__MAIN_TEXT__

Page 1

LOKALHISTORIE FRA SKYLINE

Præsenteret 17 - 28 juli 2017 fra tegnestuen C. F. Møllers tagterrasse, Europahuset (B.P.Huset), Europaplads 2. 11 sal, Aarhus C


INTRODUKTION

INTRODUCTION

Aarhus har en lang historie, der går tilbage til vikingetiden. Byen har samtidig gennemlevet markante epoker fra tiden som vikingeby til handelsby, industriby og nu til en kreativ uddannelsesby, der er i markant forandring. Det skaber historie.

Aarhus has a long history dating back to the Viking Age. The city has also witnessed significant epochs from the time as Viking city - to Trading City, Industrial City and now to a creative educational city that is changing significantly. It creates history.

”Lokalhistorie fra skyline” blev udviklet i et samar- “Local history from the skyline” was developed in a bejde mellem Foreningen Skjulte Steder, CAT.dk og joint venture between the Associtatio Hidden Places, C.F. Møllers tegnestue, CAT.dk and Architects C.F. Møller, HISTORIEN BAG Der findes store lokalhistoriske samlinger, som kun bliver brugt af få, og der er skrevet tykke bøger om byers historie, der primært læses af folk med specialinteresse for området, men spørgsmålet er, om vi kan skabe en ny formidlingsplatform, der bringer historien ud på en ny og levende måde, som gør den spændende for en bredere befolkningsgruppe eller for besøgende og turister?

HISTORY BEHIND There are large local-historical collections, which are used only by few, and thick books about urban history are written, but primarily read by people with special interest in the area. The question is whether we can create a new dissemination platform that brings the history into a new and vibrant way that makes it exciting for a wider population or for visitors and tourists?

Projektet blev dels skabt til inspiration for fagfolk inden for lokalhistorie og turisme, og kan tænkes ind i fremtidens arkitektur og byudvikling – og dels for borgere og besøgende i al almindelighed, som vil få en særlig oplevelse - men under alle omstændigheder som en prototype for, hvordan lokalhistorie kan formidles.

The project was partly created as a inspiration for professionals in local history and tourism - something that can live as an inspiration for future’s architecture and urban development - as well as for citizens and visitors in general - but in any case as a prototype for, how local history can be communicated.

På tagterrassen ved arkitektfirmaet C. F. Møller på 11 sal, kan man se store dele af byen. Til tagterrassen udviklede CAT.dk et system med tre RIG-sektioner og med hver fire kikkertrør, der indkredser en bestemt bygning eller et område i byen, og som har en god historie. Historierne blev formidlet som en lydfortælling på ca. 1½ - 2 min. på dansk og engelsk og understøttet af plakater i A1 med uddybende tekster og fotos. Historierne bringes i denne folder. Fortællingerne blev inddelt i 3 sektioner: Aarhus’ udviklingshistorie fra Vikingetid til nutid, markante og skæve personligheder i byen gennem tiden, og om et udvalg af C.F. Møllers bygninger, der fortæller en god historie.

On the roof terrace of the C. F. Møller architectural firm on the 11th floor, you can see large parts of the city. CAT.dk developed a system with three RIG sections and with each four pipe-binoculars that identify a particular building or area in the city and which has a good history. The stories were conveyed as an audio tale of approx. 1½ - 2 min. in Danish and English and supported by posters in A1 with detailed texts and photos. The stories are brought in this folder. The stories were divided into 3 sections: Aarhus’ development from the Viking Age to the present, strong and crooked personalities in the city over time, and a selection of C.F. Møller’s buildings, which tells a good story.

The stories are written and researched by Association Historierne er skrevet og researchet af Foreningen Hidden Place’s project manager Annette Damgaard. Skjulte Steders projektleder Annette Damgaard.


BYENS UDVIKLING / THE CITY DEVELOPMENT VIKINGERNES AROS Aarhus benævnes i gamle kilder som Aros, der betyder åens munding. Stedet har været perfekt til både handel og søslag kva sin beliggenhed ved å-mundingen Godt beskyttet af Djrusland har man kunne holde udkig efter skibe. Byen kan dateres til slutningen af 700-tallet. Fra skriftlige kilder og arkæologiske fund ved man, at Aros var en flådebase for vikingetidens konger.

Man ved at Aarhus å fungerede som ankerplads, hvor handelsskibene kunne søge i læ for vind og vejr. Længere oppe ad åen - ude mod Brabrand Sø var der samlingssted for ledningsflåden, hvor skibene lå opankret forud for krigshandlinger.

Snekkeeng ved nutidens Eskelund nær Viby J, som ligger længere op ad åen mod syd-vest, vides at være brugt som udbedringssted eller skibsværft i perioden Det formodes at opgøret mellem Kong Harald Blåtand 797-1266. På stedet kunne man reparere, bygge og sønnen Svend Tveskægs i slutningen af 900-t fandt og klargøre krigsskibe. Skibe har også kunnet ligge sted ud for Helgenæs i Aarhus-bugten. Her mødte sikkert her om vinteren. Harald Svends flåde, og det kom til et stort søslag i Aarhus-bugten. Området var ejet af kongen, og må antages at have noget med ledingsflådesystemet at gøre. I vikingetiEt andet søslag udspandt sig i december 1043 mel- den lå der en kongsgård i Viby, og i lighed med andre lem Jarl Svend Estridsen og Kong Magnus den Gode. kongsgårde, som man ser ved Tissø på Sjælland og Ud fra Skrænterne, hvor nu Marselisborgskovene Uppsala i Sverige, har der givetvis også været et centligger, mødes begge flåder, og en voldsom kamp ud- er, hvor Aros´ hedenske indbyggere samledes for at spandt sig. Kong Magnus’ store norske langskibe har dyrke de nordiske guder, aserne. En helligdom eller rundet Djursland, og er ankommet, mens bavnebålet udendørs tempel kaldes et “Vi” - heraf stednavnet Viby. på Jelshøj har brændt.

Fra et slag på Århus Bugten i 1043 mellem Magnus den Gode og Svend Estridsen. -- Tegning: Erik Sørensen

THE VIKINGS AROS In ancient sources Aarhus is named Aros, which means the outlet of the stream. The place has been perfect for both trade and sailing, because of its location beside the stream, and well-protected by Djursland, where men were able to look for ships. The city dates back to the late 700’s. From written sources and archaeological finds, it was found that Aros was a naval base for the people during the Viking Age.

