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J umping The Pole Vault. Raffaello Fabio Ducceschi. 2010. Italy.

group of the track and field jumping events, which belong to speed-power disciplines and are currently performed with a running approach, nowadays comprises the following types of events (men and women): • the long jump; • the high jump; • the triple jump; • the pole vault. The Olympic track and field programme has included men’s events in the long jump, the high jump, the triple jump and the the pole vault since the 1896 Games of the I Olympiad in Athens. And women’s events in the high jump have been a part of the programme since the 1928 Games of the IX Olympiad in Amsterdam, the long jump – since the 1948 Games of the XIV Olympiad in London, the triple jump – since the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta, the pole vault – since the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney. The programme of the World Athletics Championships has included men’s events in the long jump, the high jump, the triple jump and the pole vault since the first World Championships (1983, Helsinki). Women’s events in the long jump and the high jump have also been held since the first World Championships (1983, Helsinki), but in the triple jump – since the fourth World Championships (1993, Stuttgart), in the pole vault – since the seventh World Championships (1999, Seville).

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The High Flyer. Aldo Luongo. 1999. Argentina.

The Triple jump. Raffaello Fabio Ducceschi. 2010. Italy.

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The High Jump. Raffaello Fabio Ducceschi. 2010. Italy.

The Long Jump. Raffaello Fabio Ducceschi. 2010. Italy.

The High Jump. Street art. Banksy. 2012. Great Britain.

An Athletic Contest. Max Weber. 1915. Germany.

Salto in alto. Pawel Kuczynski. 2011. Poland.

The High Jump. Tullio Crali. 1936. Italy.

Paul Burgess, A 6M Vaulter. Phil Carrero. 2007. Australia.

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Long Jump he long jump is an exercise that involves flying over a horizontal surface (at a distance). It is performed through a one-foot take-off. The men’s long jump (with an approach run) has been introduced into the Olympic programme starting from the 1896 Games of the first Olympiad in Athens. The first Olympic champion in this discipline was Ellery Clark from the United States with the result of 6 metres 35 centimetres. The holder of the highest world achievement in the long jump (with an approach run) in the early twentieth century was Peter O’Connor of Ireland, whose result – 7 metres 61 centimetres – set in 1901, was registered as an official world record by the IAAF, created in 1912, eleven years later. At the 1900 Games of the II Olympiad in Paris, the 1904 Games of the III Olympiad in St. Louis, the 1908 Games of the IV Olympiad in London and the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad in Stockholm men’s competitions were held in the long jump and the standing jump.

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The winner in the long jump. Red-figure ceramics. 510 BC. Düsseldorf, the Hetjens Museum.

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The halter of Spartan Akmatidas weighing 4.63 kg. 550 BC. Olympia, the Archaeological Museum.


The long jump technique with halteres. Reconstructed by K. Iliakis.

The highest world achievement (and an Olympic record) in the standing jump was the result of 3 metres 48 centimetres, which Raymond Ewry (USA) had set at the 1904 Games of the III Olympiad in St. Louis. Afterwards at the 1920 Games of the VII Olympiad in Antwerp and later on (until now) – the competitions in long jumping were carried out only as the long jump with an approach run. The holder of the world record in the women’s long jump was Francina Blankers-Koen from the Netherlands, who showed the result of 6 metres 25 centimetres in 1943. The women’s Olympic competitions in the long jump were staged at the 1948 Games of the XIV Olympiad in London for the first time. The first Olympic champion in this discipline was Olga Gyarmati (Hungary) winning with the result of 5 metres 69.5 centimetres (an Olympic record). At the 1968 Games of the XIX Olympiad in Mexico City US athlete Robert Beamon set a world record in the long jump. The record was phenomenal for those times

An athlete in the long jump. Red-figure ceramics (a fragment of decoration). The 5th century BC. Boston, the Museum of Fine Arts.

The Long Jump by Carl Lewis. Henry Taylor. 2010.

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American athlete Ellery Clark was a two-time Olympic champion at the 1896 Games of the I Olympiad in Athens, who had excelled in the long jump (6 metres 35 centimetres) and in the high jump (1 metre 81 centimetres).

– 8 metres 90 centimetres, which surpassed then highest achievement (8 metres 35 centimetres) by 55 centimetres. The first world champion in the men’s long jump was Carlton Lewis from the United States, who had won in this competition (with a score of 8 metres 55 centimetres) at the first World Championships in Athletics held in 1983 in Helsinki (Finland). At the same location and at the same time the first world champion in the women’s long jump was Heike Drechsler from the German Democratic Republic, who had won with a score of 7 metres 27 centimetres (a world record). The current Olympic record in the men’s long jump is the result of 8 metres 90 centimetres achieved by Robert Beamon (USA) at the 1968 Games of the XIX Olympiad in Mexico City.

One of the four gold medals that American athlete Alvin Kraenzlein won at the 1900 Games of the II Olympiad in Paris was earned by him in the long jump with an approach run (7 metres 18 centimetres), which became an Olympic record.

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The current women’s Olympic record in the long jump is the one belonging to US athlete Jackie JoynerKersee, whose result was 7 metres 40 centimetres in this discipline at the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul. The only athlete who succeeded in becoming a four-time Olympic champion in the men’s long jump was Carlton Lewis (USA), who had won at the 1984 Games in Los Angeles (8 metres 54 centimetres), the 1988 Games in Seoul (8 metres 72 centimetres), the 1992 Games in Barcelona (8 metres 67 centimetres), the 1996 Games in Atlanta (8 metres 50 centimetres). And in the women’s long jump held at the Olympic competitions only one athlete became a two-time Olympic champion: it was the achievement of Heike Drechsler of Germany, who had won at the 1992 Games in Barcelona (7 metres 14 centimetres) and the 2000 Games in Sydney (6 metres 99 centimetres).

Francis Irons – an American athlete, the champion of the 1908 Games of the IV Olympiad in London in the long jump (7.48 metres – the Olympic record).

Myer Prinstein – an American athlete, a threetime Olympic champion in the long jump and the triple jump (1900, 1904). In 1904 in St. Louis he gained victory in the long jump with an approach run setting a new Olympic record – 7.34 metres. During the previous Games of 1900 he won the silver medal with a result of 7.17 metres.

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An American Albert Gutterson excelled (with an Olympic record of 7 metres 60 centimetres) in the long jump competitions at the 1912 Games of the V Olympiadin Stockholm.

The current (as of early 2015) men’s world record (in stadium) in the long jump – 8 metres 95 centimetres – was set by US athlete Mike Powell in 1991. The men’s world indoor record in the long jump – 8 metres 79 centimetres – still belongs to Carlton me Lewis, Lewi who had showed this result more than 30 years ago ag in i 1984. The world record holder in the women’s long jump Th (in is Russian athlete Galina Chistyakova n stadia) s (USSR), whose result of 7 metres 52 centimetres (U USS shown sh how in 1988 remains unsurpassed up to this day (as (a as of o early 2015). The world record in the women’s indoor long jump Th – 7 metres 37 centimetres – currently belongs to Heike He eike Drechsler from the German Democratic Republic, licc, who w had showed this result in 1988.

American athlete Edward Hamm won the competitions in the long jump at the 1928 Games of the IX Olympiad in Amsterdam with an Olympic record (7 metres 73 centimetres).

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One of his four Olympic gold medals won at the 1936 Games of the XI Olympiad in Berlin was gained by American athlete James Owens in the long jump with an Olympic record (8 metres 06 centimetres). He got significantly ahead – by 19 centimetres – of his runner-up Luz Long of Germany. By the time Owens was also an owner of the world record in the long jump – 8 metres 13 centimetres set by him in 1935. The record remained unsurpassed for 25 years.

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Polish athlete Elżbieta Krzesińska (Duńska) became the Olympic champion in the long jump at the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad. She repeated her own world record of 6 metres 35 centimetres there in Melbourne.

1.

When were the men’s the long jump events included into the programme of the modern Olympic Games? А. 1896. B. 1900.

2.

Nowadays more than 40 athletes participate in the men’s long jump competitions at the Olympic Games. How many athletes competed for the first Olympic medals in the long jump? А. 15. B. 11.

3.

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C. Ellery Clark (USA). D. Alexandre Tuffère (France).

What was the result of the first modern Olympic champion in the long jump? A. 6.18 m. B. 6.35 m.

Hungarian athlete Olga Gyarmati at the 1948 Games of XIV Olympiad in London became the Olympic champion in the long jump with an Olympic record (5 metres 69.5 centimetres), which was significantly inferior to the then world record (6 metres 25 centimetres) owned by Francina Blankers-Koen (an athlete from the Netherlands). The latter did not participate in the long jump competitions at the 1948 Games as they coincided in time with the final in the women’s 80-metre hurdles, where she won one of her four Olympic gold medals).

C. 9. D. 10.

Who was the first Olympic champion in the long jump? А. Robert Garret (USA). B. James Connolly (USA).

4.

C. 1904. D. 1908.

C. 6.40 m. D. 6.30 m.


5.

The Olympic Games programme once included the competitions in the running long jump and in the standing jump. When were the Olympic competitions in the standing jump held? А. 1896–1908. B. 1900–1908.

6.

C. 1896–1904. D. 1900–1912.

Who was the first Olympic champion in the standing jump? В. Emile Torchebœuf (France). D. Lewis Sheldon (USA).

А. Raymond Ewry (USA). Б. Irving Baxter (USA).

7.

What was the result of the first modern Olympic champion in the standing jump? А. 3.20 m. Б. 3.15 m.

8.

В. 3.13m. D. 3.21 m.

Where are the competitions in the long jump held? А. In the long jump sector. B. In the vertical jump sector. C. In the special grass sector. D. In the sawdust grass sector.

An Olympic record in the long jump (6 metres 24 centimetres), which was set by Yvette tte Williams from New Zealand nd at the 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad in Helsinki, brought her the gold medal of an Olympic champion.

Hildrun Claus – a German (GDR) athlete specializing in the long jump. At the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome she took the third place in the long jump with a result of 6 metres 21 centimetres. A threetime world record holder in the long jump: 6 metres 36 centimetres, 6 metres 40 centimetres in 1960 and 6 metres 42 centimetres in 1961.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

1896. 9. Ellery Clark (USA). 6.35 m. 1900–1912. Raymond Ewry (USA). 3.21 m. In the long jump sector.

9.

Name the minimum length of the runway track for the long jump. А. 40 m. B. 20 m.

C. 30 m. D. 15 m.

10. What is located in the end of the runway track for the long jump? А. A ribbon. B. A take-off board.

C. A plank. D. A springboard.

11. At what distance from the take-off zone is the landing zone in the long jump sector located? А. 1–3 m. B. 1–5 m.

C. 1–2 m. D. 2–4 m.

12. How does the landing zone in the long jump sector look like? Jerome Biffle – an American athlete, the champion of the 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad in Helsinki in the long jump (7.57 metres).

А. A sandpit. B. A foamed rubber pit.

13. What is the width of the landing zone in the long jump sector? А. 2 metres 75 centimetres. B. 3 metres 75 centimetres.

American Ralph Boston, who arrived in Rome for the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad with a world record in the long jump (8 metres 21 centimetres), gained a victory in this discipline with the result of 8 metres 12 centimetres (an Olympic record).

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C. A water pit. D. A sawdust pit.

C. 4 metres 75 centimetres. D. 2 metres 5 centimetres.


14. At what distance from the take-off spot in the long jump sector is the farthest edge of the landing zone located? А. 15 m. B. 10 m.

C. 9 m. D. 8 m.

15. What do athletes use for take-off after their approach run in making a jump? А. A take-off board. B. A running lane. C. A jumping board. D. A plank.

16. How is the jumping distance measured? А. The distance between the nearest trace in the landing pit and the take-off line. B. The distance between the nearest trace in the sandpit and the take-off line. C. The distance between the beginning of the landing pit and the nearest trace in the sandpit. D. The distance between the trace in the sandpit and the take-off board.

17. What is the starting speed of experienced athletes while taking off the board in the long jump? А. 9.4–9.8 m.s-1. B. 8.2–8.5 m.s-1.

Ukrainian athlete Vera Krepkina (USSR) won the gold medal and the title of the Olympic champion with an Olympic record (6 metres 37 centimetres) in the long jump at the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome.

C. 7.8–8.2 m.s-1. D. 11.0–11.2 m.s-1.

Tatiana Schelkanova – a Soviet athlete, the bronze medallist at the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad in the long jump (6.42 metres). A three-time world record holder. The European champion of 1962 in Belgrade, the 1966 European indoor champion in the long jump in Dortmund.

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9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

40 m. A take-off board. 1–3 m. A sandpit. 2 metres 75 centimetres. 10 m. A take-off board. The distance between the nearest trace in the landing pit and the take-off line. 17. 9.4–9.8 m.s-1.

18. What is an optimum flyout angle of an athlete’s body centre of mass against the horizon in the long jump? А. 20–22 degrees. B. 18–20 degrees.

C. 17–19 degrees. D. 25–27 degrees.

19. What is the highest speed achieved by male athletes at their run-up? А. 9.5–9.8 m.s-1. B. 9.8–10.2 m.s-1.

Igor Ter-Ovanesyan – a Soviet athlete. A participant of five Olympic Games, a two-time Olympic bronze medallist: in 1960 in Rome – 8 metres 04 centimetres and 1964 in Tokyo – 7 metres 99 centimetres in the long jump. He was the first one to clear the 8-metres in the long jump. A two-time world record holder: 1962, Yerevan – 8 metres 31 centimetres, 1967, Mexico City – 8 metres 35 centimetres. A three-time European champion (1958, 1962, 1969).

20. What is the name of the simplest long jump technique known back in the 19th century? А. The sail. B. The pull-up.

C. The wave. D. The scissors.

21. A more complicated long-jump technique first demonstrated by Finnish athlete Tuulos in 1920. А. The hang style. B. The stride.

Lynn Davies – a British athlete, the champion at the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo in the long jump (8 metres 07 centimetres).

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C. 11.0–11.2 m.s-1. D. 9.8–10.0 m.s-1.

C. The hitch-kick. D. The sail.


22. The most popular women’s long jump technique. This style was typical of the most distinguished long jumper of the modernity Heike Drechsler. А. The hang style. B. The hitch-kick.

C. The stride. D. The air run.

23. The most complicated long jump technique requiring high speed-power qualities of an athlete. А. The hitch-kick. B. The hang style.

C. The stride. D. The sail.

24. Two most outstanding athletes of the modernity Mike Powell and Bob Beamon set their world long jump records in 1991 (8 metres 95 centimetres) and in 1968 (8 metres 90 centimetres) respectively. Name the style used by the athletes in their jumping. А. The hitch-kick. B. The stride.

C. The hang style. D. The sail.

25.. When were wer the long jumps popularized as a competitive thl ti discipline? d athletics А. The end d of the 19th ccentury. C. The beginning of the 19th century. B. The mid-1 19th century mid-19th century. D. The end of the 18th century.

Athlete from the UK Mary Rand (Bignal) at the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad became the Olympic champion in the long jump, and this victory was brought to her with a world record of 6 metres 76 centimetres. In addition to that, the British athlete won the silver medal in the pentathlon in Tokyo.

Romanian athlete Viorica Viscopoleanu at the 1968 Games of the XIX Olympiad in Mexico City became the Olympic champion in the long jump, having set a world record of 6 metres 82 centimetres.

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18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

20–22 degrees. 11.0–11.2 m.s-1. The sail. The hang style. The hang style. The hitch-kick. The hitch-kick. The end of the 19th century. tuuury ry. y y. 26. Who holds the h fi first unofficial ffi i l world ld record d in i the h men’s ’ long jump? А. Myer Prinstein (USA). B. Edward Burke (Great Britain). C. Henry Powell (Great Britain). D. Charles Buller (Great Britain).

27. Name the first world record in the men’s long jump (unofficial) and when was it set? А. 5.94 m, 1857. B. 5.94 m, 1859.

C. 6.38 m, 1862. D. 6.40 m, 1864.

28. Who was the first one to clear the 6 metres in the men’s long jump? And when? А. Charles Buller (1862). B. Henry Powell (1859).

C. G. Worthington (1864). D. Alec Tosswill (1868)

29. Who was the first one to clear the 7 metres in the men’s long jump? And when? А. Joh John Lane (1874). Davis (1874). B. Jenner Jen

C. Alec Tosswill (1869). D. Patrick Davin (1983).

30. Wh Who o sset the first official world record in the men’s long jump? jum p? And when? А. Pe Peter O’Connor (1901). B. Edw Edward Gourdin (1923). C. Ro Robert LeGendre (1924). D. My Myer Prinstein (1900).

At the long jump competitions at the 1968 Games of the XIX Olympiad in Mexico City American athlete Robert Beamon made a jump incredible in its length – 8 metres 90 centimetres in the first attempt. This achievement exceeded the then world record (8 metres 35 centimetres) by 55 centimetres (i.e. by more than half a metre). The previous record belonged to American Ralph Boston and Soviet athlete Igor Ter-Ovanesyan. Due to this phenomenal world record Robert Beamon was far ahead of all competitors in Mexico City and became an Olympic champion.

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31. Who was the first one to clear the 8 metres in the men’s menn’s long jump? And when? А. 1935, Jesse Owens (USA). B. 1960, Ralph Boston (USA). C. 1967, Igor Ter-Ovanesyan (USSR). D. 1968, Bob Beamon (USA).

32. Name the athlete who set the biggest number – 6 world worrld records – in the men’s long jump? А. Ralph Boston (USA). B. Igor Ter-Ovanesyan (USSR). C. Mike Powell (USA). D. Peter O’Connor (Ireland).

33. Many world records in the long jump were set on a mountainous terrain (at high altitude). Thus Bob Beamon set his phenomenal record in Mexico City, Ralph Boston – 8.35 metres in Modesto, Igor Ter-Ovanesyan – 8.35 metres in Mexico City. That is why sports professionals kept an unofficial table of world records for lowland stadiums. There was only one athlete who was able to set three world records in the long jump at low altitude (8.62 m, 8.76 m, 8.79 m – twice). Name this athlete.

In Munich at the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad the then a world record holder (6 metres 84 centimetres) of the Federal Republic of Germany Heidemarie Rosendahl became the Olympic champion (with a result of 6 metres 78 centimetres) in the long jump. She was just one centimetre ahead of her main competitor – Diana Yorgova. At the same Olympic Games of 1972 she won the silver medal in the pentathlon.

А. Carlton Lewis (USA). B. Lutz Dombrowski (GDR). C. Larry Mirkis (USA). D. Josef Schwarz (FRG).

Arnie Robinson – an American athlete, the champion at the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal in the long jump (8.35 metres).

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26. Edward Burke (Great Britain). 27. 5.94 m, 1857. 28. Charles Buller (1862). 29. John Lane, 1874. 30. Peter O’Connor (1901). 31. 1935, Jesse Owens (USA). 32. Ralph Boston (USA). 33. Carlton Lewis (USA).

Anişoara Cuşmir – a Romanian the long jumper, the champion of the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles in the long jump (6.96 metres). The silver medallist of the 1983 World Championship in Helsinki.

34. The register of world records in the long jump at low altitude made no sense any more, when Mike Powell had surpassed Beamon’s record in a lowland stadium. Where did this outstanding event take place? А. Tokyo. B. Stuttgart.

C. New York. D. Montreal.

35. Mike Powell beat the world record of Bob Beamon, which had stayed unbroken for 23 years, at the World Championships in Tokyo (at low altitude). Name the year it happened. А. 1990. B. 1991.

C. 1992. D. 1993.

36. The world record in the long jump of Mike Powell set at the World Championships in Tokyo remains unsurpassed even now. Name it. А. 8 metres 91 centimetres. B. 8 metres 93 centimetres.

Lutz Dombrowski – a German (GDR) long jumper. A champion of the 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad in Moscow in the long jump (8.54 metres – a European record). A European champion of 1982 in Athens (8.41 metres).

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C. 8 metres 95 centimetres. D. 8 metres 96 centimetres.


37. After his world record of 8.95 metres Michael Powell improved his achievement to 8.99 metres in 1992, however, the jump was not recognized as the world record. For what reason? А. The jump was aided by the wind exceeding the allowed norm. B. The jump was accomplished in special shoes, which gave an unfair advantage to the athlete. C. The time allowed for the jump attempt exceeded one minute. D. The athlete did not show up for the doping control.

38. The favouring wind may significantly increase the length of a jump. According to the rules of the IAAF, results shown at the wind speed of more than … are not fixed as records. Name the value. А. 3.0 m.s-1. B. 2.0 m.s-1.

C. 2.5 m.s-1. D. 3.5 m.s-1.

The sport assets of American athlete Jackie JoynerKersee include six Olympic medals of different values (3 gold, 1 silver, 2 bronze), of which three medals were earned by this athlete competing in the long jump: Seoul, 1988 – gold, Barcelona, 1992 – bronze, Atlanta 1996 – bronze; and the other Olympic medals (2 gold, 1 silver) were awarded in heptathlon.

39. The longest in the history of the track and field athletics jump of 8.99 metres owned by Mike Powell was done in 1992 in the highland Italian village of Sestriere. The jump was aided by the wind of 4 m.s-1 (the record wass disalle athlete lowed). At the same competitions a German female the long managed to surpass the women’s world record in the . -1 jump – 7.63 metres at the wind speed of 2.1 m s (the record wa ete. was disallowed). Name this outstanding athlete. А. Heike Heik Drechsler. B. Susen Suse Tiedtke. C. Jack Jackie Joyner-Kersee. D. Gali Galina Chistyakova.

Of nine gold medals gained by outstanding American athlete Carlton Lewis at the Olympic Games of the period 1984–1996, four Olympic medals of the highest value were earned by him in the long jump: Los Angeles 1984 (8 metres 54 centimetres) in Seoul 1988 (8 metres 72 centimetres), in Barcelona, in 1992 (8 metres 67 centimetres) and Atlanta, 1996 (8 metres 50 centimetres).

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34. 35. 36. 37.

Tokyo. 1991. 8 metres 95 centimetres. The jump was aided by the wind exceeding the allowed norm. 38. 2 m.s-1. 39. Heike Drechsler.

40. 40 0. A Cuban athlete, a four-time world champion, the Olympic ch champion of 2000. А Ivan Pedroso. А. B B. Yago Lamela.

C. Jaime Jefferson. D. Nelson Ferreyra.

41. 4 1. Name Na one of the most decorated athletes of the modernity – a two-time Olympic champion (three gold medals in the lon jump – 1984, 1992, 1996), an 8-time world champion long (tw (two gold medals in the long jump), a silver medallist of the W World Championships in the long jump. А Carl Lewis. А. B. Jesse Owens. B

C. Ralph Boston. D. Ivan Pedroso.

42. 42 2. Ma Marie Mejzlikova (Chechoslovakia) is considered to be the fir record holder in the women’s the long jump. She set first he record on August 6, 1922 in Prague. Name the length of her he record jump. her А 5 metres 16 centimetres. А. B. 5 metres 88 centimetres.

C. 5 metres 78 centimetres. D. 5 metres 68 centimetres.

At several Olympics Games German athlete Heike Drechsler-Daute (GDR – Germany) won a total of five medals (2 gold, 1 silver, 2 bronze), including three Olympic medals in the long jump: in Seoul, 1988 – silver; Barcelona, 1992 – gold; Sydney, 2000 – gold and also two bronze medals in sprint (Seoul, 1988 – in the women’s 100 metres and 200 metres).

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43. Who was the first one to clear the 6 metres inn the women’s long jump? And when? А. Kristel Schultz, 1939. B. Fanny Blankers-Koen, 1943. C. Kinue Hitomi, 1940. D. Galina Vinogradova, 1955.

44. A Soviet female jumper made her jump of 7.09 metres on August 18, 1978 in Chisinau. She was the first one to clear the 7 metres in the woman’s the long jump. Name this world record holder. А. Vilma Bardauskiene. B. Tatyana Schelkanova.

C. Galina Vinogradova. D. Galina Chistyakova.

Russian athlete Galina Chistyakova (USSR) set a world record in the long jump – 7 metres 52 centimetres – in June 1988 at the Leningrad Znamensky Memorial. And she went to Seoul for the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad as one of the favourites in this discipline. However, she took the third place only (the bronze medal with the result of 7 metres 11 centimetres). She was surpassed by American Jackie JoynerKersee (7 metres 40 centimetres) and German Heike Drechsler-Daute from East Germany (7 metres 22 centimetres). But the above-mentioned world record set by Galina Chistyakova (7 metres 52 centimetres) remains unbeaten up until now.

45. A Romanian jumper was the only femalee athlete in history historry rds and later on to t who was able to set 4 four world records pic champion in the thhe gain the Olympic gold. Name the Olympic women’s the long jump. А. Anişoara Cuşmir. B. Vali Ionescu.

C. Vioricaa Viscopoleanu. D. Vilma Bardauskiene.

American athlete Michael Powell, is the winner of two Olympic silver medals in the long jump, which he had won at the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul and the 1992 Games in Barcelona (in both cases he yielded the championship to Carlton Lewis). Michael Powell became a part of the track-and-field history primarily due to the fact that in 1991 at the Tokyo World Championships he surpassed the 5 m 90 cm world record of Robert Beamon, which had been unbeaten for 23 years since the 1968 Games of the XIX Olympiad in Mexico City. The world record authored by Michael Powell (5 metres 95 centimetres) remains unsurpassed up until now.

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40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52..

Ivan Pedroso. Carl Lewis. 5 metres 16 centimetres. Kristel Schultz, 1939. Vilma Bardauskiene. Anisoara Cusmir. Heike Drechsler. Heike Drechsler. Galina Chistyakova (Russia). 1983. Heike Drechsler. 7 metres res 27 centimetres. Jackie Joyner-Kersee.

Irving Saladino – a Panamanian athlete specializing in the long jump. The champion of the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing in the long jump. The 2007 World champion in Osaka. The silver medallist of the 2006 World Indoor Cup (Moscow). The first and the only Olympic gold medallist in the history of Panama.

46. Name Nam the only female athlete in the world who managed to win two gold medals in the long jump. А. H Heike Drechsler. B. A Anişoara Cuşmir.

C. Jackie Joyner-Kersee. D. Galina Chistyakova.

47. Name a three-time world record holder, a two-time world champ champion, Women’s Track & Field Athlete of the Year in 1992. А. Heik Heike Drechsler. B. Tatya Tatyana Lebedeva.

C. Galina Chistyakova. D. Susen Tiedtke.

48. Who is the t holder of the current world record in the women’s long jump? А. Heike D Drechsler (GDR). B. Anişoar oara Cuşmir (Romania). Jo C. Jackie Joyner-Kersee (USA). C D. Galina Chistyakova (Russia).

49.. When were tthe first women’s the long jump events held at 49 At the World Athletics Championships? А. 1983. B. 1985.

Maurren Higa Maggi – a Brazilian athlete specializing in the long jump. The champion of the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing in the long jump (7.04 metres). The 2008 World Indoor Championship silver medallist in Valencia, the bronze medallist in the long jump in Birmingham in 2003.

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C. 1987. D. 1995.


Brittney Reese – an American athlete. A three-time world champion in the long jump: 2009 in Berlin, 2011 in Daegu, 2013 in Moscow. A two-time world indoor champion: 2010 – Doha, 2012 – Istanbul. The champion of the 2012 Games in London in the long jump.

50. Name the first world champion in the women’s long ng jump. А. Heike Drechsler. B. Anişoara Cuşmir. В. Jackie Joyner-Kersee. D. Tatyana Proskuryakova.

51. What was the winning result in the women’s long jump ump comip? petitions at the first World Athletics Championship? А. 7 metres 34 centimetres. B. 7 metres 28 centimetres.

C. 7 metres 15 centimetres. D 7 metres 27 centimetres.

52. Many outstanding female long jumpers also succeeded in the combined events with no less significant results. Thus, the first world champion, a two-time Olympic champion in the woman’s the long jump Heike Drechsler was the holder of the world’s best seasonal result in the heptathlon in 1994. Name another track-and-field star – a four-timee world champion, a three-time Olympic champion, the silverr and a two-time bronze medallist of the Olympic Games inn the women’s long jump and the heptathlon. А. Jackie Joyner-Kersee. B. Galina Chistyakova. nnyy Blankers-Koen. C. Fanny tyaana Lebedeva. D. Tatyana

Greg Rutherford – a British athlete. The champion of the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London in the long jump (8 metres 31 centimetres). The European champion of 2014 (Zurich), the silver medallist of 2006 (Göteborg).

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Triple Jump he triple jump is an athletic event of a jumps ju group which belongs to speed-power disciplines. The triple jump (long with an approach run) consists of three consecutively executed jumps. After the first take-off (one leg take-off) an athlete lands on the same foot (the hop), after the second take-off he/she lands on the other foot (the step), after the third take-off (the jump) he/she lands into the sand pit on both feet. The triple jump men’s event has been introduced into the Olympic competition programme since the 1896 Games of the I Olympiad in Athens. The first Olympic champion in this athletics event was James Connolly from the United States with the result of 13 metres 71 centimetres. In 1911 the holder of the world’s highest achievement in the triple jump was Daniel Ahearn. His result of 15 metres 52 centimetres was approved by the IAAF as an official world record in 1913. At the 1900 Games of the II Olympiad in Paris, and the 1904 Games of the III Olympiad in St. Louis the men’s triple jump events were held in two variations – with an approach run and standing. The greatest world achievement (and an Olympic record) in the standing triple jump was the result of 10 metres 58 centimetres demonstrated by Raymond Ewry (USA) at the 1900 Games of the II Olympiad in Paris.

T

A weight for jumping. 5th cent. BC. Geneva. The George Ortiz collection.

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The Greek athlete. Bronse. 460 AC. The Museum of Hermitage. Saint Petersbourg.


The Triple Jump. Raffaello Fabio Ducceschi. 2010. Italy.

Afterwards at the Games of the IV Olympiad of 1908 in London and up till now the triple jump competitions are held only with an approach run. The first world champion in the triple jump was Zdzisław Hoffmann from Poland who was the winner in this event (with the result of 17 metres 42 centimetres) at the first World Championships in Athletics held in 1983 in Helsinki (Finland). The first world champion in the women’s triple jump was Anna Biryukova (Russia) who was the winner in this event (with the result of 15 metres 09 centimetres) at the IV World Championships in Athletics held in 1993 in Stuttgart (Germany). The Olympic competitions in the women’s triple jump took place at the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta for the first time. The first Olympic champion in this event was Inessa Kravets (Ukraine) winning with the result of 15 metres 33 centimetres (an Olympic record).

Jonathan Shaw, the Triple Jump. Alexander Stadium. Birmingham. June, 1996.

A Greek athlete. Bronze. 460 BC. The Museum of Hermitage. Saint Petersbourg.

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A bowl established by Prince George of Greece to honour the first Olympic champion.

It so happened that according to the scheduled sequence of the track-and-field events, set up by the organizers, at the 1896 Games of the I Olympiad in Athens the first Olympic champion of the modernity was James Connolly from the United States who won in the triple jump (13 metres 71 centimetres). And at the 1900 Games of the II Olympiad in Paris this American athlete got the second place in the triple jump with an approach run.

The current Olympic record in the men’s triple jump is the result of 18 metres 09 centimetres, with which Kenny Harrison from the United States excelled at the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta. And to this day nobody has surpassed the Olympic record in the women’s triple jump – 15 metres 39 centimetres – set by Françoise Mbango Etone of Cameroon winning in this athletics event at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing. Viktor Saneyev (USSR) was the only athlete winning in the men’s triple jump at three Olympic Games: he became the Olympic champion at the 1968 Olympic Games (17 metres 39 centimetres), the 1972 Games (17 metres 35 centimetres), the 1976 Games (17 metres 29 centimetres). Three athletes were double winners in the Olympic men’s triple jump: Myer Prinstein of the US at the 1900 Games of the II Olympiad (14 metres 47 centimetres) and the 1904 Games of the III Olympiad (14 metres 35 centimetres), Adhemar Ferreira da Silva of Brazil at the 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad (16 metres 22 centimetres) and the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad (16 metres 35 centimetres); Józef Szmidt from Poland – at the

James Connolly statue in Joe Moakley Park in Southie.

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1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad (16 metres 81 centimetres) and the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad (16 metres 85 centimetres). And at the Olympic women’s triple jump competitions a two-time Olympic champion is Françoise Mbango Etone from Cameroon: she won at the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad (15 metres 30 centimetres) and the he 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad (15 metres 39 centimetres). etres). The current (as of early 2015) outdoorr world record in the men’s triple jump – 18 metres 29 centimetres – was set by a British athlete Jonathan Edwards ards in 1995. The current (as of early 2015) indoor world record in the men’s triple jump – 17 metres 92 centimetres etres – is now owned by Teddy Tamgho who showed this result in 2011. The world outdoor record holder in the e women’s triple jump is Inessa Kravets (Ukraine), whose se result – 15 metres 50 centimetres – shown twenty years ago in 1995 has not been beaten so far (as of 2015). 15). The current world indoor record in the e women’s triple jump (15 metres 36 centimetres) belongs ngs to Tatyana Lebedeva who showed this result in 2004..

Raymond (Ray) Ewry – an American athlete, one of the most renowned athletes of the world – an eight-time Olympic champion. The Olympic winner in the standing triple jump – in 1900, Paris – 10.58 metres (an Olympic record), in 1904, St. Louis – 10.54 metres.

At the 1900 Games in Paris Myer Prinstein from the United States became the Olympic champion in the triple jump with an approach run (14 metres 47 centimetres – olympic record) and was second in the running long jump (yielding the championship to Alvin Kraenzlein just by one centimetre). Four years later at the 1904 Games of the III Olympiad in St. Louis this American athlete was the champion in the triple jump event again (14 metres 33 centimetres) as well as in the long jump with an approach run (7 metres 34 centimetres), thus becoming a three-time Olympic champion.

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Gustaf Lindblom – a Swedish athlete, the champion in the triple jump – 14 metres 76 centimetres – at the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad.

1.

To what period do the first mentions in multiple-jump events trace back? А. The 8th century BC. B. The 7th century BC.

2.

A multiple jump was a part of the pentathlon in Ancient Greece. These jumps were performed with stone dumbbells (halteres) in hands of athletes according to a special technique. What were the results typically shown by Ancient Greek athletes? А. 16.66–17.76 m. B. 14.55–15.65 m.

3.

C. The 5th century BC. D. The 6th century BC.

C. 15.55–16.55 m. D. 13.50–14.50 m.

Triple jump competitions were a part of folk festivals in the Medieval Age. There is some information on the result of 13.26 metres shown by an Irishman Honslynn who defeated Scottish athlete named Peck. When was it? А. The end of the 8th century. C. The beginning of the 19th century. B. The mid-8th century. D. The mid-19th century.

Daniel Ahearn – an American athlete who set the first official world record in the triple jump – 15 metres 52 centimetres on May 30, 1911 later registered by the IAAF.

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4.

Where are the triple jump events held? А. On a road. B. On a running lane. C. On a grass stadium pitch. D. In the jumping sector.


5.

What is the minimum length of the runway track for the triple jump? А. 25 m. B. 50 m.

6.

From what object does the jump measurement start? А. A lane. B. A roller.

7.

C. 30 m. D. 40 m.

C. A take-off board. D. A plank.

Elizabeth Stein – an American athlete, the first world record holder in the women’s triple jump – 10 metres 32 centimetres (1922). The record was not ratified by the IAAF.

What is the special device built into the runway track used by a long or triple jumper for his/her take-off? А. A springboard. B. A special spring. C. A trampoline. D. A take-off board.

8.

What material is used for making a take-off board in the jumping sector? А. Wood. B. Metal.

9.

C. Ceramics. D. Shockproof glass.

What is the width of a take-off board? А. 20 cm. B. 25 cm.

C. 15 cm. D. 10 cm.

Anthony Winter – an Australian athlete, the world record holder in the triple jump – 15 metres 52 centimetres (1924).

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

The 8th century BC. 16.66–17.76 m. The end of the 8th century. In the jumping sector. 40 m. A take-off board. A take-off board. Wood. 20 сm.

10. When an athlete crosses the border line and his attempt is not credited, what do they call it? А. Overstepping. B. Overrunning.

C. Footfault. D. Out.

А. Переступание. А. Скачек. В. Заступ. В. Полет. 11. What object is placed on the measurement line and serves Б. Перебегание. Б. Шаг. for fixing a footfault? Г. Аут. Г. Прыжок. А. A rubber indicator. B. A glue indicator. С. A plasticine indicator. D. A silicon indicator.

Mikio Oda – a Japanese athlete, the first Olympic champion in the history of Japan. He gained the highest Olympic award in the triple jump at the 1928 Games of the IX Olympiad in Amsterdam (15 metres 21 centimetres). In 1964 at the Opening Ceremony of the Olympic Games in Tokyo the Olympic flag was raised to a height of 15 metres 21 centimetres as a token of gratitude to Oda’s achievement made 36 years earlier.

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12. What is the first element of the triple jump? А. The take-off. B. The hop.

C. The jump. D. The step.

13. What leg should an athlete use when first touching the ground behind the board? А. The other leg. B. The one used in the beginning of the jump. C. Doesn’t matter. D. The swing-up leg.


14. What is the second element of the triple jump? А. The hop. B. The step.

C. The flight. D. The jump.

Japanese athlete Chuhei Nambu won the competition in the triple jump, setting a world record of 15 metres 72 centimetres at the 1932 Games of the X Olympiad in Los Angeles.

15. What leg should an athlete use when touching the ground during the second element of the triple jump? А. Doesn’t matter. B. The same leg.

C. The other leg. D. The jumping leg.

16. What is the third element of the triple jump? А. The jump. B. The flight.

C. The landing. D. The step.

17. What differentiates the triple jump and the long jump sectors? А. The distance between the take-off board and the nearest edge of the landing zone. B. The distance between the nearest and the farthest edges of the landing zone. C. The length of the runway. D. The width of the runway.

A bronze statue dedicated to Kinue Hitomi in the city of Okayama

Kinue Hitomi – a Japanese athlete. In 1926 she took part in the II World Women’s Games in Göteborg (Sweden), where she won two gold medals in the long jump (with a world record) and in the standing jump, the silver medal in the discus throw, the bronze medal in the women’s 100-yard sprint as well as an honorary diploma as an athlete with the highest number of points. At the 1928 Games of the IX Olympiad she was the silver medallist in the women’s 800-metre race in Amsterdam. She was also the world record holder in the triple jump in 1926 (Harbin) – 11.62 metres. This record was not ratified by the IAAF.

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10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

Footfault. A plasticine indicator. The hop. The one used in the beginning of the jump. The step The other leg. The jump. The distance between the reeesst take-off board and the nearest ge of the landing landinnngg zone. edge

18. What is the distance between the take-off board and the sand pit (the landing zone) in the men’s triple jump? А. 13 m. B. 11 m.

C. 12 m. D. 14 m.

19. Is there any difference between the take-off board and the nearest edge of the landing zone in the men’s and women’s triple jump? А. Yes, there is. B. Yes there is, but it depends on the level of competitions. C. No, there isn’t. D. Yes there is, and it depends on athlete’s preferences.

20. What is the distance between the take-off board and the sand pit (the landing zone) in the women’s triple jump? А. 11 m. B. 13 m. At the 1936 Games of the XI Olympiad in Berlin the Olympic champion in the triple jump was Japanese athlete Naoto Tajima who set a world record of 16 metres 00 centimetres. This record exceeded the previous world achievement of Australian John Metcalfe (15 metres 78 centimetres) by 22 centimetres. Metcalfe mounted the third tier (with the result of 15 metres 50 centimetres) at those Games. Naoto Tajima also had the bronze medal in the long jump (7 metres 74 centimetres), after legendary James Owens of the USA (8 metres 06 centimetres) and Luz Long of Germany (7 metres 87 centimetres).

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C. 12 m. D. 14 m.

21. How many attempts are given to an athlete for making his triple jump in the competition finals? А. Three preliminary and three final. B. Three final. C. Three preliminary and one final. D. Two preliminary and one final.


22. What number of athletes enters tthe track-and-field finals in interna jumping disciplines at the international level? А. 7. B. 8.

C. 6. D. 5.

23. The wind speed influences greatly the level of competition results in the triple jump. Thus, in 1995 in the European Cup competitions Briton Jonathan Edwards took the longest in the history of a triple jump flight for 18.43 metres, but it was not ratified as a world record due to the favouring wind of 2.4 metres per second. Name the wind speed allowed for triple jump by the IAAF. А. 1.5 m.s-1. B. 1 m.s-1.

C. 2.0 m.s-1. D. 0.5 m.s-1.

24. The first unofficial world record in the triple jump was set by John Overland on November 14, 1839 in Canada. Name the athlete’s achievement. А. 13.24 m. B. 11.64 m.

C. 11.24 m. D. 12.24 m.

25. The thirteen metres were cleared 32 years later in 1871 by British athlete Harding. What was the athlete’s result? А. 13.33 m. B. 13.23 m.

C. 13.03 m. D. 13.13 m.

Brazilian athlete Adhemar Ferreira da Silva won two Olympic gold medals in the triple jump events: at the 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad in Helsinki a world record of 16 metres 22 centimetres brought him a champion title, and in Melbourne during the following 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad first place was guaranteed by an Olympic record of 16 metres 35 centimetres only (by that time the Brazilian already improved his world record up to 16 metres 56 centimetres).

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18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

13 m. Yes, there is. 11 m. Three preliminary and three final. 8. 2.0 m.s-1. 12.24. 13.33 m.

Leonid Shcherbakov – a Soviet athlete, the silver medallist at the 1952 Games of XV the Olympiad in Helsinki in the triple jump (15.98 metres). A two-time world record holder, the European champion in the triple jump in 1950 and 1954. He was included into the list of the world’s top 10 triple jumpers of all times published by the IAAF in 1987.

26. The fourteen metres in the triple jump were cleared in 1879 at the competitions in Cork. The author of this sensational jump exceeding previous world results by one metre was Irish athlete Daniel Looney. Name his result. А. 14 metres 33 centimetres. B. 14 metres 30 centimetres.

С. 14 metres 29 centimetres. D. 14 metres 25 centimetres.

27. The fifteen-metre line in the triple jump was cleared on May 7, 1887 by Irishman John Burcell. What was the athlete’s result? А. 15 metres 05 centimetres. B. 15 metres 03 centimetres.

С. 15 metres 11 centimetres. D. 15 metres 07 centimetres.

28. When was the men’s triple jump with an approach run introduced into the Olympic programme? А. 1900. B. 1904.

С. 1908. D. 1896.

29. Name the first Olympic champion in the triple jump. А. James Connolly (USA). B. Alexandre Tuffère (France). С. Ioannis Persakis (Greece). D. Alajos Szokolyi (Hungary).

Mary Bignal – a British athlete, the world record holder of 1959 – 12 metres 22 centimetres. The record was not ratified by the IAAF.

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30. What was the winning result of an athlete in the triple jump at the 1896 Games of the I Olympiad of the modernity? А. 13 metres 70 centimetres. B. 12 metres 70 centimetres.

С. 12 metres 52 centimetres. D. 13 metres 71 centimetres.

31. At the 1900 Games of the II Olympiad in Paris a new Olympic record was set in the triple jump with an approach run – 14.47 metres. Name its author. А. James Connolly (USA). B. Meyer Prinstein (USA). С. Lewis Sheldon (USA). D. Raymond Ewry (USA).

32. When were the standing triple jump competitions held at the Olympic Games? А. 1900, 1904. B. 1896, 1900.

С. 1896, 1904. D. 1900, 1908.

33. Who was the first Olympic champion in the standing triple jump? А. Irwin Baxter (USA). B. Robert Garrett (USA).

С. Lewis Sheldon (USA). D. Raymond Ewry (USA).

In Rome at the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in the triple jump events the then world record holder (17 metres 03 centimetres) Polish athlete Józef Schmidt became the champion, setting an Olympic record of 16 metres 81 centimetres. Four years later he repeated his triumph, having excelled at the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo with an Olympic record of 16 metres 85 centimetres (then a world record of the same athlete was 17 metres 03 centimetres). And thus he became a two-time Olympic champion.

34. Name the first Olympic record in the standing triple jump. А. 10 metres 58 centimetres. B. 11 metres 00 centimetres.

С. 10 metres 48 centimetres. D. 10 metres 38 centimetres.

Nelson Prudêncio – a Brazilian athlete, the Olympic silver medallist of 1968 Games of the XIX Olympiad in Mexico City in the triple jump (17 metres 27 centimetres), the bronze medallist at the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich with the result of 17 metres 05 centimetres. The world record holder (1968) in the triple jump.

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26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34.

14 metres 30 centimetres. 15 metres 11 centimetres. 1896. James Connolly (USA). 13 metres 71 centimetres. Meyer Prinstein (USA). 1900, 1904. Raymond Ewry (USA). 10 metres 58 centimetres. 35. The first official world record ratified by the t IAAF in the men’s triple jump was set on May 30, 1911 in New York. An athlete demonstrated the result of 15.52 metres. Name the first world record holder in the triple jump. А. Daniel Ahearn (USA). B. Anthony Winter (Australia). С. John Bresnihan (Ireland). D. Gustaf Lind (Sweden).

36. When did athletes manage to clear the 16 metres in the triple 3 jump? А. 1936. B. 1932.

С. 1926. D. 1916.

37. Who became the champion of the 1936 Games of the 3 XI Olympiad in Berlin in the triple jump, having cleared the 16 metres? And what was the exact result? А. Naoto Tajima (16.00 m). B. Masao Harada (16.02 m). С. John Metcalfe (16.01 m). D. Adhemar Ferreira Da Silva (16.35 m).

38. When were the 17 metres in the triple jump cleared for the 3 first time? А. 1960. B. 1956. Athlete from Georgia Viktor Saneyev (USSR) won his first Olympic gold medal in the triple jump at the 1968 Games of the XIX Olympiad in Mexico City, having set a world record of 17 metres 39 centimetres. The second Olympic victory came to this athlete at the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich (with the result of 17 metres 35 centimetres) and in the same 1972 he set a world record of 17 metres 44 centimetres. He won his third gold medal at the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal (17 metres 29 centimetres). A three-time Olympic champion Viktor Saneyev participated in his fourth Olympic Games in Moscow (1980), where he won the silver medal (with the result of 17 metres 24 centimetres).

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С. 1964. D. 1968.


39. Who landed behind the 17-metres, having shown the result of 17.03 metres? А. Jozef Schmidt. B. Vitold Kreyer.

С. Ira Davis. D. Viktor Saneyev.

40. When were the 18 metres in the triple jump cleared for the first time? А. 1995. B. 1985.

С. 2005. D. 1997.

41. Who was the first one to clear the 18 metres in the triple jump? А. Jonathan Edwards (18.29 m). С. Teddy Tamgho (18.04 m). B. Michael Conley (18.17 m). D. Kenny Harrison (18.06 m).

42. When did women start to compete in the triple jump? А. The beginning of the 20th century. B. The end of the 19th century. С. The mid-19th century. D. The beginning of the 19th century.

Giuseppe Gentile – an Italian athlete who specialized in the long jump and the triple jump. A participant at the Games of the XIX and XX Olympiads in the triple jump events. The bronze medallist at the 1968 Games of the XIX Olympiad in Mexico City in the triple jump (17 metres 22 centimetres). A two-time world record holder – 7 metres 10 centimetres and 17 metres 22 centimetres (1965). He was an Italian film actor and starred in the role of Jason in Medea – a film by P. P. Pasolini.

43. In 1909 an American female athlete S. Hand showed the result over eight metres in the triple jump. Name the exact measurement. А. 8 metres 8 centimetres. B. 8 metres 6 centimetres.

С. 8 metres 9 centimetres. D. 8 metres 7 centimetres.

Brazilian athlete João Carlos de Oliveira established an impressive world record in the triple jump – 17 metres 89 centimetres – in 1975 in Mexico City at the Pan American Games. This record exceeded the previous achievement of Soviet athlete Viktor Saneyev (17 metres 44 centimetres) by 45 centimetres. The Brazilian athlete was twice an Olympic medalist – in Montreal-1976 and Moscow-1980, but both times he got bronze. And in 1981 the athlete had a car accident, in which he lost both legs.

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35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43.

Daniel Ahearn (USA). 1936. Naoto Tajima (16.0 m.). 1960. Jozef Schmidt. 1995. Jonathan Edwards (18.29 m). Beginning of the 20th century. 8 metres 8 centimetres.

Galina Chistyakova – a Soviet athlete specializing in the long jump and the triple jump. The World Indoor Champion of 1989 (Budapest) in the long jump, a current world record holder (7.52 metres – 1988), the bronze medallist of the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul in the long jumping, a triple European champion in long jump (1985 – Athens, 1989 – the Hague, 1990 – Glasgow). In 1990 she won the gold medal of the European Championships in the triple jump.

44. On May 13, 1922 in Mamaroneck an American jumper Elizabeth Stine demonstrated the result exceeding 10 metres thus setting an unofficial world record. Name the length of her jump. А. 10 metres 10 centimetres. B. 10 metres 20 centimetres.

С. 10 metres 32 centimetres. D. 10 metres 00 centimetres.

45. In 1926 in Harbin 18-year old Kinue Hitomi from Japan showed the result over 11 metres. Name the exact figure. А. 11 metres 62 centimetres. B. 11 metres 40 centimetres.

С. 11 metres 20 centimetres. D. 11 metres 09 centimetres.

46. Thirteen years later on October 21, 1939 Rie Yamauchi upgraded the record of her fellow citizen. Name the record of the Japanese female jumper, which remained unbeaten for 20 years. А. 11 metres 60 centimetres. B. 11 metres 66 centimetres.

С. 11 metres 65 centimetres. D. 11 metres 67 centimetres.

47. The women’s triple jump events were suspended for many years. For what reason? А. Medical disposal. B. High risk of injury in the event. С. Low level of audience appeal. rmance difficulties in the discipline. D. Performance

Sheila Hudson – an American athlete. In 1987 she set two world records in the triple jump (not ratified by the IAAF).

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48. When did the women’s triple jump revival begin? А. The early1990’s. B. The early 1980’s.

С. The early 1970’s. D. The mid 1990’s.

49. The official ratification of world records in the women’s triple jump began in 1990. Name the first world record holder. А. Li Huirong (China). B. Iolanda Chen (Russia). С. Inessa Kravets (USSR, Ukraine). D. Anna Biryukova (Russia).

At the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul Bulgarian athlete Khristo Markov became the Olympic champion in the triple jump with an Olympic record (17 metres 61 centimetres).

50. Name the first official world record in the women’s triple jump. А. 14 metres 97 centimetres. B. 14 metres 44 centimetres.

С. 14 metres 54 centimetres. D. 14 metres 95 centimetres.

51. When did the triple jump become a part of the World Athletics Championships? А. 1983. B. 1985.

С. 1999. D. 1987.

In Atlanta at the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad American Kenny Harrison won the gold medal in the triple jump with an Olympic record (18 metres 09 centimetres).

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44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51.

10 metres 32 centimetres. 11 metres 62 centimetres. 11 metres 66 centimetres. Medical disposal. The early 1980’s. Li Huirong (China). 14 metres 54 centimetres. s. 1983.

52. Who W was the first world champion in the triple jump? А Willie Banks. А. B. Zdzislaw Hoffmann. B

С. Ajayi Agbebaku. D. Khristo Markov.

53. 53 3. What 3 W was the winning result in the men’s triple jump at the fir World Athletics Championships? first А 17 metres18 centimetres. А. B B. 17 metres31 centimetres. Iolanda Chen – a Russian athlete. The silver medallist at the 1993 World Athletics Championships in Stuttgart in the triple jump. The champion and the world record holder (indoors) in the triple jump (1995). The 1993 World Indoor Championships silver medallist. The world record holder of 1993 in the triple jump – 14 metres 97 centimetres.

С. 17 metres22 centimetres. D. 17 metres42 centimetres.

54. When W were women’s triple jump events introduced into the pr programme of the World Athletics Championships? А 1995. А. B B. 1997.

С. 1993. D. 1999.

55. What was the winning result in the women’s triple jump at the first World Athletics Championships? А. 15 metres 09 centimetres. B. 15 metres 00 centimetres.

С. 14 metres 95 centimetres. D. 14 metres 88 centimetres.

Ukrainian athlete Inessa Kravets – the Olympic champion of the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta in the triple jump (15 metres 33 centimetres) and the silver medallist in 1992 Games of the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona in the long jump. This athlete owns a world record in the triple jump of 15 metres 50 centimetres set in the Swedish Göteborg in 1995. It remains unbeaten up to this day.

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56. Both current world records in the men’s and women’s triple jump disciplines were set in 1995 in Göteborg. Name the record holders. А. Inessa Kravets and Jonathan Edwards. B. Tatyana Lebeva and Kenny Harrison. С. Anna Biryukova and Michael Conley. D. Elena Govorova and Yoelbi Quesada.

57. Name the most distinguished athlete in the history of long jumping – a three-time Olympic champion (1968, 1972 and 1976) and the silver medallist of the 1980 Games. А. Viktor Saneyev (USSR, Georgia). B. Giuseppe Gentile (Italy). С. Józef Szmidt (Poland). D. Nelson Prudêncio (Brazil).

Jonathan Edwards of the UK won the silver medal at the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta competing in the triple jump and at the 2000 Games in Sydney he became the Olympic champion (17 metres 71 centimetres). This athlete holds a world record in the triple jump – 18 metres 29 centimetres – set in 1995 in Göteborg (Sweden), still unbeaten.

58. A Polish athlete of the German origin who won two Olympic gold medals in the triple jump (1960, 1964), a two-time European champion in this discipline (1958, 1962). А. Józef Szmidt. wski. B. Robert Korzeniowski.

