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Foreword of the IAAF President Lamine Diack Dear reader, This foreword gives me the pleasure to introduce a book which will very soon find a place in many bookshelves, as it is an encyclopedia which showcases athletics as a basis for any physical activity, but also as the Olympic sport which contributes most to the success and magic of the Olympic Games. For hundreds of years, human beings have indulged in running jumping and throwing, either to engage in physical bouts, or simply to go about their day to day activities. All the sporting world widely draws from track and field, whether in competition or during the training process of athletes. Ever since 1912 athletics has been making huge strides under the stewardship of the IAAF, evolving from pure amateurism to high profile remunerated practice through which many athletes can earn a decent living. Those financial incentives as well as the high quality facilities that host competitions have played a key role in the exciting performances of athletes striving for excellence on every occasion and proving very often that human potential lays far beyond its apparent limits. Modern athletics is a truly amazing sport as it is both dynamic and diverse in nature. The athletics fans can in turn enjoy the world class performances of elite athletes as spectators, or take part in road running events alongside thousands of amateur participants. This book will I am sure prove to be a pleasant and informative tool written by Professor Maria Bulatova and Sergey Bubka, one of the greatest athletes in the history of our sport and my colleague on the IAAF Council. To both of them I hereby convey my warmest and most sincere congratulations, for demonstrating a sound knowledge of our beloved sport and for their willingness to share their passion and commitment to our sport with all of us. May this edition of “Track and field� inspire thousands of fans and grassroot athletes all over the world.

IAAF President

Lamine Diack


C ontents Foreword F oreword .......................................................3 . Track T rack aand nd F Field .............................................6 IInn A Ancient nccieent O Olympia ......................................36 R enaisssaanc and Modern Era .......................54 Renaissance R unning .......................................................62 ... Running S print .......................................................64 ... Sprint R elay ... .... Relay ........................................................96 H urdlees ...................................................110 . Hurdles M Middle iddle D Distances i ....................................130 L Long ong D Distances ist ......................................148 S Steeplechase teeplech .........................................168 M Marathon arathon ...............................................184 C ross C o Cross Country ........................................200 R ace W alki ............................................210 Race Walking

The Discus thrower. Bronze. Konstantinos Dimitriadis. Greece. 1924. Olympic Art Competition. Gold medal.


Jumping ....................................................232 Long Jump .............................................234 Triple Jump ............................................254 High Jump ..............................................276 Pole Vault ............................................. 298 Throwing ..................................................326 Shot Put.................................................328 Javelin Throw..........................................354 Discus Throw..........................................382 Hammer Throw .......................................406 Combined Events ......................................428 Stadiums ..................................................448 IAAF .........................................................460 IAAF Hall of Fame .....................................480


F

oreword

he modern track and field athletics is an Olympic sport comprising various disciplines: different types of running, jumping, tthrowing, hrowin n race walking, combined events and relays. one IItt iiss o ne of the most widespread and popular sports actively a ctively developing in more than 200 countries. It has very wide network of competitive events, h as a v with w ith tthe h Olympic Games and the World Championbeing the main ones. The Olympic programme sships hips b iincludes nclude 47 medal events, more than in any other ssport. port. Track T rac and field athletics is distinguished from many other sports not only by a variety of compeman ny o ttitions, itionss, their number and popularity, but also by a history, the origins of which trace back to the rrich ich h is ancient a ncient world. C Competitions om in running, jumping and throwing were parts of the Olympic Games in Anw ere iimportant m Greece and other popular Pan-Hellenic comccient ient G petitions p etition – the Delphian, Nemean, and Isthmian Games. G ames. Track and field disciplines constituted the b basis asis o of physical education systems among peoples off A Africa, America, Asia, Australia, Oceania and o fri different d ifferen parts of Europe. The T h e beginning of the modern stage of track and athletics dates back to the 16th – 17th cenffield ield a t when different European countries sparked tturies uries w in physical education and competitive tthe h e iinterest nte ssports p ortt s and made attempts to revive the Olympic G Games. am mes

T

David. Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini. 1623. Rome, the Galleria Borghese