It is thought that Aarhus stream served as an anchorage where the merchant ships could seek shelter for wind and weather. Further up the river - towards Brabrand lake there was a gathering place for the the fleet, where the ships were docked before war operations.

Another naval warfare took place in December 1043 between Jarl Svend Estridsen and King Magnus the Good. From the slopes, where the Marselisborg forests now lie, both fleets meet and a violent battle took place. King Magnus’ big Norwegian long-ships have rounded Djursland and arrived, while the signal-fire has burned on the hills near and by.

The area was owned by the king and is supposed to have something to do with the fleet. During the Viking era there was a royal yard in Viby and, like other royal yards, as seen at Tissø in Zealand and Uppsala in Sweden. There has been a center where Aros’ pagan inhabitants gathered to cultivate the Nordic gods, the Ashes, as well. An outdoor temple was called a “Vi” - which is why the place is name Viby.

Snekkeeng at the present Eskelund near Viby, which lies further up the south to the west west, is known to It is assumed that the naval warfare between King be used as a repair site or shipyard during the period Harald Bluetooth and his son Sweyn Forkbeard 797-1266. On-site repair, construction and preparain the late 900-th took place next to Helgenæs in the tion of warships could be done. Ships have also been able to stay safe here in the winter. Aarhus Bay.

Vikingeres Aros, Moesgaard Museum


BYENS UDVIKLING / THE CITY DEVELOPMENT HANDELSBYEN AARHUS Allerede i 948 blev Aarhus bispesæde. Bispesædets betydning for byen og havnens handelsmuligheder gav gunstige vilkår for, at Aarhus i middelalderen (ca. 1050 til 1536) og frem til 1700-t kunne udvikle sig til en væsentlig handelsby. Da fæstningsvolden mellem Aarhus købstad og åen blev fjernet i middelalderen, smeltede byen og åhavnen sammen, og åen blev en levende del af byen, hvor mindre handelsskibene lå forankret, mens større skibe lå i bugten.

THE TRADING CITY, AARHUS De rigeste handelsmænd havde egne skibe og besætning samt boder i bl.a Fiskergade, Mejlgade og Vestergade. Samtidig hermed blev store købmandsgårde bygget ved Mindet, Immarvad, i Mejlgade og i Vestergade.

Slægten Basballe var en af de mest fremtrædende handelsfamilie i Aarhus, der kendes fra omkring 1600-tallet og frem til midten af 1700-t. Familiens slægts- og købmandsgård hed Basballegård og lå ved Immervad på den grund, hvor Magasin nu ligger. Fra 1600-tallet til 1824 blev broen over åen her kaldt Aarhus har formentlig fået sit første købstadsprivi- Basballebroen. legium i første halvdel af 1200-t, men allerede da var byen efter danske forhold en virksom by med han- Christen Jensen Basballe den ældre var byens største delsforbindelser til blandt andet Norge og Tyskland. skatteyder og en af de rigeste handelsmand, storkøbmænd og skibsredere i byen. På hans tid var byens I perioden fra reformationen i 1536 og indtil midten ar handelsflåden på ca. 100 skibe og med handel i af det 1700-t var Aarhus præget af et økonomisk Lübeck, Amsterdam, England, Skotland, Frankrig og opsving, og byen udviklede sig til en frodig handels- Spanien. og købmandsby med livlig skibstrafik.

Prospekt Aarhus -Dansk Center for Byhistorie

As early as 948, Aarhus became a bishop’s seat. The importance of the bishopric for the city and the harbor’s trade opportunities provided favorable conditions for Aarhus in the Middle Ages (about 1050 to 1536) and until the 1700th. A major trading city was developed. When the fortress between Aarhus’s market town and the stream was removed in the Middle Ages, the town and the harbor merged and the river became a living part of the city, where smaller merchant ships were anchored while larger ships lay in the bay.

The largest traders had their own ships and crew as well as stalls in streets as for example Fiskergade, Mejlgade and Vestergade. At the same time, merchant’s yards were built at places as Mindet, Immarvad, and streets as Mejlgade and Vestergade. The genus Basballe was one of the most prominent commercial families in Aarhus, known from around the 17th century until the middle of 1700-t. The family’s yard was called Basballegård and lay at Immervad on the site where shopping center Magasin is located now. From the 18th century to 1824 the bridge at the palce was called Basballe Bridge.

Aarhus has probably got its first market right in the first half of the 1200th, but already then the city was Christen Jensen Basballe the elder was the city’s largan effective city with trade relations with, among est taxpayer and one of the richest merchants and shipowners in the city. In his time the city had a tradothers, Norway and Germany. ing fleet of approx. 100 ships and trading in Lübeck, In the period from the Reformation in 1536 until the Amsterdam, England, Scotland, France and Spain. middle of the 1700th, Aarhus was characterized by an economic recovery, and the city evolved into a lush merchant town with lively ship traffic.

Basballe og koner, Vorfrue Kirke Epitafium


BYENS UDVIKLING / THE CITY DEVELOPMENT INDUSTRIBYEN ÅRHUS I første halvdel af 1700-t. gik det ned ad bakke i Aarhus. I 1735 var handelsflåden halveret og åhavnen begyndte at sande til. I 1769 havde Aarhus ca. 3.500 indbyggere.

INDUSTRIAL CITY OF AARHUS Blandt de mange fabrikker, der grundlagdes i Aarhus kan nævnes Schmalfeldt Tobaksfabrik, Frichs Maskinfabrik og Kedelsmedie, Ceres Bryggeriet, Aarhus Oliefabrik og ikke mindst Otto Mønsteds Fabrik, der bl.a. producerede OMA margarine.