Anna Biryukova – a Russian athlete, the world champion of 1993 in Stuttgart in the triple jump (15.09 metres – a world record), the bronze medallist of the 1995 World Cup in Göteborg. The 1994 European champion in the triple jump in Helsinki.

С. Władysław Kozakiewicz. D. Jacek Bojan.

Yelena Govorova (Ukraine) – the bronze medallist of the 2000 Games of the ХХVII Olympiad in Sydney in the triple jump (14 metres 96 centimetres), the bronze medallist of the 1997 World Athletics Championships in Athens (14 metres 67 centimetres). A participant of the Games of three Olympiads (1996, 2000, 2004) and five consecutive World Athletics Championships (from 1995 to 2003).

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52. 53. 54. 55. 56.

Zdzislaw Hoffmann. 17 metres 42 centimetres. 1993. 15 metres 09 centimetres. Inessa Kravets and Jonathan Edwards. 57. Viktor Saneyev (USSR, Georgia). 58. Jozef Szmidt.

59. Name the best European Athlete of 2003 and 2004, a twotime world indoor champion and the world outdoor champion of 2003, the Olympic champion of 2004 in the triple jump. А. Christian Olsson. B. Phillips Idowu.

С. Jonathan Edwards. D. Jadel Gregorio.

60. Who owns the current Olympic records in the triple jump? А. Kenny Harrison (1996) and Francoise Mbango Etone (2008). B. Jonathan Edwards (1995) and Inessa Kravets (1995). С. Michael Conley (1992) and Anna Biryukova (1993). D. Teddy Tamgho (2013) and Yargelis Savigne (2009).

61. Name N the t current Olympic record set by an American athl lete in 1996. А. 18 metres 09 centimetres. B. 18 metres 00 centimetres.

С. 18 metres 04 centimetres. D. 18 metres 17 centimetres

62. A Cu Cuban athlete, a two-time world champion in the women’s ttrip jump, the world indoor champion, the winner of the triple Wo W Worlds Athletics Final (2007). А. Yargelis Savigne. А B Yamile Aldama. a. B.

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Nelson Évora – a Portuguese athlete. The champion of the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing in the triple jump, the world champion of 2007 in Osaka (17 metres 74 centimeters), the silver medallist of 2009 (Berlin) in the triple jump, the bronze medallist at the 2008 World Indoor Championships (17 metres 27 centimetres), the European indoor champion (2015, Prague).

С. Françoise Mbango g Etone. D. Yoelbi Quesada.


63. Name a three-time winner, a two-time silver medallist of the World Championships in the triple and long jumps, a participant of three Olympic Games who got the gold, 2 silver and 1 bronze medals in long jump, a three-time world indoor champion. А. Tatyana Lebedeva (Russia). B. Inessa Kravets (Ukraine). С. Françoise Mbango Etone (Cameroon). D. Olga Saladukha (Ukraine).

64. Name the first woman in the world who jumped behind the 15-metre line. When did it happen? А. Anna Biryukova (1993). B. Inessa Kravets (1995). С. Iva Prandzheva (1993). D. Tatyana Lebedeva (2004).

65. Name the first female World and European champion in the triple jump. А. Anna Biryukova. kovaa. B. Niurka Montalvo. talvo o.

С. Inessa Kravets. D. Iolanda Chen.

In Athens at the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad Françoise Mbango Etone of Cameroon won the gold medal in the triple jump (with an Olympic record of 15 metres 30 centimetres), and in Beijing at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad she excelled in this discipline again (with an Olympic record of 15 metres 39 centimetres), thus becoming a two-time Olympic champion.

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59. Christian Olsson. 60. Kenny Harrison (1996) andd Françoise Mbango Etone (2008). 61. 18 metres 09 centimetres. 62. Yargelis Savigne. 63. Tatyana Lebedeva (Russia).. 64. Anna Biryukova (1993). 65. Anna Biryukova. 66. Adhemar Ferreira Da Silva (Brazil). 67. Sweden, 1912. 68. 1996. 69. Inessa Kravets (Ukraine). 70. Jonathan Edwards – 18.29 m. 71. Inessa Kravets. 72. 15 metres 50 centimetres.

66. Name the only athlete in history who succeeded in setting five world records in the triple jump with an approach run. А. Daniel Ahearn (USA). B. Giuseppe Gentile (Italy). С. Adhemar Ferreira Da Silva (Brazil). D. Jonathan Edwards (Great Britain).

67. In more than a hundred-year modern Olympic history athletes of one country were four times successful in mounting the rostrum in the triple jump events. The fortune smiled upon athletes from the USA three times. Name the country, whose athletes managed to get the gold, silver and bronze medals thus occupying all tiers of the Olympic victory podium? А. USSR, 1980. B. Japan, 1936.

С. Sweden, 1912. D. USSR, 1988.

68 68. 8. When W en did the women’s triple jump become an Olympic disWh ciplinne cipline? А. 1992. 199 1 B. 1 99 1996.

Christian Taylor – an American athlete. The champion at the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London in the triple jump (17 metres 81 centimetres), the world champion of 2011 in Daegu, the World Indoor Championships silver medallist of 2012 in Istanbul, the 2014 world champion in the 4 x 100-metre relay in Nassau.

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С. 1988. D. 1984.


69. Who holds the title of the first Olympic champion in the women’s triple jump? А. Inessa Kravets (Ukraine). B. Inna Lasovskaya (Russia). С. Šárka Kašpárková (Czech Republic). D. Elena Govorova (Ukraine).

70. Name the owner of the world record and the record itself in the men’s triple jump. А. Phillips Idowu – 18.15 m. B. Christian Olsson – 18.24 m. С. Michael Conley – 18.17 m. D. Jonathan Edwards – 18.29 m.

71. The world record holder in the women’s triple jump has been a Ukrainian athlete for 20 years already. Name her. А. Inessa Kravets. B. Anna Biryukova.

С. Teresa Marinova. D. Tatyana Lebedeva.

Olga Rypakova – a Kazakhstan athlete specializing in the long jump, the triple jump and the combined events. The champion at the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London in the triple jump, the World Championships silver medallist of 2011 in Daegu in the triple jump, the world indoor champion of 2010 in Doha and the silver medallist of 2012 in Istanbul in the triple jump.

72. Name the length of the record jump performed by the Ukrainian female athlete. А. 15 metres 50 centimetres. B. 15 metres 20 centimetres.

С. 15 metres 30 centimetres. ntimetres. D. 15 metres 40 cen centimetres.

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H igh Jump Citius, Altius, Fortius. Adam Long. 2014. USA.

he high jump is an athletic event, a part of the track and field jumping group, which belongs to speed-power disciplines. The high jump is an exercise of overcoming the vertical space performed through taking-off with one leg. The men’s high jump (with an approach run) has been introduced into the Olympic programme since the 1896 Games of the I Olympiad in Athens. There the first Olympic champion in this discipline was Ellery Clark from the United States who showed the result of 1 metre 81 centimetres. The first world record holder in the high jump (with an approach run) at the beginning of the 20th century was George Horine (USA), whose result – 2 metres 0.5 centimetres – was later on registered by the IAAF founded in 1912. At the 1900 Games of the II Olympiad in Paris, at the 1904 Games of the III Olympiad in St. Louis, at the 1908 Games of the IV Olympiad in London and at the 1912 Games of V Olympiad in Stockholm the men’s high jump events were carried out both with an approach run and standing high jump.

T

The Youth. Aleksandr Deyneka. 1961–1962. USSR.

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The High Jumper. Beth Erez. 20 th cent. Israel.

The next world achievement (and an Olympic record) in the high standing jump was the result of 1 metre 65.5 centimetres shown by Raymond Ewry (USA) at the 1900 Games of the II Olympiad in Paris. Later – at the 1920 Games of the VII Olympiad in Antwerp and further on (nowadays) – high jump events were held only with an approach run. Women’s Olympic events in the high jump took place at the 1928 Games of the IX Olympiad in Amsterdam for the first time. There the first Olympic female champion in this track and field event was Ethel Catherwood (Canada), winning with the result of 1 metre 59.5 centimetres (the then world record). At the following 1932 Games of the X Olympiad in Los Angeles the owners of the world record – 1 metre 65 centimetres – were two athletes from the United States: Jean Shiley, who won a gold medal, and Mildred Didrikson who became a runner-up. The High Jump. Tom Parsons. 20th cent. USA.

The Olympic Sport. The High Jump. A sand sculpture. Baldrick Buckle. Netherlands.

The High Jump. Y. Titov. 20th Cent. USSR.

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Ritual Slavic jumping over a bonfire on a spring holiday. A drawing of 1854.

Ellery Clark (USA) – the first Olympic champion in high and long jumping disciplines.

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The holder of the world record in the women’s high jump was Francina Blankers-Koen from the Netherlands showing the result of 1 metre 71 centimetres in 1943. The first world champion in the men’s high jump was Ukrainian athlete Gennadiy Avdeyenko (USSR) who won in this event with the result of 2 metres 32 centimetres at the first World Athletics Championships held in 1983 in Helsinki (Finland). There and at the same time the first world female champion in the high jump was Russian athlete Tamara Bykova (USSR), winning with the result of 2 metres 01 centimetres. The current Olympic record in the men’s high jump is the result of 2 metres 39 centimetres set by Charles Austin (USA) at the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta. And the Olympic record in the women’s high jump – 2 metres 06 centimetres – now belongs to Elena Slesarenko (Russia) who excelled with this result at the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad in Athens. No athlete succeeded to became a double Olympic champion in the men’s high jump.


A Danish athlete jumps high (a demo of the 1908 Games programme).

But in the women’s high jump Olympic events two athletes managed to win twice. Iolanda Balaş from Romania became the Olympic champion at the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad (1 metre 85 centimetres) and at the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad (1 metre 90 centimetres). And Ulrike Meyfarth from Germany won in this event at the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad (1 metre 92 centimetres) and at the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad (2 metres 02 centimetres). The current (as of early 2015) world record (outdoor) in the men’s high jump – 2 metres 45 centimetres – was set in 1993 by Javier Sotomayor (Cuba). And the world indoor record in the men’s high jump – 2 metres 43centimetres – is now owned by the same Cuban athlete: this result was shown by Javier Sotomayor in 1989. The world record holder in the woman’s high jump (outdoor) is Bulgarian athlete Stefka Kostadinova, whose result of 2 metres 09 centimetres shown in 1987 remains unsurpassed to this day (as of early 2015). And the world indoor record in the women’s high jump – 2 metres 08 centimetres – was set by Kajsa Bergqvist (Sweden) in 2006. The result has not been improved since.

American athlete Raymond Ewryy entered the history off th the modern Olympic Games as an owner off eight d Ol i G i ht gold medals gained at three Olympic Games (and all of the eight awards were of the highest value in a variety of standing jumps). He was the first one in the standing high jump (1 metre 65.5 centimetres – a world record), in the standing long jump (3 metres 21 centimetres) and in the standing triple jump (10 metres 58 centimetres) at the 1900 Games of the II Olympiad in Paris. In St. Louis at the 1904 Games of the III Olympiad he was the champion in the standing long jump (3 metres 48 centimetres – a world record), in the standing triple jump (10 metres 54 centimetres) and in standing high jump (1 metre 50 centimetres). And at the 1908 Games of the IV Olympiad in London he championed in the standing long jump (3 metre 33.5 centimetres) and in the standing high jump (1 metre 57.5 centimetres).

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1. George Horine (USA) – the first world record holder in the high jump. May 18, 1912 (2.00 metres).

What competitions were borrowed from the ancient Germans, which became the prototype of the high jump? А. A “royal jump” over several standing horses. B. Clearing the bar after taking off a flat 12 to15-centimetre high stone. C. Clearing the height after taking off a small spring board. D. Jumping over a hedge.

2.

Name the jumping event, which had never been contested in the Ancient Greek Olympic programme. А. The long jump. B. The high jump.

3.

To what period do the first mentions of sports competitions in the high jump date back? А. The 18th century. B. The 17th century.

4.

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C. The 19th century. D. The 15th century.

The gymnastic high jump is a part of the world renowned gymnastics school. Name the school. А. The English school. B. The Swedish school.

Platt Adams (USA) – the winner of the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad in Stockholm in the standing high jump.

C. The pole vault. D. The triple jump.

C. The Sokol school. D. The German school.


5.

When did the first official high jump events take place? And where? А. 1864, England. B. 1866, America.

6.

The winner of the first official high jump competitions was Robert Mach. What height did he manage to clear? А. 1 metre 67 centimetres. B. 1 metre 87 centimetres.

7.

C. 1 metre 57 centimetres. D. 1 metre 77 centimetres.

A student from London Robert Gooch cleared the bar at 1 metre 70 centimetres in 1859, approaching the bar not at the right angle, but at the acute angle, so that the bar clearing style reminded a household utensil. А. Scissors. B. An press-iron.

8.

C. 1870, Sweden. D. 1867, Germany.

An American n athlete Harold d Osborn was first in the high jumpp with an Olympic record of 1 metree 98 centimetres (by that time thee athlete has had a world record of 2 metres 03 centimetres) tres) at the 19244 Games of the VIII Olympiad in n Paris. And Osbornee won his second d gold medal in decathlon hlon at the samee Games. 1924 Games s.

C. A fork. D. A knife.

Name the simplest technique of clearing the bar in the high jump. А. The scissors. B. The western roll.

C. The eastern cut-off. D. The Fosbury-flop.

An Olympic record in the high jump with an approach run (1 metre 93 centimetres) was set by American athlete Alma Richards in Stockholm at the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad, which brought him the gold champion’s medal.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

A “royal jump” over several standing horses. The high jump. The 19th century. The German school. 1864, England. 1 metre 67 centimetres. Scissors. The scissors. Upon her retirement from sports Olympic champion Jean Shiley became a successful artist. Jean Shiley’s painting: The Harvest.

9.

For how many years has the simplest technique of clearing the bar in the high jump existed? А. 500 years. B. 300 years.

C. 150 years. D. 100 years.

10. To what year had Robert Gooch’s style been used in the high jump? А. 1937. B. 1927.

C. 1928. D. 1932.

11. What is the highest (unofficial) world record set in the scissors technique? At the 1932 Games of the X Olympiad in Los Angeles two athletes from the United States Jean Shiley and Mildred Didrikson showed absolutely equal results of 1 metre 65 centimetres (then world record) in the women’s high jump. However, the judge declared only one of them – Jean Shiley – the Olympic champion, and the justification for that was not entirely clear.

А. 1 metre 93 centimetres. B. 2 metres 05 centimetres.

12. American Michael Sweeny is the inventor of a jumping technique, when an athlete clears the bar horizontally, not vertically. What is the name of this technique?

At the 1928 Games of the IX Olympiad in Amsterdam, where the Olympic programme first included women’s competitions, the victory in the high jump and a world record (1 metre 59.5 centimetres) belonged to Canadian athlete Ethel Catherwood.

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C. 2 metres 00 centimetres. D. 2 metres 04 centimetres.

А. The eastern cut-off. B. The western roll.

C. The Horine. D. The straddle.


13. What is the difference between the eastern cut-off and the previous technique? А. The direction of the approach run is almost perpendicular to the bar line and the bar is cleared in the horizontal projection. B. The approach is done at 30º to the bar. C. The take-off is done with the leg closest to the bar. D. The bar is cleared in the horizontal position with an athlete’s body turned sideways.

14. To what period had the eastern cut-off technique been used in the high jump? А. Up to the 1940s. B. Up to the 1970s.

C. Up to the 1960s. D. Up to the 1950s.

15. The world record holder of 1960’s Iolanda Balaş (Romania) jumped in the eastern cut-off style. Name her best jumping result. А. 1 metre 91 centimetres. B. 1 metre 90 centimetres.

C. 1 metre 88 centimetres. D. 1 metre 95 centimetres.

16. American athlete Jim Stewart proposed a new method of clearing the bar in the high jump, which was used by the majority of qualified athletes until the 1970s. Name it. А. The straddle. B. The western roll.

American athlete Alice Coachman won in the high jump with an Olympic record (1 metre 68 centimetres) at the 1948 Games of the XIV Olympiad in London.

C. The Stewart. D. The Fosbury flop.

At the 1936 Games athlete from the United States Cornelius Johnson, who at that time owned a world record in the high jump (2 metres 07 centimetres), was the strongest in this event in Berlin (with an Olympic record – 2 metres 03 centimetres), winning the gold medal.

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9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

150 years. 1937. 1 metre 93 centimetres. The eastern cut-off. The direction of the approach run is almost perpendicular to the bar line and the bar is cleared in the horizontal projection. 14. Up to 1960s. s.. 15. А. 1 metre 91 centimetres. 16. The straddle.

At the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad in Melbourne Charles Dumas from the United States won the gold medal in the high jump, having set an Olympic record – 2 metres 12 centimetres. The record was three centimetres inferior to the then world record of the same athlete (2 metres 15 centimetres).

17. In 1941 an American athlete Leo Steers set a world record in the high jump of 2 metres 11 centimetres using a new technique. Name the technique. А. The western roll. B. The straddle.

C. The scissors. D. The eastern cut-off.

18. He was a star in the high jump in the 1960s, a master of the straddle style, a six-time record holder. He succeeded in clearing the 2 metres 28 centimetres. At his own height of 185.5 centimetres this record jump was 42.5 centimetres higher than himself. Who was this athlete? А. Valeriy Brumel. B. Charles Dumas.

C. Robert Shavlakadze. D. John Thomas.

19. The last world record holder who used the straddle technique was Vladimir Yaschenko (USSR). What height did he manage to clear? А. 2 metres 35 centimetres. B. 2 metres 40 centimetres.

C. 2 metres 30 centimetres. D. 2 metres 32 centimetres.

20. A new high jump style was invented by 16-year old American athlete. This style brought the athlete an Olympic championship and a record with the result of 2 metres 24 centimetres. Name the athlete. А. Richard Fosbury. B. Edward Caruthers.

C. Reynaldo Brown. D. George Horine.

American Walter Davis excelled in the high jump and set an Olympic record (2 metres 04 centimetres) at the 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad in Helsinki.

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21. One of the jumping styles was named in an athlete’s honour. Which one? А. The Fosbury-flop. B. The Horine-flop.

C. The Osborn-flop. D. The Steers-flop.

22. American jumper Richard Fosbury demonstrated a new jumping style named in his honour. When did it happen? А. 1968, Mexico. B. 1972, Munich.

C. 1948, London, D. 1976, Montreal.

23. When did the competitions in the men’s high jump become an Olympic discipline? А. 1896. B. 1900.

C. 1904. D. 1908.

24. High jump has been a part of the Olympic programme starting from the I Games of the modernity (1896). Name the first Olympic champion in the high jump.

American athlete Mildred McDaniel won the competitions in the high jump at the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad in Melbourne. She set a world record – 1 metre 76 centimetres.

А. Ellery Clark (USA). B. James Connolly (USA). C. Robert Garrett (USA). D. Irving Baxter (USA).

25. What result became the first Olympic record in the high jump? А. 1 metre 81 centimetres. B. 1 metre 65 centimetres.

C. 1 metre 71 centimetres. D. 1 metre 70 centimetres.

Two athletes from the Soviet Union – Robert Shavlakadze and Valeriy Brumel – cleared the same height in the high jump at the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome – 2 metres 16 centimetres (an Olympic record). Judged by the number of attempts, Robert Shavlakadze got the first place and the gold medal. Valeriy Brumel took the second place in Rome, and the then world record holder (2 metres 23 centimetres) American John Thomas mounted the third tier (with the result of 2 metres 14 centimetres).

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17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

The straddle. Valeriy Brumel. 2 metres 35 centimetres. Richard Fosbury. The Fosbury-flop. 1968, Mexico. 1896. Ellery Clark (USA). 1 metre 81 centimetres.

The Olympic events in the high jump were successful for Romanian athlete Iolanda Balaş twice. At the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome she won with an Olympic record (1 metre 85 centimetres), which was only one centimetre inferior to her then world record (1 metre 86 centimetres). And at the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo she won again with an Olympic record (1 metre 90 centimetres), which was also only one centimetre less than her own world record (1 metre 91 centimetres) of that time.

26. The first Olympic champion in the high jump American Ellery Clark ended his performance with the result of 1.81 metres, setting the first Olympic record. At the II Olympic Games in Paris in 1900 two types of competitions in the high jump were held – standing and with an approach run. To what year had the Olympic events in the standing high jump been held? А. Until 1914. B. Until 1920.

C. Until 1924. D. Until 1928.

27. Who was the first Olympic champion in the standing high jump? А. Raymond Ewry. B. Irving Baxter.

C. Lewis Sheldon. D. Platt Adams.

28. What number of athletes competed in standing high jump at the 1900 Olympic Games? А. 7. B. 9.

C. 3. D. 5.

Two athletes – then world record holder (2 metres 28 centimetres) Valeriy Brumel (USSR) and John Thomas (United States) – showed an equal result – 2 metres 18 centimetres (an Olympic record) at the competitions in the high jump at the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo. Judged by the attempts spent, Valeriy Brumel was awarded the gold Olympic medal.

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29. The 1900 Olympic champion in the standing high jump set a world and Olympic record. Name the result of the jump. А. 1 metre 70 centimetres. B. 1 metre 65 centimetres.

C. 1 metre 60 centimetres. D. 1 metre 59 centimetres.

30. Name the athlete who won 8 Olympic gold medals and two medals of the 1906 Extracurricular Olympiad in the high, long and triple jumping disciplines. А. Irving Baxter (USA). B. Robert Garrett (USA).

C. Lewis Sheldon (USA). D. Raymond Ewry (USA).

31. The registration of world records in the high jump began in the IAAF founding year. When was it? А. 1910. B. 1912.

C. 1892. D. 1902.

A Polish athlete Jacek Wszoła won the gold medal with an Olympic record (2 metres 25 centimetres) in the high jump at the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal.

32. Who was the first record holder in the high jump? А. George Horine (USA). B. Alma Richards (USA). C. Egon Ericsson (USA). D. Ellery Clark (USA).

At the high jump events of the 1968 Games of the XIX Olympiad in Mexico American athlete Richard Fosbury demonstrated a completely new jumping style (later named after him – the Fosbury flop; since then and presently this technique has been used by most high jumpers), set an Olympic record of 2 metres 24 centimetres and won the gold medal.

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26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32.

Until 1914. Raymond Ewry. 3. 1 metre 65 centimetres. Raymond Ewry (USA). 1912. George Horine (USA).

33. What technique was used 33 d in in the world record rec d high jump? А. The scissors. B. The western roll.

C. The eastern cut-off. D. The straddle.

34. Name the first official world record in the high jump. А. 2 metres 00 centimetres. B. 1 metre 93 centimetres.

C. 1 metre 95 centimetres. D. 1 metre 91 centimetres.

35. When did the high jump become a part of the World Athletics Championships programme? А. 1985. B. 1987.

C. 1989. D. 1983.

36. Who was the first world champion in the high jump?? А. Igor Polkin (USSR, Russia). B. Rudolf Povarnitsyn (USSR, Ukraine). C. Javier Sotomayor (Cubа). D. Gennadiy Avdeyenko (USSR, Ukraine). The performance in the high jump of sixteen-year old German athlete, a schoolgirl from the FRG, Ulrike Meyfarth created a sensation in the athletics women’s competitions of the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich. She repeated her current world record (1 metre 92 centimetres) and won the title of the Olympic champion. And twelve years later – at the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles – the same Ulrike Meyfarth set an Olympic record (2 metres 02 centimetres) and won the second gold medal in her life.

In Moscow at the 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad in the high jump events Italian athlete Sara Simeoni, whose previous assets were the silver Olympic medal at the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal (with the result of 1 metre 91 centimetres) and a world record (2 metres 01 centimetres), finally became the Olympic champion clearing the bar at 1 metre 97 centimetres (an Olympic record). And at the following 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles Sara Simeoni won another Olympic medal in the high jump – the silver one.

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37. What was the winning result in the high jump at the first World Athletics Championships? А. 2 metres 35 centimetres. B. 2 metres 38 centimetres.

C. 2 metres 33 centimetres. D. 2 metres 32 centimetres.

38. Who owns the current world record in the men’s high jump? А. Patrik Sjö berg (Sweden). B. Javier Sotomayor (Cuba). C. Bogdan Bondarenko (Ukraine). D. Mutaz Essa Barshim (Qatar).

39. Name the record result in the men’s high jump achieved by the Cuban athlete in 1993, unbeaten as of now. А. 2 metres 45 centimetres. B. 2 metres 40 centimetres.

At the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in the high jump events a current world record holder (1 metre 96 centimetres) Rosemarie Ackermann (née Witschas) from the GDR won the gold medal with an Olympic record (1 metre 93 centimetres).

C. 2 metres 43 centimetres. D. 2 metres 42 centimetres.

40. What jumping style was typical for the current world record holder Javier Sotomayor? А. The Fosbury-flop. B. The western roll.

C. The scissors. D. The eastern cut-off.

East German athlete Gerd Wessig set a world record of 2 metres 36 centimetres in the high jump at the 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad in Moscow, which brought him the gold Olympic medal.

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33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40.

The western roll. 2 metres 00 centimetres. 1983. Gennadiy Avdeyenko (USSR, Ukraine). 2 metres 32 centimetres. Javier Sotomayor (Cuba). 2 metres 45 centimetres. The Fosbury-flop.

American athlete Louise Ritter competed in the high jump at the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul and won the gold medal, setting an Olympic record (2 metres 03 centimetres).

41. The high jump events are held in a special sector. What does this sector include? А. A runway zone and a sand pit. B. A runway zone, a take-off zone, heights and a horizontal bar, a landing area. C. A runway zone, a take-off board, a bar, foamed rubber mats. D. A runway zone, a springboard, a landing area.

42. What run-up path does an athlete follow when performing the Fosbury-flop? А. Straight. B. Semicircular.

C. Zigzagged. D. Arched.

43. What is the minimum length of the runway and the take-off area in the high jump? А. No less than 10 metres. B. No less than 15 metres.

C. No less than 20 metres. D. No less than 30 metres.

44. Does the width of the runway lanes in jumping disciplines differ from the width of the track lanes? If yes, then what is the difference? А. Yes. + 1 metre. B. Yes. + 1.5 metres.

Ukrainian athlete Gennadiy Avdeyenko (USSR) won the gold medal in the high jump, setting an Olympic record (2 metres 38 centimetres), at the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul.

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C. Yes. + 0.7 metre. D. No.


45. Outline the dimensions of the landing area in the high jump sector. А. No less than 6 х 4 metres. B. No less than 4 х 5 metres.

C. No less than 6 х 5 metres. tres. tres. D. No less than 6 х 6 metres.

46. What was the landing zone in the high jump sector like ke before the 1960s? А. A sandpit. B. A grass court.

C. A water pit. D. A cinder surface.

47. When were the rubber foamed mats first used in thee landing zone in the high jump sector? А. In the 1970s. B. In the 1940s.

C. In the 1980s. D. In the 1960s.

48. How many attempts are allotted to an athlete at each height? А. 2. B. 3.

C. 1. D. 4.

49. Is an athlete allowed to shift unused attempts to the next height? А. Yes. B. For a limited number of times during the competitions. C. One attempt only. D. No.

Bulgarian athlete Stefka Kostadinova was the silver medallist in Seoul at the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad. And at the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta she became the Olympic champion (2 metres 05 centimetres). She holds the current world record in this athletic discipline (2 metres 09 centimetres) set in 1987 in Rome and still unbeaten.

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41. A runway zone, a take-off zone, heights and a horizontal bar, a landing area. 42. Semicircular. 43. No less than 20 metres. 44. No. 45. No less than 6 х 4 metres. 46. A sandpit. 47. In the 1960s. 48. 3. 49. Yes.

Russian athlete Elena Slesarenko set an Olympic record in the high jump (2 metres 06 centimetres) at the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad in Athens, which brought her the gold medal.

50. Who determines the height raise in the high jump events? А. Athletes. B. Trainers.

C. Judges. D. Managers.

51. What is the minimum raise of the bar allowed in the competitions? А. No less than 5 centimetres. B. No less than 4 centimetres.

C. No less than 3 centimetres. D. No less than 2 centimetres.

52. Outline the distance between the bar heights. А. 3 metres. B. 4 metres.

C. 5 metres. D. 4 metres 50 centimetres.

53. 53 3. Name N the obligatory take-off requirement during a high ju attempt. jump А. A one-leg take-off. B. A two-leg take-off. C. A one-leg take-off from the springboard. D. A two-leg take-off from the springboard.

Cuban athlete Javier Sotomayor became the Olympic champion (with the result of 2 metres 34 centimetres) in the high jump at the 1992 Games of the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona. And at the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney he won the silver medal (with the result of 2 metres 32 centimetres). He holds the current world record (2 metres 45 centimetres) set in 1993 and still unsurpassed.

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54. How does a judge declare a successful attempt? А. By raising a red flag. B. By raising a white flag. C. By raising a white card. D. By raising the flag of a country, where competitions are held.

55. Athletes of what country were the leaders in the men’s ’s hi high gh jump in the first half of the 20th century? А. Germany. B. Italy.

C. USA. D. Great Britain.

56. What number of world records in the men’s high jump mp was w ratified by the IAAF? А. 30. B. 40.

C. 50. D. 60.

57. Out of forty world records ratified by the IAAF six of them belonged to one athlete. Name him.

Svetlana Shkolina – a Russian high jumper, the bronze medallist of the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad, the 2013 world champion in Moscow.

А. Javier Sotomayor (Cuba). B. John Thomas (USA). C. Valeriy Brumel (USSR). D. Dwight Stones (USA).

Kamila Lićwinko – a Polish high jumper, the world indoor champion in 2014 in Sopot.

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50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57.

Judges. No less than 2 centimetres. 4 metres. A one-leg take-off. By raising a white flag. USA. 40. Valeriy Brumel (USSR). 58. The first world record in the women’s high jump was registered by the International Women’s Sports Federation. When did it happen? А. 1920. B. 1924.

C. 1922. D. 1928.

59. Who became the first world record holder in the women’s high jump? And when? А. Jean Shiley (USA). B. Phyllis Green (Great Britain). C. Ethel Catherwood (Canada). D. Nancy Vorhees (USA).

Stefan Holm – a Swedish athlete, the champion at the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad in Athens (2 metres 36 centimetres), the silver medallist of the 2003 World Cup in Paris (2 metres 32 centimetres), a fourtime world indoor champion in the high jump in 2001, 2003, 2004 , 2008: 2 metres 32 centimetres, 2 metres 35 centimetres (twice) and 2 metres 36 centimetres respectively. A two-time European indoor champion in 2005, 2007: 2 metres 40 centimetres and 2 metres 34 centimetres respectively.

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60. What was the result of the first world record holder (women) in 1922? А. 1 metre 40 centimetres. B. 1 metre 46 centimetres.

C. 1 metre 50 centimetres. D. 1 metre 60 centimetres.

61. What female athlete succeeded in setting 14 world records (so far inaccessible for the rest) out of 56 registered in these events? А. Stefka Kostadinova. B. Tamara Bykova.

C. Rosemarie Ackermann. D. Iolanda Balaş .

Patrick Sjöberg – a Swedish high jumper, the 1984 Olympic silver medallist in Los Angeles (2 metres 33 centimetres), the silver medallist (2 metres 34 centimetres) of the 1992 Games of the XXV Olymppiad in Barcelona, the bronze medallist of the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul (2 metres 36 centimetres), the 1987 world champion in Rome (2 metres 38 centimetres), the world indoor champion of 1985 in Paris (2 metres 32 centimetres), the silver (1993) and the bronze (1989) medallist at the World Indoor Championships. A fourtime European indoor champion (1985–1992) in the high jump.


62. Who cleared the 1 metre 60 centimetres inn the women’s high jump? And when? А. Lien Gisolf (Netherlands), 1929. B. Ethel Catherwood (Canada), 1926. C. Phyllis Green (Great Britain), 1925. D. Jean Shiley (USA), 1932.

63. Who cleared the 1 metre 70 centimetres in the women’s high jump? And when? А. Fanny Blankers-Koen (Netherlands), 1943. B. Mildred Didrikson (USA), 1932. C. Dorothy Odam (Great Britain), 1939. D. Esther van Heerden (SAR), 1941.

Mutaz Essa Barshim – a Qatari athlete, the bronze medallist at the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London in the high jump (2 metres 29 centimetres). The World Championships silver medallist in 2013 in Moscow (2 metres 38 centimetres). The 2014 World Indoor champion in Sopot (2 metres 38 centimetres). The 2011 champion of Asia 2011 in the high jump (2 metres 35 centimetres). A double champion of the 2010 Asian Games, Guangzhou – 2 metres 27 centimetres; 2014, Incheon – 2 metres 35 centimetres. The winner of the 2014 Asian Indoor Championship in Hangzhou – 2 metres 36 centimetres.

64. Who cleared the 1 metre 80 centimetres in the women’s high jump? And when? А. Zheng Fengrong (China), 1957. B. Mildred McDaniel (USA), 1956. C. Iolanda Balaş (Romania), 1958. 6. D. Thelma Hopkins (Great Britain), 1956.

65. Who cleared the 1 metre 90 centimetres etres in the women’s wom men’s high jump? And when? А. Ulrike Meyfarth (FRG), 1972. B. Ilona Gusenbauer (Austria), 1971. C. Iolanda Balaş (Romania), 1961. D. Yordanka Blagoeva (Bulgaria), 1973..

Maria Kuchina – a Russian high jumper. The winner of the Youth Olympic Games in 2010 (1 metre 89 centimetres). The 2014 World Indoor champion in Sopot. The winner of the 2014 Diamond League. The European indoor champion of 2015 in Prague.

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58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74.

1922. Nancy Vorhees (USA). 1 metre 46 centimetres. Iolanda Balaş. Lien Gisolf (Netherlands), 1929. Fanny Blankers-Koen (Netherlands), 1943. Iolanda Balaş (Romania), 1958. Iolanda Balaş (Romania), 1961. 1928. Ethel Catherwood (Canada). 1 metre 59 centimetres. Rosemarie Ackermann (GDR), 1977. 1983. Tamara Bykova (USSR). 2 metres 01 centimetres. 2.09 m, Stefka Kostadinova ova va (Bulgaria). 1987.

Bogdan Bondarenko – a Ukrainian high jumper. The world champion of 2013 with a new record for the World Championships (2 metres 41 centimetres). The European Champion of 2014 in Zurich in the high jump.

66. When did women’s high jumping events become an Olympic discipline? А. 1920. B. 1924.

C. 1928. D. 1932.

67. Who became the first Olympic female champion in the high jump? А. Ethel Catherwood (Canada). B. Lien Gisolf (Netherlands). C. Mildred Didrikson (USA). D. Jean Shiley (USA).

68. The first Olympic female champion in the high jump set a 6 record in this event. What was this record? А. 1 metre 59 centimetres. B. 1. metre 60 centimetres.

C. 1 metre 61 centimetres. D. 1 metre 56 centimetres.

69. Name the first female high jumper who managed to clear 6 the 2-metre bar. And when did she do this? А. Rosemarie Ackermann (GDR), 1977. B. Sara Simeoni (Italy), 1976. C. Yordanka Blagoeva (Bulgaria), 1978. D. Ulrike Meyfarth (FRG), 1976.

70. When were the women’s high jumping events introduced into 7 the programme of the Worlds Athletics Championships? А. 1983. B. 1987.

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C. 1989. D. 1985.

Kajsa Bergqvist – a Swedish high jumper, the bronze medallist at the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney (1 metre 99 centimetres). The 2005 world champion (2 metres 02 centimetres), a two-time Olympic medallist of 2001 and 2003 at the World Championships in the high jump (1 metre 97 centimetres and 2.00 metres). A two-time world indoor champion of 2001 and 2003 (2.00 metres and 2 metres 01 centimetres respectively). A two-time European indoor champion in Munich-2002 (1 metre 98 centimetres) and in Ghent-2000 (2.00 metres). The bronze medallist at the 2006 European Championships in Göteborg (2 metres 01 centimetres), the silver medallist at the 2002 European Indoor Championships in Vienna (1 metre 95 centimetres).


71. Who became the first world champion in the women’s high jump? А. Tamara Bykova (USSR). B. Lyudmila Andonova (Bulgaria). C. Ulrike Meyfarth (FRG). D. Sara Simeoni (Italy).

72. What was the winning result in the women’s high jump at the first Worlds Athletics Championships? А. 2 metres 03 centimetres. B. 2 metres 00 centimetres.

C. 2 metres 05 centimetres. D. 2. metres 01 centimetres.

73. Name the current record and the record holder in the women’s high jump?

Anna Chicherova – a Russian high jumper, the champion of the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London – 2 metres 05 centimetres, the bronze medallist in Beijing in 2008 – 2 metres 03 centimetres. The 2011 world champion in Daegu (2 metres 03 centimetres), a two-time silver medallist of the World Championships in 2009 in Berlin (2 metres 02 centimetres) and in 2007 in Osaka (2 metres 03 centimetres), the bronze medallist of the 2013 World Championships in Moscow (1 metre 97 centimetres).

А. 2.06 m, Elena Slesarenko (Russia). B. 2.09 m, Stefka Kostadinova (Bulgaria). C. 2.08 m, Blanka Vlaš ić (Croatia). D. 2.07 m, Lyudmila Andonova (Bulgaria).

74. When did the Bulgarian high jumper set her world record unbeaten as of today (2015)? А. 1987. B. 1989.

C. 1985. D. 1991.

Ivan Ukhov – a Russian high jumper, the champion of the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London (2 metres 38 centimetres), the 2010 world indoor champion (2 metres 36 centimetres), the silver medallist of 2014 in Sopot and the bronze medallist of 2012 in Istanbul, a two-time European indoor champion of 2009 and 2011 (2 metres 32 centimetres and 2 metres 38 centimetres respectively), the silver medallist in 2010 Barcelona and the bronze medallist in 2014 Zurich of the European Athletics Championships.

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P ole Vault he pole vault is a track and field event classified as jumping, belonging to speed-power disciplines in athletics. Poles are elements of sports equipment used as an aid to jump over a bar. The IAAF rules allow the use of poles of any length and diameter, made of any material or combination of materials. The main surface of a pole should be smooth; the location of the grip and its lower edge can be covered with an adhesive tape or other suitable material to protect it. The men’s pole vault with a running start was introduced into the Olympic programme in 1896 in Athens. The first Olympic champion in this event was William Hoyt from the United States with the result of 3 metres 30 centimetres. In the late 19th – early 20th centuries vaulting poles were made of stiff wood such as beech or cedar. Using wooden poles athletes overcame the height from 3 metres 30 centimetres to 3 metres 95 centimetres (at the1896 Games of the I Olympiad in Athens) and then at the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad in Stockholm for the first time the 4-metre height was cleared by Marcus Wright from the United States (4 metres 02 centimetres – a world record).

T

A depiction of various stages of bull-leaping.

The Bull-Leaper. Ivory. Early Late Minoan I, 1550 BC. Heracleio, the Archeological Museum.

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In the 20s – 40s of the 20th century the basic material for poles became more flexible (in comparison with previous wooden poles). It was bamboo. With a bamboo pole the world's best pole vaulter of the first half of the 20th century Cornelius Warmerdam (USA) who showed his high achievements in 1940–1944, the period when no Olympic Games were held because of World War II. During this period (1940–1942) this American athlete improved pole vaulting world record three times: 4 metres 60 centimetres; 4 metres 72 centimetres and 4 metres 77 centimetres (this record set in 1942 had remained unbeaten for 15 years and was broken only in 1957). At the European Athletics Championships in 1946 the Swedish athletes were the first to use metal poles (Swedish pole vaulter Allan Lindberg became the European champion of that year with the result of 4 metres 17 centimetres).

Bull-leaping: a mural from Knossos Palace. Late Minoan period, mid. 15th cent. BC. Heracleio, the Archeological Museum.

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The Pole Vault in German Schools. 18th cent.

The late 50s of 20th century saw the first models of relatively light poles made of synthetic material such as fibreglass, which was very flexible (initially used in aircraft and space technologies). Pole vault athletes have successfully used fibreglass since 1961. A world record in the pole vault events with the use of such poles improved from 4 metres 80 centimetres to 6 metres 14 centimetres within 33 years (1961–1994). The first world champion in the pole vault was Ukrainian athlete Sergey Bubka (USSR), who was the winner in these athletic events (clearing 5 metres 70 centimetres) in 1983 at the first World Championships held in Helsinki (Finland). Later Sergey Bubka also won in 1987 at the II World Championships in Rome (5 metres 85 centimetres), in 1991 at the III World Championships in Tokyo (5 metres 95 centimetres), in 1993 at the IV World Championships in Stuttgart (6 m 00 centimetres), in 1995 at the V World Championships in Göteborg (5 metres 92 centimetres), in 1997 at the VI World Championships in Athens (6 metres 01 centimetres). In 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad Bubka competed at the Seoul Games and won his only Olympic gold medal clearing 5.90 metres (an Olympic record). At the World Indoor Championships Sergey Bubka was the champion in 1985 (5 metres 75 centimetres), in 1987 (5 metres 85 centimetres), in 1991 (6 metres 00 centimetres), and in 1995 (5 metres 90 centimetres). During 1984–1994 Bubka set 17 world outdoor records (from 5 metres 85 centimetres to 6 metres 14 centimetres)

Pole Vault. Hornsy Wood. 1861.

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and 18 world records at indoor competitions (from 5 metres 81 centimetres to 6 metres 15 centimetres). Sergey Bubka was listed in the Guinness Book of Records for the largest number of world achievements in athletics. The first women’s pole vault world champion was Stacy Dragila from the USA. She won clearing 4 metres 60 centimetres (a world record) at the VII World Athletics Championships held in Seville in 1999. The Olympic debut of the women’s pole vault competitions took place at the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney. There the first Olympic champion in this event was Stacy Dragila (USA) with the result of 4 metres 60 centimetres – an Olympic record (her own world record for that time was 4 metres 63 centimetres). Russian pole vaulter Yelena Isinbayeva is a two-time Olympic gold medallist at the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad in Athens (4 metres 91 centimetres, a world record) and at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in

German scientist Johann Christoph Guts Muths in "Gymnastic fur die Jugend" (1793) allocates vaulting as a mean of physical training in education.

The father of the modern pole vault – Johann Christoph Friedrich Guts Muths

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The pole vault winner at the 1896 Games of the I Olympiad in Athens was William Hoyt from the United States (3 metres 30 centimetres). Representatives from Harvard at the 1896 Games of the I Olympiad: standing – T.E. Burke, Thomas Curtis, Ellery Clark. Seated: W.W. Hoyt, Sumner Paine, Trainer John Graham, John B. Paine, Arthur Blake.

Beijing (5 metres 05 centimetres, a world record). She won the World Championships held in 2005 (5 metres 01 centimetres, a world record) and in 2007 (4 metres 80 centimetres), as well as at several world indoor championships. In 2003 – 2009 Yelena Isinbayeva set 15 world records at outdoor events (from 4 metres 82 centimetres to 5 metres 05 centimetres) and 13 world records at indoor competitions (from 4 metres 81 centimetres to 5 metres 01 centimetres) in 2004–2012. The current Olympic record in the men’s pole vault is the height of 5 metres 97 centimetres cleared by Renaud Lavillenie, a French athlete who won at the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London. And the current Olympic record in the women’s pole vault – 5 metres 05 centimetres – belongs to Yelena Isinbayeva. She won at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing. The record remains unbeaten. In the men’s competitions the only two-time Olympic gold medal winner in the pole vault is Robert Richards (USA) who won in 1952 (4 metres 55 centimetres and in 1956 (4 metres 56 centimetres). Among female pole vault jumpers it is Yelena Isinbayeva (Russia) who was twice an Olympic champion at the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad (4 metres 91

Irving Baxter was an American athlete who won the gold medal in both pole vaulting (3 metres 30 centimetres) and men’s high jumping (1 metres 90 centimetres) at the 1900 Games of the II Olympiad in Paris He also took the second place in all three standing jumping events (long, triple, and high).

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centimetres) and the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad (5 metres 05 centimetres). The current (2015) world record in the outdoor men’s pole vault of 6 metres 14 centimetres was set in 1994 by Sergey Bubka (Ukraine). And the world record in the men’s indoor pole vault of 6 metres 16 centimetres belongs to Renaud Lavillenie from France. He achieved this result in 2014 by breaking Sergey Bubka’s previous record (6 metres 15 centimetres). The world record holder in the women’s outdoor pole vault events is Yelena Isinbayeva (Russia), whose result of 5 metres 06 centimetres, shown in 2009, remains unsurpassed by now (2015). The world record in the women’s indoor pole vault events of 5 metres 02 centimetres was set by Jenn Suhr from the United States, who showed this result in 2013.

Edward Cook

An Olympic record in the pole vault (3 metres 50 centimetres) was set at the 1904 Games of the III Olympiad in St. Louis by American Charles Dvorak.

Alfred Gilbert

A rather th unusuall case occurredd at the 1908 Games of the IV Olympiad in London. During the pole vault event two Americans Edward Cook and Alfred Gilbert showed exactly the same result of 3 metres 71 centimetres (an Olympic record) and had the same number of attempts. So both athletes were awarded the gold Olympic medals.

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1.

One of the four jumping events of the track and field disciplines, the most technically complicated. A. The pole vault. B. The triple jump.

2.

C. The high jump. D. The long jump.

A pole was used by people from ancient times. What for? A. To overcome obstacles. B. To have a rest C. For hostilities. D. To pick fruit from tall trees or to get food

3.

What means, the prototype of the modern sports equipment, was used by people to overcome obstacles? A. A stick. B. A spear.

4.

B. A crook. D. A paddle.

Did the pole vault events take place in Ancient Greece? A. Yes. B. Yes, more than 3000 years ago. C. No. D. It is not known.

Frank Foss, an American athlete who competed in the men’s pole vault at the 1920 Games of the VII Olympiad, set a world record of 4 metres 09 centimetres and won the gold medal.

Harry Babcock was an American pole vaulter who won the gold medal at the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad, setting an Olympic record at 3 metres 95 centimetres.

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5.

Was the pole vault introduced into the Olympic Games programme in Ancient Greece? A. Yes. B. No.

6.

C. Yes, up to 408 BC. D. Yes, after 520 BC.

Pole vault competitions were held in Ancient Greece and Rome, by the Celts and ancient Egyptians. What type of event or activity was the prototype of an ancient pole vault?

American athlete Sabin Carr at the 1928 Games of the IX Olympiad in Amsterdam won in the pole vault events, setting an Olympic record of 4 metres 20 centimetres.

A. Tumbling through the bulls (Crete). B. The pole vaulting (landes) for walking on the moors (Northern France). C. The pole vaulting over a hedge (England). D. The pole vaulting over a moat (England).

7.

When did the first pole vault event take place? A. The beginning of the 19th century. B. The end of the 19th century. C. The middle of the 19th century. D. The beginning of the 20th century.

8.

Who set the first recorded result in the pole vault of 2 metres 44 centimetres? A. John Roper. B. William Hoyt.

C. Albert Tyler. D. Evangelos Damaskos.

US athlete William Miller became the Olympic champion in the pole vault at the 1932 Games of the X Olympiad in Los Angeles, and the victory was ensured by an Olympic record of 4 metres 31 centimetres.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8.

Pole vault. To overcome obstacles. A stick. Yes. No. The pole vaulting (landes) for walking on the moors (Northern France). The middle of the 19th century. John Roper.

9.

When was the pole vault record of 2 metres 44 centimetres registered? A. 1843. B. 1883.

C. 1863. D. 1893.

10. In 1886 the European Championships in Jumping was held in an island state. Which state was it? A. Cyprus. B. Crete.

C. United Kingdom. D. Corsica.

11. The pole vault has been introduced into the Olympic programme among track and field events since 1896. Only five athletes representing two countries, the USA and Greece, took part in it. The winner was an American athlete with the result of 3 metres 30 centimetres, which was the first Olympic record. What was his name? Earl Meadows of the USA set an Olympic record in the pole vault (4 metres 35 centimetres) and won the gold medal at the 1936 Games of the XI Olympiad in Berlin.

A. William Wills Hoyt (USA). B. Albert Tyler (USA). C. Evangelos Damaskos (Greece). D. Ioannis Teodoropoulos (Greece).

12. When were the common rules of the pole vault events worked out, and when did the official registration of world records begin? A. 1900. B. 1896.

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American athlete Robert Richards became a two-time Olympic champion in the pole vault, winning the 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad in Helsinki (with an Olympic record of 4 metres 55 centimetres) and at the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad in Melbourne (with an Olympic record of 4 metres 56 centimetres).

C. 1904. D. 1912.


13. The 13 Th first official world record of 4 metres 02 centimetres was registered in 1912. Who set it? A. Mark Wright (USA). B. Frank Nelson (USA). C. Harry Babcock (USA). D. Frank Murphy (USA).

14. Where are the pole vault events held? A. In the sector for pole vaults. B. In the sector for high jumps. C. In the sector for vertical jumps. D. In the sector for horizontal jumps.

15. What are the parts of the pole vault sector? A. The runway, the box for the pole plant, and the pit for landing. B. The runway and the landing pit. C. The landing pit and the box for the pole plant. D. The box for the pole plant and the pit for landing.

The holder of a world record in the pole vault Donald Bragg, an American athlete set an Olympic record (4 metres 70 centimetres), which brought him the gold medal, at the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome.

16. What is the minimum length of the runway in the pole vault? vault? A. 20 metres. B. 25 metres.

C. 30 metres. D. 40 metres.

okyo the th hen a world At the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo then rederick Hansen Haansen won record holder (5 metres 28 centimetres) American Frederick etres 10 centimetres). cen ntimetres). the gold medal and set an Olympic record (5 metres

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9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

1843. United Kingdom. William Wills Hoyt (USA). 1912. Mark Wright (USA). In the sector for pole vaults. The runway, the box for the pole plant, and the pit for landing. 16. 40 metres. 17. What is the width of the runway in the pole vault? A. 1 metre 22 centimetres. B. 1 metre 50 centimetres.

C. 1 metre 75 centimetres. D. 2 metres 00 centimetres.

18. What is the distance between the heights? A. 5 metres. B. 3 metres.

C. 4 metres. D. 4.5 metres.

19. Of what size is the landing pit at the international pole vault events? A. 5 x 5 metres. B. 6 x 6 metres.

C. 5.5 x 5.5 metres. D. 7 x 7 metres.

20. There are many competitive tactics in the pole vault. Name the two main tactics used in the competitions.

Brian Sternberg was a world record holder in the pole vault. He set three world records using a new type of a pole made of fibreglass.

A. To skip the height and to put off attempts. B. To choose the initial height and to put off an attempt for the next height. C. To choose the number of heights to be cleared in the competition and to skip attempts. D. To strive to clear the bar at the first attempt and to skip attempts.

21. The pole vault requires an extraordinary endurance and is one of the most durable events in the track and field sectors. How long does it usually last? A. 1.5 hours. B. 2.00 hours.

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C. 0.5 hours. D. Many hours.

John Pennel (USA) was a seven-time world record holder in the pole vault (1963–1966).


22. The pole vault can be divided into four main phases. Name them. A. The runway, the take-off (includes planting the pole), the support of the jump, the unsupported flight. B. The runway, the take-off, the flight, landing. C. The runway, the take-off, hanging, landing. D. The runway, the take-off, the push up, the jump over the bar.

23. What pole vault phase in its support is performed after the push-up? A. Hanging on a pole. B. Landing.

C. Flying over the bar. D. Planting the pole.

24. What is the length of the modern competitive pole? A. 4.6 metres. B. Any.

C. 5 metres. D. 5.3 metres.

25. What is the weight of the modern competitive pole? A. 2.5–3.5 kg. B. Optional.

C. 2.7–3 kg. D. 3.0–3.5 kg.

26. How many attempts is an athlete given at each height in the pole vault? A. 2 B. 3.

C. 4. D. 1.

Robert Gutowski (USA) won the silver medal at the 1956 Games of the IX Olympiad in Melbourne in 1956, he was a two-time world record holder (1957) and set records using an aluminium pole.

27. What is the minimum height increase during pole vault events? A. 1 centimetre. B. 2 centimetres.

C. 3 centimetres. D. 5 centimetres.

John Uelses (USA) was a world record holder in the pole vault (1962 – 4 metres 89 centimetres) and one of the first jumpers to use a fibreglass pole.

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17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

23. 24. 25. 26. 27.

1 metre 22 centimetres. 4.5 metres. 6 х 6 metres. To skip the height and to put off attempts. Many hours. The runway, the take-off (includes planting the pole), the support of the jump, the unsupported flight. Hang on a pole. Any. Optional. 3. 5 centimetres.

28. Who determines 28 d tee the height increase in the pole vaulting competitions? A. Athletes. B. Judges.

C. A coach. D. Audience

29. In what way does a judge mark a successful attempt of a pole vaulter? A. By raising a white flag. B. By light signals (green). C. By beeps. D. By raising a red flag.

30. Is a jumper’s attempt considered successful if the bar drops after the white flag is raised? A. Yes. B. No. C. Yes, if the bar was blown away by the wind. D. Yes, if an athlete left the landing pit before the bar dropped.

31. Can an athlete make another attempt if the pole is broken during the execution of a vault? A. Yes, but only at the next height. B. Yes, it is not considered a failure. C. No. D. Yes, if the Chief Judge permits. Cornelius Warmerdam (USA) – a seven-time world record holder in the pole vault (1940–1942), he set records with the use of a bamboo pole.

32. When did the rules, which prohibited holding or pushing the bar back onto the pegs while jumping over appear? A. 1896. B. 1912.

