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Kevin Frato

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Contents The Eyes of the Bully 5 Yours Always 6 Activity Section 12

How Far is too Far? 17 Who’s a Hooligan? 18 A History of Football Hooliganism 22 Activity Section 24

A World of Sci-Fi and Fantasy 29 Style Guide and Submission Guidelines 30 Activity Section 36

Under Pressure 41 Portland Student Missing 42 Activity Section 48

Family at any Cost? 53 Web-Based Baby-Boom Pushes Ethical Boundaries 54 Activity Section 60

Global Tourism 65 Spring-Break Blog 66 Activity Section 72

The Rich and the Poor 77 Township Jive 78 Activity Section 84

Dreams and Role Models 89 Look-Alike Trend among Young Musicians 90 Bob Marley, Billie Holiday 94 Activity Section 96

What is Love? 101 A Poem Written on Valentine’s Day 102 Activity Section 106

Prejudice 111 Chelmsford Community Chat Forum 112 Activity Section 118 RESOURCES 123 GRAMMAR 147 WORD LISTS 181

CONTENTS

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CORE CONTENT Main Issue: Peer pressure, Local news Reading Skills: News articles (USA) Listening Skills: Discussion Speaking Skills: Instructional speech, Talk show Writing Skills: News article, Feature story

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The following newspaper articles appeared in the Portland Sun-Tribune in Oregon, USA. They detail the events surrounding the disappearance of student Kermit Williams.

Strategic Reading

• What kind of tex t is this? • Is it formal or inf ormal? • Who wrote it an d who is it for? • What is the purpo se?

Friday, April 18th, p. A–1

Portland Student Missing by Portland Sun-Tribune staff writer Kaye Fernandez

Kermit Williams, a 21-year old junior at Reese College in southeast Portland, Oregon, was reported missing Thursday. His roommate and fellow musician Devon Asante, a grad student at Reese, was the last person to have seen him. According to Asante, Williams left their dorm room around 11:30 p.m. Tuesday night by bike. He was reported missing by Asante Thursday morning. According to police sources, Williams’ classmates say he has a habit of going for late-night bike rides when feeling under pressure. The boy’s mother Sheryl Egan of Flagstaff, Arizona, says she is “distraught” over her son’s disappearance. “I spoke to him earlier that

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Missing: Kermit Williams, Portland Oregon

same evening,” she says, “and he told me he was having some troubles at school, so he was looking forward to coming home for his brother’s birthday. I can’t imagine he would have put himself in danger.” Police are currently offering a reward for information concerning Williams’ whereabouts.

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Sunday, April 20th, p. A–3

Police, Volunteers Search for Missing Student by Portland Sun-Tribune staff writer Kaye Fernandez

Police and local volunteers searching the woods near Reese College for missing student Kermit Williams yesterday found Williams’ bicycle near Deeter Creek. Williams has been missing since Tuesday. As police spoke with Williams’ friends and classmates, details of his behavior have emerged. According to sources, Williams is involved in the Tree-Climbing Club. He composes music and plays the oboe in the college orchestra, as well as the flute in a jazz band. He is also involved in “Students for Peace” and on weekends is sometimes seen outside the Student Union handing out flyers protesting the presence of the ROTC on campus. Friends say he sometimes rides his bike through the woods, even by moonlight, to relieve stress. Williams is also reported to have been involved in preparations for the college’s Earth Day celebrations. His professors say he

is well-liked, energetic, and inquisitive. Police spokesperson Shannon Laugherty says they currently have “no reason to suspect foul play”, but they have received indications that Williams appears to have been suffering from pressure due to an enormous workload. Police found Williams’ telephone in his dorm room. Both the phone and bicycle have been taken for analysis by the police. Laugherty says the search will continue Sunday.

Tuesday, April 22nd, p. A–7

Dean Provides Information in Case of Missing Student by Portland Sun-Tribune staff writer Lester Brum

Reese College Dean of Student Affairs, Rosalyn Meekes, provided information to police investigators yesterday concerning the recent disappearance of student Kermit Williams. According to police sources, Williams recently expressed concerns

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Reese College Portland

about the social climate amongst his peer group. He apparently expressed worries that he isn’t as good a musician or student as some of his peers. “Our college doesn’t even set grades, so students don’t usually compete with each other in that way,” said Meekes to the Sun-Tribune after her conversation with police investigators. “But of course people who want to compete with each other will always find ways.” According to sources, police also wish to further question Williams’ roommate at Reese College – Devon Asante – but according to college officials, Asante has discontinued his studies citing personal reasons, and moved off-campus without leaving a forwarding address.