In the first half of 1700s the situation in Aarhus went Among the many factories founded in Aarhus was downhill.. In 1735, the merchant fleet was halved. In the Schmalfeldt Tobacco Factory, Frichs Machines, 1769 Aarhus had approx. 3,500 inhabitants. Ceres Brewery, Aarhus Oil Factory and, in particular, Otto Mønsted’s Factory producing OMA margarine. Industrialization began in Great Britain in the middle of 1700s, and approximately 100 years later, the Around 1864, the city’s great merchant Hans Broge allied with Otto Mønsted. Together they made efindustrialization spread to other countries. forts to educate farmers to thereby increase butter Aarhus was perfectly situated with space for a rail- quality, with exports to England as a goal. In 1906, way station and an infrastructure that made it pos- Lurpak became the Danish quality brand for butter. sible to transport directly from the port and to the Broge and Mønsted did the preparatory work . factories. In addition there was a large hinterland Noteworthy is also the Chocolate Factory Elvirsafrom which manpower could be obtained. minde, founded in 1866 and purchased by Frits The first railway station was built in 1862, and work- Georg Clausen in 1901. The factory produced all ing districts came to apparance around the city at kinds of chocolate and confectionery but became Frederiksbjerg, Trøjborg and on the meadow, where best known for the invention of the “Flødebolle”, poorly translated as “cream balls” the old gallows had been.

Industrialiseringen tog sin begyndelse i Storbritannien i midten af 1700-t, og ca. 100 år senere spredte Omkring 1864 allierede byens store købmand Hans driften sig til andre lande. Broge sig med Otto Mønsted. Sammen lagde de kræfter i at uddanne landmænd for derigennem at Aarhus lå perfekt med plads til en banegård og en højne smørkvaliteten, med eksport til England for infrastruktur, der muliggjorde en transport direkte øje. i 1906 blev lurmærket dansk kvalitetmærke for fra havnen og til fabrikkerne. Dertil kom et stort op- smør. Broge og Mønsted gjorde forarbejdet. land, hvorfra arbejdskraft kunne hentes. Bemærkelsesværdig er også Chokoladefabrikken Den første banegård blev opført 1862, og arbejder- Elvirsaminde, der blev grundlagt i 1866 og købt af kvarterer skød op på engene og tofterne omkring fabrikant Frits Georg Clausen i 1901. Fabrikken probyen ved Frederiksbjerg, Trøjborg og på rakkertof- ducerede alle former for chokolade og sukkervarer, ten, hvor den gamle galge havde stået, skød Øgadek- men blev bedst kendt for opfindelsen af flødebollen. varteret frem. Fra sidst i 1960’erne og frem flyttede de fleste fab- In 1840 the population had risen to 7,087, and in From the late 1960s, most factories moved out of I 1840 var befolkningatallet steget til 7.087, og i 1860 rikker ud af byen, men indbyggertallet var nu oppe 1860 further to 11,009 inhabitants. town, but the population was now 199,427. yderligere til 11.009 indbyggere. på 199.427.

Chokoladefabrikken Elvirasminde 1930

Frichs Maskinfabrik og Kedelsmedie. Farikkens første rangerlokomotiv 1914 (Danskebilleder.dk)

A/S Aarhus Oliefabrik's havnefabrik Ca. 1930

Chokoladefabrikken Elvirasminde 1930

Otto Mønsteds Margarinefabrik, Vestergade 11, 1953


BYENS UDVIKLING / THE CITY DEVELOPMENT DEN KREATIVE UDDANNELSESBY AARHUS Da industrierne flyttede ud af byen udviklede den sig Arkitektskolen Aarhus blev grundlagt i 1965 og har stille og roligt til en kreative uddannelsesby. siden uddannet ca. 5.000 kandidater. Den har i dag ca. 800 studerende, hvoraf 175 er internationale. Allerede ved industrialiseringens start blev kultur og Endvidere blev Danmarks Journalisthøjskole oprettet dannelse et fokuspunkt. Fra midten af 1800-t grund- i 1962 i det nordlige Aarhus. lagdes et kunstmuseum, et museum og et bibliotek. Disse har udviklet sig til ARoS - Aarhus Kunstmuseum, I 2008 blev Professionshøjskolen VIA University ColMoesgaard Museum og DOKK1-Urban Mediaspace lege etableret. De to Aarhus afdelinger, fordelt på Aarhus Campus Aarhus C og Campus Aarhus N. har sammenlagt ca. 9.000 studerende inden for fag som social- og I 1925 blev der brug for et universitet i provinsen, og sundhed, pædagogik, design og teknik med mere. valget faldt på Aarhus. En grund i det nordlige Aarhus kom til at udgøre Universitetsparken. De mange uddannelser, der også inkluderer KaosPiloterne, hvis fokus er projektledelse og iværksætteri, Aarhus Universitet rummer i dag 4 fakulteter og 27 har skabt en by med mange virksomheder inden for institutter. Skolen har ca. 44.500 studerende, hvoraf arkitektur, design, film, annimation, mode m.m. Flere en del er internationale. Universitetet omfatter nu af disse holder til i nedlagte fabriksområder, som også ander lokaliteter, her i blandt Ingeniørhøjskolen Chokoladefabrikken Elvirasminde, Aarhus Flydedok i Navitas, Kultur og samfund på Moesgaard Museum, og Aarhus Offentlige Slagtehus. Midtkraft er i dag Kultur og æstetik på den nedlagte Langelandsgade omdannet til Filmby Aarhus, mens Godsbanegården Kasserne, IT-Parken på Kathrinebjerg, og Nobelpark- nu er et Kulturproduktionscentret. Indbyggertallet en på Randersvej, opført i 1997. ligger i dag på ca. 335.684.

Navitas, Foto Navitas

ARoS, Olafur Eliasson, Your rainbow panorama, foto af Adam Mørk

DOKK1 - foto DOKK1

Moesgaard Museum, foto af Jan Kofod Winther

THE CREATIVE EDUCATION CITY, AARHUS As the industries moved out of town, Aarhus developed step by step into a creative educational city. Already at the start of industrialization, culture and education became a focal point. From the mid 1800’s, an art museum, a historical museum and a library were founded. These have now evolved into ARoS - Aarhus Art Museum, Moesgaard Museum and DOKK1/Urban Media Space Aarhus.