C. 1904. D. 1889.

Japanese athletes Shuhei Nishida and Sueo Ōe were winners of the 1936 Games of the XI Olympiad in Berlin. When Earle Meadows (USA) broke an Olympic record clearing 4 metres 35 centimetres and won the gold medal, the second place was to be contested by the Japanese athletes. They refused to compete. The result was determined by drawing a lot: Nishida was placed second and Ōe third. Both athletes showed the same result of 4 metres 25 centimetres. Upon returning home to Japan the athletes sawed their medals into two parts exchanging the halves and cast new medals half silver and half bronze.

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33. What is the only IAAF official discipline in which the indoor world record is higher than the outdoor one? A. The 200-metre race. B. The high jump.

C. The long jump. D. The pole vault.

34. What material was used for making of the first poles? A. Wood. B. Bamboo.

C. Iron. D. Steel.

George Varoff (USA), a world record holder in the pole vault (1936).

35. What kind of wood was preferred in the manufacture of the first poles? A. Lime. B. Ash.

C. Acacia. D. Oak.

36. What material was often used to make lighter and more elastic poles? A. Bamboo. B. Aluminium.

C. Hickory. D. Beech.

37. Bamboo poles often broke, their characteristics changed frequently depending on weather conditions. What time (maximum) did bamboo poles serve? A. 2 seasons. B. 1 season.

C. 0.5 of a season. D. 2 months.

Bill Sefton, an American athlete, a three-time world champion (1937) in the pole vault (4 metres 45 centimetres, 4 metres 48 centimetres, 4 metres 54 centimetres).

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28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37.

Judges. By raising a white flag. Yes. Yes, it is not considered a failure. 1904. Pole vault. Wood. Ash. Bamboo. 2 seasons.

38. The pole vault technique with the use of a wooden inflexible pole differed from the modern one. After the takeoff an athlete passed hanging, and with a powerful swing he carried his body over the bar, then behind the bar, and left the inflexible tool. What maximum result was achieved in this way? A. 4 metres 77 centimetres. B. 4 metres 50 centimetres.

C. 4 metres 72 centimetres. D. 4 metres 90 centimetres.

39. Wooden poles were extremely uncomfortable. They determined the technique of clearing the height. The world rep pol vault with the use of wooden poles was cord in the pole se by American athlete Cornelius Warmer4.77 metres set w it established? dam. When was A. 1942. B. 1952.

C. 1962. D. 1932.

40. For the first time tim metal poles were used at the European Championships in 1946. Who did it? Championships A. The Swedish Swed dish athletes. B. The British Britissh aathletes.

C. The French athletes. D. The American athletes.

41. A famous American Ame athlete, priest, nicknamed The Flying Robert Richards won the Olympic Games twice, Pastor, Robert pol When did it happen? p using metal poles. A. 1948, 1952. 195 52. B. 1952, 1956. 195 56.

Sun Caiyun (China) – a threetime world record holder in the pole vault (1992–1995).

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Tatiana Grigorieva (Australia) – the Olympic silver medallist at the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney and the bronze medallist at the 1999 World Pole vault Championship in Seville.

C. 1956, 1960. D. 1952, 1960.


42. Two-time Olympic champion, nicknamed The Flying Passal tor, Robert Richards won the Olympic Games, using metal poles. What results did he achieve at the Olympic Games inn Helsinki and in Melbourne? A. 4.55 m and 4.56 m. B. 4.45 m and 4.50 m.

C. 4.35 m and 4.40 m. D. 4.52 m and 4.54 m.

43. The world record set with the use of a wooden pole in 1942 2 remained unbeaten for 15 years. A metal pole allowed an outstanding athlete to surpass Cornelius Warmerdam’s record by 1 centimetre in 1957. Who did it? A. Robert Gutowski (USA). B. Robert Richards (USA). C. Georgios Roubanis (Greece). D. George Mettos (USA).

Thierry Vigneron (France) – a five-time world record holder (1980–1984), the pole vault Olympic bronze medallist at the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles.

44. What was the record height achieved in the pole vault with metal poles? This record was set by American athlete Robert Bragg in 1960. A. 4. metres 80 centimetres. B. 4. metres 78 centimetres.

C. 4. metres 79 centimetres. D. 4 metres 89 centimetres.

45. It was at the Olympic Games when the first samples of plastic poles that revolutionized jumping were presented. When did this happen? A. 1960, Rome. B. 1964, Tokyo.

C. 1968, Mexico City. D. 1972, Munich.

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38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45.

4 metres 77 centimetres. 1942. Swedish athletes. 1952, 1956. 4.55 m и 4.56 m. Robert Gutowski (USA). 4 metres 80 centimetres. 1960, Rome.

46. What kind of a composite material consisting of glass fibre filler bound by thermoplastic polymers is used for modern poles production? A. Fibreglass. B. Glass.

C. Premix. D. Phenoplast.

47. How much has the world record increased since the use of plastic poles (in 34 years of their use)? A. By 2 metres 34 centimetres. C. By 2 metres 30 centimetres. B. By 2 metres 20 centimetres. D. By 2 metres 32 centimetres. In the pole vault event at the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich Wolfgang Nordwige from East Germany (who previously had bronze at the 1968 Games of the XIX Olympiad in Mexico-city) was the first. He set an Olympic record of 5 metres 50 centimetres.

48. What was the first world record set with the use of a fibreglass pole? And who established it? A 4 metres 83 centimetres – George Davis (USA), 1961. B. 4 metres 82 centimetres – John Uelses ( USA), 1962. C. 4 metres 90 centimetres – Dave Tork (USA), 1962. D. 4 metres 92 centimetres – Pentti Nikula (Finland), 1962.

49. The first samples of plastic poles were presented in Rome 4 in 1960 and they revolutionized this track and field discipline. In 34 years the result increased from 4.80 metres up to 6.14 metres. Fibreglass poles are capable of bending so that the arrow deflection in a five-metre pole reaches .... centimetres. How many? A. 100–130 centimetres. B. 80–90 centimetres.

In Mexico City at the 1968 Games of the XIX Olympiad three athletes: the then world record holder (5 metres 41 centimetres) American Robert Seagren, West German athlete Klaus Schiprovski and East German athlete Wolfgang Nordwig cleared the bar at the same height of 5 metres 40 centimetres (an Olympic record). By the number of attempts used, the Olympic gold medal was awarded to Robert Seagrove. And at the next 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich this American won the silver medal.

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C. 50–70 centimetres. D. 78–80 centimetres.


50. The four-metre mark in the pole vault was cleared in 1912 by Mark Wright. Name the athlete and the year when he cleared the 5-metre height. A. Brian Sternberg (USA), 1963. B. John Pennel (USA), 1963. C. Pentti Nikula (Finland), 1962. D. Dave Tork (USA), 1962.

51. What is the name of an American athlete who managed to set 7 world records in the pole vault in 1963? A. John Pennel. B. Brian Sternberg.

C. Dave Tork. D. Ronald Morris.

52. What is the name of an American athlete, the hero of the 70s, the Olympic champion of 1968, the silver medallist of 1972, a six-time world record holder in the pole vault. A. Robert (Bob) Seagren. B. John Pennel.

C. Paul Wilson. D. Brian Sternberg.

53. Athletes of two countries had dominated globally in the pole vault until 1942. They set 32 world records. What are these countries? A. United States, Canada. B. Norway, Sweden.

C. United States, Norway. D. United States, Great Britain.

At the 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad in Moscow Polish athlete Władysław Kozakiewicz became the champion in the pole vault setting a world record of 5 metres 78 centimetres.

54. What country’s athletes were absolute leaders in the most technically complicated discipline of the track and field athletics – pole vault– for over 20 years, from 1957 to 1980? A. The GDR. B. The United States.

C. France. D. Sweden.

In Montreal at the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad there were three pole vaulters who cleared 5 metres 50 centimetres (an Olympic record): the then world record holder (5 metres 70 centimetres) American David Roberts, Pole Tadeusz Ślusarski and Finn Antti Kalliomäki. By the number of attempts used, the Olympic champion was Polish athlete Tadeusz Ślusarski. At the next 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad in Moscow he won silver. T. Ślusarski died in 1998 in a car accident.

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46. Fibreglass. 47. 2 metres 34 centimetres. 48. 4 metres 83 centimetres – George Davis (USA), 1961. 49. 100–30 centimetres. 50. Brian Sternberg (USA), 1963. 51. John Pennel. 52. Robert (Bob) Seagren. 53. The United States, Norway. 54. The United States.

55. How many world records in the pole vault were established by twenty American athletes in 23 years of their dominance on the world stage (from 1957 to 1980)? A. 26. B. 30.

C. 20. D. 46.

56. The hero of the 1980 Games in Moscow was a Polish ath5 lete, a two-time world champion of 1980 in the pole vault. Name him. A. Wladyslaw Kozakiewicz. B. Tadeusz Slusarski. C. Mariusz Klimchik. D. Robert Gutowski.

57. When did Sergey Bubka set his first world record. What 5 was the result? A. 1984 — 5.85 m. B. 1983 — 5.87 m.

C. 1984 — 5.88 m. D. 1984 — 5.90 m.

58. What is the name of a French pole vaulter who set 5 world 5 records in the 1980s? A. Thierry Vigneron. B. Pierre Quinon.

Daniela Bartova (the Czech Republic) – a tenfold world record holder in the pole vault. All her records were set within one year of 1995.

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C. Jean Galfon. D. Philippe Collet.


59. Who was the first to clear the 6-metre height in the pole vault? And when? A. Sergey Bubka, 1985. B. Thierry Vigneron, 1984. C. Rodionov Gataullin 1986. D. Okkert Brits 1985.

60. Sergey Bubka’s colleague, Soviet athlete Rodion Gataullin became the second athlete in history to clear the 6-metre mark in the pole vault. How many years passed between Bubka’s and Gataullin’s records? A. 4 years. B. 1 year.

C. 0.5 year. D. 3 years.

61. How many athletes managed to clear the 6-metres in the pole vault (by 2015)? A. 17. B. 15.

C. 10. D. 5.

Emma George (Australia) set eleven world records in the pole vault (1995–1999).

62. In what year did Japanese athletes Suhei Nishida and Sueo Ōe show the same result of 4.25 metres in the pole vault and were honoured with the Olympic podium? A. 1948. B. 1932.

C. 1936. D. 1938.

63. When did American pole-vaulters manage to occupy the entire Olympic podium? A. 1904, 1912, 1924, 1928. B. 1908, 1912, 1920, 1932. C. 1904, 1920, 1924, 1932. D. 1904, 1928, 1932 ,1948.

Svetlana Feofanova (Russia) – the silver medallist of the 2004 Games of the ХХVIII Olympiad in Athens (4 metres 75 centimetres), the bronze medallist of the 2008 Games of the ХХIX Olympiad in Beijing (4 metres 75 centimetres), the 2003 world champion (4 metres 75 centimetres), the 2003 world indoor champion (4 metres 80 centimetres). In 2004 she set a world record (4 metres 88 centimetres) at the events in Heraklion.

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55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63.

46. Wladyslaw Kozakiewicz. 1984 – 5.85 m. Thierry Vigneron. Sergey Bubka, 1985. 4 years. 17. 1936. 1904, 1912, 1924, 1928. 64. It doesn’t often happen in the Olympic history for athletes of one country to take the whole podium. The American pole vaulters did it 4 times in the first half of the twentieth century. Say when and who repeated this triumph in the second half of the twentieth century. A. 1988. Sergey Bubka, Rodion Gataullin, Grigoriy Yegorov (USSR). B. 1980. Wladyslaw Kozakiewicz, Tadeusz Slusarski, Mariusz Klimchik (Poland). C. 1964. Wolfgang Reinhardt, Klaus Lehnertz, Manfred Preussger (the combined team of Germany). D. 1988. Thierry Vigneron, Philippe Collet, Jean Galfon (France).

65. When were the first competitions in the pole vault held at the World Athletics Championships (IAAF)? A. 1983. B. 1976.

C. 1912. D. 1936.

66. Who became the first world champion in the pole 6 ole vault? A. Tarev Atanas (Bulgaria). B. Sergey Bubka (USSR). C. Tadeusz Slusarski (Poland). D. Konstantin Volkov (USSR).

Prominent Ukrainian athlete Sergey Bubka – the Olympic champion in the pole vault at the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul (with an Olympic record of 5 metres 90 centimetres), a six-time world champion (1983, 1985, 1987, 1991, 1995, 1997), a four-time world indoor champion (1985, 1987, 1995, 1994). He was the first athlete to clear the height of 6 metres. In 1984–1994 he set 17 outdoor world records (from 5 metres 85 centimetres to 6 metres 14 centimetres) and 18 indoor world records (from 5 metres 81 centimetres to 6 metres 15 centimetres) and was registered in the Guinness World Records Book for the largest number of world records (35) in athletics. Only not so long ago Bubka’s world indoor record was beaten by France’s Renaud Lavillenie who cleared 6.16 metres on 15 February 2014 in Donetsk. Bubka’s world outdoor record in the pole vault (6 metres 14 centimetres) established in 1994 has not been beaten until now. Today Sergey Bubka is the Vice-President of the IAAF.

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67. With what result did the Ukrainian athlete win the World Championships? A. 5 metres 80 centimetres. B. 5. metres 75 centimetres.

C. 5 metres 70 centimetres. D. 5 metres 65 centimetres.

68. How many times in a row did Sergey Bubka manage to win the IAAF World Championships? A. 3. B. 6.

C. 4. D. 5.

Frenchman Jean Galfione became the Olympic champion in the pole vault at the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta with the Olympic record (5 metres 92 centimetres).

69. How many world records did Sergey Bubka set during his sports career? A. 18. B. 17.

C. 20. D. 35.

70. What is the current world record in the outdoor pole vault and who set it? A. 6.14 m – Sergey Bubka. B. 6.16 m – Sergey Bubka.

C. 6.15 m – Sergey Bubka. D. 6.04 m – Sergey Bubka.

71. When was the current world record in the outdoor pole vault set? A. 1994. B. 1993.

C. 1996. D. 2000.

At the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney the programme of the Olympic athletics events included the women’s pole vault for the first time. And the first Olympic champion in this event was the then world record holder (4 metres 63 centimetres) American Stacy Dragila (with an Olympic record of 4 metres 60 centimetres).

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64. 1988. Sergey Bubka, Rodion Gataullin, Gregory Yegorov (USSR). 65. 1983. 66. Sergey Bubka (USSR). 67. 5 metres 70 centimetres. 68. 6. 69. 35. 70. 6.14 m. – Sergey Bubka. 71. 1994.

Maxim Tarasov is a Russian pole vaulter. He became the Olympic champion of 1992 in Barcelona (5 metres 80 centimetres), the bronze medallist of 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney (5 metres 90 centimetres). He also was the world champion of 1999 in Seville (6 metres 02 centimetres), a two-time silver medallist (1995 and 1997), a two-time bronze medallist (1991 and 1993). He won the European Pole Vault Championship in 1998 in Budapest.

72. By whom and when was the first world indoor record in the pole vault installed? A. Thierry Vigneron, 1985 B. Vasiliy Bubka, 1985 C. Sergey Bubka, 1985 D. Rodion Gatatullin, 1985

73. Who and when was the first world indoor champion in the pole vault? A. Thierry Vigneron, 1985 B. Vasily Bubka, 1985 C. Sergey Bubka, 1985 D. Rodion Gatatullin, 1985

74. How many world indoor records in the pole vault have been 74 hi established in history? A. 7. B. 6.

C. 5. D. 4.

75 75. 5. There are seven world records set in the pole vault. Six of t legendary Sergey Bubka. When did Serthem belong to the h 6th world indoor record? gey Bubka set his Đ?. 1996. B. 1993.

Nick Hysong is an American athlete, the 2000 Olympic champion in the pole vault in Sydney (5 metres 90 centimetres). He was third at the 2001 World Championships.

Yevgeniy Lukyanenko is a Russian pole vaulter. He was the silver medallist at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing, and the world indoor champion in the pole vault (2008, Valencia).

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C. 1995. D. 1994.


76. On February 15, 2014 in Donetsk (Ukraine) the 29-year record of Sergey Bubka was beaten by French athlete Renaud Lavillenie. What was Renaud’s result, with which he set a new world indoor record? А. 6 metres15 centimetres. B. 6 metres16 centimetres.

C. 6 metres17 centimetres. D. 6 metres18 centimetres.

77. When did women begin to take part in the World Athletics Championships? А. 1922. B. 1928.

C. 1983. D. 1912.

78. When were the women’s pole vault events introduced into the programme of the World Athletics Championships? А. 1983. B. 1985.

C. 1989. D. 1999.

Brad Walker is an American pole vaulter. Walker was one of the few athletes of our time who conquered the height of 6.04 metres. The main contender for the gold medal in the pole vault at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing.

79. Who was the first female world champion in the pole vault? А. Stacy Dragila (USA). B. Anzhelika Balakhonova (Ukraine). C. Tatiana Grigorieva (Australia). D. Zsuzsanna Szabo (Hungary).

80. What was the first winning result in the women’s pole vault at the World Athletics Championships? А. 4 metres 60 centimetres. B. 4 metres 55 centimetres.

C. 4 metres 69 centimetres. D. 4 metres 50 centimetres.

Lawrence Johnson is an American athlete, the silver medallist of 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney in the pole vault (5 metres 90 centimetres).

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72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80.

Sergey Bubka, 1985. Sergey Bubka, 1985. 7. 1993. 6 metres 16 centimetres. 1983. 1999. Stacy Dragila (USA). 4 metres 60 centimetres.

Australian athlete Steven Hooker at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing won the competition in the pole vault with an Olympic record (5 metres 96 centimetres).

81. When was the first world record in the women’s pole vault set? А. 1992. B. 1993.

C. 1983. D. 1985.

82. Who was the first world record holder in the women’s pole vault? А. Sun Caiyun (China). B. Zhong Guiqing (China). C. Daniela Bártová (Czech Republic). D. Andrea Müller (Germany).

83. What is the first world record in the women’s pole vault? А. 4 metres 07 centimetres. B. 4 metres 10 centimetres.

C. 4 metres 00 centimetres. D. 4 metres 05 centimetres.

84. A female athlete, a participant of the 1992 Games in Barcelona as a member of the united European team in artistic gymnastics, who set 10 world records in the pole vault in 1995. Name her. А. Daniela Bártová (Czech Republic). B. Andrea Müller (Germany). C. Yvo Yvonne Buschbaum (Germany). D. Val Vala Flosadottir (Iceland).

85. Name Nam me an Australian female athlete, an eleven-time world record holder in the pole vault? record А. Em Emma George. B. Tat Tatiana Grigorieva.

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C. Melanie Adams. D. Kym Howe.

French athlete Renaud Lavillenie at the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London excelled in the pole vault, setting an Olympic record of 5 metres 97 centimetres. On February 15, 2014 in Donetsk this French athlete cleared 6 metres 16 centimetres (indoor) that was one centimetre higher than the previous record of 6 metres 15 centimetres set by Sergey Bubka.


86. When did the women’s pole vault become a part of the Olympic programme? А. 1996, Atlanta. B. 1992, Barcelona.

C. 2000, Sydney. D. 1988, Seoul.

87. Who was the first Olympic champion in the women’s pole vault? А. Tatiana Grigorieva (Australia). B. Daniela Bártová (Czech Republic). C. Stacy Dragila (USA). D. Yvonne Buschbaum (Germany).

Timothy Mack – an American pole vaulter. The champion of the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney in the pole vault with an Olympic record of 5 metres 95 centimetres.

88. Name the first Olympic record in the women’s pole vault. А. 4 metres 60 centimetres. B. 4 metres 62 centimetres.

C. 4 metres 63 centimetres. D. 4 metres 65 centimetres.

89. Who is a ten-time world record holder, the Olympic champion of 2000, a triple world indoor champion (1997, 1999, 2001) in the women’s pole vault? А. Stacy Dragila. B. Jennifer Suhr.

C. Emma George. D. Yelena Isinbayeva.

90. Who was the first one to clear the 5-metres in the women’s pole vault? And when? А. Jennifer Suhr (USA), 2006 B. Yelena Isinbayeva (Russia) 2008 C. Tatiana Grigorieva (Russia), 2000 D. Daniela Bártová (Czech Republic), 1995

Russian athlete Yelena Isinbayeva is a two-time Olympic champion in the pole vault at the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad in Athens (with a world record of 4 metres 91 centimetres) and at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing (with a world record of 5 metres 05 centimetres) as well as the bronze medallist of 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London (4 metres 70 centimetres). She was the first ever female pole vaulter to overcome the 5-metres. She is a three-time world outdoor champion and a four-time world indoor champion. In 2003–2009 she set 15 world records outdoors (from 4 metres 82 centimetres to 5 metres 06 centimetres) and in 2004–2012 – 13 world records indoors (from 4 metres 81 centimetres to 5 metres 01 centimetres). In total, this athlete set 28 world records. The world record (5 metres 06 centimetres) set by Isinbayeva in 2009 in Zurich (Switzerland) has not been broken until now.

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81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97.

1992. Sun Caiyun (China). 4 metres 05 centimetres. Daniela Bártová (Czech Republic). Emma George. 2000, Sydney. Stacy Dragila (USA). 4 metres 60 centimetres. Stacy Dragila. a) Yelena Isinbayeva (Russia) 2008. Svetlana Feofanova. Yelena Isinbayeva (Russia) a) – 5 metres 06 centimetres. 2009. Yelena Isinbayeva. Gold. Jennifer Suhr (USA). No limitations.

Jenn Suhr is an American athlete, the champion of the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London in the pole vault (4 metres 75 centimetres). She was the Olympic silver medallist in the pole vault in 2008, and the World Indoor Championship silver medallist in 2008 .

91. A Russian female pole vaulter, a two-time world record holder, the silver medallist of the 2004 Olympic Games, the 2001 world champion, the 2001 world indoor champion, the 2003 world champion, the 2003 world indoor champion, a multiple winner of the Continental Cups, European Championships and Cups. Name her. А. Svetlana Feofanova. B. Yelena Isinbayeva.

C. Tatiana Grigorieva. D. Anzhelika Balakhonova.

92. Name the female world record holder in the pole vault and her current record. А. Svetlana Feofanova (Russia) – 4 metres 64 centimetres. B. Stacy Dragila (USA) – 4 metres 81 centimetres. C. Yelena Isinbayeva (Russia) – 5 metres 06 centimetres. D. Jennifer Suhr (USA) – 5 metres 02 centimetres.

93. When did the Russian female pole vaulter set a world record in the pole jump, which is effective as of today? А. 2007. B. 2010.

Fabiana Murer is a Brazilian B pole vaulter. A two-time world champion haampion in the pole vaultt in 20111 in Daegu with 4 metres etrres 85 centimetres and in n 2010 in Doha with 4.82 metres metres (indoors). In 2014 she s won the Pole Vault Stars event e with the result of 4 metres 62 centimetres. F. Murer Mu urer is a winner of the Diamond Diiamond League in 2014.

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C. 2012. D. 2009.


94. A two-time female world record holder, a two-time champion (2004, 2008) and the silver medallist (2012) of the Olympic Games, a triple world champion and a four-time world indoor champion. Name her. А. Yelena Isinbayeva. B. Jennifer Suhr.

C. Stacy Dragila. D. Svetlana Feofanova.

95. During competitions Yelena Isinbayeva keeps to a certain tactics: her first height is for warming-up, her second height is victorious and her third height is record-making. Upon the athlete’s request the company-pole manufacturer Spirit makes a multi-coloured wrapping of her pole. For her starting height Isinbayeva picked pink and for her winning height – blue. What colour is the wrapping on her record pole? А. Platinum. B. Gold.

Yarisley Silva is a Cuban pole vaulter. The silver medallist at the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London, the bronze medallist at the 2013 World Championships. The winner of the Pole Vault Stars event in 2013 with the result of 4 metres 78 centimetres.

C. Purple. D. The Russian tricolour.

96. Name the 2012 Olympic female champion, the silver medallist of the 2008 Games, the holder of the world indoor record of 5 metres 02 centimetres in the pole vault set in 2013? А. Jennifer Suhr (USA). B. Yelena Isinbayeva (Russia).

C. Yarisley Silva (Cuba). D. Jennifer Stuczynski (USA).

97. What number of poles does an athlete use in the international level competitions? А. 3. B. 12.

C. 10. D. No limitations.

Martina Strutz – a German athlete specializing in the pole vault, the World Championships silver medallist in 2011 in Daegu.

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T hrowing The Discus Thrower. Goliardo Padova. 1934. Italy.

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The Javelin Thrower. Bronze. Karl Möbius. 1921. Germany.

he track and field throwing group relates to the power-speed disciplines and now includes such distance throwing events (men and women) as: • the discus throw; • the shot put; • the hammer throw; • the javelin throw. The Olympic track and field programme has included men’s events in the discus throw and the shot put since the 1896 Games of the I Olympiad in Athens, the hammer throw – since the 1900 Games of the II Olympiad in Paris, the javelin throw – since the 1908 Games of the IV Olympiad in London. The women’s events had the following sequence of inclusion: the discus throw – the 1928 Games of the IX Olympiad in Amsterdam, the javelin throw – the 1932 Games of the X Olympiad in Los Angeles, the shot put – the 1948 Games of the XIV Olympiad in London, the hammer throw – the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney. The programme of the World Athletics Championships has included the men’s events in the discus throw, the shot put, the hammer throw and the javelin throw since the first World Championships (1983, Helsinki). The women’s events in the discus throw, the shot put and the javelin throw have also been staged since the first World Championships (1983, Helsinki), but the hammer throw event was included at the seventh World Championships (1999, Seville).

T

The Hammer Throw. Thomas Holland. 1966. USA.


The Discus. Michael Creese. 2014. USA.

Javelin throwing. M. Manizer. 1927. USSR.

Master of Sport Y. Sedykh. M. Langleben. 1978.USSR. Shot putting. Bronze. A. Deyneka. 1957. USSR.

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S hot Put

A youngster is training in lifting weights. Red-figure ceramics (a fragment). 500 BC. Warzburg, Martin Von Wagner Museum.

he shot put is a field event for men and women. Athletes compete to see which of them can throw (put) a heavy metal ball (shot) the farthest into the landing sector. The modern athletic shot is a smooth ball made of iron, brass or any other metal not softer than brass, or with a surface of such metal filled with lead or other solid natural material. The men’s shot weight is 7.260 kilograms (the diameter is 110–130 mm), the women’s shot weight is 4.0 kilograms (the diameter is 95–110 mm). The men’s shot put events have been introduced into the Olympic programme since the 1896 Games of the I Olympiad in Athens. There the first Olympic champion in the shot put was Robert Garrett (USA) who put the shot at 11 metres 22 centimetres. At the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad in Stockholm the programme of the competitions included both the shot put and the two-handed shot put, where the winner was determined by the sum of each results. The first world record in the shot put registered by the IAAF in 1912 was the result of 15 metres 54.5 centimetres, which Ralph Rose (USA) showed in 1909.

T

David. Michelangelo Buonarotti. 1501–1504. Florence, the Academy of Fine Arts.

A lithograph from the book of H. Mercurialis – The Art of Gymnastics. 1587. Venice.

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A statue of a victorious young man. 450 BC. Bronze. The George Ortiz Collection. Geneva.


Аn antique bronze figurine of a young man practicing in throwing.

The Shot Put 2. Ken Druse, 1980. USA.

The Shot Put. Kostas Iliadis. 1950. Greece.

And the first record holder in the women’s shot put was French athlete Violette Gouraud-Morris who put the shot at 10 metres 15 centimetres in 1924. The Olympic competitions in the women’s shot put took place at the 1948 Games of the XIV Olympiad in London for the first time. There the first Olympic champion in the shot put was Micheline Ostermeyer from France, whose then Olympic record of 13 metres 75 centimetres brought her victory at the Games. Now the Olympic record in the men’s shot put is the winning result of 22 metres 47 centimetres belonging to Ulf Timmermann from the German Democratic Republic who won the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul. The Olympic record of 22 metres 41 centimetres in the women’s shot put not broken until now was set by Ilona Slupianek (GDR). She excelled with this result at the 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad in Moscow. Ralph Rose from the USA became a three-time Olympic champion in the men’s shot put competitions at the 1904 Games of the III Olympiad (14 metres 81 centimetres), at the 1908 Games of the IV Olympiad (14 metres 21 centimeThe Shot Put. Raffaello Fabio Ducceschi. 2010. Italy.

David. Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini. 1623. Rome, the Galleria Borghese.

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Woman with a Shot. A. Samokhvalov. 1933. USSR.

tres), and at the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad he won the gold medal in the two-handed shot put (the sum of his two results was 27 metres 70 centimetres). The two athletes became two-time Olympic champions in the shot put: William O’Brien of the United States at the 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad (17 metres 41 centimetres) and at the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad (18 metres 57 centimetres) and Tomasz Majewski (Poland) at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad (20 metres 56 centimetres) and at the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad (20 metres 70 centimetres). Two-time champions in the women’s shot put events at the Olympic Games were two athletes: Tamara Press (USSR) – at the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad (17 metres 32 centimetres) and at the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad (18 metres 14 centimetres) and Valerie Vili Adams (New Zealand) at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad (20 metres 56 centimetres) and at the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad (20 metres 70 centimetres).

The Female Discus Thrower. Zagrekov. 1930. USSR. The Shot Put. 1936. USSR.

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Female Athletes. Franz Keil. 1930-s. Germany.


The first world champion in the men’s shot put was Edward Sarul from Poland who won in this discipline with the result of 21 metres 39 centimetres at the first World Athletics Championships held in 1983 in Helsinki (Finland). There and at the same time the first world champion in the women’s shot put was Helena Fibingerová from Czechoslovakia with the result of 21 metres 05 centimetres. The current (as of early 2015) world record in the men’s shot put (outdoors) – 23 metres 12 centimetres – was set by Randolph Barnes from the United States in 1990. He also owns the now unbeaten world indoor record in the shot put – 22 metres 66 centimetres – which was set in 1989. The world record holder in the women’s shot put (outdoors) is Russian athlete Nataliya Lisovskaya (USSR), whose results of 22 metres 63 centimetres shown in 1987 have remained unsurpassed until now (as of early 2015). And the world indoor record (22 metres 50 centimetres) in the women’s shot put set by Helena Fibingerová from Czechoslovakia in 1977 has remained unbeaten for 38 years.

The Shot Put. Leroy Neiman. 1972. USA.

The Shot Put. From the Visions of Gold Olympic Portfolio. Robert Peak. A lithograph. 1983. Shot Putting. Bronze. A. Deyneka. 1957. USSR.

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1.

The technical disciplines of the “Queen of Sports” – the track and field – include the shot put. What is this discipline about? А. Throwing a special sports equipment (a whole-metal sphere) in a pushing motion with one hand at distance. B. Throwing a special sports equipment (a whole-metal sphere) in a pushing motion with two hands at distance. C. Throwing a stone sphere in a pushing motion with one hand at distance. D. Throwing a special sports equipment (a whole-metal sphere) in a pushing motion with one hand aiming at a horizontal object.

2.

The shot put traces back to folk games, which included competitions in heavy object throwing. What objects were used in these games? А. Stones. B. Metal objects.

3.

C. Sacks filled with soil. D. Logs.

To what period does the shot put as an athletic discipline date back? А. To the beginning of the 19th century. B. To the mid-19th century. C. To the end of the 19th century. D. To the beginning of the 20th century.

4. The first Olympic champion in the shot put was American athlete Robert Garrett with the result of 11 metres 22 centimetres.

In the mid-19th century the first shot put competitions were held, where the shot weighing 16 pounds (7.257 kilograms) was put out of the circle with a 7-foot diameter (2.134 metres). What is the country of origin of the shot put athletic discipline? А. Great Britain. B. Germany.

Richard Sheldon from the United States won the gold medal in the shot put (with an Olympic record – 14 metres 10 centimetres) and the bronze medal in the discus throw (34 metres 60 centimetres) at the 1900 Games of the II Olympiad in Paris.

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C. France. D. Sweden.


5.

In different countries different putting objects of various shapes and made of various materials were used. What was the predecessor of an athletic shot in the USA? А. A metal sphere weighing 5 kg. B. A rounded metal cube weighing 7 kg. C. A stone weighing 7 kg. D. A sack filled with sand weighing 5 kg.

6.

In the process of the shot put discipline development the shot has undergone some changes. What is a modern shot? А. A whole-metal sphere with a smooth surface. B. A rounded metal cube. C. A stone sphere. D. A sphere of shockproof glass.

7.

The shot is made of metal. What metal is suitable for making the shot? А. Iron. B. Aluminium.

8.

C. Brass. D. Lead.

The shots for men and women have different weight. What is the men’s shot weight? А. 7 kg 260 g. B. 7 kg 150 g.

C.7 kg 250 g. D. 7 kg 200 g.

Ralph Rose – an American athlete, a three-time champion and an Olympic medallist. The champion of the Games of the III, IV and V Olympiads in the shot put. He showed the following results: 1904 – 14.81 metres – a world and Olympic record, 1908 – 14 metres 21 centimetres, 1912 – 27 metres 70 centimetres – an Olympic record in the two-handed shot put. The silver medallist of 1904 Games of the III Olympiad in the discus throw, of 1912 Games of the V Olympiad – in the shot put, the bronze medallist of 1904 Games of the III Olympiad in the hammer throw.

Frans Wilhelm Pörhölä – a Finnish athlete, the champion of the 1920 Games of the VII Olympiad in the shot put, the silver medallist of the 1932 Games of the X Olympiad in the hammer throw; the European champion (1934) in the hammer throw. A participant of the Games of the VII, VIII, X and XI Olympiads (1920, 1924, 1932, 1936).

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1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Throwing a special sports equipment (a whole-metal sphere) in a pushing motion with one hand at distance. Stones. To the mid-19th century. Great Britain. A rounded metal cube weighing 7 kg. A whole-metal sphere with a smooth surface. Aluminium. 7 кg 260 g.

9.

The women’s shot is lighter than the men’s shot by 3 kilograms 260 grams. What is the women’s shot weight? А. 4 kg. B. 3 kg 900 g.

C. 4 kg 250 g. D. 4 kg 200 g.

10. The diameter of the shot varies within the limits set by the rules of competitions. What is the men’s shot diameter? А. 110–120 mm. B. 110–115 mm.

C. 110–130 mm. D. 110–125 mm.

11. The upper diameter line of the women’s shot corresponds to the lower diameter line of the men’s shot. What is the women’s shot diameter? А. 95–115 mm. B. 95–105 mm.

C. 95–110 mm. D. 95–120 mm.

12. Certain conditions are needed for putting the shot. What are the components of the shot put sector? А. A ground limited by a circle and a shot landing sector. B. A square ground and a shot landing sector. C. A football pitch. D. Any even surface.

Clarence “Bud” Houser – an American athlete, the Olympic champion in the shot put (14 metres 99 centimetres) and the discus throw (an Olympic record – 46.155 metres) in 1924 Games of the VIII Olympiad, and in the discus throw (an Olympic record – 47 metres 32 centimetres) in 1928 Games of the IX Olympiad.

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Patrick McDonald – an American athlete of the Irish descent. At the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad in Stockholm he won the gold medal in the shot put with an Olympic record of 15 metres 34 centimetres and the silver medal in the two-handed shot: the result was 27 metres 53 centimetres. At the 1920 Games of the VII Olympiad he became the Olympic champion in the 56-pound (25.4 kilograms) weight throw. He was the flag-bearer of the US team at the opening ceremony of the Games in 1920 and 1924.


13. What is the shot putting sector equipped with? А. A protective net. B. A toe board.

C. A visor. D. A protective wall.

14. What was the prototype of the concrete or cement circle in the shot put sector? А. A wooden platform. B. A clay pedestal. C. The grass side. D. The Ancient Greek balbis – a stone pedestal.

15. The diameters of circles for hammer throwing and shot putting coincide. What is this diameter? А. 2.135 m. B. 2.235 m.

John Kuck from the United States became the Olympic champion in the shot put with a world record of 15 metres 87 centimetres at the 1928 Games of the IX Olympiad in Amsterdam.

C. 2.130 m. D. 2.125 m.

16. What colour is the toe board set at the front outer circle rim according to the rules of competitions? А. Black. B. Red.

C. White. D. Yellow.

Leo Sexton of the US won the gold medal in the shot put (with an Olympic record – 16 metres 0.5 centimetres) at the 1932 Games of the X Olympiad in Los Angeles. In 1932 the athlete set a world record in this discipline – 16 metres 16 centimetres.

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9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

4 кg. 110—130 mm. 95—110 mm. A ground limited by a circle and a shot landing sector. A toe board. The Ancient Greek balbis – a stone pedestal. 2,135 m. White.

17. What is the radius of the shot landing sector? А. 20 metres. B. 30 metres.

C. 35 metres. D. 25 metres.

18. What is the chord size of the shot landing sector? А. 10 metres. B. 15 metres.

C. 12 metres. D. 20 metres.

19. How is the distance of the shot flight after it has been put measured?

Hans Woellke – a German athlete, the champion in the shot put at the 1936 Games of the XI Olympiad in Berlin. Hans Woellke became the first German athlete to get the gold medal in the men’s competitions at the 1936 Games. Hans Woellke was killed on March 22, 1943 (at 32 years of age) during World War II in a skirmish with partisans near the village of Khatyn in Belarus. This became the reason of the same day punitive operation in which 149 civilians, half of whom were children, were burned to death in Khatyn.

А. As the distance between the closest mark made by the landing shot to the inner circumference point along the line to the centre of the circle. B. As the distance between the inner circumference point to the point where the shot has landed. C. As the distance between the middle of the circumference to the point where the shot has landed. D. As the distance between the inner circumference point to the farthest mark point made by the landing shot.

20. In accordance with the rules the surface of the shot should be rather smooth. Is a shot putter allowed to cover his hands with some substance in order not to hurt them? А. Absolutely prohibited. B. Allowed upon an athlete’s discretion. C. Possible if a judge permits. D. No specific rules.

American athlete Wilbur Thompson won the gold medal in the shot put, setting an Olympic record (17 metres 12 centimetres) at the same time, at the 1948 Games of the XIV Olympiad in London.

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21. In order to provide for a better grip of the equipment shot putters are allowed to use special substances, but only for their arms and neck. What is allowed for use for shot putters? А. Chalk or talk. B. Cream.

C. Special ointment. D. Olive oil.

22. When is an athlete credited an attempt? А. In case he/she steps out of the circle rim. B. In case he/she touches the upper edge of the circle board when making a push and before he/she completes his/her attempt and steps back. C. In case he/she steps back out of the circle after an attempt is completed. D. In case he/she steps out of the circle in the direction of the push after an attempt is completed.

23. What physical qualities should be most inherent to shot putters? А. Speed and strength. B. Explosive strength and coordination. C. Coordination and endurance. D. Endurance and explosive strength.

William Parry O’Brien – an American athlete, a two-time Olympic champion in the shot put: at the 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad in Helsinki (17 metres 41 centimetres – an Olympic record) and at the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad in Melbourne (18 metres 57 centimetres – an Olympic record), the silver medallist of the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome (19 metres 11 centimetres). In the period of 1953–1959 he set 17 world records and world achievements. He improved the shot put technique: he used a new starting position with his back turned in the direction of the put, his body tilted, bringing the shot out of the limits of the circle and thereby lengthening the path of the force application.

24. How many attempts are given to athletes in shot put qualifying competitions? А. 3. B. 2.

C. 4. D. 1.

American athlete William Nieder who won the silver medal in the shot put at the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad in Melbourne became the Olympic champion with an Olympic record (19 metres 68 centimetres) at the following 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome. Nieder is the world’s first athlete who put the shot beyond the 20-metre line (in 1960 – 20 metres 06 centimetres). In total, this athlete improved world records in the shot put three times in 1960 (19 metres 45 centimetres, 19 metres 99 centimetres, 20 metres 06 centimetres).

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17. 25 metres. 18. 15 metres. 19. As the distance between thee closest mark made by the landing shot to the innerr circumference point along the line to the centre of the circle. 20. Absolutely prohibited. 21. Chalk or talk. 22. In case he/she steps back out of the circle after an attempt is completed. 23. Explosive physical force and coordination. 24. 3.

25. Eight best athletes are selected by their best results in qualifying competitions. These eight athletes are given three more attempts. How is the winner determined in the shot put? А. By his/her best result of all six attempts. B. By his/her best result of the last three attempts. C. By the last attempt. D. By the sum of the results of all attempts.

26. In the history of the shot put discipline there was a period when a champion was determined by the best attempt in the two-handed shot put and even by the sum of attempts with both hands. In this way a harmonious development of athletes was promoted. How long was this practice of determining the strongest shot putters in place? А. Until 1912. B. Until 1915.

C. Until 1908. D. Until 1920.

27. The initial shot put style was very primitive; athletes did not use the whole area within the circle and performed the put jumping on one leg forward. What is the name of this shot put style? А. The leap. B. The jump-out.

C. The jump. D. The hop.

28. To what period had the leap been the only shot put style? А. 1950. B. 1955.

At the Games of the XVIII Olympiad of 1964 in Tokyo American athlete Dallas Long who won the bronze medal in the shot put at the previous 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome became the Olympic champion in this discipline (with an Olympic record – 20 metres 33 centimetres). In the period of 1959–1964 he improved world records in the shot put seven times: in 1959 – 19 metres 25 centimetres; 1960 – 19 metres 38 centimetres, 19 metres 67 centimetres; 1962 – 20 metres 08 centimetres; 1964 – 20 metres 10 centimetres, 20 metres 20 centimetres, 20 metres 68 centimetres.

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C. 1948. D. 1960.

American athlete James Randel «Randy» Matson who got the silver medal in the shot put (20 metres 20 centimetres) at the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo became the Olympic champion in this discipline (20 metres 54 centimetres) at the subsequent 1968 Games of the XIX Olympiad in Mexico. In 1965 the athlete improved the global progress in the shot put twice (20 metres 70 centimetres, 21 metres 05 centimetres), in the same 1965 he set a world record – 21 metres 52 centimetres, and in 1967 he improved his record to 21 metres 78 centimetres.


29. The evolution of the shot put technique had not stood still. In the 1950s an outstanding American athlete developed a new style of the shot put. What was the athlete’s name? А. Clarence Darrow Hooper. B. James Fuchs. C. Robert Mathias. D. William “Parry” O’Brien.

30. What was the name of the shot put style developed by William “Parry” O’Brien? А. The glide. B. The run-up.

C. The wave. D. The spiral.

31. In the 1970s a new original style of the shot put was developed – the spin. Who was the author of this invention? А. Aleksandr Baryshnikov (USSR). B. Władysław Komar (Poland). C. George Woods (USA). D. Viktor Alekseyev (USSR).

32. When and where was the first record result in the men’s shot put fixed? А. In 1866 in England. B. In 1860 in France. C. In 1865 in Sweden. D. In 1966 in Germany.

Władysław Komar from Poland became the Olympic champion in the shot put (with an Olympic record – 21 metres 18 centimetres) at the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich. In 1998 he died in a car crash (together with an Olympic champion of the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in the pole vault Pole Tadeusz Ślusarski).

East German athlete Udo Beyer became the Olympic champion in the shot put at the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal (21 metres 05 centimetres). And at the 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad in Moscow he got the bronze medal. The athlete set three world records in this discipline: in 1978 – 22 metres 15 centimetres; 1983 – 22 metres 22 centimetres; 1986 – 22 metres 64 centimetres.

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25. By his/her best result of all six attempts. 26. Until 1912. 27. The leap. 28. 1950. 29. William “Parry” O’Brien. 30. The glide. 31. Viktor Alekseyev (USSR). 32. In 1866 in England.

33. The first record result in the men’s shot belonged to Mr. Fraser (England). What was the result of this athlete? А. 11 metres 50 centimetres. B. 11 metres 70 centimetres.

C. 10 metres 62 centimetres. D. 12 metres 50 centimetres.

34. When was the first record in the men’s shot put set? А. 1912. B. 1910.

C. 1909. D. 1911.

35. When was the first record in the men’s shot put ratified by the IAAF? А. 1910. B. 1908.

C. 1912. D. 1922.

36. Who owns the first record in the men’s shot put ratified by the IAAF? А. Ralph Rose (USA). B. Denis Horgan (Great Britain). C. John Garrels (USA). D. Lawrence Whitney (USA).

37. What was the length of the first world record holder’s shot put? А. 15 metres 54 centimetres. B. 15 metres 25 centimetres.

Ukrainian athlete Vladimir Kiselyov (USSR) put the shot at 21 metres 35 centimetres (an Olympic record) at the 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad in Moscow and won the gold medal.

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Italian Alessandro Andrei became the Olympic champion in the shot put (with the result of 21 metres 26 centimetres) at the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles. And in 1987 the athlete improved the world record three times (22 metres 72 centimetres, 22 metres 84 centimetres and 22 metres 91 centimetres) in a single athletic event held in the Italian city of Viareggio.

C. 16 metres 54 centimetres. D. 16 metres 50 centimetres.


38. Who overcome the 16-metres, setting a new world record, in the men’s shot put? And when? А. František Douda (Czechoslovakia), 1931. B. Emil Hirschfeld (Germany), 1928. C. Zygmunt Heljasz (Poland), 1932. D. Leo Sexton (USA), 1932.

39. The last world shot put record in the leap style, which was his fourth world record, was set by American athlete James Fuchs in 1950. Name it. А. 17 metres 95 centimetres. B. 18 metres 05 centimetres.

C. 17 metres 80 centimetres. D. 17 metres 75 centimetres.

40. Who overcome the 18-metres, setting a new world record, in the men’s shot put? А. Parry O’Brien (USA), 1953. B. James Fuchs (USA), 1950. C. William Nieder (USA), 1956. D. Jiří Skobla (Czechoslovakia), 1956.

Mike Stulce – an American shot putter, the champion of the 1992 Games of the ХХV Olympiad in Barcelona (21 metres 70 centimetres).

41. American athlete Parry O’Brien set his first world record in 1953. His last world record was in 1959. How many world records are on the account of this outstanding athlete? А. 10. B. 6.

C. 8. D. 9.

German athlete of the GDR Ulf Timmermann is an author of two world records in the shot put, one of which was set in 1985 (22 metres 62 centimetres) and the second was set in the spring of 1988 (23 metres 06 centimetres). At the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul the athlete won the gold medal with an Olympic record (22 metres 47 centimetres).

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33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38.

10 metres 62 centimetres. s.. 1909. 1912. Ralph Rose (USA). 15 metres 54 centimetres. Emil Hirschfeld (Germany), 1928. 39. 17 metres 95 centimetres. 40. Parry O’Brien (USA), 1953. 41. 10.

42. Who overcome the 20 metres, setting a new world record, in the men’s shot put? А. William Nieder (USA), 1960. B. Parry O’Brien (USA), 1953. C. Dallas Long (USA), 1962. D. Viktor Lipsnis (USSR), 1960.

43. Dallas Long was the champion of the 1964 Games of the ХVIII Olympiad, the bronze medallist of the 1960 Games of the ХVII Olympiad. He improved world shot put records several times. According to the number of world records set he holds the second result in this discipline for men. How many world records did this athlete set? А. 7. B. 9.

C. 8. D. 10.

44. Who overcome the 22 metres, setting a new world record, in the men’s shot put? А. Terry Albritton (USA), 1976. B. Udo Beyer (GDR), 1978. C. Yevgeniy Mironov (USSR), 1976. D. Aleksandr Baryshnikov (USSR), 1976.

45. In 1990 a new world outdoor record in the men’s shot put was set. It remains unsurpassed as of now (as of 2015). Who was the author of this unique put? А. Ulf Timmermann (GDR). B. Eric Randolph Barnes (USA). C. Alessandro Andrei (Italy). D. Udo Beyer (Germany).

American athlete Eric Randolph “Randy” Barnes who won the silver medal in the shot put (22 metres 39 centimetres) at the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul set a world record (23 metres 12 centimetres) in the competitions that took place in Westwood (USA) on May 20, 1990. And at the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta this athlete won the gold medal with an Olympic record (21 metres 62 centimetres).

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Polish athlete Tomasz Majewski – a two-time Olympic champion in the shot put: at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing (21 metres 51 centimetres) and at the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London (21 metres 89 centimetres).


46. What was the result shown by Randy Barnes in his record put? А. 23 metres 12 centimetres. B. 23 metres 22 centimetres.

C. 23 metres 02 centimetres. D. 23 metres 32 centimetres.

47. Randy Barnes holds the current world indoor (as of 2015) in the men’s shot put set in 1989. What is the value of this record? А. 22 metres 66 centimetres. B. 22 metres 56 centimetres.

C. 23 metres 12 centimetres. D. 21 metres 66 centimetres.

48. The first world record in the women’s shot put was registered in 1924. Who was the author of this record? А. Ruth Lange (Germany). B. Grete Heublein (Germany). C. Tilly Fleischer (Germany). D. Violette Gouraud-Morris (France).

49. How far did the first female record holder put the shot in her record attempt? А. 10 metres 15 centimetres. B. 10 metres 05 centimetres.

C. 10 metres 25 centimetres. D. 10 metres 35 centimetres.

50. Who overcome the 11 metres, setting a new world record, in the women’s shot put? And when? А. Grete Heublein (Germany), 1927. B. Ruth Lange (Germany), 1927. C. Ruth Lange (Germany), 1928. D. Grete Heublein (Germany), 1928.

Adam Nelson – an American athlete, a participant of the Games of three Olympiads in 2000, 2004, 2008. The 2004 Olympic champion, the silver medallist of the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney. The 2005 world champion, a three-time World Championships silver medallist in 2001, 2003, 2007 in the shot put. He gained his Olympic gold medal 2013, almost 10 years after the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad in Athens, as the original champion of the Games Ukrainian athlete Yuriy Bilonog was disqualified due to a positive doping retest.

Arsi Harju – a Finnish shot putter, the champion of the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney, he showed the result of 21.29 metres. The bronze medallist of the World Cup 2001 in Edmonton.

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42. William Nieder (USA), 1960. 43. 7. 44. Aleksandr Baryshnikov (USSR), 1976. SA). 45. Eric Randolph Barnes (USA). s 46. 23 metres 12 centimetes. 47. 22 metres 66 centimetes. 48. Violette Gouraud-Morris (France). 49. 10 metres 15 centimetes. 50. Ruth Lange (Germany), 1927.

51. Who overcome the 12 metres, setting a new world record, in the women’s shot put? And when? А. Gustel Herrmann (Germany), 1928. B. Grete Heublein (Germany), 1928. C. Ruth Lange (Germany), 1928. D. Tilly Fleischer Germany), 1930.

52. Who overcome the 14 metres, setting a new world record, in the women’s shot put? And when? А. Tatyana Sevryukova (USSR), 1945. B. Gisela Mauermayer (Germany), 1934. C. Grete Heublein (Germany), 1928. D. Tilly Fleischer (Germany), 1930.

53. Who overcome the 16 metres, setting a new world record, in the women’s shot put? And when? А. Galina Zybina (USSR), 1952. B. Tatyana Sevryukova (USSR), 1945. C. Tamara Press (USSR), 1959. D. Margitta Gummel (GDR), 1968.

Micheline Ostermeyer of France at the 1948 Games of the XIV Olympiad in London was a two-time Olympic champion: in the shot put (with an Olympic record – 13 metres 75 centimetres) and in the discus throw, she also won the bronze medal in the high jump.

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Galina Zybina of the USSR became the Olympic champion in the shot put competition at the 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad in Helsinki. In this event she surpassed her previously set world record (15 metres 19 centimetres) by putting the shot at 15 metres 28 centimetres. At the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad the athlete won the silver medal in this event (16 metres 53 centimetres), and at the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo – the bronze medal (17 metres 45 centimetres). Zybina was the first female athlete in the world who put the shot beyond 16-metres (in 1953 – 16 metres 18 centimetres). In the period of 1952–1956 she improved world records in the shot put (from 15 metres 28 centimetres to 16 metres 76 centimetres) eight times.


54. Galina Zybina was the 1952 Olympic champion, the silver (1952) and the bronze (1964) medallist of the Olympic Games, the 1954 European champion, the 1962 European bronze medallist in the shot put, a multiple world record holder, the only female athlete in history who became the European Championships medallist in the discus and javeling throwing events and the shot put. How many world records did this athlete set? А. 8. B. 6.

C. 10. D. 12.

55. Who overcome the 20 metres, setting a new world record, in the women’s shot put? And when? А. Margitta Gummel (GDR), 1968. B. Nadezhda Chizhova (USSR), 1969. C. Marita Lange (FRG), 1968. D. Ivanka Khristova (Bulgaria), 1972.

56. In 1987 a Russian athlete set a new world record in the shot put outdoors, which has remained unbroken so far (as of 2015). Who is the author of this record? А. Natalya Lisovskaya. B. Tamara Press. C. Nadezhda Chizhova. D. Remigija Sablovskaitė.

Tamara Press of the USSR got the gold medal in the women’s shot put (with an Olympic record – 17 metres 32 centimetres) and the silver medal in the discus throw at the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome. And at the subsequent 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo she won twice – in the shot put (with an Olympic record – 18 metres 14 centimetres) and in the discus throw (with an Olympic record – 57 metres 27 centimetres). Thus she became a three-time Olympic champion. In 1959–1968 Tamara Press set 11 world records, including five records in the shot put (17 metres 25 centimetres to 18 metres 59 centimetres) and six records in the discus throw (from 57 metres 15 centimetres to 59 metres 70 centimetres).

Tamara Tyshkevich of the USSR won the gold medal in the shot put at the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad in Melbourne, at the same time she set an Olympic record of 16 metres 59 centimetres.

