in over 600,000 square kilometres of Amazon rainforest. The trees provide very popular hard wood for furniture and building material. The problem is that, without trees, the rain washes the soil into the rivers and kills the fish.

Mining is another major danger to the rainforest. Fish die when miners wash harmful chemicals into the rivers. Also, miners often build roads to their mines in remote areas. Loggers, poachers and ranchers then use these roads to get to lands that would otherwise be impossible to reach.

1.1 The natural world / Environment in focus


1 TOURISM DAMAGES HABITATS IN THE SEA Every summer there are large numbers of tourists who spend their holidays in small coastal areas, and this can have a huge negative impact on the environment. They can add to the pollution, waste and water problems of the local population, and put local infrastructure and habitats under enormous pressure. For example, nearly two million people visit Australia’s Great Barrier Reef every year, staying on two small islands which together have a population of just over a hundred and thirty thousand. Large numbers of tourists can cause damage to marine nesting sites on beaches, and an increase in the amount of fish and seafood eaten in an area – which can result in overfishing. Secondly, in many areas, builders damage habitats. For example, they often destroy forests and fields to make beaches for tourists to lie on. They sometimes even build things like piers on top of coral reefs. There are even some resorts which empty their sewage directly into the sea, near coral reefs and other marine habitats.

Boating, diving and fishing also damage coral reefs when people, for instance, touch or climb over reefs or drop anchor. Marine animals such as sharks, seals, dolphins, whales and birds are also disturbed by all the boats and by people getting too close. Many local people collect corals and shells and then sell them as souvenirs to tourists, and some tourists also collect their own marine souvenirs. This obviously also has a negative effect on the local environment. There are also more and more cruise ships. A cruise ship with four thousand passengers is like a floating town, and it often causes pollution by dumping rubbish and sewage at sea.

1.1 The natural world / Environment in focus

fifteen 15


1 C2. Answer the questions about the article Dangers to the rainforest. 1. What causes most of the damage to rainforests around the world? 2. How do fertilizers damage the environment? 3. Why are large industries interested in fishing in the Amazon? 4. Why do they throw away over half of the fish they catch? 5. What do smugglers do with the plants and animals they steal? 6. How much damage have loggers caused over the last fifty years? 7. In what TWO ways is mining a danger to the rainforest?

C3. Answer the questions about the article Tourism damages habitats in the sea. 1. Why are large numbers of tourists bad for small coastal areas? 2. Where do most of the visitors to Australia’s Great Barrier Reef stay? 3. What can happen if there are large numbers of tourists on a beach? 4. What negative things do some builders do in tourist areas? 5. How do some resorts damage coral reefs and other marine habitats? 6. How can boats damage coral reefs? 7. How can boats disturb marine animals?

Talking points • Have you ever collected or bought hardwood furniture? If so, did you think it had a negative effect on the environment? • Have you ever been on a cruise? What was it like? If you haven’t, would you like to go on one? Why/Why not? • Do you think about the environment, when you choose where to go on holiday? In what way? • Have you ever chosen not to go somewhere for environmental reasons – e.g. because tourism is bad for the local environment?

C4. I spy grammar!  1. Find verbs in the present simple tense in Dangers to the rainforest. 2. Find any sentences with ‘there is/are’ in Tourism damages habitats in the sea.

16 sixteen

1.1 The natural world / Environment in focus


1

Phone-in: Improving the environment D. Listen to the four parts of a radio phone-in about improving the environment. Listen to one part at a time, and put a tick (✔) next to the points that the callers mention. Part 1 1. To stop ranchers chopping down trees for cattle we should stop eating red meat. 2. Large fishing boats should not be allowed to enter parts of the Amazon. 3. We should recycle more rubbish.

Part 2 4. 5. 6. 7.

Smugglers of exotic animals should go to prison and pay big fines. We should clean all big rivers. We need to do something about loggers who work illegally. We should try to protect loggers from danger.

Part 3 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

We should spend more money on protecting the forests and replanting trees. Ski resorts should install solar panels and wind turbines to make energy. Ski resorts could improve the environment by planting trees. We can reduce the damage to famous mountains like Everest and Kilimanjaro. We should stop people from going cross-country skiing.

Part 4 13. Off-road adventure holidays in the desert are a good thing. 14. There should be very large fines for any cruise ships that pollute the sea.