Godsbanen, Foto arkitektfirmaet 3xn

Aarhus School of Architecture was founded in 1965 and has since graduated approx. 5,000 candidates. It currently has approx. 800 students, of whom 175 are international. In addition, Denmark’s Journalist High School was established in 1962 in northern Aarhus. In 2008, VIA University College was established. The two Aarhus departments, distributed on Campus Aarhus C and Campus Aarhus N. have together approx. 9,000 students in subjects such as social and In 1925 a provincial university was needed, and the health, pedagogy, design and technology and more. election fell on Aarhus. A foundation in northern Aarhus was given to form the University Park. The many educational programs including the KaosPilots, whose focus is project management and entreAarhus University currently has 4 faculties and 27 preneurship, has created a city with many companies institutes. The school has approx. 44,500 students, in architecture, design, film, annimation, fashion, etc. some of which are international. The university now Several of these are housed in former factories, such also includes other sites, including among the Engi- as the Elvirasminde Chocolate Factory, Aarhus Floatneering College of Navitas, Culture and Society at the ing dock and Aarhus Public Slaughterhouse. A former Moesgaard Museum, Culture and Aesthetics at the power plant is transformed into Film city Aarhus, Langelandsgade barracks, The IT-Park at Kathrine while the freight train station is now a Culture Probjerg, and the Nobel Park on Randersvej, built in duction Center. The population is currently around 1997. 335,684.


MENNESKERS HISTORIE / HUMAN HISTORY DEN FORGYLDTE MARSELIS SLÆGT Navnet Marselis, som ses i flere sammenhænge i I stedet for blev Gabriel Marselis tildelt fire godser Århus, stammer fra en hollandske Købmandsslægt. i Aarhusområdet som kompensation. Godserne var Havreballegård, Moesgård, Stadsgård og Skumstrup. Marselis slægten satte sine spor i Aarhus og mange stednavne bærer slægtens navn - Marselisborg skov- Gabriel Marselis kom aldrig til Aarhus. Han havde to en, Marselisborg slot, Marselis Boulevard og Marselis sønner Constantin og Wilhelm Marselis. I 1667 blev sønnerne kaldt til Danmark af kong Frederik III for at Allé og Marselisborg Gymnasium. overtage bestyrelsen af de aarhusianske godser. Gabriel den yngre Marselis kom i forbindelse med kong Christian IV gennem sin far Gabriel den ældre Constantin Marselis overtog Havreballegård, som fik Marselis. I midten af 1600-t. forsynede familien den navnet Marselisborg. Godset eksisterer ikke mere. danske stat og den danske hær med store Krigs- Constantin Marselis boede selv på Stadsgård vest fornødenheder, da Kong Christian IV ivrigt blandede for Brabarnd sø, som i 1677 fik navnet navnet Constantinsborg. sig i datidens store krige. Gabriel Marselis, der blev født ca. 1575 i Rotterdam. Som storleverandør til den danske hær og hoffet, forøgedes Kronens gæld til ham. Da Frederik d. 3 blev enevældig konge, var det tid til at betale gælden tilbage; men da statskassen var tom og en tilbagebetaling var umulig.

Broderen Wilhelm Marselis blev baron og fik navnet Güldencrone. I 1673 overtog han herregårdene Moesgård, der i dag er museums, samt Skumstrup ved Mårslet syd for Århus. Skumstrup som blev omdannet til baroniet Vilhelmsborg - i dag er ridecenter. Constantin Marselis er begravet i Aarhus Domkirke. THE ILLUSTRIOUS MARSELIS GENUS The name Marselis, which is seen in several contexts Instead, Gabriel Marselis was awarded four estates in Aarhus, originates from a Dutch merchant group. in the Aarhus area as compensation. The gods were Havreballegård, Moesgård, Stadsgård and SkumThe name Marselis occurs in several places in the city strup. Gabriel Marselis never came to Aarhus. He had such as Marselisborg Forest, Marselisborg Castle, two sons Constantin and Wilhelm Marselis. In 1667 Marselis Boulevard, Marselis Allé and Marselisborg the sons were called to Denmark by King Frederik III to take over the board of the Aarhusian castles. Gymnasium.

Marselisborg Carl Milton Jensen

Constantinsborg Prospekt F. Richardt

Marselisborg Prospekt

Vilhelmsborg, Wiki common.

Constantin Marselis took over Havreballegård, later named Marselisborg. The estate does not exist anymore. Constantin Marselis lived at Stadsgård west of Brabrand lake, which in 1677 was named Constantinsborg. His brother Wilhelm Marselis became Baron and was named Güldencrone. In 1673 he took over the manor houses Moesgård, which today funcGabriel Marselis was born appr.1575 in Rotterdam. tion as museum, and Skumstrup at Mårslet south of As a major supplier to the Danish army and court, the Aarhus. Skumstrup was transformed into the baroCrowns debt to him increased. When Frederick D. 3 nium Vilhelmsborg - today a riding center. became king, it was time to repay the debt; but the treasury was empty and a back payment was impos- Constantin Marselis is buried in the cathedral of Aarhus. sible. Gabriel the younger Marselis came into contact with King Christian IV through his father Gabriel, the older Marselis in the middle of the 1600s. The family supported the Danish state and the Danish army with great basic needs, when King Christian IV eagerly involved himself into the great wars.


MENNESKERS HISTORIE / HUMAN HISTORY NATMANDEN

THE NIGHTMAN

Rakkeren var bødlens assistent. Hans job var at tage forrådnede lig ned fra galgen og af hjul og stejler, samt flå og fjerne selvdøde dyr fra gader og stræder. Endvidere skulle rakkerne fjerne skarn, tømme latriner og feje skorstene, der alt sammen blev betragtet som afskyvækkende arbejde, der betød at rakkeren blev anset som uærlige eller æreløse. Da disse bestillinger var uhygiejniske ville borgerskabet ikke vide af rakkerne, og de fik derfor til huse uden for byporten. Samtidig skulle rakkerne udføre deres arbejdet om natten, og derfor blev kaldt også kaldt NATMÆND. Da byernes borgerskab kastede skarn ud af vinduerne, blev der med tid indført ordnede forhold ved hjælp af en vogn, der blev trukket gennem gaderne. Her skulle folk aflevere deres affald i dagtimerne. Når vognen kom, kunne man høre den. Natmanden gik foran den hestetrukne vogn og svingede en kæmpe stor skralde af træ. Skralden gav siden hen navn til både skraldemanden og skraldet.