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51. Grete Heublein (Germany), 1928. 52. Gisela Mauermayer (Germany), 1934. 53. Galina Zybina (USSR), 1952. 54. 8. 55. Nadezhda Chizhova (USSR), 1969. 56. Natalya Lisovskaya.

57. What is the length of the current women’s record in the shot put? А. 22 metres 63 centimetres. B. 22 metres 50 centimetres.

B. 22 metres 53 centimetres. C. 23 metres 05 centimetres.

58. Who owns the current (as of 2015) world indoor record in the women’s shot put set in 1977? А. Helena Fibingerová (Czechoslovakia). B. Ivanka Khristova (Bulgaria). C. Nadezhda Chizhova (USSR). D. Marianne Adam (GDR).

59. What is the current record in the women’s shot put indoors (as of 2015)? А. 22 metres 15 centimetres. B. 22 metres 25 centimetres.

C. 22 metres 50 centimetres. D. 22 metres 15 centimetres.

60. When did the men’s shot put become an Olympic discipline? А. The Games of the IV Olympiad, 1908. B. The Games of the I Olympiad, 1896. C. The Games of the III Olympiad, 1904. D. The Games of the II Olympiad, 1900. German athlete of the GDR Margitta Gummel (née Helmbold) competed in the shot put and won the gold medal (with a world record – 19 metres 61 centimetres) at the 1968 Games of the XIX Olympiad in Mexico City, and at the following 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich won the silver medal (20 metres 22 centimetres). Four times she improved world records in the shot put: in 1968 (18 metres 87 centimetres, 19 metres 07 centimetres, 19 metres 61 centimetres) and in 1969 (20 metres 10 centimetres).

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61. Who was the first Olympic champion in the men’s shot put? А. Robert Garrett (USA). B. Miltiadis Gouskos (Greece). C. Georgios Papasideris (Greece). D. George Robertson (Great Britain).

Nadezhda Chizhova (USSR) won the bronze medal in the shot put at the 1968 Games of the XIX Olympiad in Mexico City. Four years later at the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich she got the gold medal in this event (with a world record – 21 metres 03 centimetres), and at the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal she had the silver medal. In the period of 1968-1973 she improved world records in the shot put (from 18 metres to 67 centimetres to 21 metres 45 centimetres) ten times.


62. What was the winning result of the first Olympic champion in the men’s shot put? А. 10 metres 22 centimetres. B. 11 metres 12 centimetres.

C. 11 metres 22 centimetres. D. 11 metres 02 centimetres.

63. At the 1904 Games of the III Olympiad the competitions in throwing a 56-pound (25.4 kilograms) weight were held. Who was the winner of those competitions? А. Étienne Desmarteau (Canada). B. John Flanagan (USA). C. James Mitchell (USA). D. Charles Henneman (USA).

64. Étienne Desmarteau not only became the Olympic champion, but also set an Olympic record in 56-pound weight throwing. What result did the champion show? А. 10 metres 46 centimetres. B. 10 metres 56 centimetres.

C. 11 metres 00 centimetres. D. 11 metres 56 centimetres.

65. The programme of the 1906 Intercalated Games in Athens included stone throwing. Name the weight of stones used. А. 6.40 kg. B. 6.20 kg.

C. 6.50 kg. D. 6.00 kg.

At the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich Bulgarian athlete Ivanka Khristova won the bronze medal in the shot put. And in 1976 she improved world record twice (21 metres 87 centimetres and 21 metres 89 centimetres). At the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal she gained the gold medal (with an Olympic record – 21 metres 16 centimetres).

German athlete of the GDR Ilona Slupianek (née Schoknecht, now Ilona Longo) who set a double world record in the shot put (22 metres 36 centimetres and 22 metres 45 centimetres) in 1980 became the Olympic champion in this athletic event with an Olympic record (22 metres 41 centimetres) at the 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad in Moscow.

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57. 22 metres 63 centimetres. 58. Helena Fibingerová (Czechoslovakia). 59. 22 metres 50 centimetres. 60. The Games of the I Olympiad, 1896. 61. Robert Garrett (USA). 62. 11 metres 22 centimetres. 63. Étienne Desmarteau (Canada). 64. 10 metres 46 centimetres. 65. 6.40 кg.

66. Who was the winner of the stone throwing competition at the 1906 Games? А. Nikolaos Georgantas (Greece). B. Martin Sheridan (USA). C. Mikhail Dorizas (Greece). D. Eric Lemming (Sweden).

67. What result in the stone throw ensured victory for Nikolaos Georgantas? А. 19 metres 92 centimetres. B. 18 metres 58 centimetres.

C. 19 metres 03 centimetres. D. 18 metres 21 centimetres.

68. One of American athletes, the holder of the highest awards in the throwing disciplines, may be called a universal athlete. He got two Olympic gold medals, one silver medal, set a world record in the shot put (1904, 1908, 1912), he had the gold medal in the now cancelled two-handed shot put (1912), the silver medals was awarded to him in the discus throw (1904) and the bronze one in the hammer throw (1904). What outstanding American athlete is referred to? А. Robert Garrett. B. Ralph Rose.

C. Wesley Coe. D. John Garrels.

Claudia Losch – a German athlete, the shot put champion (20 metres 48 centimetres) of the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles.

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Russian athlete Nataliya Lisovskaya (USSR) improved world records in the shot put three times: in 1984 she put the shot at 22 metres 53 centimetres and in 1987 at 22 metres 60 centimetres and at 22 metres 63 centimetres. Her world record (22 metres 63 centimetres) set at the competitions in Moscow on June 7, 1987 have not been broken so far. And at the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul the athlete became the Olympic champion in the shot put with an Olympic record (22 metres 24 centimetres).


69. What does the current (as of 2015) Olympic men’s record in the shot put equal to? А. 22 metres 45 centimetres. B. 22 metres 40 centimetres.

C. 22 metres 47 centimetres. D. 22 metres 50 centimetres.

70. Who holds the current (as of 2015) Olympic men’s record in the shot put? А. Randy Barnes (USA). B. Ulf Timmermann (GDR). C. Alessandro Andrei (Italy). D. Udo Beyer (GDR).

71. When did Ulf Timmermann set his Olympic record of 22 metres 47 centimetres? А. 1988. B. 1984.

C. 1992. D. 2000.

72. When did the women’s shot put enter the Olympic programme? А. The Games of the XIV Olympiad, 1948. B. The Games of the X Olympiad, 1932. C. The Games of the IX Olympiad, 1928. D. The Games of the XI Olympiad, 1936.

73. Who was the first Olympic champion in the women’s shot put? А. Edera Gentile-Cordiale (Italy). B. Jacqueline Mazéas (France). C. Charlotte Haidegger (Austria). D. Micheline Ostermeyer (France). Svetlana Krivelyova – a Russian (Soviet) athlete, the champion at the 1992 Games of the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona (21 metres 06 centimetres), the 2003 world champion, the 1993 silver and a two-time bronze medallist of the World Championships (1991 and 1999). A participant of seven World Championships in Athletics. In 2012 she was stripped of the bronze Olympic medal of the 2004 Games of the XXVII Olympiad (as a result of the medal redistribution due to Irina Korzhanenko’s for life disqualification for the use of doping).

Astrid Kumbernuss – a German athlete, the champion of the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta in the shot put (20 metres 56 centimetres), the bronze medallist of the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney (19 metres 62 centimetres). The world champion of 1995 (21 metres 22 centimetres), 1997 (20 metres 71 centimetres) and 1999 (19 metres 85 centimetres), the silver medallist of the 2004 World Championships.

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66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72.

Nikolaos Georgantas (Greece). 19 metres 92 centimetres. Ralph Rose. 22 metres 47 centimetres. Ulf Timmermann (GDR). 1988. The Games of the XIV Olympiad, 1948. 73. Micheline Ostermeyer (France).

74. What result led Micheline Ostermeyer to the championship in the shot put? А. 13 metres 75 centimetres. B. 13 metres 15 centimetres.

C. 13 metres 70 centimetres. D. 13 metres 55 centimetres.

75. At the 1948 Games of Olympiad in London a professional pianiste from France won two gold medals in the shot put, setting and Olympic record, and in the discus throw and one silver medal – in the high jump. Name this versatile female. А. Micheline Ostermeyer. B. Paulette Veste.

C. Jacqueline Mazéas. D. Margaret Nicholas.

76. What does the current (as of 2015) Olympic women’s record in the shot put equal to? А. 22 metres 11 centimetres. B. 22 metres 41 centimetres.

C. 22 metres 51 centimetres. D. 22 metres 21 centimetres.

77. Who holds the current (as of 2015) Olympic women’s record in the shot put? А. Natalya Lisovskaya (USSR). B. Ivanka Khristova (Bulgaria). C. Ilona Slupianek (GDR). D. Svetlana Krachevskaya (USSR).

78. When did Ilona Slupianek set her Olympic record of 22 metres 41 centimetres? А. 1980. B. 1976.

C. 1984. D. 1988.

Yumileidi Cumbá – a Cuban athlete, the champion of the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad in Athens in the shot put (19 metres 59 centimetres). The silver medallist at the 2004 World Indoor Championships (19.31 metres).

Yanina Korolchik – a Belarus shot putter, the champion of the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney (20 metres 56 centimetres), the 2001 world champion (20 metres 61 centimetres).

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79. Only two female shot putters in the history of the track and field had three Olympic medals each. Who are these athletes? А. Ivanka Khristova (Bulgaria) and Galina Zybina (USSR). B. Galina Zybina (USSR) and Nadezhda Chizhova (USSR). C. Natalya Lisovskaya (USSR) and Tamara Press (USSR). D. Natalya Lisovskaya (USSR) and Nadezhda Chizhova (USSR).

80. What medal values are there in the collections of the most decorated female shot putters? А. 3 gold medals. B. 1 gold, 1 silver and 1 bronze medals. C. 2 gold and 1 silver medals. D. 2 silver and 1 bronze medals.

81. The youngest Olympic champion in the women’s shot put was Galina Zybina. At what age did she become the Olympic champion? А. 21 years old. B. 20 years old.

C. 23 years old. D. 19 years old.

82. The oldest Olympic champion in the women’s shot put was 34 years old. Who was this athlete? А. Ivanka Khristova (Bulgaria). B. Nadezhda Chizhova (USSR). C. Margitta Gummel (GDR). D. Tamara Press (USSR).

Valerie Vili-Adams from New Zealand – a two-time Olympic champion in the shot put: at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing (20 metres 56 centimetres) and at the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London (20 metres 70 centimetres).

Nadezhda Ostapchuk – a Belarus shot putter, the bronze medallist of the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad; the world champion (2005), the silver medallist (2003, 2007, 2011); the world indoor champion (2010), the silver medallist (2001, 2003, 2008, 2012); the European champion (2010); the European indoor champion (2005).

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74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88.

13 metres 75 centimetres. Micheline Ostermeyer. 22 metres 41 centimetres. Ilona Slupianek (GDR). 1980. Galina Zybina (USSR) and Nadezhda Chizhova (USSR). 1 gold, 1 silver and 1 bronze medals. 21 years old. Ivanka Khristova (Bulgaria). Parry O’Brien ( USA) and Ralph Rose (USA). Władysław Komar (Poland). The Games of the ХХIХ and XXX Olympiads (2008, 2012). The javelin throw, the discus throw and the shot put. On the territory of the ancient ient stadium in Olympia. 4 metres 07 centimetres.

83. Only two male shot putters in the history of the track and field had three Olympic medals each. Who are these athletes? А. Parry O’Brien ( USA) and Ralph Rose (USA). B. Udo Bayer (Germany) and Ralph Rose (USA). C. Ulf Timmermann (Germany) and Tomasz Majewski (Poland). D. Parry O’Brien (USA) and Tomasz Majewski (Poland).

84. The oldest Olympic champion in the men’s shot put was 32 years old. Who was this athlete? А. Ralph Rose (USA). B. Parry O’Brien USA). C. Patrick McDonald (USA). D. Władysław Komar (Poland).

85. One of the strongest shot putters Tomasz Majewski of Poland was not so successful at the World Championships. He had one silver medal in outdoor competitions and two bronze medals indoors. For this he received a nickname The Silent Giant. But he always knew when to say the final word, and he deprived American shot putters of their dominant positions at the Olympic Games. He is the only one non-American athlete who had two Olympic gold medals in this discipline. At what Games did he achieve this success? А. The Games of the ХХIХ and XXX Olympiads (2008, 2012). B. The Games of the ХХIХ and XXVIII Olympiads (2008, 2004). C. The Games of the ХХVII and XXX Olympiads (2004, 2012). D. The Games of the ХХVII and XXVIII Olympiads (2000, 2004).

Christian Cantwell – an American shot putter, the silver medallist of the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad; the World champion (2009), a two-time world indoor champion (2004, 2008).

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Andrei Mikhnevich – a Belarus shot putter; the bronze medallist of the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad; the world champion (2003), a two-time bronze medallist (2007, 2011); a two-time World Indoor Championships silver medallist (2006, 2010); the European champion (2010) and a silver medallist (2010) indoors.


86. It is well known that throwing disciplines have been a part of the track and field combined events since ancient times. What disciplines are now part of men’s decathlon? А. The discus throw, the hammer throw and the shot put. B. The hammer throw, the javelin throw and the shot put. C. The javelin throw, the discus throw and the shot put. D. The hammer throw, the grenade throw and the javelin throw.

87. The final of the shot put competitions at the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad in Athens was held in a unique location. Where were the competitions held? А. At the ancient stadium in Olympia. B. At the Olympic stadium in Athens. C. At the Peristeri Stadium. D. At the Karaiskakis Stadium.

88. At the World Masters Games held in 2009 in Sydney under the motto – «Fit, fun and forever young» – the shot put female champion was a 100-year old athlete Ruth Frith of the Australian Brisbane. How long was the winning put of this amazing athlete? А. 4 metres 07 centimetres. B. 8 metres 07 centimetres.

C. 10 metres 07 centimetres. D. 12 metres 07 centimetres.

Ryan Whiting – an American shot putter, a two-time winner of the World Indoor Championships (2012, 2014), the World Championships silver medallist (2013).

David Storl – a German shot putter, the silver medallist of the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London; a two-time world champion (2011, 2013); a two-time European champion (2012, 2014); a two-time World Indoor Championships silver medallist (2012, 2014); the European indoor champion (2015), the silver medallist (2011).

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J avelin Throw he javelin throw is an athletic event at a distance range, belongs to speed-power disciplines of track and field athletics. An athletics javelin is a spear made of wood (with a metal head) or suitable material. The spear has a cord winding (an arm grip) in its middle part. The weight of the modern javelin for men is 800 grams, and for women is 600 grams. The men’s javelin events have been introduced into the Olympic programme starting from the 1908 Games of the IV Olympiad in London. There the competitions were held in the freestyle javelin throw and the Greek style javelin throw. And the first Olympic champion among javelin-throwers was athlete from Sweden Eric Lemming, who won both competitions in the javelin freestyle throw (with the result of 54 metres 44 centimetres) and in the javelin Greek style throw (with the result of 54 metres 82 centimetres that at the time was the world's highest achievement). At the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad in Stockholm the programme of the competitions included both the javelin throw and the javelin two-handed throw, where the winner was determined by the sum of two results. The first world record in the javelin throw registered by the IAAF in 1912 was the result shown by Eric Lemming (Sweden) – 62 metres 32 centimetres. The first world record holder in the women’s javelin in was Božena Šrámková from Bulgaria who threw the javelin at 25 metres 01 centimetre in 1922.

T

Odin, the traveller. Georg von Rosen. 1886. Sweden.

The spear has long been a symbol of belligerency and aggressiveness (in the Norse mythology Odin marked the beginning of the war between the gods by throwing a spear in the direction of the enemy troops) and a phallic symbol as well.

The simplest spear of a primitive man was a straight-line sharpened stick made of hard wood, measuring about a man’s height. The head of the spear was heat treated for hardness.

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Spears were first tipped with stone or bone heads during the Middle Palaeolithic.


A Greek hoplite with a spear

The Macedonian army and later the Hellenistic phalanx were armed with spears of various sizes. Some reached 670 centimetres in length, their weight did not exceed 6 kilograms.

The Olympic women’s events in the javelin took place at the 1932 Games of the X Olympiad in Los Angeles for the first time. There the first Olympic champion in the this track and field event was US athlete Mildred Didrikson who threw the javelin at 43 metres 68 centimetres, which was then an Olympic and world record. The first world champion in the javelin throw was Detlef Michel of the German Democratic Republic who won this timetres at the event with the result of 89 metres 48 centimetres first World Athletics Championships held in 1983 in Helsinki (Finland). rld champion on in There and at the same time the first world the women’s javelin was Tiina Lillak from Finland winning winn n ning with the result of 70 metres 82 centimetres. s. om the Ger man In 1984 in Berlin after German athlete from German Democratic Republic Uwe Hohn had set a phenomenal henomenal w world orld velin acrosss the record in the javelin throw, sending the javelin football field at 104 metres 80 centimetress and inevit inevitably a ably creating a real danger for those in the opposite osite sector sectors r of rs the stadium at that time, the IAAF Technical ical Commi Committee ttee decided to introduce a new model of the javelin, elin, in which h the general centre of mass was shifted by 8 centimetres ntimetres ah ahead h head

Olympian Zeus. AR Roman copy of the P Phidias’ h work of the 5th century BC. Sa Saint-Petersburg, ai the State Hermitage Museum. Russia.

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A hunting scene in Ancient Egypt

in order to slightly degrade the quality of the javelin flight and consequently reduce the distance of throwing. Naturally, since then a new countdown of javelin records (world, Olympic and other) was set. Now the current Olympic record in the men’s javelin is the result of 90 metres 57 centimetres, with which Andreas Thorkildsen from Norway won at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing. The women’s Olympic record in the javelin – 71 metres 53 centimetres, so far unbeaten, was set by Osleidys Menéndez (Cuba), winning with this result in this event at the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad in Athens. Two athletes became triple Olympic champions in the javelin. Eric Lemming (Sweden) won twice at the 1908 Games of the IV Olympiad – in the freestyle javelin throw (54 metres 44.5 centimetres) and in the Greek style javelin throw (54 metres 82.5 centimetres), and then at the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad he won the third gold medal winning in the javelin throw (60 metres 64 centimetres). And Jan Železný (Czechoslovakia – the Czech Republic) excelled in the javelin at the 1992 Games of the XXV Olympiad (89 metres 66 centimetres), the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad (88 metres 16 centimetres) and at the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad (90 metres 17 centimetres).

Oishi Chikara Yoshikane standing with a lowered spear Ancient Scythians had initially used only throwing darts, but with the appearance of heavy cavalry in Macedonia and Greece darts were replaced with spears more comfortable for riders.

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A Scythian warrior with a spear

Two athletes became double Olympic champions in the javelin: Jonni Myyrä (Finland) – at the 1920 Games of the VII Olympiad (65 metres 78 centimetres) and the 1924 Games of the VIII Olympiad (62 metres 96 centimetres) and Andreas Thorkildsen (Norway) – at the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad (84 metres 95 centimetres) and at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad (90 metres 57 centimetres). At the Olympic events in the women’s javelin two female athletes succeeded in becoming Olympic champions Ruth Fuchs (GDR) – at the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad (63 metres 88 centimetres) and the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad (65 metres 94 centimetres) and Barbora Špotáková (Czech Republic) – at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad (71 metre 42 centimetres) and the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad (69 metres 55 centimetres). The current (as of early 2015) world record in the men’s javelin is 98 metres 48 centimetres set in 1996 by Jan Železný from the Czech Republic. And the world record holder in the women’s javelin is Barbora Špotáková (Czech Republic), whose result of 72 metres 28 centimetres shown in 2008 remains unsurpassed as of now (as of early 2015).

Persian warriors. A tile relief at the Ishtar Gate. The 4th century BC. Berlin, the Pergamon Museum.

A bronze disc with an engraved image of a javelin thrower. The javelin distance throw (as opposed to throwing javelins at a target) was a part of the pentathlon. The 5th century BC. The Berlin National Museum. A samurai with a spear

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A bronze statue of Baal. The 14th-12th century BC. Found in Ras Shamra (alias Ugarit). Paris, the Louvre.

Scythian warriors at rest. A golden cup (a fragment).

1.

Spear throwing has a long history. And the throwing skills were directly connected with people’s life activities. What human activities involved spear throwing? А. Hunting and military actions. B. Ritual dances. C. Farming. D. Construction.

2.

Historic and literary sources testify that Ancient Greeks competed in spear throwing. What literary works mention these competitions? А. The Iliad by Homer. B. The Odyssey by Homer. C. Prometheus Bound by Aeschylus. D. The Olympic Songs by Pindar.

3.

The programme of the Olympic Games in Ancient Greece was complemented by a new competition in 708 BC. Name it. А. The pentathlon. B. The pankration.

C. The decathlon. D. The heptathlon.

A stela of Baal with the streak of lightning. The 15th – 13th century BC. Found in Ras Shamra (alias Ugarit).

Baal was a god of ancient Western Semites as well as a deity in the Assyrian and Babylonian ethnic culture, worshiped in Phoenicia, Canaan and Syria.

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God Baal. A copper sculpture. The New Kingdom of the 19–20 Dynasty (about 1295–1070 BC). The Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek. Copenhagen.


Indra, the storm god and the keeper of the East, surrounded by his servants. The Guimet Museum, Paris.

4.

Competitions in the Ancient Greek multiple events included jumping, running, discus throwing, wrestling and… Name the fifth discipline in this complex event. А. Swimming. B. Spear throwing.

5.

C. Archery. D. Chariot racing.

Minerva. Giulio Bonassone. 1521.

In Ancient Greece they used to stage two spear throwing events. Name them. А. At a distance. C. For precision. B. For precision and at a distance. D. At a target.

6.

What material was used for making spears in Ancient Greece? А. Wood. B. Metal.

7.

C. Stone. D. Wood and metal.

In order to increase the precision and the speed of the spear flight Greeks found a way to move the centre of mass to the forepart of a spear. What did Ancient Greeks do? А. They put a metal head on the tip of a spear. B. They made some wrapping of a spear. C. They moistened a part of a spear with water. D. They put a head and some wrapping on a spear.

Pallas Athena Giustiniani. A copy of the 4-century BC original. Peterhof (Russia), the State Museum Peterhof.

Pallas and the Vices (Minerva Expelling the Vices from the Garden of Virtue). Andrea Mantegna. 1499-1502. Paris, the Louvre.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Hunting and military actions. The Iliad by Homer. The pentathlon. Spear throwing. For precision and at a distance. Wood. They put a metal head on the tip of a spear.

In Christianity the spear is one of the symbols of the passion of Christ and of his unfair trial and crucifixion, the attribute of Roman soldier Longinus.

Spearing the Body of Christ on Calvary. Fra Angelico. A fresco. 15th cent.

8.

The statue of St. St Longinus at St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican. Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini. 17th cent.

When were the first sports competitions held in the spear (javelin) throw? А. The beginning of the 18th century. B. The mid-15th century. C. The end of the 19th century. D. The beginning of the 20th century.

9.

In the end of the 19th century the men’s javelin throw gained its widespread in different countries of Europe. In what countries was this discipline most popular? А. Russia and Germany. B. Germany, Sweden, Finland. C. France, Germany, England. D. Sweden, Russia, France.

10. What physical abilities are most needed for a javelin thrower? А. Speed and strength. B. Strength and coordination. C. Coordination and endurance. D. Endurance and explosive physical force.

Miracle of St. George on the earth. An icon, the author is unknown. The middle of the 14th century in Novgorod. Moscow, the State Tretyakov Gallery.

St. George and Dimitry. A carved icon on dark slate. The end of 11th – the beginning of the 12th century. Byzantium. Found in Chersonesos in 1894.

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The Triumph of Achilles. Franz von Matsch. A fresco.


Peter I with Minerva. 1732. Jacopo Amiсoni. SaintPetersburg, the State Hermitage Museum.

Maria Medici as Minerva. P. P. Rubens. 17th cent. Paris, the Louvre. Minerva Artemisia Gentileschi. 1640. The Uffizi Gallery. Florence.

11. For a long period of time javelins made of wood were used for throwing. Till when were the wooden javelins used? А. Mid of the 1950s. B. End of the 1960s.

C. Beginning of the 1960s. D. Until the mid of the 1960s.

12. With time changes were introduced to different characteristics of a javelin from its size and mass of heads to the diameter of the javelin shaft. A new stage in the development of the javelin discipline started after the 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad, when two brothers Franklin and Dick Held (USA) invented a new type of a javelin. Name it. А. Gliding. B. Flying.

C. Hovering. D. Nose diving.

13. Franklin Held was first to throw a metal javelin at 80 metres 41 centimetres. The use of the new equipment was legalized in the same year. When did it happen? А. 1953. B. 1963.

C. 1957. D. 1956.

14. Name the parts of a modern javelin. А. A shaft, a metal head, wrapping. B. A shaft, a wooden head, wrapping. C. A shaft and wrapping. D. A shaft and a metal head.

A portrait of Count Grigory Orlov. Vigilius Eriksen. 1766. Saint-Petersburg, the State Hermitage Museum.

Two and a half centuries ago a carousel was a theatrical competition in riding, shooting and the spear throw. Such entertainment appeared in France in the sixteenth century. It gained a particular popularity in the court of Louis XIV. Russian Empress Catherine II wished to copy the brilliant tiltyard of the Sun King and organized the first Russian court carousel in 1766 in St. Petersburg.

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8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

The end of the 19th century. Germany, Sweden, Finland. Strength and coordination. Until the mid of the 1950s. Gliding. 1953. A shaft, a metal head, wrapping.

15. A modern javelin is made of aluminium alloy. Its size, shape, the minimum weight and the centre of mass are determined by the IAAF rules. What is the weight of a javelin for men? А. Not less than 800 grams. B. Not less than 700 grams.

C. Not less than 750 grams. D. Not less than 850 grams.

16. What is the weight of a javelin for women? А. Not less than 600 grams. B. Not less than 500 grams.

C. Not less than 550 grams. D. Not less than 650 grams.

17. What is the length of a javelin for men? А. From 2.5 to 2.7 metres. B. From 2.6 to 2.7 metres.

C. From 2.7 to 2.8 metres. D. From 2.5 to 2.9 metres.

18. What is the weight of a javelin for women? А. From 2.2 to 2.3 metres. B. From 2.0 to 2.3 metres. Heraldic Chivalry. Alphonse Mucha. The end of the 19th century. Austro-Hungarian Empire (present Chech Republic).

C. From 2.1 to 2.5 metres. D. From 2.3 to 2.5 metres.

19. What is the men’s javelin shaft diameter in its thickest part? А. 25–30 mm. B. 20–25 mm.

C. 22–23 mm. D. 20–24 mm.

20. What is the women’s javelin shaft diameter in its thickest part? А. 25–30 mm. B. 20–25 mm.

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C. 22–23 mm. D. 20–24 mm.


The Ural Cossacks with pikes. Nikolai Samokish. XIX cent. Russia.

21. The centre of mass in a javelin is of great importance for the length of its flight. What points to the centre of mass location in a javelin? А. Wrapping. B. The diameter of the shaft.

The Ural Cossacks

C. The weight of the head. D. The length of the shaft.

22. What fly-out speed may be gained by a javelin? А. 90 km.h-1. B. 100 km.h-1.

C. 113 km.h-1. D. 110 km.h-1.

23. The javelin throw sector consists of a runway lane limited on both sides and a marked sector for javelin landing. What is the length of the runway lane? А. 30–35 metres. B. 25–30 metres.

C. 35–40 metres. D. 40–45 metres.

24. What is the width of the runway lane in the javelin sector? А. 6 metres. B. 4 metres.

C. 2 metres. D. 3 metres.

The Crimean Cossack escort

Riding with spears was the most popular and exciting event in the Games. It required skill and expert in horsemanship. In the competition it was necessary to unhook a small ring hanging on a wooden bar with the tip of a spear.

Charles Ainsworth, the champion among the speared horsemen at the 1887 Games, was awarded a laurel wreath by Miss Sargintson, the daughter of the rector of Acton Burnell standing nearby. To the right side of her is William Penny Brookes.

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15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

Not less than 800 grams. Not less than 600 grams. From 2.6 to 2.7 metres. From 2.2 to 2.3 metres. 25–30 mm. 20–25 mm. Wrapping. 113 km.h-1. 30–35 metres. 4 metres. 25. The runway lane in the javelin sector is limited by an arc in front. Name its radius. А 6 metres. B. 5 metres.

C. 9 metres. D. 8 metres.

26. Name the radius of the javelin landing sector. А. 80 metres. B. 90 metres.

C. 100 metres. D. 110 metres.

27. Name the length of the chord of the javelin landing sector. А. 60 metres. B. 50 metres.

C. 48 metres. D. 54 metres.

28. How is the result of the javelin throw determined?

Swedish athlete Eric Lemming was the first Olympic champion in the javelin throw. This event was introduced into the Olympic programme at the 1908 Games of the IV Olympiad in London for the first time, and the athlete won two gold medals there – in the Greek style javelin throw (54 metres 82 centimetres ) and in the freestyle javelin throw (54 metres 44 centimetres). Lemming won his third gold medal in the javelin throw (60 metres 64 centimetres) in Stockholm at the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad . That same year the Swede set the first world record officially registered in the javelin throw – 63 metres 32 centimetres.

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А. From the point where the metal head of the javelin first touched the ground to the inner edge of the arc along the line drawn from the landing point to the centre of the circle, a part of which is this arc. B. From the point where the metal head of the javelin first touched the ground to the outer edge of the arc. C. From the point where the metal head of the javelin first touched the ground to the runway starting point.

Finnish athlete Julius Saaristo won the gold medal in the two-handed javelin throw (61 metres 00 centimetres + 48 metres 42 centimetres = 109 metres 42 centimetres) at the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad in Stockholm. And on May 25, 1912 in Helsinki he set a world record in the javelin throw – 61 metres 45 centimetres.


29. How many attempts are allotted to athletes for the javelin throw in the qualifying competitions? А. 3. B. 2.

C. 4. D. 1.

Swedish athlete Eric Lundquist won the gold medal in the javelin throw (an Olympic record – 66 metres 60 centimetres) at the 1928 Games of the IX Olympiad in Amsterdam, and then in the same 1928 in Stockholm he set a world record in this athletic discipline – 71 metres 01 centimetres, becoming the first athlete to throw the javelin beyond the 70-metres.

30. Eight best athletes are selected by their best result in the qualifying competitions. Athletes who have made it to the eight are given three more attempts. How is the winner in the javelin throw determined? А. By the best result of all six attempts. B. By the best result of the last three attempts. C. By the last attempt. D. By the total result of all attempts.

31. The fulfilment of what condition scores a javelin throw attempt to an athlete? А. An athlete crossed the line in the end of the runway lane. B. The javelin flew out of the designated sector. C. The javelin got stuck into the ground. D. The javelin landed flat.

Jonni Myyrä from Finland, who set a world record in the javelin throw (66 metres 10 centimetres) in 1919, then won the Olympic gold medals twice in this of athletic discipline – at the 1920 Games of the VII Olympiad in Antwerp (with an Olympic record - 65 metres 78 centimetres ) and at the 1924 Games of the VIII Olympiad in Paris (62 metres 96 centimetres).

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25. 26. 27. 28.

8 metres. 100 metres. 50 metres. From the point where the metal head of the javelin first touched the ground to the inner edge of the arc along the line drawn from the landing point to the centre of the circle, a part of which is this arc. 29. 3. 30. By the best result of all six attempts. 31. The javelin got stuck into thee ground.

32. In 1886 in Sweden first national competitions in the javelin throw were held. The winner showed the result, which is considered a record. Who held it? А. Adolf Wiggert (Sweden). B. Hjalmar Fellman (Finland). C. Axel Lindblad (Sweden). D. Ture Orn (Sweden).

33. What was the result of Adolf Wiggert in 1886 in Sweden? А. 35 metres 81 centimetres. B. 36 metres 81 centimetres.

C. 34 metres 81 centimetres. D. 33 metres 81 centimetres.

34. Name the first world record in the men’s javelin throw officially ratified by the IAAF. А. 62 metres 30 centimetres. B. 62 metres 25 centimetres.

C. 62 metres 34 centimetres. D. 62 metres 54 centimetres.

35. Name the author of the first world record in the men’s javelin throw. А. Jonni Myyra (Finland). B. Juho Saaristo (Finland). C. Eric Lemming (Sweden). D. Mor Koczan (Hungary).

Matti Järvinen of Finland became the Olympic champion in the javelin throw with an Olympic record of 72 metres 71 centimetres at the 1932 Games of the X Olympiad in Los Angeles. In honour of this victory the Finns built a tower in Helsinki. Its height corresponds to the distance of the athlete’s javelin flight at the Olympic Games in Los Angeles. Matti Järvinen improved world records in the javelin ten times: 1930 – 71 metres 57 centimetres, 71 metres to 70 centimetres, 71 metres 88 metres, 72 metres 93 centimetres; 1932 – 74 metres 02 centimetres; 1933 – 74 metres 28 centimetres, 74 metres 61 centimetres, 76 metres 10 centimetres; 1934 – 76 metres 66 centimetres; 1936 – 77 metres 23 centimetres.

Micheline Ostermeyer (France) was a twotime Olympic champion, winning in the javelin throw (with an Olympic record – 45 metres 57 centimetres) and in the discus throw, and won the bronze medal in the high jump at the 1948 Games of the XIV Olympiad in London.

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36. The leader in the javelin throw from 1899 to 1912 was Swedish thrower Eric Lemming. His last world record was ratified as the first official world record. How many world records did the athlete manage to set in his competitive career? А. 6. B. 8.

C.10. D. 7.

37. Who was the first one to overthrow the 40 metres in the javelin throw? And when? А. Adolf Wiggert (Sweden), 1885. B. Hjalmar Fellman (Finland), 1890. C. Axel Lindblad (Sweden), 1892. D. Ture Orn (Sweden), 1894.

Ottilie Fleischer (Germany) won the bronze medal in the javelin throw at the 1932 Games of the X Olympiad in Los Angeles. And four years later at the 1936 Games of the XI Olympiad in Berlin she became the Olympic champion in this track and field event with an Olympic record (45 metres 18 centimetres).

38. Who was the first one to overthrow the 50 metres etres in the javelin throw? And when? А. Hannes Karlsson (Finland), 1900. B. Hjalmar Fellman (Finland), 1890. C. Axel Lindblad (Sweden), 1892. D. Ture Orn (Sweden), 1894.

One of three Olympic medals gained by American athlete Mildred Didrikson at the 1932 Games of X Olympiad in Los Angeles was for winning in the javelin throw, where the athlete excelled with a world record – 43 metres 68 centimetres – and became the first Olympic female champion in this type of athletic throwing events.

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32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38.

Adolf Wiggert (Sweden). 35 metres 81 centimetres. 62 metres 34 centimetres. Eric Lemming (Sweden). 6. Axel Lindblad (Sweden), 1892 Hannes Karlsson (Finland), 1900.

American athlete Cyrus Young won the gold medal in the Аксель Линблад (Швеция), 1892 г. throw, setting an Olympic record – 73 metres 78 centijavelin metres at the 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad in Helsinki.

39. Who was the first one to overthrow the 60 metres in the javelin throw? And when? А. Eric Lemming (Sweden), 1911. B. Juho Saaristo (Finland), 1912. C. Jonni Myyrä (Finland), 1914. D. Jonni Myyrä (Finland), 1915.

40. Who was the first one to overthrow the 70 metres in the javelin throw? And when? А. Eino Penttilä (Finland), 1927. B. Erik Lundkvist (Sweden), 1928. C. Matti Järvinen (Finland), 1930. D. Matti Järvinen (Finland), 1932.

41. The T most successful javelin thrower in the 1930s was a F Finnish athlete Matti Järvinen. How many world records d does he own? А. 10. B. 8.

C.12. D. 6.

42. Athletes A of what country dominated in the javelin throw bef fore World War II? А. Sweden and Finland. B. Sweden and USA.

Dana Zátopková (née Ingrová) (Czechoslovakia) became the Olympic champion in the javelin throw (with an Olympic record – 50 metres 47 centimetres) at the 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad in Helsinki. In 1958 she set a world record by sending her javelin at 55 metres 73 centimetres. But at the 1960 Games of the XVII in Rome she won the silver Olympic medal in this track and field competition. Dana Zátopková was a spouse of four-time Olympic champion Emil Zátopek.

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C. USA and Finland. D. Finland and Poland.


43. Who was the first one to overthrow the 80 metres in the javelin throw? And when? А. Yrjö Nikkanen (Finland), 1938. B. Franklin Held (USA), 1953. C. William Miller (USA), 1954. D. Franklin Held (USA), 1955.

44. Who was the first one to overthrow the 90 metres in the javelin throw? And when?

Norwegian athlete Egil Danielsen became the Olympic champion in the javelin at the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad in Melbourne. The victory was brought to him by a world record – 85 metres 71 centimetres.

А. Terje Pedersen (Norway), 1964. B. Jānis Lūsis (USSR), 1968. C. Jānis Lūsis (USSR), 1972. D. Miklós Németh (Hungary), 1976.

45. Who was the first one to overthrow the 100 metres in the javelin throw? And when? А. Uwe Hohn (GDR), 1984. B. Tom Petranoff (USA), 1983. C. Ferenc Paragi (Hungary), 1980. D. Jānis Lūsis (USSR), 1972.

The Javelin Thrower at the Olympic Games. N. A. Zagrekov, 1930.

The Javelin Thrower. The Olympic Art Competition. London. 2012.

Latvian athlete from the Soviet Union Inese Jaunzeme won the gold medal in the javelin throw at the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad in Melbourne. She set an Olympic record – 53 metres 86 centimetres.

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39. Juho Saaristo (Finland), 1912. 40. Erik Lundkvist (Sweden), 1928. 41. 10. 42. Sweden and Finland. 43. Franklin Held (USA), 1953. 44. Terje Pedersen (Norway), 1964. 45. Uwe Hohn (GDR), 1984.

46. The record throw of Uwe Hohn at 104 metres 80 centimetres, in which the gliding javelin stuck into the surface just 2 metres from the edge of the field, was unsafe for spectators and people in the throwing sector. This result entailed modifications in the equipment. What modifications did the javelin undergo? А. Its length decreased. B. Its mass increased. C. The javelin’s centre of mass was shifted forward. D. The javelin’s centre of mass was shifted backward.

47. The result shown by Uwe Hohn made the IААF introduce a new javelin as of April 1, 1986. The new javelin did not have such high gliding qualities. World records started their new register. Who held the world record in the javelin throw of this new register? А. Jan Železný (Czechoslovakia), 1990. B. Steve Backley (Great Britain), 1990. C. Brian Crouser (USA), 1986. D. Tapio Korjus (Finland), 1988.

48. What was the result of Brian Crouser in his record throw? А. 79 metres 86 centimetres. B. 79 metres 98 centimetres.

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Ukrainian athlete Victor Tsybulenko (USSR) who won the bronze medal in the javelin throw at the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad in Melbourne became the Olympic champion in this discipline at the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome.

C.75 metres 95 centimetres. D. 76 metres 55 centimetres.

At the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome Soviet athlete Elvira Ozolina who owned the world record in the javelin throw (59 metres 55 centimetres) at that time became the Olympic champion in this discipline (with an Olympic record – 55 metres 98 centimetres). In 1960–1963 she improved world records three times in the javelin throw (from 57 metres 92 centimetres to 59 metres 78 centimetres).


German athlete of the FRG Klaus Wolfermann won the gold medal in the javelin with an Olympic record (90 metres 48 centimetres) at the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich. In 1973 he set a world record in this athletic discipline – 94 metres 08 centimetres.

49. In 1991 the javelin was improved again and world records started a new register again. Who held the world record in the javelin throw of the newest register? А. Steve Backley (Great Britain), 1992. B. Jan Železný (Czechoslovakia), 1992. C. Seppo Räty (Finland), 1991. D. Jan Železný (Poland), 1993.

50. Who holds the current (as of 2015) world record in the men’s javelin throw? А. Jan Železný (Czechoslovakia). B. Steve Backley (Great Britain). C. Patrik Bodén (Sweden). D. Seppo Räty (Finland).

51. In 1996 Jan Železný set a world record in the javelin throw, which has not been beaten so far (as of 2015). Name it. А. 98 metres 50 centimetres. B. 99 metres 05 centime centimetres.

C. 98 metres 48 centimetres. D. 97 metres 95 centimetres.

Latvvia athlete Jānis Lusis from the USSR who won the bronze medal in the javelin Latvian throw thro ow (80 metres 75 centimetres) at the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo won n the t gold medal in this discipline (with an Olympic record – 90 metres 10 centimetres) metr re at the 1968 Games of the XIX Olympiad. And at the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad Olym mp in Munich he became the silver medallist (90 metres 46 centimetres). Lūsis set w wo world records in the javelin twice: in 1968 – 91 metres 98 centimetres and in 1972 – 933 metres m 80 centimetres.

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46. The javelin’s centre of mass was shifted forward. 47. Brian Crouser (USA), 1986 . 48. 79 metres 86 centimetres. 49. Steve Backley (Great Britain), 1992. 50. Jan Železný (Czechoslovakia). 51. 98 metres 48 centimetres.

A Hungarian athlete Miklós Németh became the Olympic champion in the javelin throw at the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal, the victory was ensured for him by a world record – 94 metres 58 centimetres. Miklós Németh was a son of the 1948 Olympic champion in the hammer throw Imre Németh.

52. Finnish athlete Matti Järvinen is a double champion of Europe and the Olympic champion of 1932 Games of the X Olympiad in Los Angeles, a multiple world record maker. The number of records set by him is larger than by any other representative of this discipline. How many records are there on this athlete’s account? А. 10. B. 8.

C. 5. D. 12.

53. The world first record result in the women’s javelin throw at 24 metres 95 centimetres dates back to 1922. Name the author. А. Marie Mejzlíková (Czechoslovakia). B. Božena Šrámková (Czechoslovakia). C. Marie Janderová (Czechoslovakia). D. Kamila Olmerová (Czechoslovakia).

54. Name the author of the first world record in the women’s javelin throw officially ratified by the IAAF. А. Božena Šrámková (Czechoslovakia). B. Marie Mejzlíková (Czechoslovakia). C. Marie Janderová (Czechoslovakia). D. Kamila Olmerová (Czechoslovakia).

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Ruth Fuchs from East Germany was a two-time champion in the javelin throw: at the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich she excelled with the result of 63 metres 88 centimetres (an Olympic record), and at the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal her throw at 65 metres 94 centimetres (an Olympic record) brought her victory. In 1972–1980 she improved world records in the javelin six times (from 65 metres 06 centimetres to 69 metres 96 centimetres).


Cuban athlete María Colón won the gold medal in the javelin throw with an Olympic record (68 metres 40 centimetres) at the 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad in Moscow.

55. Name the first official world record in the women’s javelin throw. А. 25 metres 01 centimetre. B. 26 metres 01 centimetre.

C.24 metres. 01 centimetre. D. 27 metres 01 centimetre.

56. Who was the first one to overthrow the 30 metres in the women’s javelin throw? And when? А. Kamila Olmerová (Czechoslovakia), 1923. B. Marie Janderová (Czechoslovakia), 1924. C. Lillian Copeland (USA), 1926. D. Margaret Jenkins (USA), 1927.

57. Who was the first one to overthrow the 40 metres in the women’s javelin throw? And when? А. Mildred Didrikson (USA), 1930. B. Margaret Jenkins (USA), 1928. C. Liesel Schumann (Germany), 1930. D. Ellen Braumüller (Germany), 1932.

58. Who was the first one to overthrow the 50 metres in the women’s javelin throw? And when? А. Lyudmila Anokina (USSR), 1945. B. Klavdia Mayachaya (USSR), 1947. C. Natalia Smirnitskaya (USSR), 1949. D. Nadezhda Konyaeva (USSR), 1954.

Teresa Sanderson (Great Britain) won the gold medal in the javelin throw, setting an Olympic record of 69 metres 56 centimetres, at the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles.

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52. 10. 53. Marie Mejzlíková (Czechoslovakia). 54. Božena Šrámková (Czechoslovakia). 55. 25 metres 01 centimetres. 56. Lillian Copeland (USA), 1926. 57. Mildred Didrikson (USA), 1930. ), 58. Klavdia Mayachaya (USSR), 1947.

59. Who was the first one to overthrow the 60 metres in the women’s javelin throw? And when? А. Elvira Ozolina (USSR), 1964. B. Yelena Gorchakova (USSR), 1964. C. Elvira Ozolina (USSR), 1960. D. Ewa Gryziecka (Poland), 1972.

60. Who was the first one to overthrow the 70 metres in the women’s javelin throw? And when А. Ruth Fuchs (GDR), 1980. B. Kate Schmidt (USA), 1977. C. Tatyana Biryulina (USSR), 1980. D. Antoaneta Todorova (Bulgaria), 1981.

61. Who was the first one to overthrow the 80 metres in the women’s javelin throw? And when А. Petra Felke (GDR), 1985. B. Petra Felke (GDR), 1987. C. Petra Felke-Meier (GDR), 1988. D. Fatima Whitbread (Great Britain), 1986.

62. What record result was shown by Petra Felke-Meier who set a world record in the women’s javelin throw (before 1999)? А. 78 metres 80 centimetres. C. 80 metres 05 centimetres.

On July 27, 1984 at the Olympic Day competitions held in Berlin German athlete of the German Democratic Republic Uwe Hohn set a fantastic world record in the javelin throw, sending the javelin across the football field at 104 metres 80 centimetres and inevitably creating a real danger for those in the opposite sectors of the stadium at that time. Given this factor the IAAF Technical Committee decided to introduce a new model of the javelin, in which the general centre of mass was shifted by 8 centimetres ahead in order to degrade the quality of the javelin flight. Like all the athletes of the GDR and other socialist countries Hohn was forced to miss the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles. At the end of the 1985 season he suffered a serious injury and had to leave sports at the age of 23.

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B. 79 metres 80 centimetres. D. 80 metres 00 centimetres.


Unfortunately sad incidents sometimes occur at the javelin competitions. Thus, on July 13, 2007 during the Grand Prix of the IAAF Golden League at the Olympic Stadium in Rome Finnish athlete Tero Pitkämäki threw the javelin to the left of the sector and hit the back of French long jumper Salim Sdiri. Luckily, the French athlete was alive.

63. Since April 1, 1999 the women’s javelin has undergone modifications. The new record count was launched. Who owns the first world record of 68 metres 19 centimetres in the new women’s javelin? А. Trine Hattestad (Norway). B. Osleidys Menéndez (Cuba). C. Barbora Špotáková (Сzech Republic). D. Steffi Nerius (Germany).

64. Who owns the current world record (as of 2015) in the women’s javelin? А. Barbora Špotáková (Сzech Republic). B. Osleidys Menéndez (Cuba). C. Petra Felke (Germany). D. Trine Hattestad (Norway).

Norwegian athlete Trine Hattestad became the Olympic champion in the javelin throw with an Olympic record (68 metres 91 centimetres) at the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney.

65. What was the record throw of Barbora Špotáková in 2008? А. 72 metres 58 centimetres. B. 72 metres 28 centimetres.

C. 72 metres 18 centimetres. D. 72 metres 38 centimetres.

German athlete Petra Felke of the GDR improved world records in the javelin throw (from 75 metres 26 centimetres to 80 metres 00 centimetres) four times in 1985–1988. She was the first athlete in the world who had thrown the javelin of an old model (before the changes in its structure) at 80 metres. And at the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul a 74-metre javelin throw (an Olympic record) brought the gold medal to Petra Felke.

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59. Elvira Ozolina (USSR), 1964. 60. Tatyana Biryulina (USSR), 1980. 61. Petra Felke-Meier (GDR), 1988. 62. 80 metres 00 centimetres. 63. Trine Hattestad (Norway). 64. Barbora Špotáková (Czech Republic). s.. 65. 72 metres 28 centimetres. 66. When was the men’s javelin throw introduced to the Olympic programme?

Stephen Backley – a British javelin thrower. A two-time silver (1996, Atlanta and 2000, Sydney) and the bronze (1992, Barcelona) Olympic medallist in the javelin throw. A two-time World Championships silver medallist (1995, Gothenburg and 1997, Athens). A four-time European champion. The world record holder in 1990 (89 metres 58 centimetres) and in 1992 (91 metres 46 centimetres).

А. The Games of the IV Olympiad, 1908. B. The Games of the I Olympiad, 1896. C. The Games of the III Olympiad, 1904. D. The Games of the II Olympiad, 1900.

67. What style was used in the javelin throw at the Olympic competitions of 1908? А. Free. B. Greek.

C. Roman. D. Free and Greek.

6 68. 8 Who was the first Olympic champion in the freestyle javelin throw? А. Eric Lemming. B. Michel Dorizas.

C. Arne Halse. D. Hugo Wieslander.

69 69. What was the winning result of the first Olympic champion Eric Lemming in the freestyle javelin throw? А. 54 metres 44 centimetres. B. 54 metres 50 centimetres.

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C. 55 metres 00 centimetres. D. 55 metres 10 centimetres.


70. Who was the first Olympic champion in the Greek style style javelin throw? А. Arthur Dearborn (USA). B. Venne Järvinen (Finland).

C Marquis Horr (USA). D. Martin Sheridan (USA). ).

71. What was the winning result of the first Olympic champion mp pionn in the Greek style javelin throw? А. 38 metres 00 centimetres. B. 37 metres 32 centimetres.

C. 36 metres 55 centimetres. rees. rees. D. 35 metres 10 centimetres.

72. The Olympic programme of what Games first included ud ded men’s two-handed javelin throw? А. The Games of the V Olympiad, 1912. B. The Games of the III Olympiad, 1904. C. The Games of the IV Olympiad, 1908. D. The Games of the II Olympiad, 1900.

Tero Pitkämäki – a Finnish javelin thrower. The bronze medallist at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing (86 metres 16 centimetres), the 2007 world champion in Osaka (90 metres 33 centimetres), the 2013 World Championships silver medallist in Moscow (89 metres 03 centimetres). The silver medallist at the European Championships (2006, Göteborg), a two-time bronze medallist (2010, Barcelona and 2014, Zurich).

73. The today’s world record in the men’s javelin throw iss 98 ham mmetres 48 centimetres. Juho Julius Saaristo was the chamhrow w pion of the Games of the V Olympiad in the javelin throw connwith the result of 109 metres 42 centimetres. What preconditioned such a result? А. Obedience and proper nutrition in childhood. B. Organized trainings. C. Use of doping. D. Scoring was done as the total of throws with both left and right hands.

Aki Parviainen – a Finnish javelin thrower. The 1999 world champion (89 metres 52 centimetres), a World Championships silver medallist in 2001 (91 metres 31 centimetres). The 1992 world junior champion (76 metres 34 centimetres).

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66. The Games of the IV Olympiad, 1908. 67. Free and Greek. 68. Eric Lemming. 69. 54 metres 44 centimetres. 70. Martin Sheridan (USA). 71. 38 metres 00 centimetres. d d, 72. The Games of the V Olympiad, 1912. 73. Scoring was done as the total of throws with both left and n nd right hands. A Norwegian athlete Andreas Thorkildsen – a two-time Olympic champion in the javelin throw: at the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad in Athens (86 metres 50 centimetres) and at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing (with an Olympic record – 90 metres 57 centimetres).

74. When was the women’s javelin throw introduced to the Olympic programme? А. The Games of the IV Olympiad, 1908. B. The Games of the X Olympiad, 1932. C. The Games of the IX Olympiad, 1928. D. The Games of the XI Olympiad, 1936.

75. Women started to compete in the javelin throw at the Games of the X Olympiad in 1932. Who became the first Olympic champion in this discipline? А. Mildred Didrikson (USA). B. Ellen Braumüller (Germany). C. Tillie Fleischer (Germany). D. Masako Shimpo (Japan).

76. What result allowed Mildred Didrikson to mount the highest tier of the Olympic podium? А. 43 metres 68 centimetres. B. 44 metres 60 centimetres.

C. 43 metres 50 centimetres. D. 43 metres 49 centimetres.

77. At the Games of the ХХVIII Olympiad of 2004 in Athens a ne Olympic record in the women’s javelin throw was set. new Naam the author of this record. Name А S А. Steffi Nerius (Germany). B. Osleidys B O Menéndez (Cuba). C. M C Mirela Maniani-Tzelili (Greece). D. B D Barbora Špotáková (Сzech Republic).

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Cuban athlete Osleidys Menéndez who won bronze in the javelin throw at the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney set a world record in this athletic discipline – 71 metres 54 centimetres in 2001. At the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens she won the gold medal with an Olympic record (71 metres 53 centimetres), just one centimetre inferior to her own world record three years before.


78. What is the length of the 2004 javelinn throw Olympic record of Osleidys Menéndez? А. 71 metres 53 centimetres. B. 69 metres 53 centimetres.

C. 70 metres e 53 centimetres. es D. 68 metres e 53 centimetres. es

79. At the Games of the ХХІХ Olympiad of 2008 2 in Beijing a a avelin new a new Olympic record in the men’s javelin throw was set. Who made this record throw? А. Andreas Thorkildsen (Norway). B. Tero Pitkämäki (Finland). C. Ainārs Kovals (Latvia). D. Sergey Makarov (Russia).

80. What is the length of the men’s 2008 Olympic record javelin throw? А. 90 metres 67 centimetres. B. 90 metres 57 centimetres.