Talking points Which THREE of these ideas for improving the environment do you think are the best? Give reasons for your choices: • • • • • • • • • •

Stop eating red meat and only buy meat from local farmers. Stop large fishing boats from entering rivers and catching too many fish. Make the smugglers of exotic animals go to prison and pay large fines. Check the work of loggers properly, before they start. Spend more money on protecting the forests and replanting trees. Make ski resorts install solar panels and wind turbines to make renewable energy. Encourage more people to go cross-country skiing. Limit the number of climbers on famous mountains and employ more staff to remove rubbish. Stop holiday companies from advertising off-road adventure holidays in the desert. Make any cruise ships that pollute the sea pay very large fines.

1.1 The natural world / Phone-in: Improving the environment

seventeen 17


1

Improve your English Present simple

For rules and examples go to pages 241–242.

Verb ‘be’ E1. Complete the sentences with the present simple of ‘be’. + Positive

am

I __________ happy to explain.

A forest __________ a popular habitat.

You __________ right about that.

We __________ so pleased for you!

He __________ now a doctor.

Polar bears ___________ happy in the cold.

She __________ right about that. - Negative I ____________________ sure if it’s a good habitat for turtles. A desert ____________________ a good habitat for polar bears. Deserts ____________________ the ideal habitat for most animals. ? Questions __________ I right?

__________ it easy for animals to adapt to a habitat over time?

__________ you ready, Mamdouh?

__________ we ready to start?

E2. Complete the positive sentences (present simple of ‘be’). 1. The climate ____________ very harsh.

3. I ____________ now a doctor.

2. The animals ____________ happy to live here.

4. It ____________ normal for frogs to live there.

E3. Write negative sentences.

It isn’ t a good habitat for those plants.

1. It is a good habitat for those plants. ______________________________________________________ 2. It’s too wet in marshes for some animals. __________________________________________________ 3. She’s from the rainforest. ________________________________________________________________ 4. We’re from Peru. ________________________________________________________________________

18 eighteen

1.1 The natural world / Improve your English


1 E4. Write questions to match the answers.

Are polar bears happy in cold climates

1. _______________________________________________? Yes, polar bears are happy in cold climates. 2. _______________________________________________? No, frogs aren’t at home in the desert. 3. _______________________________________________? Yes, the desert is good for cactus plants. 4. _______________________________________________? No, they aren’t from South America.

There is/are E5. Complete the questions and write short positive and negative answers. 1. __________ there a lake near the wood?

there is

+Yes, ______________________. - No, ______________________.

2. ___________ there many frogs in the pond?

+Yes, ______________________. - No, ______________________.

Have/has got E6. Complete the sentences with the right form of ‘have/has got’ (present simple). + Positive A forest _______________ a very large number of trees. Different animals _______________ different natural habitats. - Negative Deserts _______________ much water. If a habitat _______________ enough water, it gets dry. ? Questions __________ Mamdouh ____________ a doctorate? __________ these animals ____________ any problems in such a cold habitat?

E7. Change the sentences from ‘have’ to ‘have got’. Use short forms where possible.

His company’s got three hotels.

1. His company has three hotels.____________________________________________________________ 2. The loggers don’t have permission.________________________________________________________ 3. Do you have a car?______________________________________________________________________ 4. Do they have enough food?______________________________________________________________ 5. It doesn’t have good access to water. ______________________________________________________ 1.1 The natural world / Improve your English

nineteen 19


1 Regular verbs E8. Complete the sentences with the present simple of the verb in brackets. + Positive

adapts

This animal ___________________ (adapt) to different habitats over time. After a while, they ___________________ (start) to have babies. A forest ___________________ (need) to have lots of water. - Negative The plants in the desert ___________________ (not need) much water to survive. We ___________________ (not use) fertilizers on our farm. Most fish ___________________ (not live) in the open ocean. ? Questions __________ a turtle ____________ (need) places like marshes to survive? __________ you ____________ (want) a bit of time to think about what to say?

E9. Write questions to match the answers. 1. _______________________________________________? Yes, foxes live in the forest. 2. _______________________________________________? No, polar bears don’t live in marshes. 3. _______________________________________________? Yes, he works for a mining company. 4. _______________________________________________? No, she doesn’t like travelling.

E10. Write short positive and negative answers to the questions. 1. Do you like looking at animals in the forest?