However, its intensive development began in the 19th century when competitions in various athletic disciplines were first held in England and then in other European countries. Long-distance races, jumping, throwing of heavy objects for distance and others enjoyed a great popularity. Colleges and Universities became development centres for track and field athletics. A sharp increase in the popularity of this sport was contributed to the revival of the Olympic Games. Already at the 1896 Games of the I Olympiad in Athens track and field athletics was represented by 12 events. Further on their number was constantly increasing, just as their popularity and the acuteness of the struggle in each event. Competitions in track and field athletics, skills and achievements of outstanding athletes, beauty of their bodies and movements have been inspiring poets, philosophers, sculptors and painters for centuries. And today we admire copies of works by ancient Greek sculptors who praised athletes’ achievements, clearly showing the internal unity of art and sports, the integrity of their artistic ideals. The purpose of this book is to introduce the readers into the rich world of athletics, its impressive history and exciting modernity, to acquaint them with peculiarities of athletic disciplines and types of competitions, bright sports events, life stories and achievements of outstanding athletes, whose talents and efforts ensured the popularity of track and field athletics. The peculiarity of this book is a variety of forms in material presentation. It includes a broad and multifaceted series of illustrations, numerous facts and brief descriptions of outstanding athletes’ biographies, provides many questions, the answers to which require historical knowledge and analytical skills. The authors hope that the contents of this book will not only introduce the world of the Queen of Sports, but motivate the readers, especially the young ones, to join in.


Track and Field Sports in Ancient Egypt

unning, jumping and throwing have always been an important component in the life of ancient people. Naturally, the competitions in them gained great popularity. However, the transformation of running, jumping and throwing activities into the types of competitive events with strict rules, while also identifying and honoring the winners of the competitions were most vividly manifested in ancient Greece. Despite the fact that there was no such notion as track and field athletics, this sport lived through its heyday back in old times in Ancient Greece. There at the Olympic Games as well as at other Pan-Hellenic competitions – the Pythian (Delphi), the Nemean and the Isthmian Games – athletes competed in running, jumping and throwing. The modern track and field athletics includes running disciplines, athletic jumping and throwing events, race walking and athletic combined events. Development of track and field athletics is managed by the IAAF created in 1912 under the name of the International Amateur Athletics Federation. In 1999 it changed its name to the new one – the International Association of Athletics Federations, but the previous IAAF (International Association of Athletics Federations) acronym was preserved. Nowadays (as of the first half of 2015) the Association unites 213 national athletics federations.

R

The Discobolus. Kleomelos. Kylix. 510–500 BC. Louvre. Paris.

The Discobolus. A Roman copy of the Greek original. The 2nd century BC.

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The Leopard Tomb. Wall-painting. 470 BC. Tarquinia. Monterozzi necropolis.

And if at the Games of the I Olympiad in Athens (1896) athletes (men only) competed in 12 Olympic medal events (the 100 metres, 400 metres, 800 metres, 1500 metres, marathon, 110-metre hurdles, long jump, high jump, triple jump, pole vault, discus throw and shot put), and the Olympic athletic competitions for women (five disciplines – the 100 metres, 800 metres, 4x100-metre relays, high jump and discus throw) were held at the 1928 Games of the IX Olympiad in Amsterdam for the first time, the current programme of the Olympic track and field events is much wider. Thus, at the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad held in London the programme of the track and field competitions comprised 47 events, including 24 events for men and 23 events for women. At the 2012 Games male athletes contested for the Olympic medals in the 100 metres, 200 metres, 400 metres, 800 metres, 1,500 metres, 5,000 metres, 10,000 metres, marathon (42 kilometres 195 metres), 110-metre hurdles, 400-metre hurdles, 3,000-metre steeplechase, 4x100-metre and 4x400-metre relays, 20-kilometre and 50-kilometre race walk, long jump, high jump, pole vault, triple jump, discus throw, shot put, hammer throw, javelin throw and decathlon.

A wall painting with hunting motives in the jungle of the Nile. The tomb of Nakht.

Minoan Mi M inooan an ggold old ri ol ring ingg d depicting ep piiccti ting ng bull bu b ull l lleaping. eapi eea api piing ping ng. ng g. Un Uni U Univ University niver iver ive iv ersi sittyy ooff Oxford. Oxfo Ox ford fo d. As A Ashmolean hm hmol mol olea e n museum. ea mu m muse use seu um.