C. 90 metres 77 centimetres. D. 90 metres 37 centimetres.

81. Keshorn Walcott of Trinidad and Tobago became the Olympic champion in the javelin throw. He is the second Olympic champion of his country in all its competitive history. When did Walcott gain this victory? А. The Games of the ХХIX Olympiad, 2008. B. The Games of the XXX Olympiad, 2012. C. The Games of the XXIII Olympiad, 1984. D. The Games of the XXIV Olympiad, 1988.

At the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul, where the new model of a javelin was used, different from the previous ones, Czech athlete Jan Železný, though setting an Olympic record (85 metres 90 centimetres) in the qualifying round, yielded to his opponent from Finland Tapio Korjus (84 metres 28 centimetres) in the final with the result of 84 metres 12 centimetres and won the silver medal. And later at three consecutive Olympic Games Jan Železný (Czechoslovakia – the Czech Republic) won three times in a row: at 1992 Games of the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona – an Olympic record (89 metres 66 centimetres); at 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta with the result of 88 metres 66 centimetres; at 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney – an Olympic record (90 metres 17 centimetres). In 1987–1996 this athlete improved world records in the javelin throw five times from 87 metres 66 centimetres to 98 metres 48 centimetres. That world record of 98 metres 48 centimetres set by Jan Železný on May 25, 1996 at the competitions in Jena (Germany) has not been beaten by now.

Raymond Hecht – a German javelin thrower, the bronze medallist of the 1998 European Championships in Budapest (86 metres 63 centimetres). His best record of 92 metres 60 centimetres achieved in Oslo allowed the athlete taking the 4th place at the World Championships.

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74. The Games of the X Olympiad, 1932. 75. Mildred Didrikson (USA). 76. 43 metres 68 centimetres. 77. Osleidys Menéndez (Cuba). 78. 71 metres 53 centimetres. 79. Andreas Thorkildsen (Norway). 80. 90 metres 57 centimetres. 81. The Games of the XXX Olympiad, 2012. 82. Mihaela Peneş (Romania). 83. 34 years old. 84. Jan Železný (Czechoslovakia, Czech Republic). kiaa, 85. Jan Železný (Czechoslovakia, Czech Republic). 86. 19 years old. 87. The javelin throw.

82. The champion of the 1964 Games was a 17-year old athlete who turned out to be the youngest Olympic champion in the women’s javelin throw. Name her. А. Mildred Didrikson (USA). B. Mihaela Peneş (Romania). C. Angéla Németh (Hungary). D. Elvira Ozolina (USSR).

83. The winner of the Olympic competitions in the women’s javelin throw was Norwegian athlete Trine Hattestad (née Solberg) at the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad. She turned out to be the oldest Olympic champion in the women’s javelin throw. At what age did she win her Olympic gold medal? А. 34 years old. B. 29 years old.

C. 35 years old. D. 31 years old.

84. He won his third Olympic gold medal at the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney at the age of 34 and became the oldest Olympic champion in the men’s javelin throw. Name this athlete. А. Jan Železný (Czechoslovakia, Czech Republic). B. Miklós Németh (Hungary). C. Jānis Lūsis (USSR). D. Tapio Rautavaara ((Finland). )

Keshorn Walcott (Trinidad and Tobago) – the champion of the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London in the javelin throw (84 metres 58 centimetres), the 2012 world Junior champion in Barcelona (78 metres 64 centimetres).

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85. Name the “champion of the three decades” in the javelin throw, the owner of the largest collection of Olympic medals – four, three of them are gold. А. Jan Železný (Czechoslovakia, Czech Republic). B. Jānis Lūsis (USSR). C. Matti Järvinen (Finland). D. Steve Backley (Great Britain).

86. The youngest Olympic champions among the javelin throwers were the winner of the 1928 Games of the IX Olympiad Erik Lundkvist (Sweden) and the winner of the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad Keshorn Walcott (Trinidad and Tobago). At what age did they become the Olympic champions? А. 19 years old. B. 18 years old.

C. 20 years old. D. 17 years old.

87. It is known that throwing disciplines have long been included into the programmes of the track and field multiple events. What discipline is a part of the men’s athletic decathlon and women’s heptathlon? А. The discus throw. B. The hammer throw.

C. The javelin throw. D. The grenade throw.

Christina Obergföll – a German athlete, the best javelin thro-wer of 2006–2007. The bronze medallist at the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing (66 metres 13 centimetres), the World Championships silver medallist in 2005 (70 metres 03 centimetres – a record for Europe). The silver medallist at the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London (65 metres 16 centimetres). The 2013 World champion in Moscow in the javelin throw (69 metres 05 centimetres).

Barbora Špotáková (Czech Republic) – the Olympic Champion in the javelin throw at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing (71 metres 42 centimetres) and at the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London (69 metres 55 centimetres). She owns the world record in this athletic discipline – 72 metres 28 centimetres, set on September 13, 2008 in Stuttgart (Germany) and still unbeaten.

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D iscus Throw he discus throw is an athletic competition (at a distance), which belongs to speed-power disciplines of track and field athletics. The modern athletic discus is of a lenticular shape and consists of a wooden base and a metal rim. The discus weight is 2 kilograms (the diameter is 221 millimetres) for men and 1 kilogram (the diameter is 182 millimetres) for women. The men’s discus throwing competitions have been introduced into the Olympic programme starting from the 1896 Games of the I Olympiad in Athens. There the first Olympic champion in this track and field event was Robert Garrett (USA) who had thrown the discus at 29 metres 15 centimetres. At the 1908 Games of the IV Olympiad in London the competitions were held in the freestyle and the Greek style discus throw. And at the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad in Stockholm the programme of the competitions included both the discus throw and the two-handed discus throw, where the winner was determined by the sum of two results. The first world record in the discus throw registered by the IAAF in 1912 was the result shown by James Duncan (USA) – 47 metres 58 centimetres.

T

Apollo with the Solar Disk. Albrecht Dürer. 16th cent. Germany.

A statuette off an a athlete. The 1st half off tth the 5th century BC. G Geneva, een the collection off George Ge Ortiz.

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The women’s Olympic competitions in the discus throw were first held at the 1928 Games of the IX Olympiad in Amsterdam. There the first Olympic champion in the discus throw was Halina Konopacka (Poland), whose result of 39 metres 62 centimetres was at that time the highest world achievement. The author of the next world achievement in the women’s discus throw was Lillian Copeland (USA) who won in this athletic discipline at the 1932 Games of the X Olympiad in Los Angeles with the result of 40 metres 58 centimetres. And the first world record holder in the discus throw was Gisela Mauermayer of Germany who threw the discus at 44 metres 34 centimetres in 1935, and later on she improved her world records (in the same 1935 – 44 metres 76 centimetres, 45 metres 53 centimetres, 46 metres 10 centimetres, 47 metres 12 centimetres; in 1936 – 47 metres 99 centimetres, 48 metres 31 centimetres) a few times more. The first world champion in the men’s discus throw was athlete Imrich Bugár from Czechoslovakia, whose winning result was 67 metres 72 centimetres in this discipline at the first World Athletics Championships held in 1983 in Helsinki (Finland).

A discus disc di scu u thrower. RedRe d-fi figure g Red-fi ceramics. ( fragment (a fra ag of decoration). 4490. 90. BC B Rome, the Vatican Museums.

The Discus Thrower. Evelyn De Morgan (née Pickering). 1873–1878. Great Britain.

A discus thrower. Black-figure ceramics. (a fragment of decoration). 450 BC. Naples, the National Archaeological Museum.

The Discobolus. A Roman copy of Myron’s original. The 5th century. London, the British Museum.

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The Discus Thrower. Vincent Van Gogh. 1886. Van Gogh Museum. Amsterdam.

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There and at the same time the first world champion in the women’s discus throw was Martina Opitz from the German Democratic Republic who won with the result of 68 metres 94 centimetres. Now the current Olympic record in the men’s discus throw is the result of 69 metres 89 centimetres, which ensured Virgilijus Alekna (Lithuania) who won at the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad in Athens. And the female Olympic record in the discus throw not broken as of now is 72 metres 30 centimetres was set by Martina Hellmann from the German Democratic Republic who won with this result in at the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul. Alfred Oerter from the United States made it into history as the only track and field athlete who won four competitions in the discus throw at the Olympic Games. He became the Olympic champion at the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad (56 metres 36 centimetres), the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad (59 metres 18 centimetres), the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad (61 metres 00 centimetres), the 1968 Games of the XIX Olympiad (64 metres 78 centimetres). A three-time Olympic champion in the discus throw was Martin Sheridan from the United States: at the 1904 Games of the III Olympiad he won with the result of 39 metres 28 centimetres and the 1908 Games of the IV Olympiad he excelled twice in the discus throw both in the freestyle (40 metres 89 centimetres) and the Greek style (38 metres 00 centimetres) events.

The Discobolus. A park sculpture. Peterhof. 19th cent. Russia.


Three athletes became double Olympic champions in this discipline in different years: Armas Taipale (Finland) twice at the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad in the discus throw (45 metres 21 centimetres) and in the two-handed discus throw (the sum of two results was 82 metres 86 centimetres); Clarence Houser (USA) – at the 1924 Games of the VIII Olympiad (46 metres 15.5 centimetres) and the 1928 Games of the IX Olympiad (47 metres 32 centimetres); Virgilijus Alekna (Lithuania) – at the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad (69 metres 30 centimetres) and at the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad (69 metres 89 centimetres). In the women’s discus throw events at the Olympics Games two female athletes managed to become the Olympic champion Nina Romashkova-Ponomaryova (USSR) – at the 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad (51 metres 42 centimetres) and at the 1960 Games of the XVII olympiad (55 metres 10 centimetres); Evelin Schlaak-Jahl (GDR) – at the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad (69 metres 00 centimetres) and at the 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad (69 metres 96 centimetres). The current (as of early 2015) world record in the men’s discus throw is 74 metres 08 centimetres was set in 1986 by Jürgen Schult from the German Democratic Republic. The world record holder in the women’s discus throw is Gabriele Reinsch (GDR), whose result of 76 metres 80 centimetres, shown in 1988, has not been surpassed so far (as of early 2015).

The Cosmic Athlete. Salvador Dali. Colour etching. 20th cent. Spain.

The Olympic Medal. Salvador Dali. 20th cent. Spain.

The Discobolus. A park sculpture. Peterhof. 19th cent. Russia.

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1.

What kind of competitions of Ancient Greece Olympic program included the discus throw? А. The pankration. B. The pentathlon.

2.

Ancient Greek sources speak of a tragic accident connected with discus throwing. One of the Greek gods competed in the discus throw with his favourite – the prince of Sparta Hyacinthus. The god threw the discus with all his might. And Hyacinthus wanted to make an impression and to catch the discus. The discus struck Hyacinthus and the latter died. Name the Greek god known to be the best one in throwing. А. Hermes. B. Apollo.

3.

C. The triathlon. D. The decathlon.

C. Hephaestus. D. Zeus.

Another legend speaks of the oracle’s prophecy to the King of Argos Acrisius that he would die at the hand of his own grandson. Having heard this prophecy Acrisius avoided meeting his grandson. And once during the funeral games in Larissa in the pentathlon competition an athlete threw the bronze discus significantly farther that the others and it flew in the direction of the audience. Spectators seeing the discus flight turned to running right and left. The discus fell down hurting the old man who immediately dropped dead. Thus, the King of Argos Acrisius died. Name the athlete who did it. А. Antaeus. B. Perseus.

C. Heracles. D. Jason.

The Death of Hyacinthus (1636–1637). Peter Paul Rubens. Netherlands. etherlands.

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The Discophorus. A Roman copy of the Greek original. 400 BC. Rome, the Vatican.

Apollo practiced the discus throw and struck his favourite friend Hyacinthus. The young man died on the spot, and a flower known today as the hyacinth grew from his blood.


Perseus Armed by Mercury and Minerva. Paris Bordone, 1545–1555. Italy.

4.

Name the antique sculpture embodying a man in motion. А. The Diadumenos. B. The Doryphorus. C. Heracles fighting the Nemean lion. D. The Discobolus.

5.

Even nowadays humanity admires the world-renowned antique sculpture of The Discobolus. Who is its author? А. Polycleitus. B. Phidias.

6.

When did Myron create the sculpture of The Discobolus? А. The 5th century BC. B. The 4th century BC.

7.

C. The 1st century BC. D. The 3rd century BC.

What material was used for making this famous sculpture? А. Marble. B. Bronze.

8.

C. Myron. D. Praxiteles.

C. Plaster. D. Ivory.

Discus throwers. A lithograph from the book of H. Mercurialis – The Art of Gymnastics. 1587. Venice .

The Discobolus disappeared in the Medieval Ages. But how can we behold this beautiful creation of the Greek artist? А. The Greek frescoes. B. The sculptor Myron’s sketches. C. Its reduced copies. D. Its Roman copies.

A mosaic in the Villa Armerina. The 4th century AD. Sicily.

Perseus killed his grandfather Acrisius during a demonstration discus throw.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

The pentathlon. Apollo. Perseus. The Discobolus. Myron. The 5th century BC. Bronze. Its Roman copies.

9.

Archaeological excavations testify that discus throwing was popular in Ancient Greece and was a part of the Ancient Olympic Games programmes. What material was used for making discuses in Ancient Greece? А. Marble. B. Stone and bronze.

C. Gold. D. Wood.

10. What was the weight of Ancient Greek discuses? А. From 1.25 to 5.70 kg. B. From 2.00 to 3.00 kg.

C. From 2.50 to 4.50 kg. D. From 3.00 to 6.00 kg.

11. What was the diameter of Ancient Greek discuses? А. From 150 to 250 mm. B. From 170 to 350 mm.

C. From 165 to 340 mm. D. From 200 to 300 mm.

12. Ancient sources testify that the ancient discus throwing technique was different of the modern one. In what plane did the discus fly in those times long gone? А. Perpendicular to the ground. B. Parallel to the ground. C. Changing its planes during the flight. D. It didn’t matter.

In the athletic competitions at the 1896 Games of the I Olympiad in Athens American athlete Robert Garrett became a double Olympic champion, where he excelled in the discus throw (29 metres 15 centimetres) and in the shot put (11 metres 22 centimetres). At the same 1896 Games he won two silver medals in the long jump and the high jump, and at the 1900 Games of the II Olympiad in Paris he was the bronze medallist in the shot put and in the standing triple jump.

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The Discobolus of Myron (Lancelotti discobolus). One of the Roman copies of the 5th century original. Rome, Museo Nazionale Romano.


13. What was the prototype of a concrete or cement circle limited by a safety net in the discus throwing zone? А. A wooden floor. B. A soil ground. C. The ancient Greek balbis – a stone podium. D. A round grass court.

14. Initially the discus was thrown from a highland similar to Ancient Greeks. But later on the discus throwing events were moved to the shot put sector preliminarily increased up to 2.5 metres in the diameter. When did it happen? А. 1900. B. 1901.

C. 1910. D. 1912.

15. Name a round flat object for throwing at distance. А. A flying saucer. B. A frisbee.

C. A discus. D. A puck.

16. What is the weight of the men’s throwing discus? А. 1.50 kg. B. 3.00 kg.

C. 2.00 kg. D. 2.50 kg.

Rudolf Bauer is a Hungarian athlete, the champion of the 1900 Games of the II Olympiad in Paris in the discus throw (with an Olympic record of 36 metres 04 centimetres).

Martin Sheridan from the United States won in the discus throw (with an Olympic record of 39 metres 28 centimetres) at the 1904 Games of the III Olympiad in St. Louis. At the 1908 Games of the IV Olympiad in London he won two gold medals (both with Olympic records) in the Greek style discus throw (38 metres 00 centimetres) and in the discus throw freestyle (40 metres 89 centimetres), thus becoming a three-time Olympic champion and was also awarded with the bronze medal in the standing long jump.

The monument to the greatest athlete of his time gr Martin Sheridan (United M States). Sta

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9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Stone and bronze. From 1.25 to 5.70 kg. From 165 to 340 mm. Perpendicular to the ground. The ancient Greek balbis – a stone podium. 14. 1910. 15. A discus. 16. 2.00 кg.

17. What is the weight of the junior throwing discus? А. 1.50 kg. B. 1.75 kg.

C. 2.00 kg. D. 1.75 kg.

18. The weight of the junior discus is 250 gram more than that of the youth’s discus. What is the weight of the boy’s throwing discus? А. 1.50 kg. B. 2.00 kg.

C. 2.50 kg. D. 1.00 kg.

19. Adult women, female juniors and youths use the throwing discus of the same weight. What is the weight of such discus? А. 1.50 kg. B. 1.25 kg.

C. 1.00 kg. D. 0.90 kg.

20. The men’s and women’s discuses vary in their diameters. What is the men’s discus diameter? А. 210–220 mm. B. 215–221 mm.

C. 200–210 mm. D. 219–221 mm.

The Discus Thrower. A. Samokhvalov. The beginning of the 30s. The Finn Discus Thrower. Bronze. Constantine Dimitriadis. The 1-st Prize winner. The Olympic Art Contest. Paris. 1924.

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Armas Taipale from Finland at the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad in Stockholm, became a double Olympic champion, winning (the Olympic record) in the discus throw (45 m 21 centimetres) and in the discus throw right and left hand 82 m 86 centimetres).


21. The discus thrown by women is of a smaller diameter than that of men. What is the women’s discus diameter? А. 180–182 mm. B. 180–85 mm.

C. 175–180 mm. D. 170–175 mm.

22. Name the diameter of the circle in the discus throwing sector. А. 1.50 metres. B. 2.00 metres.

C. 3.00 metres. D. 2.50 metres.

23. What is the radius of the discus landing sector? А. 50 metres. B. 40 metres.

C. 60 m. D. 80 m.

24. What is the chord of the discus landing sector? А. 38 metres. B. 48 metres.

C. 28 metres. D. 58 metres.

25. What phases are included into the discus throwing technique? А. The wind up, the move in rhythm, the balance, the right leg engine, the orbit, and the delivery. B. The move in rhythm, the orbit, the delivery. C. The wind up, the balance, the right leg engine, the delivery. D. The wind up, the balance, the orbit, the delivery.

American athlete Clarence Houser – a triple Olympic champion: at the 1924 Games of the VIII Olympiad in Paris he won in the discus throw (with an Olympic record – 46 metres 15.5 centimetres) in the shot put, and four years later at the 1928 Games of the IX Olympiad in Amsterdam he again excelled in the discus throw (with an Olympic record – 47 metres 32 centimetres).

The Discobolus. A. Samokhvalov. The beginning of the 30s. USSR.

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17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

1.75 кg. 1.50 кg. 1.00 кг. 219–221 mm. 180–182 mm. 2.50 metres. 80 metres. 48 metres. The wind up, the move in rhythm, the balance, the right leg engine, the orbit, and the delivery.

26. What phase of the discus throwing technique determines the fly out of the discus? А. The orbit. B. The delivery.

C. The balance. D. The right-leg engine.

27. What is the initial discuss flying speed of high class athletes? А. 25 m.s-1. B. 10 m.s-1.

C. 20 m.s-1. D. 15 m.s-1.

28. The wind from ahead is a favourable factor. That is why the skill of feeling the wind and the skill of, as athletes say, of “getting the discus right” or “laying the discus into the wind” are the elements of professionalism of high class discus throwers. What is the optimum speed of wind for discus throwing? А. Up to 10 m.s-1. B. Up to 5 m.s-1.

C. Up to 15 m.s-1. D. No optimum speed.

In the Stadium. A. Samokhvalov. 1934–1935. USSR.

At the 1928 Games of the IX Olympiad in Amsterdam, where the Olympic programme included the women’s discus events for the first time, Polish athlete Halina Konopacka became the first Olympic champion in the women’s discus throw with the result of 39 metres 62 centimetres (the highest world achievement).

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29. What horizontal fly-out angle is allowed in discus throwing? А. Not more than 35°. B. Not more than 40°.

C. Not more than 37°. D. No restrictions.

30. What is the width of the discus fly-out gates? А. 7 metres. B. 5 metres.

C. 5.5 metres. D. 6 metres.

31. Discus throwing is performed in a special sector. What limits this sector? А. Metal bars. B. A metal net. C. A wooden fence. D. A glass handrail.

32. To make their specific run-up discus throwers use a circle. What is the diameter of this circle? А. 250 cm. B. 300 cm.

C. 350 cm. D. 200 cm.

At the 1936 Games of the XI Olympiad in Berlin American athlete Kenneth Carpenter set an Olympic record in the discus throw (50 metres 48 centimetres), which brought him the gold medal.

Gisela Mauermayer – a German athlete, the champion in the discus throw of the 1936 Games of the XI Olympiad in Berlin (47 metres 63 centimetres – an Olympic record).

A TV broadcast from the stadium was carried out for the first time at the 1936 Games in Berlin.

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26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32.

33. How is the throw length measured in discus throwing?

The delivery. 25 m.s-1. Up to 5 m.s-1. Not more than 35°. 6 metres. A metal net. 250 cm.

А. From the outer circumference of the circle to the point of discus landing. B. From the inner circumference of the circle to the point of discus landing. C. From the centre of the circle to the point of discus landing. D. From the outer circumference of the circle to the point of the last discus landing.

34. What physical qualities are necessary for a discus thrower? А. Strength and coordination. B. Speed and coordination. C. Endurance and strength. D. Coordination and endurance. Italian athlete Adolfo Consolini became the Olympic champion in the discus throw (52 metres 78 centimetres) at the 1948 Games of the XIV Olympiad in London. And at the 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad in Helsinki he was awarded the silver medal in the same discipline. He improved world records in the discus throw three times: in 1941 – 53 metres 34 centimetres; 1946 – 54 metres 23 centimetres; 1948 – 53 metres 33 centimetres.

35. In 1897 Swedish athlete Gustaf Söderström, the Olympic champion of the 1900 Games of the ІІ Olympiad in the tug of war, was the first modern athlete to throw the discus while rotating the whole body and showed a unique result. Name the result. А. 38 metres 70 centimetres. B. 38 metres 50 centimetres.

C. 37 metres 70 centimetres. D. 39 metres 05 centimetres.

36. When was the first official world record in the men’s discus throw registered? А. 1912. B. 1920.

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The champion of the 1948 Games of the XIV Olympiad in London in the discus throw was French athlete Micheline Ostermeyer who showed the result of 41 metres 92 centimetres. Micheline was also the winner in the shot put (13 metres 75 centimetres), and became the bronze medallist of the 1948 Games in the high jump (1 metre 61 centimetres).

C. 1915. D. 1910.


37. Who owns the first world record in the men’s discus throw? А. Armas Taipale (Finland). B. James Duncan (USA). C. Richard Byrd (USA). D. Elmer Niklander (Finland).

38. Name the first world record in the men’s discus throw. А. 47 metres 58 centimetres. B. 48 metres 58 centimetres.

C. 46 metres 58 centimetres. D. 45 metres 58 centimetres.

39. In 1921 a new discus throwing style appeared – with 1.5 rotation. Who was the author of this innovation? А. John Dougherty. B. Armas Taipale.

C. James Duncan. D. Elmer Niklander.

40. In 1930 an American athlete broke the 50 metres with the result of 52 metres 03 centimetres, demonstrating a new discus throwing technique. Name the athlete. А. John Anderson (USA). B. Paul Jessup (USA).

C. Eric Krenz (USA). D. Henri Jean LaBorde (USA).

At the 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad in Helsinki Simeon Iness from the United States won in the discus throw with an Olympic record (55 metres 03 centimetres). In 1953 the athlete set a world record by throwing the discus at 57 metres 93 centimetres.

Nina Dumbadze – a Soviet discus thrower. The bronze medallist of the 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad (46.29 metres). For more than 20 years she had been an unofficial (1939–1948) and the official (1948–1960 with a short break in 1952) world record holder, improving here world records from 49.11 metres in 1939 to 57.04 metres in 1952. Thirteen times she was the leader of the world season (1937, 1939, 1943–1952, 1954).

Nina Romashkova-Ponomaryovaof the USSR – a two-time Olympic champion in the discus throw. At the 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad in Helsinki she won the gold medal with an Olympic record (51 metres 42 centimetres). In 1953 she set a world record of 53 metres 61 centimetres. At the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad in Melbourne this athlete won the bronze medal (52 metres 02 centimetres) and at the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome she again became the owner of the gold medal by throwing the discus at 55 metres 10 centimetres (an Olympic record).

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33. From the outer circumference of the circle to the point of discus landing. 34. Strength and coordination. 35. 38 metres 70 centimetres. 36. 1912. 37. James Duncan (USA). 38. 47 metres 58 centimetres. 39. John Dougherty. 40. Eric Krenz (USA).

41. An outstanding American discus thrower – The National Treasure – improved world records four times. And its main achievement is four subsequent victories at the Games of the 1956, 1960, 1964 and 1968 Olympiads. What was the name of this athlete? А. Desmond Koch. B. Fortune Gordien.

C. Alfred Adolf Oerter. D. Richard Babka.

42. After his retirement Alfred Adolf Oerter got keen on abstract art and painted pictures. What did Oerter use for painting? А. A brush. B. A pencil.

C. A discus. D. His fingers.

43. The last world record in the discus throw was set in 1986. Who owns it? А. Romas Ubartas (USSR). B. Jürgen Schult (GDR).

C. Rolf Danneberg (FRG). D. Mac Wilkins (USA).

44. Over thirty years (as of 2015) the world record in the men’s discus throw set by German athlete Jürgen Schult has remained unsurpassed. What is the length of this record throw? А. 74 metres 08 centimetres. B. 74 metres 18 centimetres.

C. 74 metres 05 centimetres. D. 74 metres 28 centimetres.

At the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad in Melbourne American athlete Alfred Oerter got his first gold medal in the discus throw (with an Olympic record – 56 metres 36 centimetres). Further on this athlete won three times in the Olympic discus competitions at the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome (with an Olympic record – 59 metres 18 centimetres), at the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo (with an Olympic record – 61 metres 00 centimetres) and at the 1968 Games of the XIX olympiad in Mexico (with an Olympic record – 64 metres 78 centimetres), thus becoming a four-time Olympic champion in the period of 1962–1964. Oerter improved world records in the discus throw four times: in 1962 – 61 metres 10 centimetres, 62 metres 45 centimetres; 1963 – 62 metres 62 centimetres; 1964 – 62 metres 94 centimetres.

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45. The highest achievement – four world records in the discus throw – belongs to an athlete nicknamed The Multiple Mac, who performed in all throwing disciplines, but succeeded only in discus throwing. Who is this universal athlete? А. Mac Wilkins. B. Patrick McDonald.

C. Matthew McGrath. D. Ronald McDonald.

46. When was the first world record in the women’s discus throw registered? А. 1920. B. 1925.

C. 1936. D. 1930.

47. Name the first world record in the women’s discus throw. А. Gisela Mauermayer (Germany). B. Paula Mollenhauer (Germany) C. Jadwiga Wajs (Poland). D. Ko Nakamura (Japan).

48. Name the first world record in the women’s discus throw. А. 48 metres 31 centimetres. B. 45 metres 31 centimetres.

Czechoslovak athlete Olga Fikotová won the gold medal in the discus throw (with an Olympic record – 53 metres 69 centimetres) at the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad in Melbourne. In 1957 she married the Olympic champion of the 1956 Games in the hammer throw American Harold Connolly and moved to the United States. The athlete represented this country under the name of Connolly at the Games of 1960, 1964, 1968 and 1972 Olympiads, but got no Olympic awards.

C. 47 metres 31 centimetres. D. 46 metres 31 centimetres.

Tamara Press – a Soviet athlete, a renowned discus thrower and a shot putter. A three-time Olympic champion (1960, Rome – the shot put, 1964, Tokyo – the discus throw, the shot put). The Olympic silver medallist of the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome in the discus throw. The European champion in the discus throw.

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41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48.

Alfred Adolf Oerter. A discus. Jürgen Schult (GDR). 74 metres 08 centimetres. Mac Wilkins. 1936. Gisela Mauermayer (Germany). anny). 48 metres 31 centimetres. es.

49. The world record in the women’s discus throw (as of 2015) belongs to German female thrower Gabriele Reinsch. How far did this athlete throw the discus? А. 75 metres 50 centimetres. B. 76 metres 50 centimetres.

C. 76 metres 80 centimetres. D. 76 metres 10 centimetres.

50. When did Gabriele Reinsch set her world record in the women’s discus throw? А. 1988. B. 1986.

C. 2006. D. 2000.

51. When did men’s discus throw become a part of the Olympic programme? А. 1900. B. 1896.

C. 1904. D. 1908.

52. Who was the first Olympic champion in the men’s discus throw? А. Robert Garrett (USA). B. Panagiotis Paraskevopoulos (Greece). C. Sotirios Versis (Greece). D. Louis Adler (France).

Romanian athlete Lia Manoliu who got the bronze medals in the discus throw twice – at the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome and at the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo became the Olympic champion in this event (with an Olympic record – 58 metres 28 centimetres) at the 1968 Games of the XIX Olympiad in Mexico City.

Faina Melnik (USSR) won the gold medal in the discus throw with an Olympic record (66 metres 62 centimetres) at the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich. In 1971–1976 she improved world records in this athletic discipline (from 64 metres 22 centimetres to 70 metres 50 centimetres) eleven times.

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53. What result did the first Olympic champion in the discus throw show? А. 29 metres 15 centimetres. B. 30 metres 15 centimetres.

C. 29 metres 75 centimetres. D. 28 metres 95 centimetres.

54. Outstanding American athlete Robert Garrett got the Olympic gold medal in the long jump, the silver medal in high jump and became a champion in both discus throw and shot put at the Games of one Olympiad. The Games of what Olympiad were that lucky for the athlete? А. The Games of the IV Olympiad. B. The Games of the I Olympiad. C. The Games of the II Olympiad. D. The Games of the III Olympiad.

55. Why did the 1908 Olympic Games have two champions in the discus throw? А. Because of a big number of competitors. B. Competitions were held in two throwing style events: Greek and free. C. The winner of the right-hand and the left-hand throw was determined separately. D. The winner was determined both among men and women.

American athlete Maurice Wilkins improved world records in the discus throw four times: 69 metres 18 centimetres; 69 metres 80 centimetres; 70 metres 24 centimetres (becoming the first athlete in the world who threw the discus beyond the 70-metre line); 70 metres 86 centimetres in the spring of 1976. At the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal in the qualifying round he set an Olympic record (68 metres 28 centimetres), and in the final he got the gold medal and the title of the Olympic champion athlete with the throw of 67 metres 50 centimetres. Eight years later – at the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles – Maurice Wilkins won the silver medal in the discus throw.

Czechoslovak athlete Ludvík Daněk who won the silver medal at the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo, and the bronze medal at the 1968 Games of the XIX Olympiad in Mexico City in the discus throw became the Olympic champion in this discipline at the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich. Daněk set two world records in the discus throw: in 1964 – 64 metres 55 centimetres and 1965 – 65 metres 22 centimetres.

The Discobolus. M. Perejaslavets. 1980. USSR.

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49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55.

76 metres 80 centimetres. 1988. 1896. Robert Garrett (USA). 29 metres 15 centimetres. The Games of the I Olympiad. Competitions were held in two throwing style events: Greek and free.

56. At the 1908 Games of the IV Olympiad in London the discus throwing events were staged in two styles – Greek and free (close to the modern one). What style was most resultative at distance throwing? А. Greek style. B. Free style.

C. Didn’t matter. D. Roman style.

57. At the 1908 Games of the IV Olympiad the winner in both free and Greek-style throwing was one and the same athlete. Name him. А. Martin Sheridan (USA). B. Merritt Giffin (USA).

C. Marquis Horr (USA). D. Verner Järvinen (Finland).

58. An American of the Irish origin became the champion of two subsequent Olympiads in the discus throw (1904, 1908) and one more golden medal was gained by him in the discipline now cancelled – the Greek style discus throw. However, he went on further and got one bronze medal at the 1908 Games of the IV Olympiad in London in one more today’s non-existing discipline – the standing long jump. Besides he had two gold (the discus throw and the shot put) and three silver medals at the 1906 Intercalated Games in Athens. What was the name of this versatile athlete? А. John Flanagan. B. Patrick Leahy.

German athlete of the GDR Evelin Schlaak-Jahl – a two-time Olympic champion in discus throwing: at the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal the victory was brought to her by the throw of 69 metres 00 centimetres (an Olympic record), and at the 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad in Moscow by the throw 69 metres 96 centimetres (Olympic record). She set world records in the discus throw twice: in 1978 (70 metres 72 centimetres) and in 1980 (71 metres 50 centimetres).

C. Martin Joseph Sheridan. D. William Horr.

On June 6, 1986 German athlete of the German Democratic Republic Jürgen Schult set a world record in the discus throw (74 metres 08 centimetres), performing at events in Neubrandenburg (GDR), which has not been surpassed yet. At the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad the world record holder won the gold medal in this athletic discipline with an Olympic record (68 metres 82 centimetres). And at the 1992 Games of the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona this athlete represented a united Germany team by that time and won the silver medal in the discus throw.

The world record in the discus throw that was set by German athlete of the German Democratic Republic Gabriele Reinsch on July 9, 1988 at the competitions held in Neubrandenburg (GDR) remains unsurpassed even now – 76 metres 80 centimetres.

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59. The 1912 Olympic programme included two discus throwing events. Name them. А. The discus throw, the two-handed discus throw. B. The discus throw freestyle and Greek style. C. The left-handed discus throw, the discus throw freestyle. D. The right-handed discus throw, the discus throw freestyle.

60. At the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad in Stockholm the champion in the discus throw with the result of 82 metres 86 centimetres was Finnish athlete Armas Taipale who improved the 2012 throwing result significantly. How could this happen? А. At the 1912 Games of the VI Olympiad the discus weighed 1 kilogram – twice as less than at the 2012 Games. B. The result was determined by the sum of the right-hand and the left-hand throws. C. That result was wind aided. D. The result was determined by the sum of the first two attempts.

German athlete of the GDR Martina Hellmann won the gold medal in the discus throw, setting an Olympic record of 72 metres 30 centimetres, at the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul. A two-time world champion (1983, 1987).

Romas Ubartas – a Lithuanian (USSR, the CIS united team) discus thrower, the champion of the 1992 Games of the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona in the discus throw (65 metres 12 centimetres), the silver medallist of the 1988 Games in Seoul (67 metres 48 centimetres). The European champion of 1986 in Stuttgart in the discus throw.

Maritza Martén García – a Cuban discus thrower. The champion of the 1992 Games of XXV Olympiad in Barcelona (70 metres 06 centimetres). A three-time winner of the Pan American Games (1983, 1987, 1995) in the discus throw.

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56. 57. 58. 59.

Free style. Martin Sheridan (USA). Martin Joseph Sheridan. The discus throw, the twohanded discus throw. 60. The result was determined by the sum of the right-hand and the left-hand throws.

61. Ehsan Haddadi — an Irish athlete, the silver medallist of the 2012 Games of the ХХХ Olympiad in London. His medal was the highest achievement of non-European and nonAmerican athletes in this discipline. What result allowed this athlete to become the Olympic medallist? А. 68 metres 18 centimetres. B. 68 metres 08 centimetres.

C. 67 metres 98 centimetres. D. 68 metres 10 centimetres.

62. Who owns the current Olympic record in the men’s discus throw (as of 2015) and what is the result? А. Zoltán Kővágó (Hungary) – 69 metres 90 centimetres. B. Aleksander Tammert (Estonia) – 68 metres 90 centimetres. C. Virgilijus Alekna (Lithuania) – 69 metres 89 centimetres. D. Vasiliy Kaptyukh (Belarus) – 69 metres 80 centimetres.

63. When was the current Olympic record in the men’s discus throw (as of 2015) set? А. 2004. B. 2008.

C. 2012. D. 2000.

64. When did the women’s discus throw become the Olympic event? А. 1896. B. 1928.

C. 1932. D. 1900.

At the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta Lars Riedel of Germany won the gold medal in the discus throw with an Olympic record (69 m 40 centimetres), and at the following 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney he won the silver medal in this athletic discipline.

Discus thrower. Bronze. French school. 19th cent.

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Ellina Zvereva – a Belarusian discus thrower. The champion of the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney (68 metres 40 centimetres) (at the age of 40). The bronze medallist at the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta (66 metres 48 centimetres). A two-time world champion (1995 Göteborg and 2001 Edmonton), the World Championships silver medallist of 1997 in Athens in the discus throw. The silver medallist at the European Championships in Helsinki in the same discipline.


65. Who was the first Olympic champion in the women’s discus throw? А. Halina Konopacka (Poland). B. Ruth Svedberg (Sweden). C. Lillian Copeland (USA). D. Emilie Reuter (Germany).

66. What was the result of the first Olympic champion in the women’s discus throw? А. 39 metres 62 centimetres. B. 39 metres 50 centimetres.

C. 38 metres 60 centimetres. D. 39 metres 10 centimetres.

67. Which of the Soviet female throwers at the Games of one Olympiad won the gold medals in the discus throw and the shot put? А. Irina Press. B. Tamara Press.

C. Galina Zybina. D. Yevgeniya Kuznetsova.

68. At the Games of what Olympiad did the Soviet athlete (female) become the Olympic champion in the discus throw and the shot put? А. The Games of the XVIII Olympiad, 1964. B. The Games of the XVII Olympiad, 1960. C. The Games of the XVI Olympiad, 1956. D. The Games of the XIX Olympiad, 1968.

Natalya Sadova – a Russian discus thrower, the Olympic champion of the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad in Athens (67 metres 02 centimetres). A silver medallist of the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta.

Virgilijus Alekna of Lithuania – a two-time Olympic champion in discus throwing: at the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney (69 metres 30 centimetres) and at the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad in Athens (69 metres 89 centimetres). And at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing the Lithuanian athlete won the bronze medal.

The Discus Thrower. Bronze. French school. XIX cent.

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61. 68 metres 18 centimetres. 62. Virgilijus Alekna (Lithuania) – 69 metres 89 centimetres. 63. 2004. 64. 1928. 65. Halina Konopacka (Poland). 66. 39 metres 62 centimetres. 67. Tamara Press. 68. The Games of the XVIII Olympiad, 1964. 69. Martina Hellmann (GDR) – 72 metres 30 centimetres. 70. 1988. 71. 40 years old. 72. The discus throw.

Gerd Kanter – an Estonian athlete, the champion of the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing, the bronze medallist of the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London in the discus throw, the world champion (2007), the world silver medallist (2005, 2011), the world bronze medallist (2009, 2013). A triple silver medallist of the European championships (2006, 2012, 2014).

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69. Who owns the current Olympic record in the women’s discus throw (as of 2015) and what is its result? А. Diana Gansky (GDR) – 72 metres 00 centimetres. B. Tsvetanka Khristova (Bulgaria) – 72 metres 50 centimetres. C. Ria Stalman (Netherlands) – 72 metres 30 centimetres. D. Martina Hellmann (GDR) – 72 metres 30 centimetres.

70. When was the current Olympic record in the women’s discus throw (as of 2015) set? А. 1988. B. 1992.

C. 1996. D. 1984.

Stephanie Brown Trafton (USA) – the champion of the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing in the discus throw, winning with the result of 64 metres 74 centimetres.


71. The most considerably aged Olympic champion in the women’s discus throw is athlete of Belarus Ellina Zvereva who got the gold medal at the 2000 Games in Sydney, showing the result of 68 metres 40 centimetres. How old was this athlete when she mounted the highest tier of the Olympic podium? А. 35 years old. B. 40 years old.

C. 45 years old. D. 38 years old.

72. The track and field disciplines include four types of throwing events contested by male and female athletes: the javelin throw, the hammer throw, the discus throw and the shot put. In what discipline does the women’s Olympic record exceed the men’s achievement? А. The hammer throw. B. The shot put.

C. The javelin throw. D. The discus throw.

Robert Harting – a German discus thrower, the champion of the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London, a three-time world champion (2009, 2011 and 2013), the silver medallist of the 2007 World Championships (Osaka). A two-time European champion (2012, 2014), the silver medallist of the 2010 European Championships in the discus throw.

Sandra Perković – a Croatian discus thrower, the champion of the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London (69 metres 11 centimetres), the world champion in 2013, a three-time European champion (2010, 2012, 2014).

The Discus Thrower. Tom Corbin. 20th cent. USA.

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H ammer Throw he hammer throw (at a distance) is an athletic competition, a part of the athletic throwing group, which belongs to speed-power disciplines. The hammer is an athletic throwing ball connected to a metal handle with a steel wire. The mass of the modern hammer for men is 7.260 kilograms, the total length must be less than 1.215 metres, the diameter of the ball is 110–130 millimetres; the mass of the modern hammer for women is 4.0 kg, the total length must be less than 1.195 metres, the diameter of the ball is 95–110 millimetres. The men’s Olympic programme has included the hammer throw starting from the 1900 Games of the II Olympiad in Paris. There the first Olympic champion in this track and field competition was John Flanagan (USA) who had thrown the hammer at 49 metres 73 centimetres.

T

Celtic battle ttle throwing hammers

A stone battle axe

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The first world record in the hammer throw registered by the IAAF in 1912 was the result of 57 metres 77 centimetres shown by Patrick Ryan (USA) in 1913. And the first world record holder in the women’s hammer throw was Olga Kuzenkova (Russia) who threw the hammer at 66 metres 84 centimetres in 1994. The Olympic competitions in the women’s hammer throw were held at the 2000 Games the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney for the first time. There the first Olympic champion in this track and field competition was Kamila Skolimowska of Poland who threw the hammer at 71 metres 16 centimetres.

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The first world champion in the men’s hammer throw was Russian athlete Sergey Litvinov (USSR) who won in this event with the result of 82 metres 68 centimetres at the first World Athletics Championships held in 1983 in Helsinki (Finland). And the first world champion in the women’s hammer throw was athlete from Romania Mihaela Melinte who won in this event with the result of 75 metres 20 centimetres at the VII World Athletics Championships held in Seville (Spain) in 1999, where the women’s hammer throw events were introduced into the programme of the World Championships for the first time. Now the current Olympic record in the men’s hammer throw is the result of 84 metres 80 centimetres, with which Russian athlete Sergey Litvinov (USSR) won at the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul. And the female Olympic record in the hammer throw – 78 metres 18 centimetres – was set by Tatyana Lysenko (Russia) who was the champion at the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London.

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The Hammer Thrower. Thomas Holland. 20th cent. USA.


Bolas are hunting metal balls of clay, stone or iron tied with long leather straps.

The only athlete who succeeded in becoming a three-time Olympic champion in the men’s hammer throw was John Flanagan (USA) at the 1900 Games of the II Olympiad (49 metres 73 centimetres), the 1904 Games of the III Olympiad (51 metres 23 centimetres) and the 1908 Games of the IV Olympiad (51 metres 92 centimetres). Two athletes were two-time Olympic champions in the men’s hammer throw: Patrick O`Callaghan (Ireland) at the 1928 Olympic Games (51 metres 39 centimetres) and at the 1932 Olympic Games (53 metres 92 centimetres) and Yuriy Sedykh (USSR) at the 1976 Games (77 metres 52 centimetres) and at the 1980 Games (81 metres 80 centimetres). So far no female athlete has succeeded in becoming a two-time Olympic champion in the women’s hammer throw. The current (as of early 2015) world record in the men’s hammer throw – 86 metres 74 centimetres – was set by Ukrainian athlete Yuriy Sedykh (USSR) in 1986. And the holder of the world record in the women’s hammer throw is Anita Włodarczyk (Poland), whose result of 79 metres 58 centimetres shown in 2014 remains unsurpassed (at the beginning of 2015).

A tomahawk was used as a close combat weapon and sports equipment for throwing.

The Hammer Time. John Mattos. 20th cent. USA.

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1.

Hammer throwing belongs to the technical disciplines of the “Queen of Sports” – the track and field athletics. What is this discipline about? А. Throwing a special sports object – the hammer – at a distance. B. Throwing a special sports object – the hammer – at a target.

2.

What group of sport disciplines does the athletic discipline of hammer throwing belong to? А. Precise. B. Cyclical. C. Martial arts.

3.

Competitions in throwing chariot wheel axis, then sticks with stones attached to them dates back to ancient times. Who practiced such competitions? А. The Celts. B. The Germans. C. The Slavs. D. The Greeks.

American athlete John Flanagan – a three-time Olympic champion in the hammer throw: 1900 Games of the II Olympiad in Paris (49 metres 73 centimetres – an Olympic record); the 1904 Games of the III Olympiad in St. Louis (51 metres 23 centimetres – an Olympic record); the 1908 Games of the IV Olympiad in London (51 metres 92 centimetres – an Olympic record) and he also was the silver medallist in 56-pound weight (25.4 kg) throwing at the 1904 Games.

Étienne Desmarteau – a Canadian athlete, the champion of 1904 Games of the III Olympiad. At the 1904 Games in St. Louis Desmarteau competed only in 56-pound (25.4 kg) weight throwing. He threw the weight at 10 metres 46 centimetres and took the first place winning the gold medal, setting an Olympic record.

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4.

Hammer throwing sports event borrowed its name from a sledge-hammer. It emerged in the mid-18th century when blacksmiths often competed in dexterity and strength throwing a usual sledge-hammer, their working tool, at distance. In what countries were these competitions popular? А. Scotland and Ireland. B. Sweden and Ireland. C. Great Britain and Sweden. D. France and Great Britain.

5.

To what period does the track and field discipline of hammer throwing date back? А. To the beginning of the 19th century. B. To the mid-19th century. C. To the end of the 19th century. D. To the beginning of the 20th century.

6.

In the end of the 19th century the first hammer throwing competitions were held. When and where were they held? А. England, 1866. B. Scotland, 1896.

C. Ireland, 1896. D. Austria, 1900.

American athlete Matthew McGrath – a holder of three Olympic medals in the hammer throw – one gold and two silver. He was second at the 1908 Games of the IV Olympiad in London and then became the Olympic champion at the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad in Stockholm (with an Olympic record – 57 metres 74 centimetres). And at the 1924 Olympic Games in Paris he also ranked second in age of 49 years. Patrick Ryan from the United States who owned the world record in the hammer throw (57 metres 77 centimetres) in 1913, became the Olympic champion in this athletic event (with the result of 52 metres 87 centimetres) and he also won the silver medal in 56-pound weight (25.4 kg) throwing at the 1920 Games of the VII Olympiad in Antwerp.

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1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Throwing a special sports object – the hammer – at distance. Precise. The Celts. Scotland and Ireland. To the end of the 19th century. England, 1866.

7.

When and where were the modern rules of hammer throwing competitions set? А. Sweden, 1866. B. England,1887.

8.

C. Ireland, 1896. D. Ireland, 1870.

In the process of its evolution the hammer underwent changes. For the convenience of throwing a wooden handle was replaced with a chain, then with a wire ending in a triangular handle. In 1896 the modern hammer was introduced into the training and competition practices. What is this sports equipment today? А. A metal sphere connected to a metal handle by a steel wire. B. A massive weight with an attached wooden handle. C. A hammer-sledge with a handle made of some flexible material. D. A metal sphere connected to two metal handles by a steel wire.

9.

How is the length of the hammer measured? А. From the centre of the sphere. B. From the inner edge of the handle. C. From the point where the wire is attached to the handle. D. From the outer edge of the handle.

Patrick O’Callaghan of Ireland – a two-time Olympic champion in the hammer throw at the 1928 Games of the IX Olympiad in Amsterdam (51 metres 39 centimetres) and at the 1932 Games of the X Olympiad in Los Angeles (53 metres 92 centimetres).

Fred Tootell (USA) became the Olympic champion in the hammer throw (53 metres 29 centimetres) at the 1924 Games of the VIII Olympiad in Paris.

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Apollo in the Forge of Vulcan. Diego Velazquez. 1630. Madrid, the Prado Museum.


10. What is the length of the men’s hammer? А. 118–120 cm. B. 121 cm.

C. 130 cm. D. 125 cm.

11. What is the length of the women’s hammer? А. 123 cm. B. 119 cm.

C. 110–113 cm. D. 120 cm.

12. What is the diameter of the sphere in the men’s hammer? А. 110–130 mm. B. 120–140 mm.

C. 115–130 mm. D. 110–120 mm.

13. What is the diameter of the sphere in the women’s hammer? А. 85–100 mm. B. 90–115 mm.

C. 95–110 mm. D. 95–115 mm.

14. The track and field throwing competitions include several disciplines. What throwing equipment has the biggest weight? А. The javelin. B. The discus.

C. The hammer. D. The grenade.

15. The sphere of the hammer is made of metal. What metal is not suitable for making the hammer sphere? А. Iron. B. Aluminium.

C. Brass. D. Lead.

German athlete Karl Hein was the winner in the hammer throw, setting an Olympic record – 56 metres 49 centimetres at the 1936 Games of the XI Olympiad in Berlin.

German athlete Erwin Blask – the silver medallist of the Games of XI Olympiad in Berlin. He set the world record of 59 metres 00 centimetres in 1938.

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7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

England,1887. A metal sphere connected to a metal handle by a steel wire. From the inner edge of the handle. 118–120 сm. 110–113 сm. 110–130 mm. 95–110 mm. The hammer. Aluminium.

16. What is the mass of the men’s hammer? А. 6 kg 500 g. B. 7 kg 800 g.

C. 7 kg 325 g. D. 7 kg 260 g.

17. What is the mass of the women’s hammer? А. 4 kg. B. 3 kg 500 g.

C. 3 kg 900 g. D. 4 kg 100 g.

18. What is the speed of the hammer fly-out? А. 32 m.s-1. B. 25 m.s-1.

C. 28 m.s-1. D. 30 m.s-1.

19. What speed does the hammer develop in its flight? А. Up to 30 m.s-1. B. Up to 35 m.s-1.

C. Up to 25 m.s-1. D. Up to 40 m.s-1.

20. Hammer throwing requires special conditions in order to ensure safety of spectators, officials and athletes. What does the hammer throwing sector look like? А. A circle with no fencing. B. A square ground limited by a metal net. C. A ground limited by a ring encircled by a net and a hammer landing sector. D. A circle with no fencing and a hammer landing sector.

Hungarian Imre Németh athlete won the gold medal in the hammer throw at the 1948 Games of the XIV Olympiad in London, and the following 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad in Helsinki he won the bronze medal in this athletic discipline. The athlete improved world record in the hammer throw three times: in 1948 – 59 metres 02 centimetres; 1949 – 59 metres 57 centimetres; 1950 – 59 metres 88 centimetres. It is interesting to note that Imre Németh’s son Miklós Németh was the Olympic champion too (1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in the javelin throw).

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Hungarian athlete József Csermák was the world’s first athlete to throw the hammer beyond the 60 metres. At the 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad in Helsinki he became the Olympic champion in this athletic event, setting a world record – 60 metres 34 centimetres.


Mikhail Krivonosov – a Belarus athlete (USSR), a six-time world record holder in the hammer throw (1954–1956). The 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad silver medallist (63 metres 03 centimetres). The 1954 European Champion in Bern, the silver medallist of the 1958 European Championship in Stockholm.

21. What is used for fencing the ground limited by the ring in the hammer throwing sector? А. Metal bars. B. A net. C. A wooden fence. D. A glass wall.

22. While throwing, an athlete is located within a special circle, inside of which he/she spins and throws the hammer. What is the diameter of this circle? А. 2.255 m. B. 2.550 m.

C. 2.135 m. D. 2.325 m.

23. For the convenience of the hammer flight measurement the hammer landing sector is market with lines with intervals in the hammer landing area. What is the distance between marks in this sector? А. 5 metres. B. 10 metres.

C. 3 metres. D. 1 metre.

At the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad in Melbourne American athlete Harold Connolly won the gold medal in the hammer throw (with an Olympic record – 63 metres 19 centimetres). In the period of 1956–1965 he improved world records six times in this track and field event (from 64 metres 54 centimetres to 71 metres 26 centimetres). He was the world’s first athlete to throw the hammer beyond the 70-metres.

24. Name the radius of the hammer landing sector. А. 80 metres. B. 90 metres.

C. 100 metres. D. 70 metres.

25. Name the chord of the hammer landing sector. А. 50 metres. B. 45 metres.

C. 54 metres. D. 60 metres.

Vasiliy Rudenkov of the USSR set an Olympic record in the hammer throw (67 metres 10 centimetres), which brought him the gold medal of the Olympic champion at the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome.

The Hammer Throw. Connolly Memorial. Pablo Eduardo. near Taft Middle School, Boston, USA, 2005.

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16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

7 kg 260 g. 4 kg. 32 m.s-1. Up to 30 m.s-1. A ground limited by a ring encircled by a net and a hammer landing sector. A net. 2.135 m. 5 metres. 90 metres. 54 metres.

26. When is an athlete credited an attempt? А. An athlete leaves the circle from its back edge after the hammer has landed in the sector. B. An athlete leaves the circle from its back edge after the hammer has landed beyond the sector limits. C. An athlete leaves the circle from any edge after the hammer has landed in the sector. D. An athlete leaves the circle from any edge before the hammer has landed in the sector.

27. How is the distance covered by the hammer to its landing point measured? А. As the distance between the limiting net to the hammer landing point. B. As the distance from the outer circle rim to the hammer landing point. C. As the distance from the circle centre to the hammer landing point. D. As the distance from the closest mark where the hammer has landed to the inner circle rim along the line to the circle centre.

28. How many phases are there in the hammer throwing technique? А. 6. B. 4.

Belarus athlete Romuald Klim (USSR) won the gold medal in the hammer throw (with an Olympic record – 69 metres 74 centimetres) at the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo, and at the following 1968 Games of the XIX Olympiad in Mexico City he won the silver medal in this discipline (73 metres 28 centimetres). In 1969 he set a world record in the hammer throw – 74 metres 52 centimetres.