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Thursday, April 24th, p. B–1

Missing Student Ambitious, Doesn’t Like Making Mistakes Special to the Portland Sun-Tribune by Jamal Levi

Reese College student Kermit Williams, who has now been missing for a week and a half, is described by peers as an “extremely ambitious, self-motivated student.” Williams is also described as a good communicator who always has time for friends in need, and he is known as an avid letter-writer who sometimes stamps and posts old-fashioned letters with leaves or tea-bags in them

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to friends. His presence on social-networking sites is described as modest. As well as a musician and an aspiring composer, Williams is also a member of the Tree Climbing Club. “He’s technically fantastic, and he always respects the safety gear,” says president of the Tree Climbing Club LeVon Chesterly, a senior at Reese. According to Chesterly, Williams has a habit of climbing up trees with his flute or oboe in his backpack, and sitting in the treetops of Reese Canyon or nearby forests for hours practising for concerts or improvising new music. “He invited me to go climbing with him one time, and he reached the top way before I did. He pulled out his flute and improvised a concert for me while I caught up to him. All the birds were singing along,” says Chesterly. Williams recently helped organize the charity-based Music of the Trees, a concert of live jazz music where the audience sat under the trees – while the musicians sat in them. “The acoustics were heavenly,” says drummer Lydia Nykanen, a freshman who met Williams during her first semester at Reese. “I had a whole bunch of drums and cymbals and stuff hanging in the branches, and the forest itself sounded like a

rhythm section. The only problem was the mosquitoes.” Nykanen says Williams had been unhappy for a long time before his disappearance, expressing a desire to quit or transfer to another school, but that planning for the concert had seemed to make him much happier. “He’s always been in with a highpressure crowd, people trying to outdo each other. You know, climbing higher trees, playing more complex music faster than anyone else, that kind of thing,” says Nykanen. “But he also talked about selling his instruments and giving it all up.”

Kermit Williams is a late-night biker.

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Chesterly says of Williams’ stress level, “Whenever he made mistakes, like at the Music in the Trees concert, when he messed up a solo, he thought the people in the band wanted him to quit.” What about Tuesday’s Earth Day celebration, which Williams was supposed to participate in? “He was nervous about it,” admits Chesterly, and referred to Williams’ roommate Devon Asante: “Kermit was trying to write a special composition for Earth Day, and not getting it finished. Devon was trying to help him with it, they spent a lot of time together working it out with Kermit on flute and Devon on trumpet, but they still couldn’t get it finished.” Says Nykanen, “Kermit didn’t make a lot of mistakes, so maybe that’s why he was extra hard on himself when he did. The Music in the Trees concert was broadcast on public radio; it was a pretty big deal. So when he messed up his solo ... afterwards, a couple of the other musicians said some pretty stupid things, and he was disappointed with himself.” Anyone who has information concerning the current whereabouts of Kermit Williams is urged to contact local authorities.

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Friday, April 25th, p. A–6

Roommate Questioned in Case of Missing Student by Portland Sun-Tribune staff writer Lester Brum

Devon Asante, roommate of missing Reese College student Kermit Williams, was questioned by police yesterday. According to police investigator Kirk McDougal, Asante told the police Williams was “really frustrated about messing up his solo” at the recent Music in the Trees concert, which Williams had helped organize, and he was considering quitting school. “According to the roommate, Williams felt he always had to try to impress people in order to remain friends with them,” says police investigator McDougal. Police continue to search for Williams, who has been missing for two weeks.

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Sunday, April 27th, p. A-1

Body of Missing Reese College Student Found by Portland Sun-Tribune staff writer Kaye Fernandez

The body of missing Reese College student Kermit Williams was found yesterday under a large maple tree in the woods near Deeter Creek Nature Preserve. According to police, the cause of death has yet to be officially determined by the county coroner, but it appears Williams “fell from a relatively high height”. His flute was found in the underbrush nearby. Several yards from the spot, a trumpet mouthpiece was found half-buried in the forest floor.

Nobody has been charged in his death, and police are currently considering the matter either a suicide or accidental death. Nonetheless, both the flute and trumpet mouthpiece have been sent to a police lab for further investigation. Kermit Williams’ mother Sheryl Williams of Flagstaff, Arizona says she is extremely upset over the loss of her son, but at the same time relieved that his body has been found. According to Reese College Dean of Student Affairs Rosalyn Meekes, the college will hold a memorial ceremony next Tuesday in honor of Kermit Williams. At the event, his jazz group will be playing a few of his original compositions. The service will be free and open to the public.