bodies from the gallows, as well as flee and remove self-dead animals from streets and alleys. In addition he had to empty the latrines and sweep the chimneys, all of which were considered as disgusting work, which meant that he was considered dishonest Sidsel giftede hun sig med Natmanden i Aarhus Chris- or unreasonable. tian Peter Christiansen. Hun boede nu fast natmandsboligen indtil ca. 1826. Efter Christian Peters død fik Since these jobs were unhygienic, the bourgeoisie Sidsel tilladelse til at bestride natmands-hvervet i wouldn’t know or see the rackers, and therefore they Aarhus. Hun slog sig sammen med rakkeren Lars had to live outside the city gate. At the same time, Larsen Andrup, der hjalp hende med natmandsarbe- the rackers had to do their work by night and therefore were called also called NIGHTMEN jdet og heksekunsterne. Aarhus’ mest berygtede Natmænd var en kvinde ved navn Sidsel Rolandsdatter. Sidsel drev omkring og udførte kvaksalveri, der skulle fordrive det onde. Jo mere bange folk var des mere betaling fik hun.

I 1836 kom Lars og Sidsel til husmand Jens Olesen på Mørke Mark. Dagen efter varslede Sidsel, at der ville ske alverdens ulykker, men hun kunne afværge dem, da hun kunne tale med “fanden selv”. På den måde fik de franarret familien en stor sum penge, en hel del genstande og fødevarer.

As the citizens threw rubbish out of the windows, timely conditions were introduced using a carriage drawn through the streets in which people should deliver their waste during the daytime. The nightman walked in front of the horse-drawn carriage and swung a huge wooden clacker - in danish called a “skralde”. To day a sanitation worker in danish is called a I 1854 stod Natmandenshuset til salg og nedbrydelse “Skralde-mand” and garbage is called “skrald”. via auktion, og en ære var forbi.

Galgebakken - ukendt oprindelse

Kort over Aarhus: Peder Hansen Resen: ‘Atlas Danicus’. 1670

Natmænd - ukendt oprindelse

Aarhus’ most notorious nightman was a woman named Sidsel Rolandsdatter. Sidsel also made Quackery to expel evil. The more scared people were, the more payment she got. Sidsel married to the nightman in Aarhus Christian Peter Christiansen. She now lived in the nightman’s house until approx. 1826. After Christian Peters’s death, Sidsel was allowed work as a nightman in Aarhus. She joined the racker Lars Larsen Andrup who helped her with the nightman work and Quackery. In 1836 Lars and Sidsel came to housekeeper Jens Olesen. The following day, Sidsel announced that huge accidents would happen, but she could fend them off as she could talk to “the evel himself”. That way, Sidsel got a large amount of money, a lot of items and food. In 1854 the Nightman’s House was for sale and destruction by auction, and an era was over.

Træsnit - ukendt oprindelse Skrældemænd


MENNESKERS HISTORIE / HUMAN HISTORY NYGADE: DANMARKS ONDESTE GADE Under besættelsen var Nygade kendt for sortbørshandel, hvor ulovlig salg af rationeringsmærker og indsmuglede varer havde sig gang. I 1949-50 var der faste politipatruljer om natten, der skulle forhindre folk i at falde i kløerne på gadens skæve personligheder. Betjentene gik altid tre og tre i Nygade, mens Gaden bar præget af fattigdom, vold, druk, spil og de normalt gik to og to andre steder. prostitution og blev hurtigt et slumkvarter beboet af ludere, lommetyve og gamblere der gennem tiden Nygade var kendt for sine mange Smugkroer. I 1950 gik under navne som Røde Bob, Bisse-Anton, Kryster- havde en journalist fra Ekstra Bladet sat sig for at Frands, Peter Langkniv, Sorte Grete, Hønen, Loppe- besøge en af smugkroerne. Da journalisten kom til Gudda og Husar-Anna. Om lommetyven Gangste- Aarhus fik han beskeden: “Der skal De ikke gå ned… jlen, siges det, at han kunne stjæle en tegnebog med Vil De på smugkro, er der masser af andre steder byen over, men hold Dem fra Nygade!”. Journalisten tænderne. tog chancen, men da han dagen efter kom tilbage I slutningen af gadens eksistens var der en mar- med en fotograf, måtte de tage benene på nakken og skandiser, der reklamerede med, at ”her handles med flyg-te. alt fra Herodes til Pilatus”. Overfor sås et andet skilt med påskriften ”Her rodes med Pilatus”. En anden Journalisten skrev sin artikel og konkluderede at Nykvinde havde skrevet ”Er du træt af krigen i Korea, så gade rummede mere hårdhed, ækelhed og fare end kig ind til Petrea” nogen anden gade i Danmark. Nygade var engang en tæt brostensbelagt gade med små et-, to- og trefags huse. Nygade nævnes første gang i 1801 og var ejet af justitsråd, købmand og skibsreder Harboe Meulengracht, der solgte eller lejede boligerne ud til mindrebemidlede.

Nygade, Danskebilleder.dk

Nygade, Danskebilleder.dk

Nygade, Danskebilleder.dk

NYGADE: DENMARK’S MEANEST STREET Nygade was once a narrow cobblestone-covered street with small one-, two- and three-story houses. Nygade was mentioned the first time in 1801 and was then owned by merchant and ship owner Harboe Meulengracht, who sold or rented the properties to the less-fortunate or poor people.

Nygade, Danskebilleder.dk

Nygade, Danskebilleder.dk

Nygade, Danskebilleder.dk

Nygade, Danskebilleder.dk

The street was characterized by poverty, violence, pressure, gambling and prostitution and quickly became a slum area inhabited by ludere, pocket thieves and gamblers who had nicknames like Red Bob, Bully-Anton, Recreant-Frands, Peter Longknife, Black Grete, The hen, Flea-Gudda og Hussar-Anna. It’s said that the pocket thief named Gangstejlen could steal a wallet with his teeth.

During the occupation (WWII), Nygade was known for black market commerce with illegal sale of ration marks and smuggled goods. In 1949-50, there were regular police patrols at night that would prevent people from falling into the claws on the hottest personalities of the street. The officers always walked three and three in Nygade.