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Hungarian athlete Gyula Zsivótzky (who was twice the silver medallist in the hammer throw at the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome and at the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo) became the Olympic champion in this athletic discipline (with an Olympic record – 73 metres 36 centimetres) at the 1968 Games of the XIX Olympiad in Mexico City. He improved world records in the hammer throw twice: in 1965 (73 metres 74 centimetres) and in 1968 (73 metres 76 centimetres).

C. 8. D. 5.


29. It is prohibited to use any hand protective means in the throwing disciplines. Hammer throwing is an exception. What is allowed for hammer throwers to protect their hands? А. Woollen gloves. B. Leather gloves. C. Hand bandages. D. Leather gloves with clipped finger tips but for the thumb.

30. In 1866 in England the first National Championship was held where the record in the hammer throw shown by R. James was fixed. What was this record achievement in the hammer throw? А. 25 metres 05 centimetres. B. 24 metres 50 centimetres.

C. 25 metres 55 centimetres. D. 24 metres 90 centimetres.

At the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich Ukrainian athlete Anatoliy Bondarchuk (USSR) won the gold medal in the hammer throw (with an Olympic record – 75 metres 50 centimetres), and at the following 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal he got the bronze medal in this athletic event. In 1969 Bondarchuk set two world records in the hammer throw – 74 metres 68 centimetres and 75 metres 48 centimetres.

31. When did the IAAF start to register world records in the men’s hammer throw? А. 1900. B. 1913.

C. 1915. D. 1910.

Jüri Tamm (Estonia, USSR) – a two-time Olympic bronze medallist in 1980, 1988 in the hammer throw (78 metres 96 centimetres, 81 metres 16 centimetres), the World Championships silver medallist in 1987. In 1980 set a world record 80 metres 46 centimetres.

Ukrainian athlete Yuriy Sedykh (USSR) won the gold medal in the hammer throw (with an Olympic record – 77 metres 52 centimetres) at the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal. And at the 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad in Moscow he repeated his triumph (with a world record – 81 metres 80 centimetres), thus becoming a two-time Olympic champion. At the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul he won the silver medal. In the period of 1980–1986 years Sedykh improved world records in the hammer throw six times – from 80 metres 38 centimetres to 86 metres 74 centimetres. And his last record set in 1986 has not been surpassed to this day.

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26. An athlete leaves the circle from its back edge after the hammer has landed in the sector. 27. As the distance from the closest mark where the hammer has landed to the inner circle rim along the line to the circle centre. 28. 8. 29. Leather gloves with clipped finger tips but for the thumb. 30. 24 metres 50 centimetres. 31. 1913.

32. The first world record in the men’s hammer throw – 55 metres 77 centimetres – was set 1913. Name the first record hammer thrower. А. Matthew McGrath (USA). B. Duncan Gillis (Canada). C. Patrick Ryan (USA). D. Clarens Childs (USA).

33. The next world record in the hammer throw – 58 metres 13 centimetres – was set by German athlete Erwin Blask in 1938. How many years did Patrick Ryan’s record last? А. 25 years. B. 15 years.

C. 20 years. D. 10 years.

34. Who was the first one to overthrow the 60 metres in the men’s hammer throw? And when? А. Imre Németh (Hungary), 1950. B. József Csermák (Hungary), 1952. C. Erwin Blask (Germany), 1938. D. Karl Hein (Germany), 1938.

35. Who was the first one to overthrow the 65 metres in the men’s hammer throw? And when? А. Stanislav Nenashev (USSR), 1954. B. Mikhail Krivonosov (USSR), 1956. C. Harold Connolly (USA), 1956. D. Anatoliy Samotsvetov (USSR), 1956.

Sergey Litvinov (USSR) who was the silver medallist in the hammer throw at the 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad in Moscow got the gold medal in this track and field event with an Olympic record (84 metres 80 centimetres) eight years later at the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul.

Andrey Abduvaliyev (USSR, Tajikistan) – the champion of the 1992 Games of the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona in the hammer throw (82 metres 54 centimetres). A two-time world champion (1993, 1995).

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36. Who was the first one to overthrow the 70 metres in the men’s hammer throw? And when? А. Gyula Zsivótzky (Hungary), 1968. B. Romuald Klim (USSR), 1968. C. Harold Connolly (USA), 1960. D. Vasiliy Rudenkov (USSR), 1960.

37. Who was the first one to overthrow the 75 metres in the men’s hammer throw? And when? А. Romuald Klim (USSR), 1968. B. Anatoliy Bondarchuk (USSR), 1969. C. Walter Schmidt (Germany), 1971. D. Karl-Hans Riehm (Germany), 1975.

38. Who was the first one to overthrow the 80 metres in the men’s hammer throw? And when? А. Boris Zaychuk (USSR), 1978. B. Yuriy Tamm (USSR), 1980. C. Yuriy Sedykh (USSR), 1980. D. Walter Schmidt (Germany), 1975.

39. The world record in the men’s hammer throw set in 1986 has not been surpassed to this day. Who is its author? А. Yuriy Sedykh. Bondarchuk. B. Anatoliy Bo Bond ndar arch chuk uk. C. Yuriy Tamm. D. Sergey Litvinov.

Carol C Cady – an American athlete who set seven seven world records in the hammer throw in 1982–1984. 11982 1984

Balázs Kiss – a Hungarian hammer thrower. A champion of the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta (81 metres 24 centimetres).

Olympic Hammer Thrower

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32. Patrick Ryan (USA). 33. 25 years. 34. József Csermák (Hungary), 1952. 35. Mikhail Krivonosov (USSR), 1956. 36. Harold Connolly (USA), 1960. 37. Anatoliy Bondarchuk (USSR), 1969. 38. Boris Zaychuk (USSR), 1978.. 39. Yuriy Sedykh.

40. The world record set by a Ukrainian athlete Yuriy Sedykh has remained unbeaten for thirty years. What was this athlete’s result in his record throw? А. 86 metres 74 centimetres. B. 86 metres 50 centimetres.

C. 84 metres 35 centimetres. D. 87 metres 24 centimetres.

41. How many world records are on the account of outstanding thrower Yuriy Sedykh? А. 7. B. 6.

C. 5. D. 8.

42. When did the IAAF start to register world records in the women’s hammer throw? А. 1989. B. 1994.

C. 1998. D. 1999.

43. The first world record in the women’s hammer throw – 66 metres 84 centimetres – set in 1994 belongs to Russian female athlete. Name her. А. Olga Kuzenkova. B. Anna Bulgakova. C. Oksana Kondratyeva. D. Tatyana Lysenko.

44. Who was the first one to overthrow the 70 metres in the women’s hammer throw? And when? А. Mihaela Melinte (Romania), 1997. B. Olga Kuzenkova (Russia), 1997. C. Tatyana Lysenko (Russia), 2006. D. Gulfiya Khanafeyeva (Russia), 2006.

Szymon Ziółkowski – a Polish hammer thrower. The champion of the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney (80 metres 02 centimetres). A participant of the Games of five Olympiads, the 2001 world champion, the silver (2009) and the bronze (2005) medallist of the World Championships.

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45. Who was the first one to overthrow the 75 metres in the women’s hammer throw? And when? А. Mihaela Melinte (Romania), 1999. B. Olga Kuzenkova (Russia), 1998. C. Tatyana Lysenko (Russia), 2006. D. Gulfiya Khanafeyeva (Russia), 2006.

46. Who owns the current (as of 2015) world record in the women’s hammer throw? А. Tatyana Lysenko (Russia). B. Anita Włodarczyk (Poland). C. Mihaela Melinte (Romania). D. Gulfiya Khanafeyeva (Russia).

47. Anita Włodarczyk set a world record in 2014. What result did this athlete show? А. 78 metres 00 centimetres. B. 79 metres 58 centimetres.

C.76 metres 90 centimetres. D. 77 metres 86 centimetres.

48. Hammer throwing is an Olympic discipline. When was the men’s hammer throw introduced into the Olympic programme? А. 1896. B. 1900.

C. 1904. D. 1912.

Mihaela Melinte – a Romanian athlete. The first in history world female champion in the hammer throw (1999 Seville). The European champion (1998 Budapest). In 1995–1999 she set eight world records from 66 metres 86 centimetres to 76 metres 07 centimetres.

Polish athlete Kamila Skolimowska became the first Olympic champion in the women’s hammer throw at the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad, where this athletic competition was first introduced into the female part of the Olympic athletics programme. And the result shown by Skolimowska in Sydney – 71 metres 16 centimetres – was the first Olympic record in the women’s hammer throw.

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40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 48

86 metres 74 centimetres. 6. 1994. Olga Kuzenkova. Olga Kuzenkova (Russia), 1997. Mihaela Melinte (Romania), 1999. Anita Włodarczyk (Poland). 79 metres 58 centimetres. ess. 1900.

49. Who was the first Olympic champion in the men’s hammer throw? А. John Flanagan (USA/Ireland). B. Thomas Truxtun Hare (USA). C. Joshua McCracken (USA). D. Eric Lemming (Sweden).

50. What was the result of the first Olympic champion in the men’s hammer throw? А. 49 metres 73 centimetres. B. 49 metres 53 centimetres.

C. 48 metres 73 centimetres. D. 49 metres 83 centimetres.

51. Irish athlete John Flanagan who had immigrated to the USA in 1896 made a significant contribution into the technique development and promotion of hammer throwing. He was a triple Olympic champion. At the Games of what Olympiads did he gain the gold medals? А. At the Games of the II, III, IV Olympiads (1900, 1904, 1908). B. At the Games of the I, II, IV Olympiads (1896, 1900, 1908). C. At the Games of the II, III, V Olympiads (1900, 1908, 1912). D. At the Games of the I, II, III Olympiads (1896, 1990, 1904).

52. A champion of the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad in Melbourne, an American athlete who had sustained a severe nerve damage in his left arm at birth and then for the first seven years of his life he had lived with a metal clamp in his shoulder, and after it had been removed he was unlucky to break his arm fourteen times. As a result his left arm was shorter than his right one. In spite of all this he became a hammer thrower who improved world records in this discipline seven times. What was the name of this courageous man? А. Harold Connolly. B. Albert Hall.

Koji Murofushi – a Japanese hammer thrower. The champion of the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad in Athens, the bronze medallist of the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London, the world champion in 2011, the silver (2001) and the bronze (2003) medallist of the World Championships.

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C. Clifford Blair. D. Edward Bagdonas


53. It is a rare case in the history of sports when athletes of one country mount the Olympic victory podium. At the 1976 Games of the ХХI Olympiad in Montreal the winners in the hammer throw event were Anatoliy Bondarchuk (USSR), Aleksey Spiridonov (USSR) and Yuriy Sedykh (USSR). Who was the champion of the Games of the ХХI Olympiad in the hammer throw? А. Yuriy Sedykh (USSR). B. Aleksey Spiridonov (USSR). C. Anatoliy Bondarchuk (USSR).

Gulfiya Khanafeyeva – a Russian female hammer thrower, the silver medallist of the European Championship (2006), the world record holder – 77 metres 26 centimetres (2006).

54. At the Games of the ХХI Olympiad the victory podium was shared by a teacher, Anatoliy Bondarchuk, and his pupil, Yuriy Sedykh. How much did the teacher lose to the pupil? А. 2 metres 04 centimetres. B. 2 metres 10 centimetres.

C. 1 metres 95 centimetres. D. 2 metres 55 centimetres.

55. Who is the holder of the current (as of 2015) Olympic record in the men’s hammer throw? А. Sergey Litvinov (USSR) B. Yuriy Sedykh (USSR). C. Anatoliy Bondarchuk (USSR) D. Yuriy Tamm (USSR).

Russian athlete Olga Kuzenkova who got the silver medal in the hammer throw at the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney became the Olympic champion in this discipline at the following 2004 Olympic Games in Athens and set an Olympic record (75 metres 02 centimetres). The 2005 world champion. In 1992– 1998 she set six world records from 64 metres 64 centimetres to 73 metres 80 centimetres.

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49. John Flanagan (USA/Ireland). 50. 49 metres 73 centimetres. 51. At the Games of the II, III, IV Olympiads (1900, 1904, 1908). 52. Harold Connolly. 53. Yuriy Sedykh (USSR). 54. 2 metres 04 centimetres. 55. Sergey Litvinov (USSR).

56. Since 1988 the Olympic record set by Sergey Litvinov at the Games of the ХХIV Olympiad has remained unbroken. What result did the athlete show in his record throw? А. 85 metres 05 centimetres. B. 84 metres 80 centimetres.

C. 84 metres 55 centimetres. D. 83 metres 80 centimetres.

57. The main achievement of this hammer thrower from Belarus, a three-time world champion, the silver medallist of 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad and the bronze medallist of 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing, is the second result in the whole history of the track and field athletics (86 metres 73 centimetres), which yields only 1 centimetre! to the longstanding world record of Yuriy Sedykh set in August 1986. Name this athlete. А. Ivan Tikhon. B. Vadim Devyatkovskiy. C. Igor Astapkovich. D. Sergey Litvinov.

Primož Kozmus – a Slovenian hammer thrower. The champion of the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing (82.02 metres), the silver medallist of the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London (79 metres 36 centimetres), the world champion in 2009, the silver (2007) and the bronze (2011) medallist of the World Championships.

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58. A Slovenian athlete, the champion of the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing, the silver medallist of the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London, the owner of a full set of medals of the World Championships was very slim and light in his youth which almost brought him to becoming a high jumper if not for his elder sister Simona. She was a hammer thrower and took her brother under her wing. Thanks to this he became the only Slovenian who rose to such eminence in athletics. Name him. А. Nejc Pečnik B. Primož Kozmus. C. Matija Kranjc D. Tomaz Bogovic.


59. Which of the male hammer throwers has the largest collection of the gold Olympic medals? А. Yuriy Sedykh (USSR). B. Anatoliy Bondarchuk (USSR). C. Sergey Litvinov (USSR). D. John Flanagan (USA).

60. How many gold Olympic medals does the collection of the most decorated olympic champion contain? А. 3. B. 5.

C. 2. D. 4.

61. When did the women’s hammer throw made debut at the Olympic Games? А. 2000. B. 1936.

C. 1980. D. 1988.

62. Who was the first Olympic champion in the women’s hammer throw? А. Olga Kuzenkova (Russia). B. Kamila Skolimowska (Poland). C. Kirsten Münchow (Germany). D. Yipsi Moreno (Cuba).

At the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing Oksana Menkova from Belarus became the Olympic champion in the women’s hammer throw with an Olympic record (76 metres 34 centimetres).

63. What result did the first Olympic champion show in the women’s hammer throw? А. 70 metres 16 centimetres. B. 69 metres 16 centimetres.

C. 71 metres 16 centimetres. D. 72 metres 16 centimetres.

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56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71.

84 metres 80 centimetres. s. Ivan Tikhon. Primož Kozmus. John Flanagan (USA). 3. 2000. Kamila Skolimowska (Poland). 71 metres 16 centimetres. Tatyana Lysenko (Russia). 78 metres 18 centimetres. 40 years old. 20. Kamila Skolimowska (Poland). 17. Olga Kuzenkova (Russia). 33.

64. Who is the holder of the current (as of 2015) Olympic record in the women’s hammer throw? А. Anita Włodarczyk (Poland). B. Tatyana Lysenko (Russia). C. Betty Heidler (Germany). D. Oksana Menkova (Belarus).

65. What result did the champion of the 2012 Games of the ХХХ Olympiad in London Tatyana Lysenko show? А. 78 metres 18 centimetres. B. 76 metres 28 centimetres.

C. 77 metres 18 centimetres. D. 78 metres 08 centimetres.

66. American athlete John Flanagan (USA), the owner of the largest number of the gold Olympic medals in the men’s hammer throw, got his third gold medal at the 1908 Games of the IV Olympiad, thus becoming the most considerably aged Olympic champion. How old was he when he developed his award collection with the third Olympic medal? А. 40 years old. B. 35 years old

C. 39 years old. D. 37 years old.

67. The youngest Olympic champion in the men’s hammer throw is Hungarian athlete József Csermák. He got his award at the 1952 Games of the ХV Olympiad in Helsinki. How old was this athlete when he mounted the highest tier of the Olympic podium? А. 21. B. 20.

Krisztián Pars – a Hungarian athlete, a hammer thrower. A participant of the Games of three Olympics in 2004, 2008 and 2012, the 2011 World Championships silver medallist in Daegu and the 2013 World Championships in Moscow. A two-time European champion (2012, 2014). The champion of the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London (80 metres 59 centimetres).

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C. 18. D. 19.


68. At the 2000 Games of the ХXVII Olympiad in Sydney a Polish female athlete won the gold Olympic medal in thee women’s hammer throw. Name her. А. Olga Kuzenkova (Russia). B. Oksana Menkova (Belarus). C. Tatyana Lysenko (Russia). D. Kamila Skolimowska (Poland).

69. Kamila Skolimowska was the youngest Olympic champion in the women’s hammer throw. At what age did she gain this highest title? А. 17. B. 19.

C. 18. D. 20.

Tatyana Lysenko – a Russian hammer thrower. The champion of the 2012 Games of the ХХХ Olympiad in London (78 metres 18 centimetres – an Olympic record). A two-time world champion (2011, 2013), the bronze medallist of the World Championships (2005), the European champion (2006). In 2005– 2006 she set four world records from 77 metres 06 centimetres to 77 metres 80 centimetres.

70. At the Games of the ХXVIII Olympiad 2004 in Athens the champion of women’s hammer throw was a Russian athlete. Name her. А. Olga Kuzenkova (Russia). B. Oksana Menkova (Belarus). C. Tatyana Lysenko (Russia). D. Kamila Skolimowska (Poland).

71. Olga Kuzenkova was the oldest Olympic champion in the women’s hammer throw at the 2004 Games of the ХXVIII Olympiad? At what age did she get her gold Olympic medal? А. 35. B. 30.

C. 33. D. 32.

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Combined Events he track and field combined events are complexes of track and field disciplines, in which athletes compete in various events. And the strongest are determined by the sum of points awarded (according to a special table) for each event in a complex. Now the track and field combined competitions are held outdoors – the decathlon (men) and the heptathlon (women) and indoors – the heptathlon (men) and the pentathlon (women). Olympic combined track and field competitions were held (men only) at the 1904 Games of the III Olympiad in St. Louis for the first time. In that combined event athletes competed in ten disciplines: the 100-yard race (this corresponds to 91.44 metres), the shot put, the high jump, 880-yard race walking (this corresponds to 804.672 metres), the hammer throw, the pole vault, the Античная ваза, представленная греческим коллекционером, 120-yard hurdles, 56-pound weight профессором throwing (which corС. П. Ламбросом для победителя в responds to 25.4 kilograms), the long jump, the 1-mile марафонском беге. Олимпийский race (which corresponds to 1,609.34 metres). The Olymчемпион Спиридон Луис передал древнюю для хранения в музей pic champion of that вазу combined event was Thomas Kiely from Great Britain who collected 6,036 points. At the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad in Stockholm a track and field programme (men only) included two combined events – the pentathlon and the decathlon. The pentathlon competitions included five disciplines:

T

Melancholic Athena – an ancient relief sculpture in the simple style. Around 460 BC. Athens, the Acropolis Museum.

Argonauts. Lorenzo Costa. A fragment. The 16th century. Padua, the City Museum.

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Jason. William Bayer. 1773–1781. Vienna. The park of the Schönbrunn Palace.


The Pentathletes. The Jumper, the Javelin Thrower and the Discus Thrower. Black-figure ceramics (a fragment of painting). The 4th century BC. London, the British Museum.

the long jump, the javelin throw, the 200-metre race, the discus throw and the 1,500-metre race. And the decathlon consisted of the 100-metre race, the long jump, the shot put, the high jump and the 400-metre race (the first of the two days of decathlon competitions), the 110-metres hurdles, the discus throw, the pole vault, the javelin throw, the 1,500-metre race (the second day of decathlon competitions). The results of the competitions in the track and field pentathlon were determined by the sum of places occupied by an athlete in each event of the pentathlon. And the results of the track and field decathlon were calculated by the total number of points accrued to each athlete (according a special table) for his results in each event of the decathlon. Both in the pentathlon and the decathlon at the 1912 Olympic Games the winner was James Thorpe from the United States, thus becoming a two-time Olympic champion. The sum of his places in the pentathlon was 7 (the 1st place in the long jump, the 3rd – in the javelin throw, the

The Pentathletes. The Javelin Thrower and the Discus Thrower. Red-figure ceramics (a fragment of painting). 500 BC. Munich, the State Collections of Antiques.

Jason Holding the Golden Fleece. Alfred Lenson. 1884. New York, the Dahesh Museum of Art. The Discus Thrower. The French school. The first half of the 19th century.

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The Pentathletes. Red-figure ceramics (a fragment of painting).

The Winner Crowning Himself with a wreath. The First quarter of the 5th century BC. Athens, the National Archaeological Museum.

1st – in the 200 metres, the 1st – in the discus throw, the 1st – in te 1,500 metres. His total score in decathlon was 8412 (a world record), and he was ahead of the athlete who took the second place Swede Hugo Wieslander by more than 688 points. However, ten months after the 1912 Games as a consequence of a racist campaign launched against him (he was an American Indian) in the USA, James Thorpe was disqualified accused of the alleged violation of his amateur status before the 1912 Olympic Games. The International Olympic Committee stripped Thorpe of his Olympic gold medals gained in Stockholm and declared a Norwegian athlete Ferdinand Bie who had initially taken the second place the Olympic champion of the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad in track and field pentathlon and a Swede Hugo Wieslander who had also taken the second place the Olympic champion of the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad in track and field decathlon. By the way, Wieslander refused to receive that gold medal. Only in 1973, twenty years after James Thorpe’s death, who died in 1953, justice was restored, and two Olympic gold medals were returned to Thorpe’s family by the IOC (not stripping the 1912 Olympic champion titles of a Norwegian Ferdinand Bie in pentathlon and a Swede Hugo Wieslander in decathlon at the same time). Since the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad and until now the men’s track and field decathlon has always been a part of the Olympic programme. And the Olympic men’s track and field pentathlon was held at the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad for the first time, and later at the 1920 Games of the VII Olympiad in Antwerp and at the 1924 Games of the VIII Olympiad in Paris.

A device for the javelin throw. Drawing by K. Iliakis.

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The Javelin Thrower in the Final Stage of the Throw. Red-figure ceramics (a fragment of painting). 420 BC. The Berlin National Museum.


The Olympic competitions in the women’s track and field combined events took place at the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo for the first time. There the women’s track and field programme was complemented with competition in the pentathlon, which included the 80-metre hurdles, the shot put, the high jump (the first of the two days in the women’s pentathlon), the long jump, the 200-metre race (the second of two days in the women’s pentathlon). And the first Olympic champion in the track and field pentathlon was Irina Press (USSR) who scored a total of 5,246 points (a world and Olympic record). Later the competitions in the women’s track and field pentathlon were also held at the Games of 1968, 1972, 1976 and 1980. And at the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles the women’s track and field pentathlon was replaced by the heptathlon. The track and field heptathlon consists of the 100-metre hurdles, the high jump, the shot put, the 200-metre race (the first of two days in the women’s heptathlon), the long jump, the javelin throw and the 800-metre race (the second of two days in the women’s pentathlon). And the first Olympic champion in track and field heptathlon at the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad was an Australian athlete Glynis Nunn who scored a total of 6,390 points (an Olympic record). Later on and until now the competitions in the women’s track and field heptathlon have always been included into the programme of the Olympic Games. men’ss The owner of a current Olympic record in the men track and field decathlon is Roman Šebrle from the Czech

The Pentathletes. Red-figure ceramics (a fragment of painting).

A statue of Poseidon. don. Bronze, B 450 BC. Athens, the National Archaeological haeollogical Museum.

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Republic, who won in this event at the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad in Athens with a total of 8,893 points. And the holder of an Olympic record in the women’s track and field heptathlon to this day is the US athlete Jackie Joyner-Kersee who excelled in this discipline at the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul with a sum of 7,291 points. The men’s track and field decathlon and the women’s track and field heptathlon were included into the programme of the first World Athletics Championships held in 1983 in Helsinki (Finland) as well as into the programme of all subsequent World Championships. The first world champion among men in the track and field decathlon was the already mentioned athlete from Britain Francis Morgen Thompson (with a sum of 8,666 points) in 1983. And the first world champion among women in the track and field heptathlon was East German athlete Ramona Neubert (with a sum of 6,714 points) in 1983. The current (as of early 2015) world record holder in the men’s track and field decathlon (outdoors) is US athlete Ashton Eaton who showed the result of 9,039 points in one of the competitions p in 2012.

Thee Olympic competitions in the track Th and field combined events were held at the 1904 Games of the III Olympiad in St. Louis for the first time. Then they included ten events: the 100-yard race, the shot put, the high jump, the 880yard race walk, the hammer throw, the pole vault, the 120-yard hurdles, the 56-pound weight throw, the long jump, the 1-mile race. And the Olympic champion was Thomas Kiely from Great Britain.

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The challenge prize for the winner in the track and field decathlon was established by the Emperor of Russia Nikolas II. It is a piece of jewellery. The boat inspired by the conquest of Siberia by Yermak is made of silver and gold by world-famous Russian jeweller Carl Faberge. The winner of this award was Swedish athlete Hugo Wieslander due to the disqualification of James Thorpe. It is now exhibited in the Olympic Museum, Lausanne.


To this day the holder of the world record in the women’s track and field heptathlon (outdoors) is the already mentioned US athlete Jackie Joyner-Kersee who showed the result of 7,291 points at the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad. The track and field combined events in indoor comp petitions are presented by the heptathlon (men) and tthe pentathlon (women). The men’s track and field heptathlon (indoors) inv volves the 60-metre race, the long jump, the shot put, tthe high jump, the 60-metre hurdles, the pole vault and tthe 1000-metre race. The women’s track and field pentathlon (indoors) iincludes the 60-metre hurdles, the high jump, the shot put, the long jump and the 800-metre race. p The owner of the current (as of early 2015) world rrecord in the men’s track and field heptathlon (indoor ccompetitions) is Ashton Eaton from the United States who showed the result of 6,645 points in 2012. And w tthe current owner (as of early 2015) of the world record in the women’s track and field pentathlon (indoor competitions) is Na Nataliya Dobrynska (Ukraine) who ata showed the resultt of 5,013 points in 2012.

At the 1912 Gamess of the t V Olympiad in Stockholm the programme of the track and field competitions com mpeti included the pentathlon and the decathlon. James mees Thorpee of the United Unite ted SStates was the winner in both of these Olympic competitions and gain gained two gold medals. However, ten months after the 1912 Games James Jam Thorpe was accused of violating his amateur status, disqualifi disqualiified ed, and the IOC stripped him of his Olympic medals. Only in 1973 1 twenty years after Thorpe’s death in 1953 justice wa as restored re was and the medals returned to his family.

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1.

A complex of the track and field disciplines to determine the most versatile athlete. А. The combined events. B. The double event.

2.

C. The single event. D. The triathlon.

Where did the idea of the modern track and field combined events originate? А. Ancient Olympic Games. B. Ancient Egyptian commemorative games. C. Ancient Chinese festivals. D. Scythian Games.

3.

When were the first pentathlon competitions held at the Olympic Games in Ancient Greece? А. 708 BC. B. 776 BC.

4.

C. 520 BC. D. 408 BC.

The Ancient Greek pentathlon consisted of four track and field competitions and a wrestling competition. Name the track and field components (in their modern interpretation) of the ancient Olympic pentathlon. А. The stadion race, the high jump, the discus and the javelin throw. B. The stadion race, the long jump, the discus and the javelin throw. C. The two-stadion race, the high jump, the discus and the javelin throw. D. The two-stadion race, the long and the high jump, the javelin throw.

5.

Who was the legendary founder of the ancient Greek pentathlon? А. Perseus. B. Zeus.

Eero Reino Lehtonen from Finland – a two-time Olympic champion in the track and field pentathlon at the 1920 Games of the VII Olympiad in Antwerp and at the 1924 Games of the VIII Olympiad in Paris.

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C. Jason. D. Appollo.

American athlete Harold Osborn became the Olympic champion in the decathlon (with a world record of that time – 7,711 points according to the then actual table) at the 1924 Games of the VIII Olympiad in Paris. And he also won one more gold medal in the high jump at the same Olympic Games in 1924.


6.

Myths say that warriors on the Argo ship (later ter on called the Argonauts) competed in the pentathlon in order to determine the best of the best during their voyagee to Colchis. Why did they sail to Colchis? А. To take part in the harvest festival. B. To conquer new lands. C. To pursue the Golden Fleece. D. To take part in the Caucasian Games.

7.

Name the first Olympic champion of the antiquity in the pentathlon. А. Melancomus. B. Gorgus.

8.

C. Arrichion. D. Lampius.

Glenn Morris from the United States set a world record in the decathlon (7,900 points at that time table), which brought him the gold medal of the Olympic champion, at the 1936 Games of the XI Olympiad in Berlin.

In what combined events does the IAAF register world records? А. Summer season: the decathlon (men), the heptathlon (women); winter season: the heptathlon (men), the pentathlon (women). B. Summer season: the decathlon (men), the pentathlon (women); winter season: the heptathlon (men), the heptathlon (women). C. Summer season: the heptathlon (men), the pentathlon (women); winter season: the decathlon (men), the heptathlon (women). D. Summer season: the heptathlon (men), the heptathlon (women); winter season: the decathlon (men), the pentathlon (women).

American athlete James Bausch won the gold medal in the decathlon, setting a world record (8,462 points), at the 1932 Games of the X Olympiad in Los Angeles.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

The combined events. Ancient Olympic Games. 708 BC. The stadion race, the long jump, the discus and the javelin throw. Jason. To pursue the Golden Fleece. Lampius. Summer season: the decathlon (men), the heptathlon (women); winter season: the heptathlon ). (men), the pentathlon (women).

9.

What is the duration of the combined events held by the IAAF? А. One day. B. Two days.

C. Three days. D. Four days.

10. What is the duration of the resting interval between disciplines in the track and field combined events? А. Not less than 60 minutes. B. Not less than 40 minutes.

C. Not less than 30 minutes. D. Not less than 90 minutes.

11. What number of false starts is allowed by the rules of the 11 combined event competitions? А. None. B. One.

C. Two. D. Three.

12. What number of attempts is allotted to each combined 12 event participant in the long jump and the throwing disciplines? А. 3. B. 1.

C. 2. D. 6 (2 х 3).

13. How is the result in the combined track and field events 13 calculated?

American athlete Robert Mathias – a two-time Olympic champion in the track and field decathlon: at the 1948 Games of the XIV Olympiad in London, at 17 years of age, he won with the score of 7,139 points, and at the 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad in Helsinki with the world record of 7,887 points.

А. By the sum of results in separate disciplines. B. By the sum of all places taken in separate disciplines. C. By the number of competitions won in separate disciplines. D. By the number of times becoming one the top three athsepara disciplines. letes in separate

At the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad in Melbourne Milton Campbell from the United States won the gold medal in the decathlon with an Olympic record (7,973 points), leaving behind the then world record holder in this discipline American Rafer Johnson.

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14. What units are used to determine the result in the combined track and field events? А. Points. B. Credits.

C. Metres and seconds. D. Grades.

15. The results of the 100-metre race and the long jump may definitely be influenced by the speed of wind. What favouring wind speed is allowed by the IAAF rules at setting world records in the combined track and field events? А. 2 m.s-1. B. 3 m.s-1.

C. 4 m.s-1. D. 0.5 m.s-1.

16. What athletic event includes competitions in 10 track and field disciplines? А. The octathlon. B. The decathlon.

C. The heptathlon. D. The decythlon.

17. Where are the combined event competitions staged? А. In a stadium. B. In a manege.

C. In a field. D. On a play ground.

The 1955 world record holder in the track and field decathlon (7,985 points), American athlete Rafer Johnson won the silver medal at the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad in Melbourne. And at the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome he won the gold medal with an Olympic record (8,392 points).

18. Who may be admitted to the decathlon competitions? А. Men. B. Women.

C. Men and youg men. D. Anyone wishing to do so.

At the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad a women’s part of the Olympic track and field programme first included the competitions in the pentathlon consisting of the 80-metre hurdles, the shot put, the high jump, the long jump and 200-metre race. And the first Olympic champion in this discipline was Irina Press of the USSR who had been the world record holder (5,194 points) by that time and in Tokyo she set a new world record – 5,246 points.

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9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

Two days. Not less than 30 minutes. One. 3. By the sum of results in separate disciplines. Points. 4 m/s. The decathlon. In a stadium. Men.

19. How many days do the decathlon competitions last? Đ?. 1. B. 3.

C. 4. D. 2.

20. On the first day of the track and field decathlon athletes must demonstrate their speed qualities and their explosive physical force. What disciplines are contested on the first day of the decathlon?

William Toomey from the United States won the gold medal in the track and field decathlon with an Olympic record (8,193 points) at the 1968 Games in Mexico City.

Đ?. The 60-metre race, the long jump, the shot put, the high jump and the 200-metre race. B. The 100-metre race, the long jump, the shot put, the pole vault and the 400-metre race. C. The 100-metre race, the long jump, the shot put, the high jump and the 400-metre race. D. The 60-metre race, the triple jump, the shot put, the pole vault and The 400-metre race.

21. On the second day of the track and field decathlon athletes must demonstrate their coordination qualities and their endurance. What disciplines are contested on the second day of the decathlon? Đ?. The 110-metre hurdles, the discus throw, the pole vault, the javelin throw and the 1,500-metre race. B. The 100-metre hurdles, the discus throw and the 1,000-metre race. C. The 100-metre hurdles, the discus throw, the triple jump, the javelin throw and the 1,500-metre race. D. The 110-metre hurdles, the discus throw, the triple jump, the javelin throw and the 1,000-metre race.

Ukrainian athlete Nikolai Avilov (USSR) became the Olympic champion in the track and field decathlon at the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich. And the victory was brought to him by a world record (8,454 points).

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22. When were the rules of the modern decathlon developed? А. 1910. B. 1911.

C. 1896. D. 1900.

23. When was the modern decathlon as a separate event introduced into the programme of the Olympic Games? А. 1920. B. 1904.

C. 1908. D. 1912.

24. Name the first Olympic champion in the modern track and field decathlon?

Mary Peters from the UK won the gold medal in the pentathlon with a world record (4,801 points) at the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich.

А. James Thorpe (USA). C. Charles Lomberg (Sweden). B. Hugo Wieslander (Sweden). D. Gösta Holmér (Sweden).

25. It would be fair to notice that the competitions in the combined track and field events were also held in 1904 at the Games of the III Olympiad in St. Louis, but its programme included disciplines different of the ones approved by IAAF in 1912. The champion of the Games was Irish athlete Thomas Kiely who scored 6,036 points. What disciplines were included into the combined event competitions at those Games, which are not included into the modern decathlon? А. The standing high and long jumps. B. The triple jump and the 56-pound weight throw. C. The freestyle and Greek style discus throws. D. The 800-yard race walk and the 56-pound weight throw.

At the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal American athlete Bruce Jenner excelled in the track and field decathlon, where the victory was brought to him by a world record (8,618 points).

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19. 2. 20. The 100-metre race, the long jump, the shot put, the high jump and 4the 00-metre race. 21. The 110-metre hurdles, the discus throw, the pole vault, the javelin throw and the 1,500-metre race. 22. 1911. 23. 1912. 24. James Thorpe (USA). 25. The800-yard race walk and the 56-pound weight throw.

Francis Morgen “Daley” Thompson from Britain – a twotime Olympic champion in the decathlon: at the 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad in Moscow he excelled with the result of 8,495 points, and the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles the athlete won with a world record – 8,798 points.

26. The men’s track and field pentathlon was a part of the Olympic programmes in 1912, 1920 и 1924. It included the 200- and the 1,500-metre races, the javelin and the discus throws and a jump. Say which one? А. The high jump. B. The triple jump.

C. The long jump. D. The pole vault.

27. Name the first Olympic champion in the track and field pentathlon who was unfortunately stripped of his gold medal due to his alleged violation of the amateur status. Decades later the IOC decided to return him the medal, but the athlete was no longer alive. The medal was returned to his family. А. Thomas Kiely. B. James Thorpe.

Ukrainian athlete Nadezhda Tkachenko (USSR) became the Olympic champion in the track and field pentathlon, while setting a world record of 5,083 points, at the 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad in Moscow.

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C. Hjalmar Mellander. D. Ferdinand Bie.

28. Name the legendary Finnish athlete who succeeded in winning in the track and field pentathlon at two Olympic Games. А. Gösta Holmér. B. Hugo Jalmari Lahtinen.

C. Leo Lejno. D. Eero Lehtonen.


29. How many times in its history did the IAAF review the scoring tables in the combined track and field events? А. 4 (1935, 1952, 1962, 1984). B. 3 (1952, 1962, 1984). C. 2 (1952, 1984). D. 5 (1928, 1935, 1952, 1962, 1984).

At the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul the Olympic champion in the track and field decathlon was East German athlete Christian Schenk, a victory was brought by the result in 8,488 points (according to the new table introduced in 1985).

30. Who set the first world record in the track and field decathlon? And when? А. Paavo Yrjölä (1930). C. Harold Osborn (1926). B. Aleksander Klumberg (1924). D. Helge Løvland (1920).

31. When were the competitions in the decathlon first introduced into the programme of the World Athletics Championships? А. 1983. B. 1985.

C. 1987. D. 1983.

32. Who was the first world champion in the track and field decathlon? А. Hans-Joachim Walde. B. Francis Morgen.

C. Daley Thompson. D. Jürgen Hingsen.

American athlete Jackie Joyner-Kersee, who won the silver medal in track and field heptathlon at the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles won the Olympic gold subsequently two times in a row at the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul and at the 1992 Games of the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona. In Seoul she set a world record (7,291 points) and in Barcelona she excelled by scoring 7,044 points. The world record of this athlete in the heptathlon (7,291 points) has not been surpassed until now.

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26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32.

The long jump. James Thorpe. Eero Lehtonen. 4 (1935, 1952, 1962, 1984). Aleksander Klumberg (1924). 1983. Daley Thompson.

33. Name the first world champion in the men’s indoor heptathlon and the year when he got this title. A. Christian Plaziat, 1995. B. Robert Změlík, 1987.

C. Sebastian Chmara, 1989. D. Roman Šebrle, 2001.

34. Name the Czech athlete who set the world record (9,026 points) on May 27, 2001. А. Roman Šebrle. B. Tomáš Dvořák.

C. Robert Změlík. D. Jan Železný.

35. The owner of the current world record in the decathlon is an American athlete who scored 9,039 points. Name him. А. Ashton Eaton. B. Chris Huffins.

C. Andrey Kravchenko. D. Bryan Clay.

36. Only two athletes succeeded in becoming double Olympic champions in the history of the decathlon. Name them. А. Robert Mathias (1948, 1952) and Daley Thompson (1980, 1984). B. Roman Šebrle (2000, 2004) and Bryan Clay (2004, 2008). C. Milton Campbell (1952, 1956) and Nikolai Avilov (1972, 1976). D. Harold Osborn (1924, 1928) and Rafer Johnson (1956, 1960). American athlete Daniel O’Brien – the Olympic champion in the track and field decathlon at the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta (8,824 points), the world champion of 1991, 1993, 1995. In 1992 he set a world record in the decathlon – 8,891 points.

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37. Two athletes managed to become triple world champions hampio ons o was the in the decathlon. It was American Dan O’Brien who hlete who w winner in 1991, 1993 and 1995 and a Czech athlete m. was the winner in 1997, 1999 and 2001. Name him. А. Roman Šebrle. B. Tomáš Dvořák.

C. Robert Změlík. D. Jan Železný.

38. Can the results in the women’s and men’s decathlon events be compared?

Swedish athlete Carolina Klüft – the Olympic champion in the track and field heptathlon at the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad in Athens (6,952 points); the world champion of 2003, 2005, 2007 in the heptathlon.

А. Only in running. C. Yes. B. Only in throwing and jumping. D. No.

39. Women’s and men’s results in the decathlon cannot be fully fuully compared. For what reasons? А. Differences in the duration of the hurdle races and the hurdle height. wing. B. Differences in the weight of the equipment in throwing. C. Differences in the duration of the hurdle races, the hurdl hurdlee height and the weight of the equipment in throwing.. le D. Differences in the duration of the hurdle races, the hurdl hurdle height and the weight of the equipment in the shot put.

At the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad in Athens Roman Šebrle from the Czech Republic won the gold medal in the track and field decathlon with an Olympic record (8,893 points).

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33. 34. 35. 36.

Christian Plaziat, 1995. Roman Šebrle. Ashton Eaton. Robert Mathias (1948, 1952) and Daley Thompson (1980, 1984). 37. Tomáš Dvořák 38. No 39. Differences in the durationn urdle of the hurdle races, the hurdle height and the weight of the equipment in throwing. 40. Who competes in the heptathlon? А. Women. B. Men. C. Women in the summer season, men in the winter season. D. Men in the summer season, women in the winter season.

41. When were the first competitions in the women’s track and field combined events held? А. In the 1920s. B. In the 1930s.

C. In the 1940s. D. In the 1950s.

42. How 4 H many disciplines did the women’s combined events in include? А. 5. B. 3.

C. 7. D. 10.

43. W 4 When were the women’s combined track and field events in introduced into the programme of the Olympic Games? А. 1964. B. 1952.

Bryan Clay of the United States who won the silver medal in the track and field decathlon (8, 820 points) at the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad in Athens won the Olympic gold medal in the competition with a total of 8,791 points four years later at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing.

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C. 1956. D. 1948.


44. Who was the first Olympic champion in the women’s track and field pentathlon? А. Mary Rand (Great Britain). B. Irina Press (USSR). C. Galina Bystrova (USSR). D. Ingrid Becker (FRG).

45. For how many years were the women’s track and field pentathlon competitions introduced into the programme of the Olympic Games? А. 20. B. 17.

C. 27. D. 37.

46. When was a new women’s combined d track and field event he Olympic Games? introduced into the programme of the А. 1976. B. 1980.

C. 1984. 84. 972. D. 1972.

47. What new women’s combined track and nd field fieeld event was intrompic Games G in 1984? duced into the programme of the Olympic А. The heptathlon. B. The triathlon.

C. Thee dec decathlon. cathlon. D. The he pen pentathlon. ntathlon.

American athlete Ashton Eaton set a world record in the track and field decathlon (9,039 points) in the competitions, which were staged on June 28, 2012 in Eugene, United States. And the result of 8,869 points brought the gold medal at the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London to this world record holder. Eaton’s world record (9,039 points) remains unsurpassed as of today.

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40. Women in the summer season, men in the winter season. 41. In the 1920s. 42. 5. 43. 1964. 44. Irina Press (USSR). 45. 17. 46. 1984. 47. The heptathlon. 48. 2 days. 49. The 100-metre hurdles, the high jump, the shot put and the 200-metre race. 50. The long jump, the javelin throw and the 800-metre race. 51. 1983. 52. Glynis Nunn (Australia). 53. Liezel Alberts. 54. Jackie Joyner-Kersee, 7,291 points. 55. 1988.

48. How many days do the women’s heptathlon competitions last? А. 2 days. B. 1 day.

C. 3 days. D. 0.5 day.

49. What disciplines are contested on the first day of the women’s heptathlon? А. The 200-metre race, the high jump, the javelin throw and the 800-metre race. B. The 200-metre race, the high jump, the shot put and the 800-metre race. C. The 100-metre hurdles, the high jump, the shot put and the 200-metre race. D. The 100-metre hurdles, the high jump, the javelin throw and the 200-metre race.

50. What disciplines are contested on the second day of the women’s heptathlon? А. The high jump, the shot put and the 200-metre race. B. The long jump, the javelin throw and the 200-metre race. C. The high jump, the shot put and the 800-metre race. D. The long jump, the javelin throw and the 800-metre race.

51. Since when have the women’s combined track and field events been introduced into the programme of the World Championships? А. 1983. B. 1985.

C. 1987. D. 1989. Nataliya Dobrynska. Vitaliy Makovy. 2013. Ukraine.

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At the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing a Ukrainian athlete Nataliya Dobrynska won the gold medal in the heptathlon (6,733 points). On March 9, 2012 at the World Indoor Championships held in Istanbul (Turkey) the athlete set a world record in the pentathlon (5,013 points).


52. Who was the first world female champion in the track and field heptathlon? А. Sabine Everts (FRG). B. Cynthia Greiner (USA).

C. Jackie Joyner-Kersee (USA). D. Glynis Nunn (Australia).

53. Who set the first world record in the women’s heptathlon? А. Liezel Alberts. B. Jackie Joyner.

C. Ramona Neubert. D. Jane Frederick.

54. Name the current world record holder in the women’s track and field heptathlon and her record. А. Jackie Joyner-Kersee, 7,291 points. B. Larisa Nikitina, 7,007 points. C. Sabine Braun, 6,985 points. D. Carolina Klüft, 7,032 points.

55. When was the current world record in the he women’s track and field heptathlon set? А. 1988. B. 1998.

C. 1996. D. 1992.

Jessica Ennis-Hill – a British athlete, the champion of the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London in the track and field heptathlon, the 2010 European champion, the 2009 world champion, the 2011 World Championships silver medallist. The world indoor champion (Doha, 2010). The World Indoor Championships silver medallist (Istanbul, 2012).

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S tadiums 1.

Name a complex outdoor athletic facility, containing athletic functionality surrounded by spectator terraces. А. A stadium. B. A pool.

2.

C. A gym. D. A palestra.

When and where was the first stadium built? А. The 4th century BC. Olympia (Greece). B. The 4th century BC. Delphi (Greece). C. The 4th century BC. Nemea (Greece). D. The 4th century BC. Isthmia (Greece).

3.

What facilities are not included into the functionality of a stadium? А. A football field.

Spectators of Olympic competitions were located on the slopes of Mount Cronus

B. Running tracks.

4.

C. Jumping and throwing area. D. Cycling lanes.

What is the name of the main field of a stadium with running tracks, jumping and throwing sectors, a football field specifically separated according to the rules of competitions? А. An arena. B. A track centre.

C. A manege. D. A racetrack.

The start line at the stadium in Olympia. The 4th century BC.

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The stadium in Olympia was built in the 5th century BC. It accommodated up to 45000 spectators.


The Omphalos — the Navel of the Earth, which is stored in Delphi

5.

What is the name of a sports facility for running and racewalking competitions in track and field? А. A running track. B. A stadium.

6.

C. A bend. D. A caracole.

A typical stadium includes an oval track. Name its length. А. 350 metres. B. 400 metres.

8.

C. A sector. D. A manege.

What is the name of a turn on a running track of a stadium? А. A twist. B. A curve.

7.

The ancient stadium in Delphi. Built in the 5th century BC. Bleachers were added in the 2nd century BC.

C. 450 metres. D. 500 metres.

Stadium tracks have a special marking, which fixes the start of all racing disciplines and… Name it. А. The finish. B. Track lane markers. C. Switchover corridors. D. The line where the lanes merge into one.

The Krypte was an official entrance to the stadium of Olympia. It was constructed in the 2nd century BC.

World Athletics Championships were held at Stadiums of Helsinki (1983, 2005), Rome (1987), Tokyo (1991), Stuttgart (1993), Athens (1997), Seville (1999), Berlin (2009), Moscow (2013), Beijing (2015), as well as at such stadiums as Malmö (1976), Sittard (1980), Gottlieb-DaimlerStadion of Stuttgart (Germany, 1993), Ullevi of Göteborg (Sweden, 1995), Edmonton Commonwealth Stadium (Canada, 2001), Stade de France Saint-Denis (France, 2003), Nankai of Osaka (Japan, 2007), Daegu in Daegu (South Korea, 2011).

The ancient stadium, Nemea, Greece

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

A stadium. The 4th century BC. Olympia (Greece). Cycling lanes.. An arena. A running track. A curve. 400 metres. Switchover corridors.

The Olympic Stadium in Athens (Greece), the only one in the world built of white marble, bears the name meaning “beautifully marbled” in Greek. The stadium was constructed of marble in 329 BC at the initiative of Archon Lycurgus. In the ancient times the stadium was the venue for the Panathenaic Games dedicated to the patron saint of the city, the goddess Athena. The vestiges of the ancient stadium were excavated and restored in the mid-19th century at the expense of Greek patriot Evangelis Zappas. A grand-scale restoration of the stadium was carried out in 1895 before the First Olympic Games of the modern age. The architects of the project were Anastasios Metaxas and Ernst Ziller with the financial assistance of Georgios Averoff. In recognition of his merits a monument was erected at the entrance to the stadium. In 1896 seventy-five thousand spectators could watch the Olympic competitions.

9.

Do the lengths of standard running tracks coincide in indoor and outdoor stadiums? А. No, they don’t. B. Yes, they do if the length of a circular lane is 400 metres. C. Yes. D. Yes, they do if there are 6 track lanes.

10. Name the standard length of a running track in an indoor stadium. А. 400 metres. B. 250 metres.

C. 200 metres. D. 300 metres.

11. What are the edges of a running track equipped with? А. With borders rounded on their top. B. With a kerb. C. With a white line. D. With flags.

12. To what extent should the inner kerbs of the circular running lanes overtop the track? А. 3 cm. B. 5 cm.

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C. 7 cm. D. 10 cm.


The main sports arena of the 1912 Games of the 5th Olympiad in Stockholm was built in 1912 specifically for the Games. The author of the construction project was Swedish architect Torben Grut. The stadium was designed in the national romanticism style: with towers resembling medieval city walls, decorated with a relief design, bricks, sculptures etc. Its seating capacity was intended for 22000 spectators. The opening ceremony was attended by 25 thousand sports fans.

13. Where should a running track be built within a stadium? А. On an even horizontal space. B. On two parallel straights and two curves with equal radii. C. On one of the horizontal spaces of a stadium. D. In the northern part of a stadium centre.

14. What surfacing is used for professional running tracks? А. Asphalt. B. Cinder.

C. Carbon cinder. D. Tartan.

15. What is the shape of a modern stadium? А. Oval. B. Square.

C. Round. D. Rectangular.

16. The length and the configuration of a standard running track came around historically due to the fact that it was situated around a football pitch, the average size of which is 105 by 68 metres. What is the name of an oval-shaped zone consisting of several individual lanes, where running and race-walking competitions are held? А. An arena. B. A running track.

C. A location. D. A cornfield.

The sculpture of an athlete giving the Olympic greeting – the salute – at the Olympic Stadium of Amsterdam. Sculpted by Gra Rueb, 1928.

The Olympic Stadium in Amsterdam (the Netherlands) was built upon the project of Jan Wils as the main arena of 1928 Games of the IX Olympiad. It is the first stadium where a special tower with a bowl for lighting the Olympic flame was erected. It housed 31600 spectators.

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Since Los Angeles (USA) had no fully featured Olympic Stadium for the 1932 Games of the IX Olympiad, its role was assigned to the Memorial Coliseum, which had been opened in 1923. It has housed a huge number of sports competitions ever since. It is the only stadium in the world, which was the home for the Games of two Olympiads in 1932 and in 1984. The stadium’s capacity is 100000 spectators.

9. No, they don’t. 10. 200 metres. 11. With borders rounded on their top. 12. 3 cm. 13. On an even horizontal space. 14. Tartan. 15. Oval. 16. A running track.

17. What is the width of an individual lane in the running events of the track and field? А. 1 metre 22 centimetres. B. 1 metre 00 centimetres.

C. 1 metre 50 centimetres. D. 0 metres 80 centimetres.

18. What marks an individual lane for runners? А. A line. B. Flags.

C. Indicator lights. D. Nothing.

19. How many individual running lanes are to be organized at international level competitions? А. 6. B. 8. The sports complex Olympiapark, the centre of which is currently the Olympiastadion, was built back before World War I, when Germany won the right to hold the 1916 Games of the VI Olympiad. The Olympic Stadium was constructed in Berlin in 1936 upon the project of Werner March. It accommodated 86000 viewers. For the project of the Olympic Stadium in Berlin Werner March was awarded the golden medal in the Olympic Art Competition of 1936 in the category Designs for Town Planning and the silver medal in the category Architectural Designs.

C. 10. D. 7.

20. The width of a running lane is regulated by the IAAF and constitutes 1.22 metres for competitions at the world level. Does this measurement include a separating line with a 5-centimetre-wide external lane? А. Yes, it does. B. Yes, it does, including the white line on the left. C. No, it does not. D. Yes, it does, including the lines on the left and on the right.

The Olympic Stadium of the Games of the XIV Olympiad in London (Great Britain), Wembley, could accommodate 85000 spectators.

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The construction of the Olympic Stadium in Helsinki (Finland) was in progress from 1934 through 1938. The stadium was ready to host the 1940 Games of the XII Olympiad, which were cancelled as World War II broke out. The stadium in Helsinki was built under the project of two architects: Yrjö Lindegren and Toivo Jäntti in the architectural style of functionalism. The tower of the Olympic Stadium was raised at 72 metres 71 centimetres in height in honour of Matti Järvinen’s javelin record at the 1932 Games of the X Olympiad. The stadium bowl stretches 243 metres in length and 159 metres in width. The stadium accommodated 70435 spectators during the Olympic Games of 1952.

21. The length of the shortest inner lane of the athletic track system is 400 metres. Outer lanes are longer due to the increasing radius of their curves. What is the length of the 8th lane? А. 407 metres 04 centimetres. C. 453 metres 03 centimetres. B. 141 metres 70 centimetres. D. 460 metres 70 centimetres.