Running. A. Bystrov. R Mosaic panno. The M Sportivnaya metro Station. Sp SSt. Petersburg, Russia.

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The Javelin Throwing Sculpture. Yilin Sculpture Design Studio. Bronze. 20th cent. China.

The Discobolus. Vincent van Gogh. The 19th century. Netherlands.

And at the same 2012 Ga Games ames fe female athletes competed for the Olympic medals in the 100 metres, 200 metres, 400 metres, 800 metres, 1,500 metres, 5,000 metres, 10,000 metres, marathon (42 kilometres 195 metres), 100-metre hurdles, 400-metre hurdles, 3,000-metre steeplechase, 4x100-metre and 4x400-metre relays, 20-kilometre walk, long jump, high jump, pole vault, triple jump, discus throw, shot put, hammer throw, javelin throw and heptathlon. The World Athletics Championships (outdoors) have been held since 1983, with the first one staged in Helsinki, at first once every four years in 1983, 1987, 1991 and later on once every two years in 1993, 1995 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2013 and so on. Today the programme of the World Athletics Championships comprises the same 47 athletic events (24 – men and 23 – women) as the track and field programme of the Games of the Olympiads. On January, 18 and 19, 1985 in Paris the Palais Omnisports de Paris-Bercy hosted the athletic competitions that de facto were the first World Athletics Championships indoors and de jure they entered the history of track and field athletics as the World Indoor Games. And the

The Sprint. Elizabeth Coats. 20th cent. USA.

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The Hammer Thrower. Tomasz Rut. 20th cent. USA.


The Overlapping Javelin Throw. Roald Bradstock. 20th cent. USA.

The High Jumper. Tomasz Rut. 20th cent. USA.

first official IAAF World Indoor Championships in Athletics was staged on March 6, 1987 in Indianapolis (USA). The IAAF World Indoor Championships in Athletics are held every two years. Initially those were the odd years (1987, 1989, 1991, 1993, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003), and then the schedule was changed to the even years (2004, 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2014 and so on). Since 2006 and until now the programme of the World Indoor Championships in Athletics has included 26 events: 13 – for men (the 60 metres, 400 metres, 800 metres, 1,500 metres, 3,000 metres, 4x400-metre relays, 60-metre hurdles, long jump, high jump, triple jump, pole vault, shot put and heptathlon) and 13 – for women (the 60 metres, 400 metres, 800 metres, 1,500 metres, 3,000 metres, 4x400-metre relays, 60-metre hurdles, long jump, high jump, triple jump, pole vault, shot put and pentathlon). Every two (even) years starting from 1986 the IAAF has held the World Junior Championships. In track and field athletics juniors belong to the age category of 18– 19 years old (by the year of birth). In accordance with the IAAF classification juniors are male and female athletes not older than 20 years old as of December 31 of the com-

The Hammer Throw. Thomas Holland. 20th cent. USA.

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Ana Runner. Clifford Webb. 20th cent. Great Britain.

petitive year. The first Junior Championships were held in the summer of 1986 at the Olympic Stadium in Athens. The six-day programme of the World Junior Championships in Athletics includes 44 events (including 22 – for men and 22 – for women). Unlike the track and field event programmes of the Olympic Games, the World Athletics Championships programmes (including 47 events of which 24 are for men and 23 – for women) do not include the marathon, the 20- and 50-kilometre race walks. At their World Junior Championships junior male and female athletes compete in the 10-kilometre race walk; they use lighter equipment than adult athletes in throwing events in particular: the shot is 6 kilograms, the hammer is also 6 kilograms and the discus is 1.75 kilograms, and in hurdle running they overcome barriers of a smaller height than adult athletes – 99 centimetres. Since 1999 the IAAF has biennially conducted the World Championships in Athletics for the youngest category of athletes (under 18 years old). The first Championships of this kind took place in the Polish city of Bydgoszcz. Nowadays the World Youth Championships in Athletics last for five days, during which 40 medal events are held Running for the gold and for the honor... Charis Tsevis. 2012. Greece.

Running horned woman. Tassili n’Ajjer, Algeria. 6000–4000 B.C.

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Little Tourist. Karen Baghdasaryan. 20th cent. Armenia. Rock painting of running figures. South Africa.