Nygade was known for its many “Blind pigs” or unlicensed saloons. In 1950 a journalist from danish News paper Ekstra Bladet had vent to visit one of the “Blind pigs”. When the journalist came to Aarhus, he received the message: “Don’t go there. Do you want to visit a “Blind pig”, there are lots of other places in town, but stay away from Nygade!” The journalist took the chance, but when he came back with a phoIn the last year of the streets existens one “lady” tographer the following day, they had to take their named Petrea advertised “Are you fed up with the legs on their neck and run away. war in Korea, then come to Petrea”. The journalist wrote his article and concluded that Nygade had more hardness, ugliness and danger than any other street in Denmark.


MENNESKERS HISTORIE / HUMAN HISTORY DEN AARHUSIANSKE MASSEMORDER Kaj Henning Bothildsen Nielsen var søn af en vognmandskusk i Ny Munkegade. Han kom i lære hos en malermester i Vestergade og blev udlært malersvend i 1939. Året forinden var han blevet medlem af Danmarks Nationalsocialistiske Arbejderparti.

THE MASS MURDERER FROM AARHUS D. 22. februar 1945 oplevede beboerne i Guldsmedgade således en sand rædselsnat, hvor 7 mennesker mistede livet i henholdsvis Guldsmedgade og Nørregade.

Aktionen var yderligere bestialsk ved, at der var Bothildsen meldte sig til Waffen SS og blev uddannet anbragt sprængladninger med forsinkelser, hvilket i Sennheim i Tyskland. På opfordring fra SS blev han gjorde redningsmandskabets indsats uhyre farlig. medlem af Schalburgkorpset og fik direkte kontakt til I maj 1947 to år efter krigens afslutning, blev Kaj Gestapo. Henning Bothildsen Nielsen henrettet for sine forDa intet kunne afværge et tysk nederlag under 2. ver- brydelser under Besættelsen. På kun 13 måneder denskrig beordrede den tyske terror-chef i Danmark gjorde Kaj Henning Bothildsen Nielsen sig skyldig i et terrorangreb rettet mod provinsens større byer. De 57 drab, 9 drabsforsøg, 116 sabotageaktioner og 5 udpegede terrormål var især avisredaktioner, teatre togattentater. Ingen anden i Peter-gruppen havde været så aktiv som han, og han angrede aldrig, hvad og forretningsgader som Guldsmedgade. han havde gjort. Til angrebet benyttede Terror-chefen sig af den hemmelige enhed Peters-Gruppen. Et af medlemmerne Da Bothildsen skulle henrettes for sine forbrydelser, i Peters-Gruppen var århusianeren Kaj Henning og havde fået den sorte hætte på, råbte han: Giv agt. Bothildsen Nielsen, som med sand kynisme placere Fyr! sprængstoffet på udvalgte steder.

Kaj Henning Bothildsen Nielsen, almanet.dk

Guldsmedgade Danskebilleder.dk

Kaj Henning Bothildsen Nielsen was the son of a February 22, 1945, the residents of Guldsmedgade Ccoachman. He bacame a painter in 1939. The year experienced a real horror night. 7 people lost their before, he had become a member of the National So- lives in Guldsmadgade and Nørregade. cialist Labor Party of Denmark. The action was further bestial by the fact that the Bothildsen joined the Waffen SS and graduated in bombs were delayed, which made the rescue force’s Sennheim, Germany. Upon request from SS, he be- efforts extremely dangerous. came a member of the Schalburg Corps and got direct contact with Gestapo. In May 1947, two years after the end of the war, Kaj Henning Bothildsen Nielsen was executed for his Since nothing could ward off a German defeat during crimes during the Occupation. In just 13 months, Kaj World War II, the German terrorist chief of Denmark Henning Bothildsen Nielsen committed 57 killings, 9 ordered a terrorist attack aimed at the province’s attempt killings, 116 tampering actions and 5 train major cities. The designated terrorist targets were attacks. No-one in the Peter Group had been as active especially newspaper editions, theaters and business as he, and he never regretted what he had done. streets such as Guldsmedgade in Aarhus. When Bothildsen was to be executed for his crimes, For the attack, the Terror chief took advantage of he shouted, “Attention. Fire! the secret unit of the Peters Group. One of the members of the Peters Group was Kaj Henning Bothildsen Nielsen, who, with true cynicism, places the bombs in selected places.

Guldsmedgade Danskebilleder.dk

Guldsmedgade Danskebilleder.dk


C. F. MØLLER BYGNINGER / C. F. MOLLER BUILDINGS PILOT HOUSE

LODSHUSET Lodstårnet med fem etager er opført i 1953 efter tegning af arkitekt Johan Richter på C.F.Møllers tegnestue. Bygningen var dog forberedt til otte etager og de sidste tilføjedes allerede to år senere. Som det første lodshus i landet fik det radaranlæg i 1956. På 8 etage lå vagtstue med skriveborde, telefon, VHF-radio, udkig og radar samt radiokommunikation med skibene, der meldte deres ankomst og aftalte, hvilken assistance, man ønskede. Bygningen husede omkring 7 lodser og 10 bådmænd. I stuen boede en enkelt bådmand. Her var der også cykelstald, og værksted. Bådmændene boede på 1., 2. og 3 sal, mens lodserne boede på 4.,5. & 6. sal. På etagerne 1 - 5 boede der 3 mand på hver sal, og på 6. sal var der kammer til 1 mand, samt opholdsstue og køkken. Det var nødvendigt og praktisk, at hver mand havde sin egen køje og sit eget kammer, hvor de kunne hvile. Det førte til at Lodshuset blev kaldt for “sovesiloen” af kritiske sjæle.

Danskebilleder.dk

Bådmændene var matroser eller fiskere af uddannelse. Deres opgave var at sejle lodsbådene, når lodserne skulle om bord på ankommende skibe, eller når lodserne skulle hentes i land igen, når skibene havde forladt Aarhus Havn.

The Pilotage hous was built with 5 floors in 1953 after a design by architect Johan Richter, who at that time was employed at C. F. Moller’s office. The building was prepared to eight storeys, and the last storey was added two years later.

The boatmen were sailors or fishermen of education. Their task was to sail the pilot boats when the pilots should on board in arriving vessels or when pilots had to be fetched back again when the ships had left the port.