+Yes, ______________________.

- No, ______________________.

2. Do foxes live near there?

+Yes, ______________________.

- No, ______________________.

3. Does she still work for a mining company?

+Yes, ______________________.

- No, ______________________.

20 twenty

1.1 The natural world / Improve your English


1 E11. Put the words in the correct order to make questions in the present simple.

How long is the river?

1. long is river? the How 2. do stay? tourists usually Where

3. How destroy do rainforests? farmers the 4. environment? What do to poachers damage do the 5. are forests Why such good habitats for animals?

-er suffix

For more examples go to page 236.

You can add -er to a word to make a noun that is the person who does the activity: play log

y player y logger (Note: Sometimes you double the consonant as well.)

E12. Add a suffix to these words to make the people who do the activity. 1. a log

a logger

6. a mine

___________________________

2. to smuggle ___________________________

7. to travel

___________________________

3. to climb

___________________________

8. a blog

___________________________

4. a farm

___________________________

9. to work

___________________________

5. a ranch

___________________________

10. to poach

___________________________

___________________________

E13. Correct the mistakes with the verbs.

is

1. The climate are perfect for polar bears.

3. I are not a poacher.

2. Frogs isn’t happy in dry habitats.

4. He aren’t from Columbia.

F. Listen and repeat the questions. Does the voice go up or down at the end of the question? 1. Do loggers cause a lot of damage in the rainforest? 2. How can a desert be a good natural habitat? 3. Do you really think that it’s possible to stop poachers from stealing exotic animals? 4. Where do most tourists usually stay? 5. How do rangers destroy the natural habitat? 1.1 The natural world / Improve your English

twenty-one 21


1

A conservation entrepreneur G1. Listen to a radio interview with the conservation and ecotourism entrepreneur, Pepe Gonzalez, who founded Amazon Tours in Peru in 1992. Pepe has shown that it’s possible to combine tourism, help the local population and at the same time protect the rainforest. Decide if the sentences are true or false. Correct the false ones! Part 1 1. Pepe was interested in animals from the rainforest when he was quite young. 2. After university, he worked in a zoo. 3. He knows the problems of the rainforest very well. 4. He understands the problems of the people who live in the rainforest. 5. Many people are afraid of the wild animals in the rainforests.

Part 2 6. Pepe’s tourism company is different from all the others. 7. Pepe uses the abbreviation 'AT', when he talks about his company. 8. The company has four hotels in the rainforest. 9. Nearly 15,000 tourists visit the hotels each year. 10. The local native community owns one of the hotels. 11. Pepe’s company gets 60% of the profit from the guests. 12. Pepe says that the local people help to protect the rainforest because they earn money from t ourism.

G2. Answer the questions about Pepe. Use a dictionary to help you, if you need to. 1. Choose three adjectives to describe Pepe’s personality. 2. Choose three adjectives to describe Pepe’s company. 3. What is the main aim of Pepe’s company? 4. Do you think the company will achieve its aim? Why/Why not?

22 twenty-two

1.1 The natural world / A conservation entrepreneur


1 H1. Write a blog post (150 words) giving your views on how to protect natural habitats, and asking other people for their opinions/ideas. Think about: • The rainforest (fields for cattle, fishing by big companies, smuggling rare or exotic animals, loggers cutting down trees) • Protection of the environment from tourists (off-road adventure holidays in the desert, cruise ships that pollute the sea)

Language school: Writing/Online post (page 260)

H2. Choose one or both of these two speaking tasks: 1. Use your blog post in exercise H1, to help you make a presentation of about five minutes to your partner or to the class. Check the advice for making presentations on page 266 before you start.

There’s a lot we can do to protect natural habitats. In the rainforest, for example…

2. Imagine that you are the owner of a rainforest tourist company and give a speech to a group of people who are interested in coming to one of your hotels. What would you mention? Include some of the following ideas if you wish: • when and why you started the company • the beauty of the rainforest • the wide variety of animals and plants that live there • the accommodation and food • the trips and other activities • the need to not pollute the forest or damage habitats

Thanks for coming today to hear about our rainforest hotel. I started the company in…

Check the advice for making speeches on page 266 before you start.