(including 20 – ffor b boys and d 20 – for f girls). i l ) They involve more than 1,200 male and female athletes of 16–17 years old. In the throwing events they use lightweight equipment, in particular, the shot is 5 kilograms for boys and 3 kilograms for girls, the discus is 1.5 kilograms (young boys), the javelin is 500 grams (girls). The athletic combined events are represented by the decathlon (boys) and the heptathlon (girls); the race walking distances are 10,000 metres (boys) and 5,000 metres (girls); hurdling is staged at the distances of 110 metres and 400 metres (boys), 100 metres and 400 metres (girls). Both boys and girls also compete in the 100 metres, 200 metres, 400 metres, 800 metres, 1,500 metres, 3,000 metres, 2000-metre steeplechase, 100 + 200 + 300 + 400-metre relays, long jump, high jump, triple jump and pole vault. The processes of commercialization of the Olympic sport (elite sport) have increasingly been embracing various athletic disciplines since the 80s of the 20th century and on. Naturally, they have not left aside the most wide spread world athletic discipline – the track and field. In order to promote the popularity of track and field

A detail from a complex panel of San, or Bushmen paintings on the roof of a cave in South Africa’s Drakensberg mountains.

Four running men with gear over shoulders. Drakensberg, South Africa.

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The Discus Thrower by Photographer Mike Raabe. USA.

Thee Di Th Disc Discus scus Throw Thrower. wer Andrey A drey An ey Meschanov. Mes eschan nov 20 20th 0th cen cent. ent Russia Russia.

athletics and in response to the recommendations of the IAAF working group on amateurism and tolerance, which introduced the concept of the international competitions among the strongest athletes by personal invitations in 1983, the IAAF management has integrated such competitions into a four-year cycle, which received the name of the IAAF World Athletics Series, starting from 1985. Its first cycle included competitions of the World Marathon Cup, the World Junior Championships and the Grand Prix Final. In 1985 the first events by personal invitations of the Grand Prix Series were held. The IAAF Mobil Grand Prix ended the season culminating in finals and awarding ceremonies for athletes who had showed the best results. Further innovations took place in the 90s of the twentieth century. In particular, this decade was marked by a series of the IAAF World Cross Country Championships, which incorporated the world’s most important competitions in cross country running. And in 1992 the first IAAF World Road Relay Championships were staged. Later on they were held three more times. At the same time the men’s 15-kilometre events and the women’s 10-kilometre events were replaced by the World Half Marathon Championships

The Discus Thrower. Bronze. Ferdinand Preiss. 1930. Private collection. Germany.

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The Shot Put Left Sculpture


The Hammer Thrower by Photographer George Silk. New Zealand.

(for men and women), which have become an annual event since 1992. In 1993 four popular athletic tournaments that were a part of the IAAF Grand Prix Series – the ExxonMobil Bislett Games in Oslo, the Weltklasse in Zurich, the Ivo Van Damme Memorial in Brussels and the ISTAF in Berlin – were united into the so-called the Golden Four. And the athletes who had won in the same athletic disciplines at all four tournaments mentioned above received special prizes – the gold bullions. In March 1996 the IAAF Council took a landmark decision for the world track and field athletics: it allowed paying monetary awards to athletes who had taken the top places at the IAAF World Championships and at the IAAF World Athletics Series for adult athletes. In 1997 the official prize money at the World Athletics Championships was 60 thousand US dollars for the 1st place, 30 thousand US dollars for the 2nd place and 20 thousand US dollars for the third. Now these prizes are as follows: the 1st place – 60 thousand US dollars, the 2nd place – 30 thousand US dollars and the third – 20 thousand US dollars. In 1998 the above mentioned popular tournament of the Grand Prix Series (the Golden Four) was complemented

The Hammer Thrower.

The Shot Put. Bronze. Wigel Ellis. 20th cent. Great Britain.

Male torso. Bronze. Thanasis Apartis. 1921. Athens. Collection of the Apartis family.

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The U. S. Olympic team, Athens–2004. Hans Erni. Switzerland.