22. The 200-metre oval racetrack of an indoor stadium normally consists of 4–6 individual lanes. Starting from 2006 the 200-metre race was excluded from the programme of World and European Championships for reasons of unequal conditions for participants. Which of the race participants was on the most beneficial conditions? А. The one running on the inner lane. B. The one running on the central lane. C. The one running on the outer lane.

23. It is known that a bigger curve radius gives an advantage to an athlete running for 200 metres. At what curve radius are the 200-metre records being fixed? А. No more than 50 m. B. No less than 37.72 m.

C. No more than 40.16 m. D. No more than 45.04 m.

The Olympic Stadium of the 1956 Games in Melbourne (Australia) – the Melbourne Cricket Ground – was built in 1853–1854 as the ground of the Melbourne Cricket Club. By the 1956 Games of XVI Olympiad the stadium was renovated. Its capacity was increased up to 120000 seats.

The Olympic Stadium of 1960 Games in Rome (Italy) – Stadio Olimpico – as a part of the Foro Italico sports complex was built in 1928. In 1953 it was reconstructed under the project of Pier Luigi Nervi to become the main stage for the 1960 Games of XVII Olympiad. It accommodates 72700 spectators.

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17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

1 metre 22 centimetres. A line. 8. Yes. 453 metres 03 centimetres. The one running on the outer lane. 23. No more than 50 m.

The National Olympic Stadium in Tokyo (Japan) was opened in 1964 for the Games of the XVIII Olympiad. It has a capacity for 60057 spectators.

24. Running tracks of a stadium have outer and inner slopes. What for? А. For drainage in case of rain. B. In order to increase the running speed. C. In order to create comfortable running conditions. D. In order to ensure equal conditions for all competitors.

25. What lateral slope is allowed for running tracks of a stadium? А. No more than 1:100. B. No more than 1:150.

C. No more than 1:200. D. No more than 1:500.

26. What longitudinal slope is allowed for running tracks of a stadium? А. No more than 1:1000. B. No more than 1:1500.

C. No more than 1:100. D. No more than 1:500.

27. How long are stadium track straights as stipulated by the standard marking? А. 84 metres 39 centimetres. C. 94 metres 39 centimetres. B. 100 metres 39 centimetres. D. 74 metres 39 centimetres.

The main Olympic arena of the Games of the XIX Olympiad – the Olympic Stadium known as Estadio Olímpico Universitario – was built in Mexico City in 1950. It is situated in the historical centre of the city on the territory of the National University of Mexico. At its opening in 1952 it accommodated 70000 spectators, for the Games its capacity was increased up to 83700 spectators. The stadium architects were Augusto Pérez Palacios, Raúl Salinas Moro and Jorge Bravo Jiménez. The central entrance to the stadium was decorated with a mural by famous Mexican artist Diego Rivera.

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The Olympic Stadium in Munich (Germany) situated in the heart of the Olympiapark became the main arena for the Games of the ХХ Olympiad. The stadium grandstands and a part of the Olympiapark territory are covered with huge hanging cloud-shaped tent structures designed by architect Günther Behnisch and engineer Frei Otto. The stadium capacity is 69250 spectators. At its construction large sweeping canopies of acrylic glass and steel cables were used. The wide and clear cupola symbolized the new democratic and optimistic Germany.


The Olympic Stadium in Montreal (Canada) became the main sports arena of the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad. It was built under the project of architect Roger Taillibert in 1973. It accommodates 65255 spectators. It is an outstanding example of the organic modern style, which manifests the organic connection of flora and fauna of the Earth with sports. It is nicknamed “The Big O”.

28. What is the radius of the shortest lane on a stadium? А. 36 metres 50 centimetres. B. 46 metres 50 centimetres.

C. 40 metres 50 centimetres. D. 30 metres 50 centimetres.

29. The track is separated by a one-metre-wide zone on the inside and the outside. What is its name? А. The recreation zone. B. The stretching zone.

C. The safety zone. D. The danger zone.

30. The start line for every track discipline in athletics is different. What about the finish line? А. It is uniform. B. It is different for every athlete. C. It varies for running disciplines at short and long distances. D. It varies for running and race walking.

31. What is the location of the finish line for all athletic track disciplines? А. In one of the conjunction points between the straights and the curved lanes in the southern part of a stadium. B. B. On the straights in the northern part of a stadium. C. On the curve in the northern part of a stadium. D. On the curve in the southern part of a stadium.

The Luzhniki Olympic Complex was the main arena for the sports competitions of the 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad in Moscow (USSR). The stadium was built in 1956 and renovated for the Games of 1980. Its capacity is 78360.

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24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31.

The Jamsil Olympic Stadium became the main athletic venue for the Games of the XXIV Olympiad of 1988 in Seoul (the Republic of South Korea). The stadium was designed by Kim Swoo-geun. The stadium profile lines imitate the elegant curves of a Korean porcelain vase of the Joseon Dynasty. The capacity of the stadium at the time of the Olympic Games was 100000.

For drainage in case of rain. No more than 1:100. No more than 1:1000. ess. 84 metres 39 centimetres. ess. 36 metres 50 centimetres. The safety zone. It is uniform. In one of the conjunction points between the straights and the curved lanes in the southern part of a stadium.

32. Where are the 100-metre running track and the 100- and 110-metre hurdle tracks located? А. At one of the track straights. B. On one of the track curves. C. On both track straights. D. On a track curve and a track straight.

33. There is a starting zone in front of the start line. Name its width. А. No less than 10 metres. B. No less than 5 metres.

C. No less than 3 metres. D. No less than 7 metres.

34. Behind the finish line there is a run-out zone. Name its length. А. 10 metres. B. 15 metres.

C. 17 metres. D. 20 metres.

35. The track zone has an additional curve. For what purpose?

The Lluís Companys Olympic Stadium in Barcelona (Spain) became the main Olympic arena for the Games of the XXV Olympiad of 1992. The stadium was built in 1927. Since 1936 it has got the title of Olympic due to Barcelona’s campaign for the right to host the Olympic Games of 1936. Its architect was Pere Domènech i Roura. The Catalans resorted to a special strategy in order to preserve the old stadium and to use it for the Olympic Games of 1992 – they increased its capacity up to 70000 seats by adding one more tier below the ground level.

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А. For competitions in the steeplechase. B. For the hurdling events. C. For the race walking events. D. For the 400-metre events.

The main Olympic Stadium of the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta (USA), the Centennial Olympic Stadium, was built in 1993–1996 by the architectural company Heery International, Inc. for 85000 spectators.


The Australia Stadium was built as the main arena for the XXVII Olympic Games in Sydney (Australia) in 1996. At the moment of its construction it had the capacity of 110000. On the first day of the track and field Olympic tournament on September 23, 2000 the stadium gathered 112524 spectators – the record number for a sports event. The stadium architect was Populous (earlier – HOK Sport Venue Event).

36. What object is located on the additional curves of the track? А. A water jump. B. A first aid station.

C. A feeding station. D. A stand with energy drinks.

37. It is known that a water jump for steeplechase competitions has 3.60 by 3.60 metre dimensions. What is the depth of a jump? А. 1.00 metre. B. 0.80 metres.

C. 0.50–0.70 metres. D. 0.40–0.60 metres.

38. The curves on the tracks of athletic facilities have certain gradient angles, which facilitate distance passing for runners at turns with small bend radii. What is the angle of this slope? А. 25o. B. 30o.

C. 18o. D. 20o.

39. When and where was an electromechanic timing system first used in athletic competitions? А. 1912, Stockholm. B. 1904, Saint-Louis.

C. 1908, London. D. 1920, Antwerp.

The Spiros Louis Olympic Stadium became the main athletic arena for the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad in 2004 in Athens (Greece). It was built in 1982 under the project of architect Santiago Calatrava. A notable peculiarity of the stadium is the four leaning pillars situated in each of the angles. Its capacity is 71030 spectators.

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32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44.

At one of the track straights. No less than 3 metres. 17 metres. For competitions in the steeplechase. A water jump. 0.50–0.70 metres. 18o. 1912, Stockholm. 1968. 1968. James Hines (USA). Omega. Prague, 240 thousand.

40. When was an electronic stopwatch first used for timing track and field events? А. 1964. B. 1970.

C. 1972. D. 1968.

41. When did the official IAAF statistics start to fix results accurately to a tenth of a second? А. 1969. B. 1968.

C. 1970. D. 1972.

42. Who set the first world and Olympic record fixed accurately to a tenth of a second? А. James Hines (USA). B. Charles Greene (USA).

C. Tommy Smith (USA). D. Lennox Miller (Jamaica).

Beijing National Stadium known as the Bird’s Nest was the main sports arena of the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing (China). It was built in 2008 under the project of the architecture firm Herzog & de Meuron. Its capacity is 91000 spectators.

The Olympic Stadium became the main sports arena of the 2012 Games of the ХХХ Olympiad in London (Great Britain). It was constructed in 2011. Its design was developed by the architectural bureau Populous (earlier – HOK Sport Venue Event) and Sir Robert McAlpine. Its capacity is 80000 spectators.

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43. What company manufactures the equipment for official timing of track and field competitions at the Olympic Games starting from 2001? Đ?. Omega. B. Boucheron.

C. Breguet. D. Seiko.

44. It is known that forty to forty-five thousand of spectators could watch competitions at the stadium in Ancient Olympia. The white-marbled stadium Panathinaikos in Athens, which housed the 1896 Games of the I Olympiad of the modern age, accommodated seventy thousand spectators. Before World War II the largest stadium in the world was built in 1926. Where was it located and what capacity did it have? Đ?. Maracana, 200 thousand. B. Beijing, 100 thousand.

C. Barcelona, 110 thousand. D. Prague, 220 thousand.

One of the unique edifices of the 20th century is the Great Strahov Stadium built in Prague in 1926. The stadium has the largest pitch area in the world (63000 sq.m), and its grandstands can accommodate more than 220000 spectators. The main function of the stadium was to host gatherings of the Sokol movement, and after World War II it was used for National Czech and Slovak spartakiads.

Culture. (Strahov Stadium). Rudolph "Rudy" Parizek. The beginning of the 20-th century. Prague.

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IAAF n July 17, 1912 in Stockholm the International Amateur Athletics Federation (IAAF) – the authority to govern the development of athletics around the globe, to organize a competition programme, to standardise technical equipment and to list the official world records – was founded. At the time when the Federation was created it included 17 member-countries. Sigfried Edström (Sweden) was elected its first president. In 1912 the governing Board consisted of seven members, including the President. A year later in Berlin (1913) the Congress approved its first constitution. The first member list included 34 national federations. The first Technical Rules of international competitions were presented in 1914 at the third Congress in Lyon (France). For more than a 100-year history the IAAF was leaded by: 1912–1946 – Johannes Sigfried Edström (Sweden); 1946–1976 – David Burghley (Lord Burghley, Marquess of Exeter) (United Kingdom); 1976–1981 – Adriaan Paulen (Netherlands); 1981–1999 – Primo Nebiolo (Italy); 1999– present – Lamine Diack (Senegal). At the Congress in 2001 it was decided to rename the International Amateur Athletics Federation (IAAF) into

O

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the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF), retaining its original abbreviation. In 2003 it was decided to consider the IAAF the world’s governing body not only for track and field, road running, race walking and cross-country, but for mountain running as well (the IAAF Constitution, 2013). Since 2011 the Council of the Association has included six women, and the total number of the Council members has not increased – 27. The Association has been stably gathering pace in its growth within recent decades. Currently the number of countries united into the IAAF has reached 213.

On July 17, 1912 in Stockholm the Constituent Congress took place and decided to the International Amateur Athletics Federation (IAAF). Representatives of seventeen countries attended this historic meeting: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Great Britain, Hungary, Germany, Greece, Denmark, Egypt, Canada, Norway, Russia, the USA, Finland, France, Chile and Sweden.

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1.

When was the International Amateur Athletics Federation (IAAF), the largest sports federation of the world, founded? А. 1908. B. 1911.

2.

C. 1912. D. 1910.

Two days after the end of the last athletic competitions – the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad – the Constituent Congress was opened. It adopted a decision to establish the International Amateur Athletics Federation. Name the day and the place of its birth. А. June 17, Stockholm. B. July 17, London. C. July 17, Berlin. D. July 17, Antwerp.

3.

What was the purpose of the IAAF creation? А. To act as a global managing body for the track and field athletics. B. To unite with the IOC. C. To manage the development of the international and the Olympic competitions in track and field. D. To register world, Olympic records and other records in the track and field athletics.

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4.

One of the IAAF first steps was developing unified rules for amateur athletic competitions and initiating the official registration of world and Olympic records. When did the registration of world athletic records begin? А. 1913. B. 1914.

5.

C. 1912. D. 1915.

Who was elected the first IAAF President? А. David George Burghley, Great Britain. B. Johannes Sigfrid Edström, Sweden. C. Leopold Eglund, Sweden. D. Alvin Kraenzlein, USA.

6.

Johannes Sigfrid Edström (Sweden) was one of the two initiators of the IAAF creation in 1912 together with his compatriot Leopold Eglund and the first President of the new founded Federation (1912–1946). In 1946–1952 Johannes Sigfrid Edström was the fourth President of the International Olympic Committee.

When and where was the first IAAF Constitution adopted? А. 1913, the IAAF Congress, Berlin (Germany). B. 1914, the IAAF Congress, Lyon (France). C. 1912, the IAAF Congress, Stockholm (Sweden). D. 1928, the IAAF Congress, Amsterdam (Netherlands).

Av Avery Brundage – the Head of the IAAF Competition Rules and Records Committee in the 30–40s of the 20th century, in 1930–1952 – the IAAF Vice President, later (in 1952–1972) the fifth IOC President.

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1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

1912. June 17, Stockholm. To manage the development of the international and Olympic competitions in track and field. 1912. Johannes Sigfrid Edström, Sweden. 1913, the IAAF Congress, Berlin (Germany). 7.

Who was elected the first honorary secretary of the International Amateur Athletics Federation? А. Bo Eklund (Sweden). B. Hilding Kjellman (Sweden). C. Frederick Holder (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). D. Kristian Hellström (Sweden).

8.

When and where were the technical rules of international athletics competitions presented? А. 1928, the IAAF Congress, Amsterdam (Netherlands). B. 1914, the IAAF Congress, Lyon (France). C. 1913, the IAAF Congress, Berlin (Germany). D. 1972, the IAAF Congress, Munich (Germany).

9. Lord d Burghley hl ((Great Britain) – the second IAAF President (1946–1976). Earlier in 1928 at the Games of the IX Olympiad in Amsterdam the British athlete David George Burghley became the Olympic champion in the 400-metre hurdles event. The IOC Vice President (1954–1966).

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Name one of the outstanding representatives of the Competition Rules and Records Committee in the 30s–40s of the 20th century, the future IOC President. А. Lord Killanin. B. Avery Brundage.

C. Henri de Baillet-Latour. D. Sigfrid Edström.

10. When and where was the first European Athletics Championship held? А. 1934, Turin (Italy). B. 1938, Paris (France). C. 1946, Oslo (Norway). D. 1950, Brussels (Belgium).


11. Where was the first IAAF Headquarters located? А. Stockholm (Sweden). B. Lausanne (Switzerland).

C. Berlin (Germany). D. Monaco.

12. The IAAF Headquarters was situated in Stockholm (Sweden) from 1912 to 1946. In connection with the President’s re-election it was relocated. Where to? А. 1946, London (Great Britain). B. 1946, Paris (France). C. 1946, Lausanne (Switzerland). D. 1946, Bern (Switzerland).

Adriaan Paulen (Netherlands) – the third IAAF President (1976–1981).

13. Who was elected the second IAAF President? А. Lord Burghley. B. Lamine Diack.

C. Adriaan Paulen. D. Primo Nebiolo.

14. Name the third IAAF President and his years in office. А. Primo Nebiolo, 1981–1999. B. Lord Burghley, 1946–1976. C. Johannes Sigfrid Edström, 1912–1946. D. Adriaan Paulen, 1976–1981.

15. A prominent sports official from Italy was elected the fourth President in almost the 80-year history of the Federation. Name him. А. Lamine Diack. B. Primo Nebiolo.

C. Adriaan Paulen. D. Lord Burghley.

Primo Nebiolo (Italy) – the fourth IAAF President (1981–1999). FISU President (1961–1999).

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7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Kristian Hellström (Sweden). 1914, the IAAF Congress, Lyon (France). Avery Brundage. 1934, Turin (Italy). Stockholm (Sweden). 1946 г., London (Great Britain). Lord Burghley. Adriaan Paulen, 1976–1981 Primo Nebiolo. 16. Initially (in 1912) the IAAF Executive Committee consisted of seven members, including the President. How many professionals are members of the IAAF Executive Committee today? А. 20. B. 25.

C. 27. D. 19.

17. What is the decision-making authority of the IAAF? А. The Congress. B. The Executive Committee.

C. The Conference. D. The Director.

18. How often is the IAAF Congress summoned? А. Annually. B. Biennially.

C. Every three years. D. Every four years.

19. The IAAF has several merit pins and awards. When was the first pin introduced? And what was its name? А. 1928, the IAAF Veteran Pin. B. 1912, the IAAF Member Pin. C. 1914, the IAAF Executive Council Member Pin. D. 1913, the IAAF Merit Pin.

Lamine Diack (Senegal) – the fifth IAAF President (1999 – present).

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20. What IAAF awards are presently in use? А. The IAAF Merit Pin. aquue B. The IAAF Golden and Silver Orders of Merit and the Plaque of Merit. C. The IAAF Veteran Pin. D. The IAAF Plaque of Merit.

21. The IAAF’s sphere of influence also includes Continental and Regional Games and Championships promoting for the general progress. When and where was the first Regional Athletics Association founded? А. 1974, Asian Athletics Association. B. 1969, European Athletic Association. C. 1918, the South American Confederation. D. 1989, the North American, Central American and Caribbean Athletic Association in North America.

22. The IAAF established the European Committee for the organization of European Championships. When did it happen? А. 1969. B. 1936.

C. 1934. D. 1968.

23. The regular Congress passed a constitutional resolution to establish Area Associations functioning on all continents. When did it happen? А. 1968. B. 1948.

C. 1958. D. 1938.

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16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

27. The Congress. Biennially. 1928, the Veteran Pin. The IAAF Golden and Silver Orders of Merit and the Plaque of Merit. 21. 1918, the South American Confederation. 22. 1934. 23. 1968.

Until 1980 the Olympic Games were the official World Athletics Championships. In 1978 a historic decision was made: to hold the World Championships separately from the Olympic Games five years later.

24. The Constitution of the European Athletics Association was adopted at the IAAF Congress in 1970, the Statute of the Oceania Regional Group – in 1972, the Statutes of the African Amateur Athletic Confederation and the Asian Amateur Athletics Association – in 1974. When did the Congress ratify the North American, Central American and Caribbean Athletic Association? А. 1972, Munich. B. 1989, Barcelona.

C. 1913, Berlin. D. 1928, Amsterdam.

25. The development of what athletic disciplines is currently managed by the IAAF? А. Track and field. B. Track and mountain running. C. Track and field and cross country running. D. Track and field, road running, race walking and cross country running, mountain running.

26. For a significant period of time the Olympic Games had been considered the official World Championships in Athletics. When was the last time that an Olympic champion itle of the World Champion automatically? received the title А. 1980. B. 1984.

In August 1983 Helsinki hosted the first World Championships, which was a huge success. The programme of the Championships included new disciplines, which had not been in the competition programme during the Games of the Olympiad, and namely: the 3,000-metre run and the 400-metre hurdles (women). Since then the Olympic programme has become identical to the programme of the world championships.

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C. 1976. D. 1972.


The World Indoor Championships was first held in Paris in 1985. Since then world indoor championships are being held every two years in the first half of March for three days. It was only once that the winter world championships was held for two consecutive years (2003 and 2004) as it was necessary to draw a time line between the summer and the winter championships. More than 500 athletes from 150 countries compete for medals in 26 athletic disciplines. Competitions attract nearly 100 media organizations, more than 400 officials, up to 50 000 spectators.

27. What city was selected by the IAAF for the first World Championships? А. Helsinki (Finland). B. Tokyo (Japan). C. Düsseldorf (Germany). D. Rome (Italy).

28. When was the first World Athletics Championship held? А. 1983. B. 1984.

C. 1980. D. 1981.

29. When and where were the first Indoor Games, which later on became the World Indoor Athletics Championship, held? А. 1985, Paris. B. 1983, Helsinki.

C. 1987, Indianapolis. D. 1978, Düsseldorf.

30. Name the IAAF President who initiated World Outdoor and Indoor Athletics Championships, later on the FISU President? А. Lord Burghley. B. Primo Nebiolo.

C. Adriaan Paulen. D. Lamine Diack.

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24. 1989, Barcelona. 25. Track and field, road running, race walking and cross country running, mountain running. 26. 1980. 27. Helsinki (Finland). 28. 1983. 29. 1985, Paris. 30. Primo Nebiolo.

Since 1985 all major competitions have been integrated into four-year cycles known as the IAAF World Athletics Series. The first cycle of the World Series (1985–1987) includes the first World Marathon Championships, the World Junior Championships and the Grand Prix Final.

31. Where is the IAAF currently headquartered? А. Monte Carlo. B. New York.

C. Lausanne. D. London.

32. In the IAAF’s more than a centennial history the IAAF this reputable organization was managed by presidents. How many presidents have lead the IAAF? А. 10. B. 5.

C. 12. D. 8.

33. How many national athletic track and field associations are currently united by the IAAF? А. 202. B. 204.

C. 201. D. 213.

34. What is the largest competition held by the IAAF? А. The World Championships. B. The World Cup. Villa Miraflores – IAAF Headquarters. Monako.

C. The Diamond League. D. The Olympic Games.

35. How often are the World Athletics Championships held? А. Once in two years. B. Annually.

C. Every three years. D. Every four years.

Primo Nebiolo grew the organization we know today from humble beginnings in two rooms in London while Lamine Diack took the baton and has overseen its global expansion and commercial development.

The Grand Prix competitions emerged upon the recommendation of the IAAF working group on amateurism and admission in 1983, which came up with the concept of international competitions by invitations. In 1985 the competitions were organized through personal invitations of the IAAF Grand Prix Series (Mobil Grand Prix IAAF), which ended in the culmination final and awards to athletes who demonstrated the best results at the end of the season.

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Since 1986 under the aegis of the IAAF World Six-Day Junior Championships have been held every two years in July or August. The first Junior World Championships was held at the Olympic Stadium in Athens. Currently its programme includes 44 disciplines, involves more than 1400 athletes aged 18 and 19 years old (as of December 31 of the current year). The competitions attract the attention of some 450 media organizations and over 25 thousand of spectators every day of their staging.

36. Name the team competitions, which include forty track and field events equally divided (twenty to twenty) among men and women competing separately. А. The European Cup. B. The World Cup.

C. The Cup of Lugano. D. The World Continental Cup.

37. When were the World Cups in Athletics held first? А. 1984. B. 1990.

C. 1977. D. 1981.

38. What is the new name of the World Cup? А. The Continental Cup. B. The World Challenge.

C. The World Race Walking Cup. D. The World Cup.

39. In 1990’s the IAAF experienced an acute necessity to regulate all competitions held by this international organization. In 1985 the IAAF competitions were unified under the name of… What name was it? А. The World Athletics Tour. B. The World Athletics Series. C. The World Challenge. D. The IAAF Super Grand Prix.

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31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.

Monte Carlo. 5. 213. The World Championships. Every four years. The World Cup. 1977. The Continental Cup. s.. The World Athletics Series. 40. In 1983 the IAAF established multistage commercial competitions to determine the best athletes of the season. What was their name? А. The IAAF Challenge. B. The IAAF World Challenge.

C. The IAAF Grand Prix. D. The IAAF Super Grand Prix.

41. In 1998 the series of IAAF multistage commercial competitions uniting tournaments in Oslo, Zurich, Brussels, Berlin, Rome and Monaco, and starting from 1999 the Paris Tournament, formed the League. What is its name? А. Golden. B. Silver. In 1992 the World Road Relay Championships was held. Later on it was repeated three more times. The IAAF World Half Marathon Championships (men and women) replaced competitions for women in 10 and 15 kilometres, and starting from 1992 has been held annually.

C. Silver. D. Ruby.

42. In 2010 the Golden League was reformed. The new League united 14 tournaments of the Golden League and 14 Super Grand Prix tournaments. What was the name of the newly created League? А. Ruby. B. Platinum.

C. Diamond. D. Emerald.

43. The International Association of Athletics Federations introduced a monetary prize for setting a world record. What bonus amount is designated for an athlete who has set a world record? А. $100 000 B. $10 000

C. $50 000 D. $70 000

Further innovations were carried on in the 1990s. In this decade the IAAF World Series of competitions in the cross country, uniting together the world’s most important crosscountry competitions, were held.

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44. The IAAF first record book fixed 53 records in men’s running disciplines: 30 – in race walking, 12 – in throwing, including the decathlon. When was the first track and field record book published? А. 1924. B. 1920.

C. 1914. D. 1932.

45. What number of women’s world records was listed in the first record book? А. 10. B. 20.

C. 15. D. None.

46. At how many competitions does the IAAF register world records – in stadiums, out of stadiums, indoor, among seniors and juniors? А. 187. B. 107.

C. 157. D. 137.

47. When was the first device, a predecessor of the modern photo finish equipment, introduced? А. 1926, Amsterdam. B. 1938, Amsterdam.

C. 1908, London. D. 1924, Paris.

In 1993 four popular athletic tournaments included into the IAAF Grand Prix Series – Exxon Mobil Bislett Games in Oslo, Weltklasse Zürich in Zurich, Memorial Van Damme in Brussels and ISTAF in Berlin – were united into the so-called the Golden Four. The essence of this association was the fact that athletes who had won in the same athletic disciplines of these four competitions received special prizes in the form of gold bullions.

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40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47.

The IAAF Grand Prix. Golden. Diamond. $100 000. 1914. None. 187. 1926, Amsterdam.

48. When was the photo finish first used at the Olympic Games for more objective judging? А. 1928, Amsterdam. B. 1932, Los Angeles.

C. 1936, Berlin. D. 1948, London.

49. Since when has the electronic timing of world records been used? А. 1930. B. 1936.

C. 1948. D. 1952.

50. When did the IAAF introduce the certification of sports objects in order to ensure the quality of objects, equipment and apparatuses for sports competitions and the safety of athletes? А. 1999. B. 2000.

C. 2005. D. 2004.

51. The IAAF became the first sports federation in the world, which condemned the use of doping. When and where did it happen? А. 1928, the Congress, Amsterdam. B. 1988,, Seoul. C. 1980, Moscow. D. 2000, Sydney.

In March 1996 the IAAF Council made a historic decision for the athletic movement. It allowed giving monetary prizes to athletes who had taken the top places in the IAAF World Championships and other competitions of the World Athletics Series for Seniors. In 1997 the official prize money at the World Championships constituted the following amounts: for the first place – 50 thousand, for the second – 30 thousand, for the third – 20 thousand US Dollars. And currently the first place earns 60 thousand, the second – 30 thousand, the third – 20 thousand US Dollars.

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52. Today the IAAF is an active campaigner against doping, helping true athletes win in honest competition. How many tests are performed with the help of the most up-to-date equipment and technologies on an annual basis? А. 3500. B. 2000.

C. 1500. D. 3000.

53. In the field of medical services for athletes and trainers the IAAF undertakes active measures against doping, works on the development of the leading-edge technologies, recommendations on athletic nutrition and… Name the most important IAAF focus area in terms of medical services.

In 1998 the popular Grand Prix (the Golden Four) events were complemented by two well-known tournaments – Golden Gala Roma in Rome and Herculis Zepter in Monte Carlo. This association was called the IAAF Golden League with a special prize (Jack Pot) of one million US Dollars. It was distributed among athletes who had won six Golden League competitions and participated in the World Athletics Final. Since 1998 the IAAF World Combined Events Challenge has been launched.

А. Creating comfortable conditions for a proper rest. B. Support of daily regimens. C. Injury prevention. D. Health maintenance.

54. In 1924 an independent federation (the International Women’s Sports Federation) aimed to promote the development of women’s track and field disciplines was founded. In the same 1924 the IAAF Congress supported the idea of the International Women’s Sports Federation to include five women’s track and field disciplines into the programme of the 1928 Olympic Games in Amsterdam. Name those disciplines. А. The 100-metre race, the 800-metre race, the 4х100-metre relay, the high jump, the discus throw. B. The 200 metres, the 80-metre hurdles, the 4х100-metre relay, the javelin throw, the discus throw, the long jump, the discus throw. C. The 100 metres, the 1,500 metres, the long jump, the high jump, the discus throw. D. The 100 metres, the 3,000 metres, the 4х100-metre relay, the long jump, the discus throw.

Since 1999 the IAAF World Championships for boys and girls under nship the age of 18 has been held every two years. The first championship was staged in Bydgoszcz (Poland). At present these competitions last for five days. Forty medal events are being organized; more than 1200 athletes aged 16–17 years old and 600 officials participate. More than 100 organizations provide media coverage. Stadiums gather up to 15 thousand of spectators during each competition day.

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48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54.

1928, Amsterdam. 1930. 1999. 1928, the Congress, Amsterdam. 3500. Injury prevention. The100-metre race, the 800-metre race, the 4 х 100-metre relay, the high jump,the discus throw.

In 2003 the IAAF conducted the Race Walking Series for the first time (the IAAF Constitution). The same year one-day events included into the Golden League, Super Grand Prix and Grand Prix were also reorganized. The Grand Prix Final was replaced by the IAAF World Athletics Final, which includes 35 athletic disciplines and is held at the end of the season. The IAAF World Race Walking Championships has been held since 1961 for men and since 1979 for women. Starting from 2004 junior athletes have joined the competitions.

55. Today the programmes of the men’s and the women’s indoor competitions are identical. In how many disciplines do athletes compete? А. 46 (23 men and 23 women). C. 26 (13 men and 13 women). B. 28 (14 men and 14 women). D. 40 (20 men and 20 women).

56. The programme of the men’s competitions at World Championships differs from that of women by one event. What event is this? А. 50-kilometre race walking. B. The marathon at 42 kilometres 195 metres. C. The 3,000-metre hurdles. D. The hammer throw.

57. The IAAF pays much attention to the participation of women in the work of the Federation. Thus in 1995 two women were elected members of the IAAF Council. Name them. А. Sylvia Barlag and Anna Riccardi. B. Nawal El Moutawakel and Abby Hoffman. C. Abby Hoffman and Sylvia Barlag. D. Irena Szewińska and Pauline Davis-Thompson.

58. At the suggestion of the Women’s Committee the IAAF decided to declare the International Women’s Athletics Year in order to celebrate the anniversary of women’s participation in the Olympic Games and in order to promote women’s sports in the whole world. Name the year. А. 1988. B. 1998.

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C. 2008. D. 2013.


59. The IAAF Congress made a decision to increase the number of women in the Council up to four out of 27 members. When was this norm introduced? А. 2010. B. 2007.

C. 2005. D. 2004.

60. The IAAF President Primo Nebiolo brought many changes into the life of the Federation and the development of athletics in the world. How did the President name the 1990s? А. The Decade of Development. C. The Decade of Stability. B. The Decade of Stagnation. D. The Decade of Mobility.

61. In 1997 the IAAF initiated creation of training centres for athletes and trainers of the highest qualification in order to provide venues for improvement, training and development. Today these centres are numerous all over the world. They all are united by the Association into a single organization. What is the name of it? А. The network of the IAAF accredited training centres. B. The network of the IAAF complex athletic bases. C. The network of the IAAF highest qualified athlete training centres. D. The network of the IAAF track and field clubs.

In 2010 the Diamond League, consisting of 14 international competitions, replaced the Golden League. The Diamond League was introduced as a competitor to Formula One and the Grand Slam in tennis. This decision was connected with the desire of the IAAF to organize the calendar and the structure of international commercial tournaments statuses in order to make the competition calendar more global and to facilitate the participation of the world athletic stars not only in European, but also in American and Asian events, on the one hand, and to bring in the element of regularity inherent, for example, to team sports or the biathlon to the track and field athletics, on the other hand.

62. In 2001 the IAAF made a decision to implement a new strategic document on the development and growth of athletics in the world. What is the name of this document? А. The IAAF Strategy. B. The IAAF Strategic Plan. C. The IAAF Rules. D. The IAAF Constitution.

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55. 26 (13 men and 13 women). 56. 50-kilometre race walking. 57. Nawal El Moutawakel and Abby Hoffman. 58. 1998. 59. 2007. 60. The Decade of Development. 61. The network of the IAAF accredited training centres. 62. The IAAF Strategic Plan. 63. 1996. 64. 1959. 65. The IAAF World Athletics Series. 66. The IAAF World Athletics Tour. 67. The Diamond League Final. 68. Best athletes – largest awards. 69. The IAAF Race Walking Challenge.

In 2011 the Congress approved the principle of creation of new global relay race competitions as a part of the World Athletics Series (the IAAF Constitution, 2013). In 2014 the first World Championships in Relay Racing (the IAAF World Relays) was held in Nassau in the Bahamas. Women and men competed in the following relays: 4 x 100, 4 x 200, 4 x 400, 4 x 800 and 4 x 1,500 metres. The main purpose of the Championships was to attract additional investments for the “Queen of Sports”, considering the fact that it is relay racing that generates the greatest fan interest. In the schedule of the World Championships (2015) the 1,200 x 400 x 800 x 1600-metre relay replaced the 4 x 1,500 metre relay.

63. The International Association of Athletics Federation took a historic decision on holding the World Athletics Day in order to unite the youth of the world in competitive spirits and mutual understanding. When was the first World Athletics Day held? А. 1996. B. 2004.

C. 2000. D. 1992.

64. The Athlete of the Year was first nominated by the Track & Field (USA) magazine and the most prominent professionals in track and field according to the annual competition results of the strongest athletes. When was this contest held first? А. 1959. B. 1960.

C. 1952. D. 1948.

65. The competition series composed of 23 main championships held within a four-year period: А. The IAAF World Athletics Series. B. The IAAF World Athletics Tour. C. The IAAF Challenge. D. The IAAF Super Grand Prix.

66. The global series of 24 one-day competitions divided into two levels. The first level – the Golden League (6 stages) and The Super Grand Prix competition series (6 stages); the second level – the IAAF Grand Prix (12): А. The IAAF Challenge. B. The IAAF World Athletics Tour. C. The World Athletics Series. D. The World Athletics Final.

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67. The third in significance (after the World Championships and the Olympic Games) competition in the athletic calendar of the summer season. Held in the end of the season. А. The Diamond League Final. B. The Diamond League. C. The Golden League. D. The Grand Prix Final.

68. Quote the motto of the most spectacular competition of the year. А. The fortune smiles at the strongest. B. Best athletes – largest awards. C. High competition is high spectacularity. D. Records are the road to spectacularity.

69. The series of specialized race walking starts held throughout the whole athletics season: А. The IAAF Race Walking Challenge. B. The World Race Walking Challenge. C. The Race Walking Grand Prix. D. The Race Walking Golden League.

Currently under the aegis of the IAAF a large number of competitions in road running (10-, 20kilometres, half-marathon, marathon, etc.), the so-called the IAAF Label Road Races, which are divided into the IAAF Gold Label Road Races, the IAAF Silver Label Road Races, the IAAF Bronze Label Road Races, are held. In 2015 the IAAF calendar includes a series of events called The World Challenger (the IAAF World Challenge), which includes competitions in combined events (the IAAF Combined Events Challenge), race walking (the IAAF Race Walking Challenge) and hammer throwing (the IAAF Hammer Throw Challenge), competition in cross country running (the IAAF Cross Country Permit), indoor competitions (the IAAF Indoor Permit). Also competitions in mountain running are organized. Classic mountain running competitions are held at distances of 3 to 12 kilometres (at different distance ups): senior men – 12 km, senior women – 8 km; junior men – 8 km; junior women – 4 km; boys – 5 km, girls – 3 km. Long-distance mountain running competitions with 20 to 42.195-kilometre tracks at altitudes up to 4000 metres are also staged.

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I AAF HALL of FAME he inauguration of the IAAF Hall of Fame was announced by the President of the International Association of Athletics Federations Lamine Diack on March 8, 2012 at the press-conference in Istanbul prior to the opening ceremony of the 14th World Indoor Championships in Athletics. It was declared that the inductees for the IAAF Hall of Fame had to comply with the following requirements: to have won at least two Olympic or World Championships gold medals; to have set at least one world record; to have been retired for at least 10 years at the time of election to the IAAF Hall of Fame. First 12 athletes inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame were as follows: Paavo Nurmi (Finland), James “Jesse” Owens (USA), Francina “Fanny” Blankers-Koen (Netherlands), Emil Zátopek (Czechoslovakia), Adhemar Ferreira da Silva (Brazil), Elizabeth “Betty” Cuthbert (Australia), Alfred “Al” Oerter (USA), Abebe Bikila (Ethiopia), Edwin Moses (USA), Carlton “Carl” Lewis (USA), Jacqueline “Jackie” Joyner-Kersee (USA), Wang Junxia (China).

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On July 17, 2012 upon the IAAF centenary celebrations 12 more athletes were inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame: Mildred “Babe” Didrikson (USA), Peter Snell (New Zealand), Iolanda Balaş (Romania), Vladimir Golubnichiy (USSR), Irena Szewińska (Poland), Kipchoge “Kip” Keino (Kenya), Alberto Juantorena (Cuba), Sebastian Coe (Great Britain), Sergey Bubka (USSR, Ukraine), Stefka Kostadinova (Bulgaria), Michael “Mike” Johnson (USA), Daniel “Dan” O’Brien (USA). The next 12 athletes joined the IAAF Hall of Fame in November 2013. Those were Juho “Hannes” Kolehmainen (Finland), Harrison “Bones” Dillard (USA), Marjorie Jackson (Australia), Patrick “Parry” O’Brien (USA), Viktor Saneyev (USSR), Yuriy Sedykh (USSR), Grete Waitz (Norway), Francis Morgan “Daley” Thompson (Great Britain), Nataliya Lisovskaya (USSR), MarieJosé Pérec (France), Noureddine Morceli (Algeria), Svetlana Masterkova (Russia). And on November 21, 2014 the IAAF Hall of Fame welcomed 12 more athletes: Cornelius “Dutch” Warmerdam (USA), Robert “Bob” Mathias (USA), Shirley Strickland De La Hunty (Australia), Glenn Davis (USA), Wilma Rudolph (USA), Valeriy Brumel (USSR), Jānis Lūsis (USSR), Lasse Viren (Finland), Marita Koch (GDR), Heike Drechsler (GDR), Robert Korzeniowski (Poland), Hicham El Guerrouj (Morocco). Thus, currently (as of early 2015) the IAAF Hall of Fame includes 48 male and female athletes. The IAAF Hall of Fame initial induction criteria were extended in 2013. Now a male or female athlete should comply with two criteria to be inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame: their achievements should have had an extraordinary impact on the development of athletics and their retirement should have taken place at least 10 years before they are elected into the IAAF Hall of Fame. These changes to the requirements allowed the induction of French sprinter Marie-José Pérec and Norwegian athlete Grete Waitz.

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Juho “Hannes” Kolehmainen – a great long distance runner from Finland. He was born in 1889. Juho began his sports activities with skiing, but then he went in for athletics. At first this athlete decided to assay his strengths in the marathon: at the age of 18 Kolehmainen completed the marathon distance for the first time and finished third in the events held in 1907 in Viipuri (the then name of the city of Vyborg). And in 1909 the 20-year-old athlete won two distances – the 1,500 metres and the 5,000 metres at large competitions in St. Petersburg. At the Games of the V Olympiad held in 1912 in Stockholm Kolehmainen won four gold medals: in the 3,000 metres (with a world record – 8 minutes 36.8 seconds), the 5,000 metres (world record – 14 minutes 36.6 seconds), the 10,000 metres (with an Olympic record – 31 minutes 20.8 seconds) and in the 12-kilometre cross-country (the result was 45 minutes 11.6 seconds). In 1913 Kolehmainen set a record in the 20-kilometre race. A series of brilliant victories of the Finnish athlete was broken by World War II. At the 1920 Games of the VII Olympiad in Antwerp 30-year old Kolehmainen won another gold medal by winning the marathon (with an Olympic record – 2 hours 32 minutes 35.8 seconds) and thus became a five-time Olympic champion. In the same 1920 Kolehmainen set a world record in the 25-kilometre race, and two years later he improved his own achievement by almost a minute. In 1922 he set a world record in the 30-kilometre race. After his retirement Kolehmainen devoted himself to coaching. Kolehmainen died in 1966 at the age of 77. In November 2013 Juho “Hannes” Kolehmainen was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

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Paavo Nurmi – an eminent Finnish long-distance runner, a ninetime Olympic champion. He was born in 1897 in Turku. From an early age Paavo was fond of running. His Olympic debut took place in 1920 at the Games of the VII Olympiad in Antwerp, where Nurmi won four Olympic medals: three gold medals – one in the 10,000 metres and two in the 8,000-metre cross-country (in the individual and team events) and one silver medal in the 5,000 metres. In 1921 Paavo Nurmi set a world record in the 10,000 metres (30 minutes 40.2 seconds), and in 1922 his records were registered in the 2,000 metres, the 5,000 metres and the 3,000 metres. In 1924 Nurmi set two more world records in the 1,500 metres (3 minutes 52.6 seconds) and the 5,000 metres (14 minutes 28.2 seconds). At the 1924 Games in Paris “The Flying Finn” Nurmi won five gold medals in the 1,500 metres and the 5,000 metres and set Olympic records in the 10-kilometre crosscountry (in the individual and team events) and the team 3,000-metre run. At the 1928 Games of the IX Olympiad in Amsterdam 31-yearold Nurmi won his ninth gold medal: that time in the 10,000 metres, two silver medals: in the 5,000 metres and in the 3000-metre steeplechase. Thus Paavo Nurmi became the owner of the largest in the history of track and field athletics collection of 12 Olympic medals (9 gold and 3 silver). Paavo Nurmi, one of the greatest athletes of the 20th century, was honoured with a lifetime monument in front of the Olympic Stadium in Helsinki. He was chosen to light the Olympic flame at the Opening Ceremony of the 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad in Helsinki. During the years of his sporting career Nurmi set 22 official (approved by the IAAF) and 13 unofficial world records. After a long illness Nurmi died on October 2, 1973 at the age of 76. An on March 8, 2012 Paavo Nurmi was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

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James “Jesse” Owens – an outstanding t t di A American i athlete who specialized in the sprints and the long jump, a four-time Olympic champion. He was born in 1913 in Oakville (Alabama, USA). In 1922 due to problems connected with racial segregation his family was forced to move to the north-east of the country – to Cleveland (Ohio). As a teenager James worked as a deliveryman for a grocery store, a porter, and then he opened a shoe repair shop. Getting into athletics, Owens played for East Tech H.S. in Cleveland and later for the University of Ohio. On May 25, 1935 at the student competitions in Ann Arbor Owens set five world records in 50 minutes: the 220-yard straight (20.3 seconds), the 200-metre dash, the 220-yard hurdles straight (22.6 seconds) and the 200-metre hurdles, the long jump (8 metres 13 centimetres: thus he was the first athlete to break the eight-metre line, and this world record had remained unsurpassed for 25 years until 1960) and repeated a world record in the 100 yards (9.4 seconds). In 1936 in Chicago at the NCAA Championship Owens set a world record in the 100 metres – 10.2 seconds. At the 1936 Games of the XI Olympiad held in Berlin James Owens won four gold medals in the 100 metres – 10.3 seconds, in the 200 metres – 20.7 seconds (an Olympic record), in the long jump – 8 metres 06 centimetres (an Olympic record) and in the 4x100-metre relay, where the US team set a world record - 39.8 seconds. The IOC distinguished James Owens with the Olympic Order. Owens died in 1980 at the age of 67. On March 8, 2012 James Owens was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

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Mildred “Babe” Didrikson – an American athlete noted for versatility of her sports talents. She was born in June 1911 in the city of Port Arthur (Texas, USA) to a family of Norwegian immigrants Didriksen. Growing up, Mildred changed her surname from Didriksen to Didrikson. With it and under the nickname “Babe” given to her after the famous American baseball player Babe Ruth she entered the history of sports and first of all the history of track and field athletics. In 1930 the 19-year-old athlete set a world record in the javelin throw of 40 metres 68 centimetres, and in 1932 – a world record in the high jump (1 metre 66 centimetres) and a world record in the 80-metre hurdles (11.8 seconds). At the 1932 Games of the X Olympiad in Los Angeles Mildred Didrikson made a triumphant performance: she became a double Olympic champion winning in the 80-metre hurdles (with a world record of 11.7 seconds) and the javelin throw (with a world record of 43 metres 68 centimetres) and was awarded the silver medal in the high jump, showing the same result of 1 metre 65 centimetres (a world record) as another American Jean Shiley, the champion in this Olympic event according to the judges’ decision. Didrikson achieved a great sports success not only in athletics, but also in golf: she had 55 victories in various tournaments and became a multiple world champion in professional golf. Mildred Didrikson passed away very early in 1956 at the age of 45. On July 17, 2012 Mildred “Babe” Didrikson was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

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Francina “Fanny” Blankers-Koen – an outstanding athlete from the Netherlands. She was born in April 1918 in the village of Lage Vuursche outside Utrecht. Fanny Blankers-Koen made her debut at the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin although she did not win any medals. And at the first post-World War II Games of the XIV Olympiad of 1948 in London at the age of 30 she was ahead of her younger competitors. “The Flying Housewife” won four gold Olympic medals (in the 100 metres, the 200 metres, the 80-metre hurdles and the 4x100-metre relay), which was impossible to any other athlete. In addition, on her account there were five victories at the European Championships, including two in 1946 (the 80-metre hurdles and the 4x100-metre relay) and three in 1950 (the 100 metres, the 200 metres and the 4x100-metre relay). Blankers-Koen is unique by the fact that she successfully performed in almost all her contemporary athletic disciplines and set a total of 16 world records: in the 100 metres, the 100 yards, the 200 metres, the 220 yards, 80-metre hurdles, the 4x110-yard and 4x200-metre relays, in the high jump, the long jump and in the athletics pentathlon in 1943–1951. In 1999 the IAAF recognized BlankersKoen the best athlete of the 20th century. In Rotterdam a monument to this outstanding athlete was erected. She passed away in 2004. And on March 8, 2012 Francina Blankers-Koen was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

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Harrison “Harry” Dillard – a top American athlete, a sprinter and hurdler. He was born in July 1923 in Cleveland (Ohio, USA). Harrison engaged in sports back in his college years. Then Dillard fought in World War II in particular in military campaigns in Italy. After the war Harrison resumed his studies at Baldwin-Wallace College, which he graduated in 1947, and continued his athletic activities with preference to running hurdles. In 1946–1948 Dillard won in 82 consecutive events in this athletic discipline. But in 1948 at the Evanston try-out events for the US Olympic team for the Games of the XIV Olympiad he knocked down a few barriers in the 110-metre hurdles, lost his balance and did not finish the race. As the result he did not get into the Olympic team in his favourite athletic event. However, since at the same qualifying events in Evanston Dillard had taken the third place in the 100-metres, he gained the right to compete for the USA in this distance at the Games of the XIV Olympiad in London. And there the American athlete won two Olympic gold medals in the 100 metres and in the 4x100-metre relay. Four years later at the 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad in Helsinki Dillard won two more gold medals in the 110-metre hurdles and the 4x100-metre relay, thus becoming a fourtime Olympic champion. The sports account of this American athlete has three world records set in 1946–1948 (in the 120-yard hurdles, the 220-yard hurdles straight and in the 200-metre hurdles straight). In November 2013 Harrison Dillard was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

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Robert R b t “B “Bob” Mathias – an American decathlete, a twotime Olympic champion. He was born in 1930 in Tulare (California, USA). Bob started his athletic career at the age of 11. And already at the age of 16 Robert became a versatile athlete: he was good at sprinting, hurdle running, jumping and throwing. Robert Mathias was about 18 when he took part in the athletic decathlon events at the 1948 Games of the XIV Olympiad in London and confidently won the gold medal, becoming the youngest Olympic champion in this discipline (aged 17 years and 263 days). In the 1952 qualifying competitions in the USA Mathias set a world record in the decathlon with a total of 7829 points. And at the XV Olympic Games in Helsinki he again excelled in the decathlon with a new world record – 7887 points, thus becoming a two-time Olympic champion. In 1948-1952 Mathias won all ten events in the decathlon in which he started. And in 1950 he was voted the best athlete of the world. After graduating from Stanford University, Mathias served in the Navy, acted in films, built a career on television. In 1956 he announced his athletic retirement. Mathias worked as a director of the Olympic Training Center in Colorado Springs. Then he went into politics, and in 1967–1975 Robert Mathias was a member of the Congress of California. Mathias died in 2006 at the age of 76. In November 2014 Robert Mathias was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

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Shirley Strickland de e la la H Hunty untyy – a prominent Austral Australian athlete who specialized in sprinting and running hurdles, a threetime Olympic champion. She was born in Australia in 1925 to a family of a gold prospector. In 1946 Shirley graduated from Mathematics and Physics Department of the University of Western Australia with a Bachelor’s Degree in Physics. The athlete’s Olympic debut took place at the 1948 Games of the XIV Olympiad, where 23-yearold Shirley won three medals: two bronze (in the 100 metres and in the 80-metre hurdles) and one silver (in the 4x100-metre relay). At the 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad in Helsinki Shirley won the gold medal in the 80-metre hurdles (with a world record – 10.9 metres) and the bronze medal in the 100 metres. At the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad in Melbourne 31-year-old athlete won two more gold medals: in the 80-metre hurdles (with an Olympic record – 10.7 seconds) and in the 4x100-metre relay, where the team of Australia set a world record (44.5 seconds). In 1952–1956 this sprinter set nine world records and two world achievements: in the 100 yards, the 100-metres, the 80-metre hurdles, the 4x100-metre and the 4x110 yard relays. After her retirement in 1957 Shirley Strickland de la Hunty taught at the University of Western Australia. At the Opening Ceremony of the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney she was one of the Olympic flag bearers. In 2002 the IOC distinguished her with the Olympic Order. This outstanding Australian athlete died in 2004 at the age of 79. And in November 2014 Shirley Strickland de la Hunty was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

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Cornelius “Dutch” Warmerdam – an American athlete, the world’s best pole vaulter of the first half of the 20th century. He was born in 1915 in Long Beach (California, USA) to a family of Dutch immigrants. Warmerdam showed his running and jumping talents back in 1932 while studying at a high school in Hanford (Hanford High School), and later on he practiced jumping, playing for Fresno State University, where he graduated from and where (after completing his sports career) he worked until his retirement. Warmerdam won in the pole vault events seven times at the US Championships: 1937 (4 metres 46 centimetres), 1939 (4 metres 40 centimetres), 1940 (4 metres 60 centimetres), 1941 (4 metres 57 centimetres) 1942 (4 metres 63 centimetres), 1943 (4 metres 57 centimetres), 1944 (4 metres 57 centimetres). In 1940–1942 Cornelius Warmerdam set three world records and four world achievements in the pole vault: 1940 – 4 metres 57 centimetres, 4 metres 60 centimetres; 1941 – 4 metres 64 centimetres, 4 metres 68 centimetres, 4 metres 72 centimetres; 1942 – 4 metres 74 centimetres, 4 metres 77 centimetres. Warmerdam was the last pole vaulter who had set world records using g bamboo poles. Unfortunately, the height of Cornelius Warmerdam’s genius fell on the period of the “Olympic stagnation” when the Games Game of the XII and XII Olympiads (1940, 1944) were cancelled due to World Wo o War II. And therefore, his collection of sports awards had no no Olympic Olyy medals. Warmerdam died in 2001 at the age of 77. The track stadium s of Fresno University was named the Warmerdam Field after him. h And An in November 2014 Cornelius Warmerdam was inducted into An the the IAAF IA Hall of Fame.

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Iolanda Balaş – a glorious Romanian athlete, born in December 1936 in Timișoara. The first ever in the history of athletics Olympic Champion in the high jump (Rome, 1960). A champion of the Games of the XVIII Olympiad (Tokyo, 1964), a multiple world record holder. Iolanda is the only representative of Romania (among female as well as among male athletes) who mounted the Olympic podium in this track and field discipline. She set her first world record (1 metre 75 centimetres) at the age of 19 in the summer of 1956. And in total Iolanda Balaş had 14 world records – more than anyone else in the high jump – from 1 metre 75 centimetres to 1 metre 91 centimetres in the period of five years (1956–1961). Balaş was the first among female high jumpers to clear 1 metre 80 centimetres (in 1958) and 1 metre 90 centimetres (1961). Her fourteenth world record set in 1961 at the events in Sofia – 1 metre 91 centimetres – remained unsurpassed for ten years until 1971. Iolanda Balaş’ coach was Ian Söter whom she married and changed her last name to her husband’s name. In 1988–2005 Iolanda Söter (Balaş) was President of the Athletics Federation of Romania. On July 17, 2012 Iolanda Balaş was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

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Emil Zátopek (Czechoslovakia) – an outstanding athlete who sspecialized in long-distance running and the marathon, a four-time O Olympic champion. He was born in 1922 in the town of Kopřivnice to t a large Czech family. Zátopek started doing athletics at the age o of 19 (in 1941). And in 1944 he set the records of Czechoslovakia in the 2,000 metres, the 3,000 metres and the 5,000 metres. In 1946 hhe participated in the international competitions for the first time: aat the European Championships in Oslo he took the 5th place in the 5 5,000 metres. Zátopek’s Olympic debut was successful: at the 1948 Games G of the XIV Olympiad in London he won the gold medal in the 1 10,000 metres (with an Olympic record – 29 minutes 59.6 seconds) and a the silver medal in the 5,000 metres. But Emil Zátopek’s triumph was w at the 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad in Helsinki, where he won w three gold medals at once: in the 5,000 metres (14 minutes 06.6 seconds), s the 10,000 metres (29 minutes 17.0 seconds) and the m marathon (2 hours 23 minutes 03.2 seconds), thus becoming a fourtime Olympic champion. In total Emil set 18 world records at various distances from 5,000 metres to 30,000 metres. Emil Zátopek met his future wife, athlete Dana Ingrová, in 1948. They got married soon, and Dana competed as Dana Zátopková further on. She was a very successful javelin thrower: in 1952 at the XV Olympic y p Games in Helsinki she b be became the Olympic champion, aand nd in 1960 at the XVII Olympic Gam Games me in Rome she got the silver medal. d dal.