1.1 The natural world / A conservation entrepreneur

twenty-three 23


1

Focus points 1.1 Time zones The world is divided up into different 'time zones'. This simply means that at the same moment, the time you see on the clock depends on where you are in the world. Time zones generally follow the borders of countries, because it is easier for two countries that have close commercial or transport links to have the same time. However, this is not always true. Spain and Portugal, for example, are neighbours but have a time difference of one hour. So when it is two o’clock in Spain, it is only one o’clock in Portugal. Look at the world map with time zones, and answer the questions.

Helsinki

London Paris New York

Berlin

Moscow Tokyo

Rome

Beijing

Los Angeles

Johannesburg

Canberra

1. When it’s 2pm in Berlin, what time is it in New York? 2. When it’s 1pm in London, what time is it in Beijing? 3. When it’s 4am in Tokyo, what time is it in Moscow? 4. When it’s 6am in Los Angeles, what time is it in Rome? 5. When it’s 7pm in Helsinki, what time is it in Johannesburg? 6. When it’s 11pm in Canberra, what time is it in Paris?

218 two hundred and eighteen

Focus points / Unit 1


1

1.2 First aid First aid is the help you give to a person to save his/her life, or to stop an injury or illness from getting worse. It can include many actions, from helping someone with a serious condition before a doctor or ambulance arrives, to the treatment of minor things, such as putting a plaster on a cut. Most people who give first aid are not doctors or medical experts, but they have usually received some basic medical training. Many accidents can happen at home, in offices, schools and laboratories etc. and in order to provide immediate attention it is necessary to have a first aid kit. Match the words in the box with the parts of a first aid kit.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

antiseptic cream bandage blanket

Focus points / Unit 1

first aid bag flashlight/torch gloves

painkillers plaster safety pin

scissors surgical tape thermometer

two hundred and nineteen  219



Language school Grammar Web IT! There are many grammar sites on the Internet. They are usually free and they have lots of information and good examples of English grammar. For example: EnglishClub.com Perfect English Grammar

BBC Learning English LearnEnglish (British Council)

Grammar-monster.com

You can also just search online for information with these keywords (or any other words in this grammar section): adjectives adverbs articles nouns numbers prepositions pronouns speech verbs

Adjectives Adjectives describe people, places, and things: The old man.  The beautiful city.  The big dog.   The coffee is hot. Adjectives always come before a noun. When you use more than one adjective in the same phrase, you put them in the following order: Number Opinion

Size

Age

Shape

Colour

Origin

Material

Purpose

NOUN

five

big

old

round

red

English

plastic

sleeping

bags

expensive

Comparative and superlative adjectives You usually use a ‘comparative’ adjective when you talk about two things, and a ‘superlative’ adjective when you talk about more than two things. Most short adjectives end in -er in the comparative and -est in the superlative: fast – faster – the fastest

slow – slower – the slowest

If the adjective ends in a consonant + -y you change it to -ier / -iest: easy – easier– the easiest happy – happier – the happiest If the adjective has one syllable and ends in a single consonant you double the consonant: big – bigger– the biggest

sad – sadder – the saddest

For longer adjectives you add the words more (comparative) or most (superlative): modern – more modern – the most modern Language school / Grammar / Adjectives

popular – more popular – the most popular

two hundred and thirty-three  233


Some comparative and superlative adjectives are irregular: good – better – the best

bad – worse – the worst

Use the word than when you compare two things: Tom is faster than Billy.

Football is more popular than rugby.

You usually add the word the before a superlative adjective: Tom is the fastest in the class.

Football is the most popular sport in the world.

The opposite of more is less: Buses are less expensive than taxis.

Rugby is less popular than football.

The opposite of most is least: Walking is the least expensive way to travel.

Ten o'clock is the least convenient time.

Adverbs An adverb tells us more about an adjective or a verb (adverb – you add it to the verb). Most adverbs are adjectives with -ly (pronounced [li]) at the end: different – differently

quick – quickly

slow – slowly

Some adverbs are irregular: good – well

fast – fast

hard – hard

early – early

late – late

I walked quickly to the station.   We are extremely happy to see you. He did well in the test.

They got up early this morning.