Foruden opgaven med at sejle lodsbådene, var de også “Trossemænd”, som tog imod trosserne, når skibene skulle fortøjes, og igen lod trosserne gå, når skibene igen skulle til søs.

As the first pilot’s house in Denmark it got radar facility in 1956. Floor 8 was a guard room with desks, telephone, VHF radio, radar and radio communications with ships announcing their arrival .

In addition to the task of sailing pilot boats, they were also “hawser Men” as they handled the tethers when the vessels were moored, and again let the tethers go when the ships left the port.

The building housed about 7 pilots and 10 boatmen. In the basement lived one single boatman. This place also had a bike-shed and a workshop. The boatmen lived on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd floor, while the pilots lived on the 4th, 5th & 6th floor. Floor 1-5 there had I dag benyttes Lodstårnet af Mols-Linien, og i peri- three men on each floor, and the 6th floor had a oder har Aarhus Kommune brugt tårnet til at huse chamber for one man, as well as a living room and gæster fra udlandet. a kitchen.The Port of Aarhus found it necessary that each man had his own bunk and his own chamber, where they could sleep on guard. This led to the pilot house was called “the sleep silo”

It was the pilot’s task to climb on board with the help of a pilot ladder, reminiscent of a free-hanging rope ladder, and direct the ship below the entrance to the harbor. This was a risky job in rough weather.

Det var Lodsens opgave, at kravle om bord ad lodslejderen, der minder om en frithængende rebstige, og dirigere skibet under indsejling til havnen. Dette var et risikabelt job i hårdt vejr.

Lodshuset: A. Damgaard

Today the Pilotage house is used by Mols-Linien, and in periods by Aarhus Municipality to house guests from abroad.

Lodshuset: A. Damgaard


C. F. MØLLER BYGNINGER / C. F. MOLLER BUILDINGS SALLING Ferdinand Salling blev født i det nuværende Sjællandsgade i 1880, hvor hans far, Hans Christian Salling, havde en købmandsbutik. Han kom i lære som manufakturhandler i Fredericia, men vendte tilbage til Aarhus i 1906, hvor han åbnede en manufakturforretning på Søndergade 34.

I 1946 trådte sønnen Herman Salling ind i firmaet, hvilket førte til at forretningen blev omdannet til et aktieselskab, der fik navnet F. Salling A/S. Butikken blev efterfølgende moderniseret og en helt ny bygning blev tegnet af arkitekt C. F. Møller. Det er angiveligt den første danske curtain wall bygning.

Butikken havde succes og i 1915 flyttede Ferdinand Salling derfor sin forretning til Søndergade 27, hvor han opkøbte de omkringliggende ejendomme og udbyggede forretningen markant. Købmandsbutikken fik nu navnet Salling Varehus.

Herman Salling dannede nu Jysk Supermarked A/S, men allierede sig efterfølgende med den pengestærke Skibsreder A. P. Møller, hvilket førte til oprettelsen af Dansk Supermarked A/S.

Salling, Googlemaps

Salling, C.F. Møller

Med inspiration fra de amerikanske butikker Variety Som følge af de trange kår under 2. verdenskrig Stores, der handlede med fødevarer og tekstilvarer åbnede Salling i 1942 en genbrugsafdeling, hvor og de vesttyske Billiges Kaufhaus grundlagde Herman kunne købte brugte varer. Et andet tiltag under man Salling først FØTEX, dernæst BILKA og Netto. besættelsestiden var en systue, hvor man kunne få Salling døde i 2006 og koncernen udviser i dag stor syet sit gamle tøj om. interesse for Kultur. På toppen af C. F. Møllers bygning, bygges der nu en 2000 kvm. grøn tagterrasse. Salling Taghave, Salling

Salling Taghave, Salling

SALLING In 1946 his son Mr. Herman Salling joined the firm, which led to that the business was converted into a limited company, which was named F. Salling A / S. The shop was subsequently modernized, and a new and very sophisticated, architectural and structural engineering building was designed by architect C. F. The store was successful and in 1915 Ferdinand Moller. It is reportedly the first Danish actual curtain Salling therefore moved his business to Søndergade wall building. 27, where he acquired the surrounding property and expanded the business significantly. The grocery In the following time, Herman Salling formed Jysk store now got the name Salling Department Store. Supermarked A / S, but allies subsequently with the moneyed Shipowner AP Møller, which led to the creAs a result of the dire straits during WW2 Mr. Salling ation of Danish Supermarked A / S. opened a recycling department in 1942 , where one could purchase used goods. Another initiative under Inspired by the American Variety Stores and the West the German occupation was a sewing room where German Billiges Kaufhaus Herman Salling founded the Supermarkets FØTEX, Bilka and Netto. people could have their old clothes renewed. Mr. Ferdinand Salling was born in Sjællandsgade in 1880, where his father, Hans Christian Salling, had a grocery store. He was apprenticed as a draper in Fredericia, but returned to Aarhus in 1906, where he opened a draper at Søndergade 34th

Salling, Danskebilleder.dk

Salling died in 2006 and the Salling group today shows a great interest in culture. On top of the old C. F. Moller architecture there is now being built now a 2000 sqm. green roof.


C. F. MØLLER BYGNINGER / C. F. MOLLER BUILDINGS AARHUS UNIVERSITET I 1925 havde en universitetskommission i København besluttet, at Aarhus skulle huse landets første provinsuniversitet. Det var arkitekt C.F. Møller, der vandt arkitektkonkurrencen og som sammen med havearkitekt C.Th. Sørensen kom til at udforme den nuværende Universitetspark og Campus. C.F. Møller valgte en enkel funktionalistisk stil med gule mursten, men ved et møde om den kommende hovedbygning, blev han opfordret til at bruge ædlere materialer med inspiration fra Mussolinis nyligt opførte Sapienza-universitetet i Rom. Det ønskede han under ingen omstændigheder. Han åbnede sig dog modvilligt for en mere ”romantisk” udformning af hovedbygningen, der inkluderede murpiller og buer over indgangsportalen. Efter færdiggørelsen af den første universitetsbygning stod borgerne i kø med protester og “talrige læserbreve i aviserne”. Man mente at bygningerne lignede fabrikker og gav et uheldigt førsteindtryk ved indkørslen til Århus.