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Speak about it identify the witnesses With a partner, discuss what relationship each person had with Kermit Williams. How well did they know him? 1 Devon Asante 2 Sheryl Williams 3 Rosalyn Meekes 4 Lydia Nykanen 5 LeVon Chesterly

Strategic word work – University terms Research the university terms below and take turns explaining what they mean. Use the terms in sentences. 1 2 3 4

freshman sophomore junior senior

5 6 7 8

ROTC dorm semester grad student

9 10 11 12

Student Union college campus Dean

interview techniques Part I: Formulating questions You are a journalist and have been chosen by your newspaper to fly to Flagstaff, Arizona and interview Sheryl Williams, Kermit Williams’ mother. – Prepare a list of questions which focus on personal issues, such as who Kermit Williams was and whether his family has any theories about the reason for his death. Part II: Interviewing and taking notes A partner will play the role of Sheryl Williams. – Conduct a mock-interview while taking notes of the answers. Maintain as much involvement in the conversation as possible. – Afterwards, read through your notes together. How accurate are they? – Now switch roles and start over.

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Speaking skills – Final task Use new ideas and language from this chapter, and adapt your work to purpose and audience. Use peer-response (p. 146) to improve your work. neWSCaSt

With a partner, research some current events in English-speaking areas and prepare a number of brief news reports. – Record them with an audio/video recording system, taking turns delivering your presentations the way radio/TV professionals do. – Make your recording available to the public, if possible. Guidelines on Newscasts: see p. 128.

a triaL

Was Kermit Williams’ death an accidental result of peer pressure, or did someone actively cause his death? The truth can be difficult to pin down, but it’s the job of journalists, the police and courts to try. – Study the news reports in detail and discuss your beliefs. – Then, in groups of 4–6, prepare and conduct a classroom trial in which somebody is Include the following formally charged with the death of Kermit people in the trial: judge Williams. prosecutor – Make sure everyone gets equal time to speak. defense lawyer – The defendant will either be prosecuted or defendant acquitted by the judge. witnesses Guidelines on Democratic Meetings: see p. 129.

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Write about it Summarize the facts Look back through the articles and summarize the main events under each headline (approximately five sentences for each).

Portland Student Missing Police, Volunteers Search for Missing Student Dean Provides Information in Case of Missing Student Roommate Questioned in Case of Missing Student Body of Missing Reese College Student Found Linguistics – Jargon Sometimes specialized language or jargon, is used amongst certain groups of people who work or spend a lot of time together. The jargon of journalism makes use of special phrases which sometimes sound very formal. Define the bold-faced terms by writing down everyday ways of saying the same things. 1 Police are oering a reward for information concerning his whereabouts. 2 Asante has discontinued his studies citing personal reasons. 3 His presence on social-networking sites is described as modest. 4 Details of his behavior have emerged. 5 He is reported to be an avid letter-writer. 6 According to sources, Williams is involved in the Tree-Climbing Club. 7 Williams recently expressed concerns about his peer group. 8 Anyone with information is urged to contact local authorities. 9 Williams was considering quitting school. Look through the articles for more examples of journalistic jargon.

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Quick-writing Complete the two tasks below. Journalism often uses the passive voice to remove blame: eg. “Asante was questioned by the police”, instead of the active “The police questioned Asante”. In some languages, such as Swedish, the passive voice is common, but less so in English.

Search the news articles for examples of the passive voice, and think about how this affects the meaning. – Re-write into the active voice. Many friends compete, at least informally. – Why? – Is the pressure involved harmful or helpful? – And what about competing against yourself? – Write about healthy and unhealthy pressure in your life, using both passive and active phrases.

Writing skills – Final task Use new ideas and language from this chapter, and adapt your work to purpose and audience. Use peer-response (p. 146) to improve your work. neWS artiCLe

Local news is important yet often overlooked. – Study some examples of local news at chelmsfordweeklynews.co.uk or portlandtribune.com. – What kind of news is described? – How are the headlines written? – How are the stories structured? – What language is used? – Write your own local news article based on a real event. Guidelines on News Articles: see p. 138.

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FeatUre StorY

A feature story differs from a news article by going deeper and offering more perspectives on an ocurrence or event. – Write a feature story on the first anniversary of Kermit’s death. – Include new details which have emerged about the cause of his death. – Describe the pressure many other students are under at his school. – In hindsight, does the school realize it could have done anything differently? Guidelines on Feature Stories: see p. 139.

More to eXPLore Listening comprehension A discussion on peer pressure (audio/video) Literature “The Ravine” by Graham Salisbury (Echo 5 Short Stories) The Virgin Suicides by Jeffrey Eugenides The Battle of Jericho by Sharon M. Draper Film Stand by Me Dead Poets Society The Virgin Suicides

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