The Discus Thrower. Matvey Manizer, 1927–35. Gorky Park. Moscow. USSR.

with two more tournaments – the Golden Gala Roma in Rome and the Herculis Zepter in Monte Carlo. The new association of six tournaments received the name of the IAAF Golden League and established a special prize (the jackpot) of 1 million US dollars. It is distributed among all athletes who had won in their athletic disciplines in all six IAAF Golden League events and took part in the Grand Prix final. In 1998 the IAAF Combined Events Challenge was launched and in 2003 the IAAF Race Walking Challenge was also added. In 2003 one-day events that were parts of the Golden League, the Grand Prix and the Super Grand Prix were restructured. The Grand Prix Final was replaced by the World Athletics Final held in the end of the season and includes 35 events. Since 2004 the IAAF World Race Walking Cup held since 1961 for m men and since 1979 for women has also admitted junior parti participants. IA in In 2006, at the IAAF initiative, former competitions by p ersonal invitationss were united in the World Athletics personal

Running. Alasdair Banks. 21st cent. Great Britain.

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The Shotputter. Bronze. Josef Remenyi. 1925. Hungary.

Tour and became subdivided into two levels: the first level is the Golden League (six events) s) and the Super Grand Prix (six events) with a minimum prize money of 500,000 US dollars each, and the second d level is the Grand Prix (12 events) with a prize fund of 230,000 230 000 US dollars d ll each. h The World Athletics Tour ended in the World Athletics Final. In order to gain the right of participation in the Final, athletes have to score points in the World Athletics Series events and in the continental competitions held by invitation only. And starting from 2010 in connection with the IAAF agreed changes into the structure of one-day competitions made in 2009 the World Athletics Final has been cancelled. Established in accordance with the IAAF implemented changes the new structure consists of three levels: the Diamond League, the World Series and the continental competitions. In 2010 the Diamond League consisting of 16 events replaced the Golden League. The IAAF decision on the establishment of the Diamond League was called by the desire to make it a popular competitor to such large and internationally renowned competitions as Formula 1 in mo-

The Olympic Runner. Leroy Neiman. 20th cent. USA.

The Street Runner. Alasdair Banks. 21st cent. Great Britain.

Thee Discus Th D sc Di s us us launcher. lau unch nche nc herr.. her Bronze. B Br o ze. on ze. R. ze R R.Grossauer. Gros Gr ros ossa sa aue ueer. r. 11923. 9 Austria. A Au ussttriia a..

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The Shotputter 2. Marcel Bouraine. 20th cent. France.

The Shot put. Wilfrid Wood. XXI cent. Great Britain.

The Shot Put. Niall Magee. Sand sculpture. 2004. Great Britain.

tor racing and the Grand Slam in tennis. At the same time this IAAF decision reflected the intention of the International Association of Athletics Federations to streamline the calendar of the international commercial tournaments, their status and structure so that, on the one hand, such event calendar became more global and ensured participation of world track and field star athletes in the competitions held not only in Europe but also in America and Asia; on the other hand, so that an element of the athletic competition regularity inherent to, for example, the team sports ((various sports games) or the biathlon was introduced. Each Diamond League (the IAAF Diamond League) eevent is held within a day (One-Day Meeting Circuits). As part of these tournaments athletic events are staged in p vvarious countries of Europe, Asia (including the Middle East) and America (the United States). Thirty two athletE iic events are prize winning. Each of them is represented sseven times in one athletic season. To qualify for the main prize of the Diamond League, an athlete should take part p iin seven competitions throughout the season and to complement it with an obligatory participation in the final held p

The Shotputter. Josef Bilek. 1930. Czech Republic. The Discobolus. A. Deyneka. A sketch. 1922. USSR.

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The Discus. Wilfrid Wood. XXI cent. Great Britain.

in Zurich or in Brussels. The T winner is an athlete who o has scored the highest number ber e of points in this or that event evvent out of 32. He gets the grand rand prize of 40 thousand dolla ra dollars ars as well as a four-carat diamond iamond from the Swiss company ia ny Beyer worth about 80 thousand ousand US dollars. In 2011 the IAAF Congress ngress approved the principle of establishment of new global o obal relay race competitions included into the World Athletics hletics Series. And in 2014 in Nashl A AAF World Relay Championships sau (Bahamas) the first IAAF was held. There both malee and female athletes competed in m metre, the 4x100-metre, 4x200-metre, 4x400-metre, 4x800-metre and 4x1,500-metre relays.. The main purpose of the Championships was to attract additional ditional investments for the Queen of Sports, considering thee fact that it was relay racing that generated the greatest fan an interest. an The programme of the he 2015 DMR Relay (consists of he 600) 0 replaced the 4x1,500 metre x1,200, x400, x800 x1,600) relay if compared with thee 2014 programme. Now under the aegis of o the IAAF numerous road running events at the distances ances of 10 kilometres, 20 kiloan metres, the half marathon on and d others th ((the th so-called ll d tthe h

The Discus Thrower. Rainer Lagemann. 20th cent. Germany.