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After his retirement (in 1958) Emil Zátopek served in the Department of Physical Training of the Ministry of National Defense of Czechoslovakia, had the rank of colonel. However, when in August 1968 Soviet troops invaded Czechoslovakia and suppressed the Prague Spring (thus was the process of democratization unfolded in Czechoslovakia called), Emil Zátopek and Dana Zátopková signed a petition of Two Thousand Words – a public protest against the suppression of democracy in Czechoslovakia along with other wellknown people of his country. This resulted in persecutions from the set pro-Soviet regime in the country. Emil Zátopek was expelled from the Communist Party and the army, stripped of all the state awards, his military rank of colonel and the title of the Honourable Master of Sports. During the years of the so called “normalization” in the country Emil Zátopek turned out to be unemployed and had to work at the gas plant and the uranium mines and starting from 1976 until his retirement – at the centre of the documentation of the State Sports Archive. In 1989 the IOC decorated Emil Zátopek with the IOC award – the Olympic Order. Additionally, Zátopek was awarded with the Pierre de Coubertin prize of the International Fair Play Committee of the UNESCO (1975), the Pierre de Coubertin medal, the IAAF Golden Order of Merit. On September 30, 2000 78-yearold Zátopek was admitted to hospital with a stroke. He died on November 22 of the same year. A monument was installed to Zátopek in the park of the Olympic Museum in Lausanne (Switzerland). And on March 8, 2012 Emil Zátopek was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

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Elizabeth “Betty” Cuthbert – a noble Australian sprinte ter. She was born in April 1938 in Merrylands (New South Wales). At the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad in Melbourne W th this young athlete who was only about to turn 19 won three go gold medals (in the 100 metres, the 200 metres and in the 4x 4x100-metre relay where the team of Australia with Cuthbert in the final leg set a world record). Elizabeth’s participation in the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome (in the 100 metres) did not bring her any medals. But four years later at m th the 1964 Games in Tokyo Cuthbert excelled in the 400 metres, th thus becoming a four-time Olympic champion. In 1956–1964 this Australian athlete set ten world records: in the 60 metres, th the 100 yards, the 200 metres, the 220 yards, the 440 yards, th the 4x100-metre, 4x110-yard and the 4x220 yard relays. In th Melbourne Cuthbert was honoured with a lifetime monument. M And on March 8, 2012 among the first Elizabeth Cuthbert was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame. w

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Adhemar Ferreira da Silva – a distinguished Brazilian triple jumper. He was born in September 1927 in the city of São Paulo to a poor family. Since 1947 he had begun training under the guidance of German coach Dietrich Gerner and soon broke the national record in the triple jump. Da Silva got into the Brazilian Olympic team and participated in the 1948 Games of the XIV Olympiad in London, but there he only ranked eighth in the triple jump. In 1951 he won the Pan American Games for the first time and then two times more in 1955 and 1959. In 1952 Helsinki and in 1956 Melbourne this Brazilian athlete won the competitions in the triple jump (the first time – with a world record and the second time – with an Olympic record) twice, thus becoming a two-time Olympic champion. In 1959 Adhemar Ferreira da Silva starred in the movie Black Orpheus directed by Marcel Camus based on the play of Vinicius de Moraes, which was awarded with the Palme d’Or at the 1959 Cannes Film Festival. Adhemar Ferreira da Silva died in 2001 at the age of 74. And on March 8, 2012 Adhemar Ferreira da Silva was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

495


Vladimir Golubnichiy (USSR) – a Ukrainian athlete who distinguished himself in the 20-kilometre race walk. He was born in June 1936 in the city of Sumy (Ukrainian SSR) and began his engagement with athletics in 1953. Six years later Golubnichiy was included into the national team of the USSR and remained a member of it for 20 years (1959–1979). In 1959 he set a world achievement in the 20,000-metre race walk. In addition to this he also held two world achievements in the 20-kilometre race walk on the road (one – in 1955, the other – in 1959). Golubnichiy’s athletic assets comprise four Olympic medals of various denominations, including two gold medals (he was the champion in the 20-kilometre race walk in Rome at the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad and in Mexico City at the 1968 Games of the XIX Olympiad), one silver medal (in Munich at the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad) and one bronze medal (in Tokyo at the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad). In 1976 Golubnichiy who was about to turn 41 competed in the 20-kilometre race walk for the fifth time in his life at the Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal. There Vladimir came seventh, thus demonstrating an enviable athletic longevity at a high level. And after his retirement this outstanding athlete has lived in his native city of Sumy in Ukraine, where the annual competitions in race walking are held for the Golubnichiy Cup. In 2000 he was awarded the highest IOC award – the Olympic Order. And on July 17, 2012 Vladimir Golubnichiy was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

496


Glenn Davis – a phenomenal American hurdler. He was born in September 1930 in Follansbee (West Virginia, USA). Already in college Davis engaged in athletics with preference to the 400-metre hurdles. On 29 June, 1956 at the events in Los Angeles Glenn Davis was the first athlete in the world to run the 400-metre hurdles in less than 50 seconds – 49.5 seconds to be exact. Glenn Davis won the Olympic gold twice in the 400-metre hurdles at the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad in Melbourne and at the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome, where he was awarded another gold medal in the 4x400-metre relay (where the team of the USA set a world record), thus becoming a three-time Olympic champion. Between the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad and the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad Glenn Davis successfully performed in the track and field match between the Soviet Union and the United States in 1958 and won in the 400-metre hurdles and in the 4x400-metre tre relay. In 19561960 this American athlete set five world records:: in the 440 yards, the 200-metre hurdles and the 400 metre hurdles. s. After the 1960 Olympic Games Glenn Davis became a professional nal football player playing for the Detroit Lions. Davis died in January ry 2009 at the age of 75. And in November 2014 Glenn Davis was inducted c into the IAAF cted Hall of Fame.

497


Marjorie Jackson – an exeptional Australian sprinter. She was born in September 1931 in the town of Coffs Harbour (New South Wales, Australia). Marjorie enjoyed her first success in track and field athletics in the late 40s of 20th century. And at the 1950 British Empire Games the 19-year-old Australian won the 100 yards and the 220 yards as well as the 4x110-yard relay (within the team of Australia). Therefore, in 1952 Jackson arrived in Helsinki for the XV Olympic Games as one of the favourites in sprinting and convincingly confirmed her superiority over rivals, becoming a two-time Olympic champion. Marjorie Jackson won the 100-metre race, setting a world record in the final (11.5 seconds), and then she excelled in the 200 metres with the result of 23.7 seconds in the final and, what is more, she had set a world record (23.4 seconds) in the semi-finals. Marjorie Jackson accounted 13 world records in various sprint and relay disciplines set between 1950 and 1954. In 2000 at the opening ceremony of the Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney Marjorie Jackson was one of the eight flag-bearers to carry the Olympic flag into the stadium. In 2001 Marjorie Jackson-Nelson became Governor of the state of South Australia and remained in the office until July 31, 2007. In recognition of her great social activities from the state and the society a new hospital in Adelaide, the capital of South Australia, was to be named after Marjorie Jackson. In November 2012 Australian athlete Marjorie Jackson was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

498


William Patrick “Parry” O’Brien – a well-known American shot putter, a two-time Olympic champion. He was born in 1932 in Santa Monica (California, USA). William started doing athletics at the age of 16. It is this athlete who improved the shot put technique: he used a new starting position with his back turned in the direction of the put, his body tilted, bringing the shot out of the limits of the circle and thereby lengthening the path of the force application. At the 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad in Helsinki and at the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad in Melbourne he was twice the Olympic champion in the shot put, both times with Olympic records (17 metres 41 centimetres and 18 metres 57 centimetres respectively). O’Brien won twice at the Pan American Games (in 1955 and 1959) and twice in the matches between the USSR and the United States (in 1958 and 1959). In the period from 1953 to 1959 O’Brien set 10 world records and seven world achievements in the shot put (from 18 metres 04 centimetres to 19 metres 30 centimetres). At the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome O’Brien won the silver medal, and at the 1964 964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo he took the 4th place. After fter having retired from big sports in 1969, 38-year-old O’Brien continued ontinued his sports activities in veteran competitions, where he repeatedly atedly became the winner in different age groups. He died in 2007 at the age of 75. In November 2013 William Patrick O’Brien Brien was w inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

499


Alfred A Alfre l “Al” Oerter – an outstanding American discus thrower, a ffour-time our-tim Olympic champion. He was born in 1936 in New York. Al Oerter started practicing the athletic throwing disciplines at the age of 16. Oerter entered the history of track and field athletics as the champion of four consecutive Olympic Games (1956, 1960, 1964, 1968). At the Games of the XVI Olympiad in Melbourne his winning discus throw was 56 metres 36 centimetres (an Olympic record), at the Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome – 59 metres 18 centimetres (an Olympic record), at the Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo – 61 metres 00 centimetres (an Olympic record), at the Games of the XIX Olympiad in Mexico City – 64 metres 78 centimetres (an Olympic record). Oerter set four world records in the discus throw: twice in 1962 (61 metres 10 centimetres and 62 metres 45 centicentimetres) and once in 1964 metres), once in 1963 (62 metres 62 centim (62 metres 94 centimetres). After his fourth Olympic victory in 1968 decided to retire from the big in Mexico City 32-year-old Oerter decide sports (by that time he was an expert in ccomputer programming). age training again and approached But in 1976 at the ag ge of 38 he started traini good athletic shape in spite the 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad in go of his 43, but Oerter Oerter could not take part in those Games as the boycotted Games of 1980. The IOC United States boy ycotted the Moscow G Olympic order. After his final decorated Alfred O Oerter with the Olymp painting. Oerter died on retirement Oerter got keen on abstract p October 1, 2007 at the age of 72. And on March 8 8, 2012 Alfred Oerter was wa inducted into the IAAF Hall a o of Fame. a e.

500


Wilma Rudolph – a magnificent American sprinter, a threetime Olympic champion. She was born in 1940 in Saint Bethlehem (Tennessee, United States) to a large African American family. As a child Wilma had the poliomyelitis, and she used to have some long-standing problems even with regular walking. Having recovered from her illness, Rudolf got involved with basketball and track and field athletics. At the age of 16 she was included into the US track and field team and participated in the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad in Melbourne. There Rudolph got the bronze medal together the US team in the 4x100-metre relay. Triumphant was the performance of 20-year-old Wilma Rudolph at the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome. She was the fastest in the 100 metres – 11.0 seconds, in the 200 metres – 24.0 seconds, and got the third gold medal in the 4x100-metre relay, where the US team won in the final by repeating the then world record (44.5 seconds) and earlier had set a new world record – 44.4 seconds. Rudolph set world records in the 200 metres – 22.9 seconds (1960) and in the 100 metres – 11.2 seconds (1961). For her grace in running Wilma Rudolph was nicknamed The Black Gazelle by journalists and fans. In 1994 54-year-old Wilma Rudolphh was diagnosed with a cerebral tumour, and in November of the same ame year she died. In November 2014 Wilma Rudolph olph was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

501


Abebe Bikila – a exeptional athlete from Ethiopia, born in August 1932 in the village of Jato, which is 130 kilometres north-east of Addis Ababa. He was the sergeant, then the lieutenant of the Imperial Guard. Abebe Bikila was the first ever in the history of athletics double Olympic champion in the marathon (Rome, 1960 and Tokyo, 1964) and both times he performed with highest world achievements (2 hours 15 minutes 16.2 seconds and 2 hours 12 minutes 11.2 seconds respectively). He was the first champion in the history of the Olympic Games who represented an African country in the marathon. During the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome Bikila became widely known due to the fact that he had completed the marathon distance of 42 kilometres 195 metres barefoot although initially he had not planned it. It happened for the sheer reason that none of the proposed pairs of running shoes fit him. And at the 1964 Games of the XVIII in Tokyo the Ethiopian athlete became the champion just 40 days after he had been operated for appendicitis. And this time he ran shod. Bikila aspired to become a three-time Olympic champion in the marathon by performing at the 1968 Games of the XIX Olympiad in Mexico City, but due to his left knee injury he was forced to fall out of the distance on the 17th kilometre. In 1969 Bikila had a car accident after which he was confined to a wheelchair. However, this brave athlete did not part with sports – he went in for archery, and the same year he took part in the Stoke Mandeville Games which were the predecessors of the Paralympic Games. But the consequences of that car accident had a detrimental impact on his health and in 1973, at the age of 42, Bikila died of a cerebral haemorrhage. On March 8, 2012 Abebe Bikila was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

502


Valeriy Brumel (USSR) – a distinguished high jumper. He was born in 1942 in the village of Razvedki of the Tynda District of the Amur Region. In 1954 the Brumels moved to Voroshilovgrad (a city in the Ukrainian SSR, now – Lugansk) where Valeriy went in for high jumping. In 1958 he cleared the 2-metre line for the first time. Three times in 1961–1963 Brumel was the winner of the track and field matches between the USSR and the United States, and in 1961– 1965 – at three US Open Events. In 1961–1963 years Valeriy set six world records from 2 metres 23 centimetres to 2 metres 28 centimetres. Three times in 1961, 1962 and 1963 Brumel was voted the best athlete of the world. At the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo Brumel became the Olympic champion in the high jump, and four years earlier he was the silver medallist at the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome. On October 5, 1965 Brumel had an accident when riding a motorcycle (as a passenger). At the Sklifosovsky Institute Doctor Ivan Kucherenko put the fractured athlete’s right foot hanging on tendons only together. In 1968 Brumel underwent rehabilitation procedures in the clinic of Dr. Ilizarov and started training again. In 1969–1970 he cleared the height of 2 metres 07 centimetres several times, but again he got injured twice. He died in 2003 at the age of 61. In November 2014 Valeriy Brumel was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

503


Kipchoge Keino – a phenomenal Kenyan athlete who specialized in middle and long distance running and hurdling. He was born in January 1940 in Kipsamo, Nandi District (Kenya). Keino combined his service as a police officer with athletic activities. The Olympic debut of this athlete took place in 1964 at the Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo, where Kipchoge Keino ranked fifth in the 5,000 metres and also performed at the distance of 1,500 metres. In 1965 Kipchoge Keino set two world records in the 3,000 metres (7 minutes 39.6 seconds) and in the 5,000 metres (13 minutes 24.2 seconds). At the 1968 Games of the XIX Olympiad in Mexico City Kipchoge Keino became the Olympic champion in the 1,500 metres (with an Olympic record – 3 minutes 34.9 seconds) and he also won the silver medal in the 5,000 metres. At the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich 32-year-old Kenyan athlete excelled in the 3,000-metre steeplechase (with an Olympic record – 8 minutes 23.64 seconds), thus becoming a two-time Olympic champion and he also won another silver medal in the 1,500 metres. After his retirement Kipchoge Keino became a sports functionary: he managed the Kenyan teams at the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal and at the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles. He also managed the teams of Kenya at the Commonwealth Games in 1982 and 1994, the African Games in 1987, and the 1987 World Athletics Championships. Since 1999 Kipchoge Keino has been the President of the National Olympic Committee of Kenya. He was a member of the International Olympic Committee in 2000-2010, and since 2010 he has been appointed an honorary member of the IOC. He was distinguished by the IOC award – the Olympic Order. And on July 17, 2012 Kipchoge Keino was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

504


Jānis i Lūsis Lūsiis ((USSR) USSR) – a ttop Latvian javelin thrower, the owner US of the gold, silver and bronze medals of the Olympics Games. He was born in 1939 in Jelgava (Latvia). He started doing athletics in 1957. In 1961 Lūsis graduated from the Latvian State Institute of Physical Education in Riga. From three consecutive Olympic Games Jānis Lūsis returned with medals of different denominations: in 1964 Tokyo he won the bronze medal by throwing the javelin at 80 metres 57 centimetres; in 1968 Mexico City he won the title of the Olympic champion (with an Olympic record – 90 metres 10 centimetres) and in 1972 Munich he got the silver medal (90 metres 46 centimetres). He also took part in the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal. There 37-year-old athlete took the 8th place. Jānis set two world records in the javelin throw: in 1968 – 91 metres 98 centimetres and in 1972 – 93 metres 80 centimetres. After his retirement Lūsis was one of the coaches of the USSR national track and field team at the 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad in Moscow. And when Latvia regained its independence in the early 90s of the 20th century, Lūsis was one of the track and field coaches of the national Olympic team at the 1992 Games of the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona and at the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney. Now Jānis Lūsis lives in Latvia, continues working as a coach. His wife is Elvira Ozolina, the Olympic champion in the javelin throw of the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome. In November 2014, Jānis Lūsis was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

505


Viktor Saneyev – an outstanding athlete of the USSR who specialized in the triple jump, a triple Olympic champion. He was born in 1945 in the city of Sukhumi (Georgian SSR). Viktor engaged into track and field athletics in Gantiadi at the age of 11 (in 1956) first as a high jumper, but later on switched to the triple jump. In 1964 he was first included into the track and field team of the USSR and remained a member of it for 16 years until 1980. Saneyev’s Olympic debut took place in 1968 at the Games of the XIX Olympiad in Mexico City. There he ground out the victory in his final attempt in the triple jump and also set a world record of 17 metres 39 centimetres. His second gold Olympic medal was gained at the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich (17 metres 35 centimetres) and the o tthird one – at the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal ((17 metres 29 centimetres). To his three Olympic medals of the highest vvalue 35-year old Saneyev added the silver medal at the 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad in Moscow. Viktor Saneyev set three world reo ccords, two of them – in 1968 at the Games in Mexico City (17 metres 23 centimetres in his third attempt and 17 metres 39 centimetres in 2 hhis sixth attempt) and the third one – in 1972 (17 metres 44 centimettres). The IOC decorated Viktor Saneyev with the Olympic Order in 11983. After his retirement Saneyev worked for the Dynamo Sports Society in Tbilisi. And when the Soviet Union collapsed in the early S 90s, Saneyev immigrated to work as a coach in Australia and has 9 lived there since. In November 2013 Viktor Saneyev was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

506


Peter Snell – is a New Zealand outstanding middle-distance runner, a three-time Olympic champion. He was born in 1938 in Opunake, Taranaki (New Zealand). His athletic mentor was the legendary New Zealand coach Arthur Lydiard who had trained many high-class runners. At the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome 22-year-old Snell won his first gold Olympic medal in the 800 metres with an Olympic record (1 minute 46.3 seconds). And the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo Peter Snell was the strongest in both middle distances: he excelled in the 800 metres with an Olympic record (1 minute 45.1 seconds) and in the 1,500 metres with the result of 3 minutes 38.1 seconds. In the period of 1962–1964 Snell set five world records: in the 800 metres, the 880 yards, the 1,000 metres and the 1-mile race. He retired in 1965 at the age of 26. Since 1971 Snell has lived in the USA. There he received his PhD at the University of Washington in 1982. Since 1990 Peter Snell has been in charge of the Human Performance Laboratory at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. Snell’s research interests are metabolic adaptations to physical activities. On July 17, 2012 Peter Snell was inducted cted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

507


Irena S Szewińska iń k (née ( é Kirszenstein) Ki t i – an outstanding Polish athlete who specialized in sprinting (the 100 metres, the 200 metres, the 400 metres) and the long jump, a triple Olympic champion born in 1946 in Leningrad (USSR). She graduated from the University of Warsaw. The Olympic debut of 18-year old Irene Kirszenstein took place in 1964 at the Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo, where the athlete gained three medals – one gold (in the 4x100-metre relay) and two silver (in the 200 metres and the long jump). At the 1968 Games of the XIX Olympiad in Mexico City Irena excelled in the 200 metres (with a world record – 22.58 seconds) and won the silver medal in the 100 metres. At the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich she expanded her collection of the Olympic medals with the bronze medal in the 200 metres. And at the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal 30-yearold athlete excelled in the 400 metres and set a world record (49.29 seconds). In different years Szewińska set six world records in running at different distances: the 100 metres – 11.1 seconds (1965); the 200 metres – 22.7 seconds (1965), 22.58 seconds (1968) and 22.21 seconds (1974); the 400 metres – 49.9 seconds (1974) and 49.29 seconds (1976). For a number of years after her retirement Irena Szewińska served as the Vice-President and then the President of the NOC of Poland, the President of the Polish Athletic Association (since 1997), the President of the Polish Association of Women’s Sports (since 1994), the Vice-President of the World Olympic Association (1995-1999) and others. Since 1998 Irena Szewińska has been a member of the International Olympic Committee. She was awarded aw with the Olympic Order. On July 17, 2012 201 Irena Szewińska was inducted into the IAAF 2 Hallll of Fame. H Ha

508


Alberto Juantorena – a distinguished Cuban athlete who specialized in the 400 metres and the 800 metres, that is combining his performances in “the long sprint” and in one of the middle distances. He was born in December 1950 in the city of Santiago de Cuba. Alberto Juantorena made his Olympic debut at the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich. But there the Cuban athlete only reached the semi-finals in the 400 metres and did not get into the final. In 1974 he became the champion of the Games of Central America and the Caribbean by winning in the 400 metres. At the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal Juantorena gained two victories: in the 800 metres (a world record) and in the 400 metres, thus becoming a twotime Olympic champion. In 1977 the Cuban athlete wass twice a champion of the World Cup (in the distances of 400 metres m and 800 metres). He also owned two world records in the h 800 he metres set in 1976 and 1977 (1 minute 43.50 seconds d and ds 1 minute 43.44 seconds respectively). Huantorena was distind guished with the IOC award – the Olympic Order. He is the President of the Cuban Athletics Federation and a member mber of the IAAF Council. And on July 17, 2012 Alberto Juantorena was inducted e ed into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

509


Sebastian Coe of Great Britain – an outstanding middle distance runner. He was born in September 1956 in London. The athlete’s coach was his father Peter Coe. Sebastian Coe was a twotime Olympic champion in the 1,500 metres (at the 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow and at the 1984 Games in Los Angeles), a twotime silver medallist of the same 1980 and 1984 Games in 800 metres. In 1979–1982 he set nine world records: in 800 metres, 1,000 metres, 1,500 metres, 1 mile and in the 4x800-metre relay. Upon his retirement from sports in 1990, Coe began a political career. In 2000 he received a knighthood (Baron Coe of Ranmore) for his outstanding merits to the United Kingdom and became a member of the House of Lords of the British Parliament. And in 2005 when the IOC granted London with the right to host the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad, Lord Coe led the Organizing Committee of the Games. Lord Coe is a member of the International Olympic Committee. Since 2007 he has been the Vice President of the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF). On July 17, 2012 Sebastian Coe was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

510


Marita Koch – a prominent German sprinter of the German Democratic Republic. She was born in the town of Wismar (East Germany) in February 1957. Even as a child she showed her sporting talents. Marita graduated from the Medical Department of the University of Rostock. In 1978 Marita set her first world record in the 200 metres (22.06 seconds) at the events in Erfurt. And the same year the athlete held another world record in the 400 metres (49.19 seconds) at the events in Leipzig, and then she improved world records in the 400 metres twice (49.03 seconds and 48.94 seconds). In 1979 Marita Koch improved world records in the 200-metres (22.02 seconds and 21.71 seconds) twice, and then world records in the 400 metres (48.89 seconds and 48.60 seconds). In 1980 at the Games of the XXII Olympiad in Moscow Marita Koch became the Olympic champion in the 400 metres and won the silver medal in the 4x400-metre relay. In 1982 she set another world record in the 400 metres – 48.16 seconds – at the European Championships in Athens. And at the first World Athletics Championships of 1983 in Helsinki Marita Koch won three gold medals: in the 200 metres, the 4x100- and the 4x400-metre relays and set a phenomenal world record in the 200 metres – 47.60 seconds, which has remained unbroken for thirty years until now. In total, this outstanding German athlete held 16 world records in the 200 metres, the 400 metres, in the 4x100-metre, the 4x200-metre and the 4x400-metre relays. And on November 21, 2014 Marita Koch was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

511


Francis Morgan “Daley” Thompson – an outstanding athlete from the UK who specialized in the decathlon, a two-time Olympic champion. He was born in 1958 in London. Francis went in for track and field athletics at the age of 15, demonstrating his versatile abilities. This British athlete made his Olympic debut at the age of 18 at the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal. There Thompson took the 18th place in the decathlon events. At the 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad in Moscow 22-year-old Thompson won in the decathlon with 8495 points. In 1982 at the European Championships in Athens he excelled in the decathlon and set a world record – 8774 points. He also was the winner at the first World Athletics Championships of 1983 in Helsinki, where he showed the result of 8666 points. At the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles he was the best in the decathlon once again with a world record – 8798 points. At his fourth Olympics – the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul 30-year-old Thompson took the 4th place in the decathlon events with 8306 points (according to the new table introduced in 1985). He set four world records in the decathlon: three times – in 1982 and once – in 1984. In November 2013 Francis Morgan was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

512


Grete Waitz (née Andersen) – a great Norwegian runner in the middle and long distances, the cross country and the marathon. She was born in 1953 in Oslo (Norway). At the age of 12 Waitz took to high jumping and then to running. At the age of 17 she set a European junior record in the 1,500 metres (4 minutes 17.0 seconds). s). Grete’s performances at the Games of the XX and XXI Olympiads ds (1972, 1976) in the 1,500 metres were not successful. At the 1974 74 European Championships she won the bronze medal in the 1,500 00 metres. In 1978 at the World Cross Country Championships held in Glasgow Waitz won completing the distance of 4 kilometres 728 28 metres in 16 minutes 19 seconds. The same year at the European an Championships in Prague Grete Waitz won the bronze medal in the he 3,000-metre event. And she became the champion four more times es (1979, 1980, 1981, 1983) at the World Cross Country Championnships, and in 1982 and 1984 she finished third at the same events. s. Grete Waitz was forced to skip the 1980 Games of the XXII Olymmpiad in Moscow as Norway boycotted these Games. At the first st World Athletic Championships of 1983 in Helsinki Waitz won the he marathon (2 hours 28 minutes 09 seconds). At the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles this athlete had the silver medal. al. Grete Waitz was a nine-time winner of the New York City itty MaraMara athon (1978-1980, 1982-1986, 1988) and a two-time winner the ne er of th he London Marathon (1983, 1986). After her retirement (1990) 90 0) Wait Waitz tz got actively engaged into the promotion of running and a health healthy hy lifestyle. In her last years of life Grete was diagnosed with h cance cancer. er. She died on 19 April 2011 in Oslo at the age of 58. And in November 2013 Grete Waitz was inducted into o the IAAF Hall of Fame.

513


Lasse Virén – a famous Finnish long-distance runner, a four-time Olympic champion. He was born in 1949 in Myrskylä (Finland). Virén served as a police officer combining his work with athletics. At the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich 23-year-old Virén made a winning “double” in both long distances: in the 5,000 metres he excelled with an Olympic record of 13 mi-nutes 26.42 seconds and in the 10,000 metres he set a world record of 27 minutes 38.35 seconds. Also in 1972 Virén set two world records: in the 5,000 metres – 13 minutes 16.4 seconds and in the 2-mile race – 8 minutes 14.0 seconds. At the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal Lasse Virén won confidently again in both long distances – the 5,000 metres (13 mi-nutes 24.76 seconds) and of 10,000 metres (27 minutes 40.38 seconds), thus becoming a four-time Olympic champion. He is the only athlete who has managed to win two long distances at the Games of two consecutive Olympiads. At the same 1976 Games Virén competed in the marathon and finished fifth. He also took part in the marathon events at the 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad in in Moscow. In November 2014 20 Lasse Virén was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

514


Heike Drechsler (GDR, Germany) – an outstanding German athlete who specialized in the long jump and in sprinting. She was born in December 1964 in the town of Gera (German Democratic Republic). In 1982 the 17-year-old athlete successfully performed at major international competitions for the first time, taking the 4th place in the long jump at the European Championships in Athens. And in 1983 Heike Drechsler won the gold medal in the long jump at the first World Athletics Championships in Helsinki. In 1985–1987 she was one of the world’s best female sprinters and long jumpers. Thus, at the 1986 European Championships in Stuttgart Drechsler gained a confident victory in the long jump and in the 100 metres. And in 1987 at the World Championships in Rome she won the silver medal in the 100 metres and the bronze medal in the long jump. At the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul Heike got the silver medal in the long jump and two bronze medals in the 100 metres and the 200 metres. In 1990, having regained her athletic shape after the birth of her baby, Drechsler performed successfully at the international competitions: at the European Championships in Split she was the champion in the long jump and the silver medallist in the 200 metres. Heike Drechsler became the Olympic champion in the long jump at the 1992 Games of the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona, the 1993 world champion and the 1994 European champion in this athletic discipline. And in 2000 when it seemed that the sports career of 35-year-old Heike Drechsler was already coming to an end she won in the long jump again at the Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney, thus becoming a two-time Olympic champion. She set three world records in the long jump (1985–1986) and two world records in the 200 metres (1986). In November 2014 Heike Drechsler was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

515


Jacqueline “Jackie” Joyner-Kersee – an outstanding American athlete who specialized in the long jump and the heptathlon, a triple Olympic champion and a four-time world champion. She was born in March 1962 in East St. Louis (Illinois, United States). Already at school Jacqueline Joyner exhibited her outstanding talents in athletics. In 1980 she enrolled at the University of California, Los Angeles, combining her studies with performances for student track and field and basketball teams. The university coach of this talented athlete was Bob Kersee who suggested that Jackie focused on track and field and, namely, on the heptathlon. In 1984 the first big success attended her. In Los Angeles at the Games of the XXIII Olympiad Jackie Joyner won the silver medal in the heptathlon. In 1986 Jackie Joyner married her coach Bob Kersee and since then she has been known as Joyner-Kersee. In the late 80s-early 90s of the 20th century the athlete was practically a stranger to defeats. In particular, at the 1987 World Athletics Championships in Rome she was the champion in the heptathlon (a world record of 7128 points) and in the long jump. And at the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul Jackie Joyner-Kersee won two gold medals: in the long jump (with an Olympic record of 7 metres 40 centimetres) and the heptathlon (with a world record of 7291 points). At the 1992 Games of the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona Jackie Joyner-Kersee was the champion in the heptathlon again. Since 2001 she has been engaged with charitable activities. In her hometown of East St. Louis Jackie Joyner-Kersee founded the Charitable Foundation bearing her name to support young athletes. And on March 8, 2012 Jacqueline “Jackie” Joyner-Kersee was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

516


Edwin Moses – an exeptional American athlete who o spec specialized cialized in the 400-metre hurdles, a two-time Olympic champion, a two-time wo-tim w wo-time world champion. He was born in 1955 in Dayton (Ohio, USA). M Moses graduated from Morehouse College in Atlanta. He started running hurdles at the age of 19. At the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal Moses got his first gold Olympic medal in the 400-metre hurdles and set a world record – 47.64 seconds. In 1981 he won in the 400-metre hurdles at the World Cup, and in 1983 – at the first World Athle-tics Championships held in Helsinki. At the Opening Ceremony of the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles Edwin Moses was given the honour to swear the Athlete’s Oath on behalf of all athletes-participants of the Games. In 1984 Los Angeles Moses won confidently again in the 400-metre hurdles (47.75 seconds), thus becoming a two-time Olympic champion. He was the strongest in the same distance at the second World Athletics Championships of 1987 in Rome (47.76 seconds). Edwin Moses owned four world rld records set in 1976 (47.64 seconds), 1977 (47.45 seconds), 1980 (47.13 47.13 .13 seconds) and 1983 (47.02 seconds). At the 1988 Games of the XX XXIV XIV Olympiad in Seoul 33-year-old Moses won the bronze medal in th the he 400-metre hurdles with the result of 47.56 seconds. After these G Games ames Moses retired from sports. Now he lives in Laguna Hills, California. orrnia. On March 8, 2012 Edwin Moses was inducted into the o th he IAAF Hall of Fame.

517


Yuriy Sedykh (USSR) – a well-known Ukrainian hammer thrower, a two-time Olympic champion. He was born in 1955 in Novocherkassk (Rostov region). In 1977 he graduated from the Kiev State Institute of Physical Education. Sedykh was trained with the Kiev School of Hammer Throwers. His coach was Anatoliy Bondarchuk, the champion of the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad. At the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal 21-year-old Yuriy Sedykh won the gold medal (with an Olympic record – 77 metres 52 centimetres). In 1978 he became European champion (77 metres 28 centimetres). At the 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad in Moscow Yuriy had no equal again: he won throwing the hammer at 81 metres 80 centimetres (a world record). In 1982 he became the champion of Europe (81 metres 66 centimetres) again. And at the first World Championships of 1983 in Helsinki Sedykh won the second prize “only”. The refusal of the USSR leadership from participation of Soviet athletes in the 1984 Games did not let Yuriy join the competitions for the third title of the Olympic champion. In 1986 at the European Championships in Stuttgart the athlete won setting another world record – 86 metres 74 centimetres, which has not been exceeded for 19 years until now. In the period of 1980–1986 Yuriy improved world records six times (from 80 metres 38 centimetres to 86 metres 74 centimetres). At the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul he got the silver medal. And in 1991 in Tokyo 36-yearold Sedykh won the gold medal at the World Championships. Since the early 90s of the 20th century Yuriy Sedykh and his wife Natalya Lisovskaya (the Olympic champion of the 1988 Games in the shot put) have lived in France. Yuriy is a teacher of Physical Education in college and from time to time he performs in the competitions. In November 2013 Yuriy Sedykh was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

518


Sergey Bubka (USSR, Ukraine) – an outstanding athlete, a pole vaulter. He was born in December 1963 in Voroshilovgrad (Ukrainian SSR; now – Lugansk) to a family of a military man. Sergey studied at a school in Donetsk, and there he engaged in athletics. Bubka is the only athlete who won six World Championships (1983, 1987, 1991, 1993, 1995, 1997). He also excelled at four World Indoor Championships (1985, 1987, 1991, 1995.). Sergey Bubka was the champion of the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul. And he is the first pole vaulter who cleared the 6-metre line in 1985 in Paris. In the period of 1984–1994 Bubka set 17 world outdoor records (from 5 metres 85 centimetres to 6 metres 14 centimetres) and 18 world indoor records (from 5 metres 81 centimetres to 6 metres 15 centimetres), for which he was registered with the Guinness Book of Records for the largest number of world records in athletics (35). His world outdoor record of 6 metres 14 centimetres set in 1994 at the events in Sestriere has not been broken as of now (for more than twenty years). Three times Sergey Bubka was voted the best athlete of the world. In 1990 the athlete became the founder and the President of the Sergey Bubka Club in Donetsk, which organized the traditional international competitions Pole Vault Stars in this city. In 2002 he was awarded the title of the Hero of Ukraine. Sergey Bubka is a member of the IOC Executive Board (since 2000), the President of the National Olympic Committee of Ukraine (since 2005), the first Vice-President of the IAAF (since 2007), and the Vice-President of the IAAF (since 2011). He holds a Candidate’s (Ph.D. equivalent) degree in Pedagogics (2002) and a Doctor’s degree in Physical Education and Sport (2014). On July 17, 2012 Sergey Bubka was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

519


Stefka Kostadinova – an outstanding Bulgarian high jumper. She was born in March 1965 in Plovdiv. In the same city she started her performances in track and field competitions for the Trakia Club. In 1985 Kostadinova won the World Cup with the result of 2 metres 00 centimetres. In 1987 at the World Athletics Championships in Rome Stefka Kostadinova not only won the gold medal in the high jump, but at the same time she set a world record clearing the bar at 2 metres 09 centimetres. This achievement of Kostadinova has not been beaten up to now (for the past 28 years). At the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul this Bulgarian athlete won the silver medal (with the result of 2 metres 01 centimetre); in 1995 she won at the World Championships in Göteborg (2 metres 01 centimetre). And finally, in 1996 at the Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta Kostadinova became the Olympic champion in the high jump (with the result of 2 metres 05 centimetres – an Olympic record). She also hhad four victories at the World Indoor Championships (1985 –2m metres 05 centimetres, the world record; 1989 – 2 metres 02 ce centimetres, 1993 – 2 metres 02 centimetres, 1997 – 2 metres 02 cen centimetres). In total this Bulgarian athlete made 197 jumps above tw two om metres at different competitions. In 1998 Kostadinova retired at the age of 33 after two operations on her left leg. Since 2006 she hass b been the President of the Bulgarian Olympic Committee. O On July 17, 2012 Stefka Kostadinova was inducted into the IAAF Ha Hall all o of Fame.

520


Carlton “Carl” Lewis – a prominent American spr sprinter prrinter in and long jumper, a nine-time Olympic champion and an eight-time world champion. He was born in 1961 in Birmingham (Alabama, United States). In 1980 18-year-old Lewis joined the US national team. At the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles the athlete won four Olympic gold medals: in the 100 metres (9.99 seconds), in the 200 metres (with an Olympic record – 19.80 seconds), in the long jump (8 metres 54 centimetres) and in the 4x100-metre relay (the US team won with a world record – 37.83 seconds). At the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul Lewis won two Olympic gold medals: in the 100 metres (with a world record – 9.92 seconds) and in the long jump (8 metres 72 centimetres) and the silver medal – in the 200 metres. At the 1992 Games of the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona he got two Olympic gold medals: in the long jump (8 metres 67 centimetres) and in the 4x100-metre relay (the US team won with a world record – 37.40 seconds). At the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta Lewis gained his ninth g gold medal – in the long g jjump p (8 metres 50 centimetres). Carl Lewiss is the only athlete who became the champion in the long jump at four ur consecutive Olympic Games (1984, 1988, 1992, 1996). His list of international sporting victories was not limited to the Olympic triumphs: mphs: Lewis became the world champion eight times. He is credited with 12 world records. Carlton Lewis retired in 1997 at the age of 36. 6. In 1999 the IAAF recognized him as the World Athlete of the Century. tury. An on March 8, 2012 Carlton Lewis wis was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

521


Natalya Lisovskaya (USSR) – a famous Russian shot putter, the Olympic champion, the world champion. She was born in 1962 in the village of Alegazy in Bashkiria ASSR. Lisovskaya began practicing athletics at the age of 14 (in 1976). Having moved to the capital, she competed for Spartak (Moscow). In 1981–1991 Natalya was a member of the Soviet track and field team, and in 1992 at the Games of the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona she competed for the united team of the CIS. Lisovskaya set three world records in the shot put: in 1984 – 22 metres 53 centimetres and twice in 1987 – 22 metres 60 centimetres and 22 metres 63 centimetres. And her last world record has not been beaten by anyone until now (for 28 years). At the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul Lisovskaya won the gold medal with the result of 22 metres 24 centimetres and the title of the Olympic champion. At the 1992 Games of the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona 30-year-old athlete took the 9th place in the shot put and then retired. Natalya Lisovskaya married two-time Olympic champion in the hammer throw Yuriy Sedykh. The couple lives in Paris. Their daughter Alexia Sedykh was born in 1993. She is a French citizen, an athlete who became the champion of the 2010 Junior Olympic Games in the hammer throw. In November 2013 Natalya Lisovskaya was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

522


Michael Johnson – an outstanding American sprinter. He was born in September 1967 in Dallas (Texas, USA). In 1991 in Tokyo at the World Athletics Championships he won the competition in the 200 metres (20.01 seconds), which brought him to the 1992 Games of the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona as a leader in this distance. However, food poisoning prevented him from the contest for the Olympic medals in the 200 metres, so Johnson had to limit himself “only” to the gold Olympic medal in the 4x400-metre relay, where the US team (Michael Johnson ran in the third leg) came first with a world record (2 minutes 55.74 seconds). In 1993 Stuttgart Michael Johnson became the world champion in the 400 metres, and in 1995 Göteborg he was the world champion in two distances (the 200 metres and the 400 metres). In 1996 he set a world record in the 200 metres – 19.66 seconds. A triumph of this American sprinter was his performance at the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta: there Michael Johnson won two gold medals, becoming the Olympic champion in the 200 metres (with a world record of 19.32 seconds) and the 400 metres (with an Olympic record of 43.49 seconds). In 1997 Athens Johnson won one more gold medal in the 400-metre race at the World Championships, and in 1999 Seville he became the world champion in the 400 metres (with a world record of 43.18 seconds) again. At the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney Michael Johnson excelled in the 400 metres, thus becoming a fourtime Olympic champion. After the 2000 Games Michael Johnson retired at the age of 33. He worked as a sports commentator for the British BBC, led the sports column with The Daily Telegraph. And on July 17, 2012 American athlete Michael Johnson was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

523


Wang Junxia – a magnificent Chinese athlete who specialized in long-distance running as well in the extra-long distances, the Olympic champion and the world champion. She was born in January 1973 in Jiaohe, Jilin City (Jilin Province in northeast China). At the age of 15 (1988) she came to a sports school in Dalian (Liaoning Province). In 1991 18-year-old Wang Junxia was included into her province team in athletics. And soon she became a member of the national team of China. In 1993 at the World Athletics Championships 20-year-old Wang Junxia won the gold medal in the 10,000 metres. The same year she won the World Marathon Cup. And on September 8, 1993 at the National Championships of China this athlete set a world record in the 10-kilometre distance – 29 minutes 31.78 seconds, which has not been surpassed by anyone so far (for 22 years already). Her world record in the 3,000 metres – 8 minutes 06.11 seconds – has stood for the same period of time (since 1993). In 1996 at the Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta Wang Junxia won the gold medal in the 5,000 metres (with an Olympic record of 14 minutes 59.88 seconds) and won the silver medal in the 10,000 metres. In May 1997 Junxia retired. She studied at the Law Institute of the People’s University of China and at the Law Department of the University of Liaoning, and then at the University of Colorado in the United States. And on March 8, 2012 Wang Junxia was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

524


Robert Korzeniowski – an outstanding athlete from Poland who specialized in race walking, a four-time Olympic champion, a three-time world champion, a double European champion. He was born in July 1968 in the Polish town of Lubaczów. He was the first athlete in the history of athletics to win the gold Olympic medals in race walking at three consecutive Olympics Games: in 1996 Atlanta – at the distance of 50 kilometres, twice in 2000 Sydney – at the distances of 20 and 50 kilometres, in 2004 Athenss – at the distance tance of 50 kilo kilometres. He was the world champion ion in the 50-kilometre 50 0-kilometre race en Korzeniowski Korzeniow wski set a world walk in 1997, 2001 and 2003, when econds. record in this event – 3 hours 36 minutes 03 se seconds. In November 2014 Robert Korzeniowski zeniowski was waas inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

525


Svetlana Masterkova (USSR, Russia) – a well-known Russian middle-distance runner, a double Olympic champion, a world champion. She was born in 1968 in the town of Achinsk (the Krasnoyarsk Territory). Svetlana’s engagement with athletics began at her age of 13. In 1991 she moved to Moscow, where she won the 800-metre race at the last National Championships in Athletics of the USSR and gained the right to participate in the 1991 World Championships in Tokyo, where she took the 8th place. In 1994 Svetlana married Asiat Saitov, a famous cyclist, moved to Spain and in 1994 and 1995 devoted herself to a family life, the birth of her daughter and healing injuries. In 1996 Masterkova returned to sports. Her return was rather successful. After winning the Russian Championships in both middle distances (the 800 metres and the 1,500 metres), she gained the right to perform in Atlanta at the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad. There she won two gold medals in the 800 metres and the 1,500 metres. In the same 1996 Svetlana Masterkova set two world records: in the 1 mile (4 minutes 12.56 seconds) and in the 1,000 metres (2 minutes 28.98 seconds). No one has been able to improve these records so far. In 1999 at the World Championships in Seville Svetlana won the gold medal in the 1,500 metres and the bronze medal in the 800 metres. In 2003 she announced her retirement and started working as a sports commentator on one of the Russian TV channels. In April 2012 Masterkova defended her thesis for the Candidate’s (PhD equivalent) Degree in Historical Sciences with the Moscow State Pedagogical University. And in November 2013 Svetlana Masterkova was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

526


Noureddine Morceli – an outstanding g Alg Algerian lger ger eriian ian athl athlete thlete who specialized in the middle distances as well as in the 3,000 metres. He was born in Ténès (Algeria) in 1970. Morceli started doing athletics at the age of 15. In 1988 he finished second in the 1,500 metres at the World Junior Championships. On February 28, 1991 Morceli set a world record in the 1,500 metres indoors (3 minutes 34.16 seconds). Two weeks later in Seville he became the world indoor champion at the same distance. In the summer of the same year Noureddine Morceli won the 1,500 metres in Tokyo at the World Championships. But at the 1992 Games of the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona Morceli ranked only seventh in the final run of the 1500-metre event. However, the year of 1992 brought two world records to this Algerian athlete: at the beginning of the year in the 1,000 metres indoors (2 minutes 15.26 seconds) and in September in the 1,500 metres outdoors (3 minutes 28.86 seconds). These achievements were followed by two victories at the World Cups (1993 and 1995) in the same 1,500-metre distance. In 1991–1995 Morceli set a total of seven world records, five of them outdoors (two – in the 1,500 metres, one – the 1 mile, one – in the 2,000 metres, one – in the 3,000 metres) and two indoors (in the 1,000 metres and the 1,500 metres). At the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta Noureddine Morceli became the Olympic champion in the 1,500 metres. He retired after his poor performance at the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney. Now Morceli focuses on the development of sports in Africa. In November 2013 Noureddine Morceli was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

527


Marie-José Pérec – a distinguished French sprinter, a threetime Olympic champion, a double world champion. She was born in 1968 in Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe. At the age of 16 she moved to Paris. In 1988 Pérec was included into the national team of France. Her first great success on the international stage was the victory in the 400 metres at the 1991 World Championships in Tokyo (49.13 seconds). At the 1992 Games of the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona Pérec was regarded as the main contender for the Olympic gold in the 400-metre distance, and the French sprinter fulfilled the forecasts: she confidently won the 400 metres (48.83 seconds). Also in 1992 she was the winner of the World Cup in the 200 metres (23.07 seconds). At the 1993 World Championships in Stuttgart Pérec took the 4th place in the 200 metres, and at the 1995 World Championships in Göteborg she once again won the 400-metre distance. The peak of her athletic career fell for the Olympic year of 1996. In Atlanta at the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad Marie-José Pérec performed in two sprints of 200 metres and 400 metres and won both. In the 200-metre race she showed the result of 22.12 seconds, and in the 400 metres she excelled with an Olympic record of 43.25 seconds. Thus, Marie-José Pérec became a triple Olympic champion. In 2005 she announced her retirement. After that she worked as a coach and anchored on TV. In November 2013 Marie-José Pérec was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

528


Hicham El Guerrouj – an outstanding athlete from Morocco who specialized in middle and long distance running at 1,500 metres, 1 mile, 3,000 metres, 5,000 metres. He was born in September 1974. His first success in athletics came to this Moroccan athlete at the 1992 World Championships, where Hicham won the bronze medal in the 5,000 metres. At the 1995 World Athletics Championships held in GÜteborg El Guerrouj won the silver medal in the 1,500 metres. In the next 1996 this Moroccan arrived in Atlanta for the Games of the XXVI Olympiad as one of the favourites in the 1,500-metre distance, but he fell down after the first lap and finished only in the 12th place. In Sydney at the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad El Guerrouj was also among the favourites in the 1,500 metres as before he had been the champion at the 1997 and 1999 World Championships and in 1998 Rome he had set a world record. However, in the final of the 2000 Olympic Games the Moroccan finished second yielding to the winner (Kenyan Noah Ngeny) by 0.25 seconds. And only at the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad in Athens Hicham El Guerrouj was triumphant winning in the 1,500 metres and the 5,000 metres and becoming a two-time Olympic champion. Then he had another two victories in the 1,500 metres at the World Championships in 2001 and 2003. The world records set by El Guerrouj in the 1,500 metres (Rome, 1998), the 1-mile (Rome, 1999) and the 2,000 metres (Berlin, 1999) remain unsurpassed as of today. In 2004 upon his retirement from sports El Guerrouj became a member of the International Olympic Committee. And in November 2014 Hicham El Guerrouj was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

529


Daniel “Dan” O’Brien – a top American decathlete, the Olympic champion and a three-time world champion. He was born in 1966 in Portland (Oregon, USA). He went in for athletics at the age of (in 1981). He played for the Foot Locker AC Sports Club demonstrating his versatile talents which ensured his success in the athletics decathlon. Three times in a row at the World Athletics Championships of 1991 in Tokyo, 1993 in Stuttgart and 1995 in Göteborg Daniel O’Brien won in the decathlon events with the results of 8812, 8817, 8695 points respectively. In September 1992 at the events in France Daniel O’Brien set a world record in the decathlon – 8891 points. At the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta this American athlete became the Olympic champion with a total of 8824 points. In 1992–1998 Daniel O’Brien won 11 consecutive events in the decathlon. After his retirement he has been working as a coach at the University of Washington since 2003. And in November 2013 Daniel O’Brien was inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame.

530


“Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.� Nelson Mandela

Athletes. Bronze. Max Le Verrier. 1920s. France.

531


A uthors Sergey Bubka The IAAF Vice-President, Ukrainian Athletic Federation Council member, IOC Executive Board Member, President of the NOC of Ukraine. Graduated from the National University of Ukraine on Physical Education and Sport, Ph.D. in Pedagogy (2001) and Dr. Sc. in Olympic and Professional Sports (2014). Olympic champion in pole vaulting at the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul. Participant of four consequent Olympic Games – Seoul (1988), Barcelona (1992), Atlanta (1996), Sydney (2000). A 10 times winner of World Athletic Championships both outdoors and indoors. Set 35 world records. S. Bubka’s responsibilities in the structure of IAAF included Council Member, Senior Vice-President, Vice-President, Development Commission Deputy Chairman and then Chairman, Athletes Commission member, IAAF Competition Commission member. After his election to the IOC in 1999 Sergey Bubka performed as a member and further the Chairman for: Athletes’ Commission, Eligibility Commission, ‘IOC 2000’ Commission, 2000 Reform Follow-up Commission; Entourage Commission; Disciplinary Commissions for Athens, Torino, Beijing. Since 2009 is a Member of a Council of the Association of Summer Olympic International Federations. Sergey Bubka revealed his talents well both on the administrative and public service while filling the positions: UNESCO Ambassador and Champion for sports, Laureus Academy Founding Member, ‘Champions for Peace’ Club Member, “Sergey Bubka Sport Club” Founder, Member of UNDP – UN Development Programme, World Health Organization Ambassador in Ukraine For outstanding performance in sport was recognized as the best athlete of the XX century. Among his honors there is Laureus Lifetime Achievement Award (2008), IAAF Hall of Fame Member, the Best pole vaulter of the last half century by Track & Field News (1991), USSR Year’s Best Athlete (1984, 1985, 1986), ‘Hero of Ukraine’ (2001), Doctor Honoris Causa of a number of Universities. Marked with International Sports Event Management (ISEM) Award for “outstanding individual contribution”.


Maria Bulatova Ph.D., Dr. Sc. in Pedagogy, Professor, Merited Science and Technology Worker of Ukraine, the Laureate of the State Prize of Ukraine for Science and Technologies. Maria M. Bulatova combines successfully intensive research with administrative activities as head of the Olympic movement history department of the National University for Physical Education and Sport of Ukraine, President of the Olympic Academy of Ukraine, a member of the Executive Board of the NOC of Ukraine, member of editorial boards of many academic periodicals both in Ukraine and abroad, director of the International Olympic studies and research centre, IOC Culture and Olympic Heritage Commission member. Maria Bulativa is an author more than 350 works dedicated to the history and theory of Olympic sports and athletes’ preparation methods, including a number of books published in Ukraine, Russia, Spain, China, Brazil, Poland, Venesuela, Malta, Colombia, Mongolia, Tajikistan etc. Her main works include “Physical preparation of athletes”, “Athletes in different climate and geographycal conditions”, “Encyclopaedia of Olympic Sport” (in 5 volumes), “Olympic Sport Encyclopaedia in Questions and Answers”, “Cultural heritage of Ancient Greece and the Olympic Games”, “The Olympic constellation of Ukraine: Athletes”, “The Olympic constellation of Ukraine: Coaches”, “Kyiv 1913: The First Russian Olympiad”, “Olympic Games. 1896–2012” (in 2 volumes), “Your Olympic Guidebook” etc. Mrs. Bulatova’s contribution to the development of science, education, and Olympic sports has brought her a number of merited awards by various universities, government prizes of Ukraine and other states, as well as Pierre de Coubertin medal awarded by the International Olympic Committee (2010); Athena award of the International Olympic Academy (2012); Vikelas Plaque, 2014 of the International Society of Olympic Historians; Award of the IOC contest “Sport and Art” (2015) and the IOC President Thomas Bach Trophy (2015).


Track and Field : Encyclopaedia in Questions and Answers / S. Bubka, M. Bulatova. — Kyiv : Olimpijska literature, 2015. — 536 pgs. : illustrated. ISBN 978-966-8708-87-9

ISBN 978-966-8708-87-9

© S. Bubka, M. Bulatova, 2015

Athletics Encyclopedia (english language) part2  
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