Under 2. verdenskrig havde Gestapo indrettede hovedkvarter i Universitetsparkens kollegierne. Gestapos tilstedeværelse gjorde, at den jyske modstandsbevægelse bad Royal Air Force om at udslette stedet. Luftangrebet fandt sted den 31. oktober 1944 og sønderknuste universitetets hovedbygningen. C.F. Møller, der var tilstede, blev begravet under de nedstyrtede bygningsdele. Da han efterfølgende kom til sig selv på hospitalet var hans første bemærkning, om det mon skulle være så heldigt, at de romantiske piller og buer var blevet smadret ved angrebet, for i så fald skulle de ikke genopføres.

Steno Museet Aarhus Universitet, Foto: C. F. Møller

Søauditorierne, Aarhus Universitet,

Buerne var dog intakte til Møllers ærgrelse, og står der den dag i dag. Der findes stadigvæk et ”minde” fra bombardementet i den østlige ende af Solgårdens rækværk ved aulaen, som C.F. Møller dengang insisterede på skulle forblive i rækværket som et mindesmærke.

Aarhus Universitetspark, Foto C.F. Møller

Aarhus Universitet, AU

AARHUS UNIVERSITY In 1925 a university commission in Copenhagen had decided that Aarhus shoild house the country’s first provincial university. Aarhus Municipality donated subsequently a plot north of Vennelystparken that came to represent the University. C. F. Moller chose a simple functionalist style with yellow brick, but at a meeting concerning the future main building, he was asked to use more noble materials inspired by Mussolini’s newly constructed Sapienza University of Rome which he refused. He opened however reluctantly for a more “romantic” design of the main building that included piers and arches above the entrance.

Aarhus Universitetspark, foto AU

When the Natural History Museum was to be built in the entire university campus, the mayor announced that Moller because of the protests should NOT expect to be the architect of the museum’s new building. Despite of this Moller managed to get it his way, so complex today stands as a beautiful whole. During WW2 Gestapo had its headquarters in the University Park colleges. Gestapo’s presence forced the Jutland Resistance Movement to ask Royal Air Force to destroy the place. The air raid took place October 31, 1944, and by mistake the university’s main building under construction was destroyed.

C. F. Moller, who was present, was buried under the After completion of the first university building citi- crashed building. When he subsequently came to zens stood in line with protests. It was thought that himself at the hospital it is told that his first remark the buildings looked like factories and gave an unfor- was, if it should be so fortunate that the romantic pillars and arches had been smashed in the attack, betunate first impression at the entrance to Aarhus. cause in that case they should not be reinstated. The arches was intact to Møller’s chagrin and still excists.


C. F. MØLLER BYGNINGER / C. F. MOLLER BUILDINGS AARHUS CONTAINERTERMINAL

AARHUS CONTAINER TERMINAL

C.F. Møller har gennem en årrække været rådgiver for På trods af, at en stor moderne havn kræver en klar Aarhus Havn og ikke mindst Havnens nye container- funktionel, sikkerhedsmæssig og miljømæssig adskillelse fra byen, har masterplanen samtidig skabt plads havn. til en by bydel på den gamle Nordhavn med rekreaEn Masterplan fra 1995-1996 dannede ramme for en tive områder, nye boliger og erhverv, samt det nye udvidelse af havnen med ca. 150 hektar til bl.a. øget bibliotek og borgerservice - DOKK1. Den overordnede container-, roll-on/roll-off- og bulkaktivitet, I 1998 plan har været at skabe større samhørighed mellem blev Containerterminalen på Aarhus Nord-Havn flyt- havn og by. tet til den nye containerterminal, der er anlagt ud fra Udover arbejdet med masterplanen har C.F. Møller østhavnen. løbende stået for en lang række af havnens funkDen nye containerhavn er Danmarks størst med sine tionsbygninger, fra pakhuse og tekniske anlæg til 46,5 ha containerareal 1,3 km. Containerkaj. Cntain- velfærds- og administrationsbygninger. erhavnen modtager hvert år ca. 765 skibe og 600.000 containere. Det betyder, at en meget stor del af de Aarhus Havn er Danmarks næststørste havn med i alt danske forbrugsvarer kommer ind i landet via Aarhus 227 ha med 13 km kaj. Den anløbes årlig af ca. samHavn, ligesom en markant del af den danske eksport menlagt 5510 skibe, hvoraf 765 til containerhavnen. afskibes via havnens netværk af sejlruter ud i hele verden.

C. F. Moller has over the years been an advisor to the Despite the fact that a large modern port requires a Port of Aarhus and especially the Port’s new contain- clear functional safety and environmental separation from the city, the master plan also created space for er terminal. a city district on the old North Harbour with recreaA Master plan from 1995-1996 provided the frame- tional areas, new residential and commercial, as well work for the expansion of the port by about 150 hec- as the new library DOKK1. The idea of Master Plan tares to include increased container, roll-on / roll-off has been to create greater cohesion between the and bulk activity. In 1998, the container terminal at port and the city. Aarhus North Harbour moved to the new container Besides working with the Master Plan C. F. Moller terminal, placed on the East Harbour. has continuously been responsible for a wide range The new container port is Denmark’s largest, with its of functioning of the port buildings, from warehouses 46.5 ha container area and 1.3 km. container quay. and installations for the welfare and administration Cntainer port receives each year about 765 ships and buildings. 600.000 containers. This means that a very large part of the Danish consumer goods coming into the coun- The Port of Aarhus is Denmark’s second largest port try via the Port of Aarhus, as well as significant part with a total of 227 hectares with 13 km quay with of Danish exports are shipped via the port’s network an annual passage of about a total of 5510 ships, of which 765 for the container port. of shipping routes out worldwide.

Aarhus Containerhavn, foto Ole Laasby

Aarhus Containerhavn, foto Ole Laasby


Profile for SKJULTE STEDER

Lokalhistorie fra skyline  

Lokalhistorie fra Århus skrevet i anledningen af Foreningen Skjulte Steders projekt i det Europæiske Kulturhovedstadsår 2017 "Lokalhistorie...

Lokalhistorie fra skyline  

Lokalhistorie fra Århus skrevet i anledningen af Foreningen Skjulte Steders projekt i det Europæiske Kulturhovedstadsår 2017 "Lokalhistorie...

Advertisement