The Discus. Niall Magee. Sand sculpture. 2005. Great Britain.

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Graphic of Roches-Brunes. Hans Erni. 2005. Switzerland.

The Desert Runner. Judy Prosser. 20th cent. Australia.

IAAF Label Road Races, which are divided into the IAAF Gold Label Road Races, the IAAF Silver Label Road Races, the IAAF Bronze Label Road Races) are held. In addition, the IAAF calendar includes a series of events called the World Challenger (the IAAF World Challenge), which includes competitions in the combined events (the IAAF Combined Events Challenge), race walking (the IAAF Race Walking Challenge) and hammer throwing (the IAAF Hammer Throw Challenge), competitions in cross country running (the IAAF Cross Country Permit), indoor competitions (the IAAF Indoor Permit). Also competitions in mountain running are organized. Classic mountain running competitions are distances held at distan nc of 3 to 12 kilometres: senior men – 12 kilometres,, senior women – 8 kilometres; junior men kilometres; – 8 kilometre es junior women – 4 kilometres; boys – girls – 3 kilometres. Long-distance moun5 kilometres, g competitions with 20 to 42.195-kilometre tain running cco altitudes up to 4,000 metres are also staged. tracks at altitu u In more than a centennial history of the Olympic th h athletes Games athlet te specializing in different disciplines

The Track Runner. Modernist Bronze Sculpture. 1950-s.

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The Runners. Bob Ziering. 20th cent. USA.


demonstrated their outstanding achievements. The largest number (12) of Olympic medals was awarded to long distance runner Paavo Nurmi who participated in three Olympic Games of 1920 (4), 1924 (5) and 1928 (3). He is also the holder of the largest number of gold medals (9) gained by one athlete at the Olympics Games, including 5 medals at the single Olympic Games. The female athlete who takes the lead in the number of Olympic medals (9) is Merlene Ottey from Jamaica who got them in 1980 (1), 1984 (2), 1992 (1), 1996 (3) and 2000 (2). By the number of gold medals in the individual events at single Olympic Games it is Alvin Kraenzlein who holds a palm of victory. In 1900 Paris this athlete managed to win the 60-metre run, the 110- and 200-metre hurdles and the long jump with an approach run. The largest number of medals (5) in individual events was achieved by John Walter Tewksbury and Irving Baxter at the Games of the single Olympiad. As to female athletes, Merlene Ottey of Jamaica succeeded in getting several Olympic medals in sprint events at the Games of five Olympiads. At the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney she mounted the Olympic po-

The Male Runner. Max Le Verrier. 1920s. France.

The Runner. Claudette Webb. 20th cent. USA.

The Runner. Alex Cohen. 20th cent. USA.

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The Runners Warming-Up. Dudley Dana. 20th cent. USA.

dium twice at the age of 40, being the most considerably aged medallist among female athletes. The largest number of gold medals (4) was gained by one female athlete at the Games of one Olympiad – Francina Blankers-Koen (1948) in the 100 metres, 200 metres, 80-metre hurdles (1 and 4x100-metre relay race. an Outstanding athletes of our time: Alfred Oerter (USA) – discus throwing, Vladimir Golubnichiy (USSR) – race walking, Viktor Saneyev (USSR) – triple jump, Carlton w Lewis (USA) – sprint, Jan Železný (Czechoslovakia, Le Czech Republic) – javelin throwing were fortunate to C win Olympic medals of the highest value at the Games of w four consecutive Olympiads. Irena Szewińska (Poland) fo and Evelyn Ashford (USA) became the owners of Olyman pic gold medals at the Games of three consecutive Olympi piads. Matthew McGrath is an American hammer thrower pi who held a unique record. He succeeded in winning the w second Olympic medal after 16 years. However, the rese cord of an athletic longevity belongs to a female, not a male athlete – Merlene Ottey of Jamaica. She was gaining

Running Feet. Jessica Doyle. 21st cent. USA.