Adverbs of frequency The following are adverbs of frequency. They say how often we do something: I never eat meat. (0% of the time)

I regularly drink milk. (60%)

I don't often eat carrots. (20%)

I generally drink water. (80%)

I hardly ever drink juice. (20%)

I normally eat bananas. (80%)

I sometimes eat fish. (40%)

I usually eat potatoes. (80%)

I often eat pasta. (60%)

I always eat vegetables. (100%)

Ordinal adverbs (sequencing words) We use these adverbs to put events or ideas in the correct order: First ... Secondly ... Thirdly ... Fourthly ... Then/Next/After that ... Finally ... First come in and sit down, then listen carefully to the recording and after that answer all the questions. Finally, put your pen down when you have finished.

234  two hundred and thirty-four

Language school / Grammar / Adjectives, Adverbs



Common grammar and spelling mistakes Top 10 grammar mistakes 1. its or it’s? ITS Look at that cat! Its body is white but its head is black. IT’S It’s eight o’clock. It’s time to go. 2. then or than? THEN He finished the project and then he went to bed. THAN She is older than her brother. 3. his or he’s? HIS That’s his new car. HE’S – Is he at college today? – No, he’s at home. 4. to, too or two? TO I want to play tennis today. TOO (1) Don’t buy it! It’s too expensive! TOO (2) – I’m going to the cinema tonight. – Can I go too? TWO They’ve got two children. 5. they’re, there or their? THEY’RE – Are Tom and Ben here? – Yes, they’re in the library. THERE – Where’s the reception? – It’s there. THEIR – Is that your car? – No, it’s Mona and Jim’s. It’s their car. 6. you’re or your? YOU’RE – What classroom am I in? – You’re in classroom six. YOUR – Is that my bag? – No, your bag is in the car. 7. good or well? GOOD He’s a good cook. WELL He cooks very well. 8. whose or who's? WHOSE Whose son is getting married today? WHO'S Who's getting married today? 9. few or a few? FEW There were few people at the concert, just five or six in total. A FEW There were a few people at the concert, about 20 or 30 in total. 10. less or fewer? LESS I have less money than you. FEWER I have fewer friends than you.

256  two hundred and fifty-six

Language school / Writing


Most common spelling mistakes Questions with a silent ‘h’ what, when, where, why, which Other difficult words to spell (in alphabetical order) accept, address, apartment, calendar, clothes, compliment/complement, describe, difficult, eighth, embarrass, except, February, forty, fourth, grammar, island/Ireland, library, lose/loose, ninety, ninth, restaurant, sentence, separate, success, temperature, village, weather/whether, Wednesday, who, witch/which, woman/women, young

Advice on written work Each part in New Levels 4 ends with a writing exercise. Here you can use the grammar and vocabulary to write your own text. Before you start to write, it is important that you think about: • What is the text type? (article, email, letter, blog post, description etc.) • How much to write? (150 to 250 words, twelve sentences etc.) • Is there a text in the unit that you can use as a model? (informative text on page 103, speeches in exercise H etc.) • Are there any questions to answer? • Are there any sentences to complete? Finally, remember to divide your text into sentences and paragraphs, and to use punctuation correctly. For example, a capital letter at the start of each sentence and a full stop/question mark/ exclamation mark at the end. On the following seven pages (258–264), you can find examples and tips for the main writing text types at this level.

Language school / Writing

two hundred and fifty-seven  257


4

New Levels 4 är ett läromedel avsett för Engelska, nationell delkurs 4 inom kommunal vuxenutbildning på grundläggande nivå samt gymnasiets introduktionsprogram.

• Elevbok, tryckt

40-69702-8

• Elevwebb, individlicens, 6 mån

51-10038-8

• Elevwebb, individlicens, 12 mån

51-10035-7

• Lärarwebb, individlicens, 12 mån

51-10036-4

Ewa Holm är verksam komvuxlärare i engelska, svenska och svenska som andraspråk i Stockholm, samt erfaren textgranskare, redaktör och läromedels­­ författare.

Bryan Stephens är en mycket erfaren lärare, lärarutbildare, utbildnings­ konsult, skolinspektör och författare som har skrivit läromedel i över 30 år.

ISBN 978-91-40-69702-8

9

789140 697028

New Levels 4 1 New Levels

Utöver elevboken finns även en elevwebb med verktyg och ytterligare träningsmöjligheter för eleven, samt en lärarwebb med värdefulla resurser för läraren att använda i undervisningen.

Bryan Stephens Ewa Holm Bryan Stephens Ewa Holm

New Levels

Bryan Stephens Ewa Holm

New Levels

4