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The Greek Runner. 19th cent. Napoli.


The Marathon. Neil McBride. 20th cent. Great Britain.

Running in the Montana country side. Dudley Dana. 20th cent. USA.

Olympic medals for 20 years (1980 – 2000) and was a participant of seven Games of Olympiads. And a men’s record in the number of the Olympic Games attended by one athlete is five. The youngest Olympic track and field male champion was 17-year old Robert Mathias in the decathlon and the youngest female champion was 15-year old Barbara Pearl Jones in the 4x100-metre relay race. The most considerably aged athlete in history, an Olympic medallist, was 48-year old runner Terence Lloyd Johnson of Great Britain (1948). The unique achievement of the recent years belongs to a Jamaican athlete, Usain Bolt. At the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad he managed to set three world records in the sprint and the relay race, winning medals of the highest value. The Runner. Bronze. Run Ru nn ner er. r Br Bron onze zee. 1910. ze. 1910 19 100. Belgium. 10. Belg Be lggiiu um.

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1.

What sports is called the Queen of Sports? А. Rhythmic gymnastics. B. Football. C. Track and field athletics. D. Swimming.

2. The Marathon Runners. Boban Ilic. 20th cent. Yugoslavia.

For how many years have athletic (track and field) competitions been held? А. Not less than 2775 years. B. Not less than 2000 years.

3.

When were the first official competitions in one of the track and field disciplines with a recorded winner – the one-stadion race – held? А. 1000 BC. B. 772 BC.

4.

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.

C. Germany. D. Sweden.

When were the first running contests at the dis distance sstan of about 2 kilometres held in the Rugby College? А. 1837. B. 1847.

The Endeavour. Marble. Constantine Dimitriadis. 1910. Athens. National Gallery.

C. 768 BC. D. 776 BC.

What country is considered to be the birthplace birthplaccce of the modern track and field athletics? А. Greece. B. England.

5.

C. Not less than 1500 years. D. Not less than 1000 years.

C. 1857. D. 1867.


6.

When was the London Athletic Club, which held the first country’s championships in athletics, founded? А. 1885. B. 1895.

7.

C. 1875. D. 1865.

What institutions were the centres of the track and field athletics development in the 19th century? А. Ethnic communities. B. Universities.

C. Fire stations. D. Clubs. The Runners. Joe Vandello. 20th cent. USA.

8.

What is the name of the oldest public sports organization founded in 1880 in Oxford, which was the first one in the world to organize the country’s championships in athletics? А. The Athletic Foundation. B. The Athletic Union. C. The Amateur Athletic Club. D. The Amateur Athletic Association.

9.

When was the Amateur Athletic Association, whichh united athletes from all over the British Empire, founded in England? А. 1900. B. 1910.

Edna is Runing the London Marathon

The Sculpture of a Sitting Man. Part of the Body Talk Sculpture serie. Parastone. 20th cent. Netherlands.

C. 1880. D. 1890.

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1. Track and field athletics. 2. Not less than 2775 years. 3. 776 BC. 4. England. 5. 1837. 6. 1865. 7. Universities. 8. The Amateur Athletic Association. 9. 1880.

The start of the 100-meter heat. At the Games of the First International Olympiad, the low start was permitted to be used for the first time.

10. What international event became a powerful stimulus for the development of track and field athletics in the world? The cover page of the Programme of the International Games of the First Olympiad

А. The І International Olympic Games. B. The I Convention of the Sokol Society. C. The І Scandinavian Games. D. The І Much Wenlock Games.

11. When were the first modern Olympic competitions in track and field held? А. The 1896 Games of the I Olympiad. B. The 1908 Games of the IV Olympiad. C. The 1900 Games of the II Olympiad. D. The 1904 Games of the III Olympiad.

12. What number of Olympic medal events in track and field disciplines was held at the Games of the I Olympiad of the modernity? А. 10. B. 12.

C. 6. D. 8.

13. In what sports discipline of the Olympic programme is the largest number of medals contested? А. Swimming. B. Rowing.

C. Track and field athletics. D. Gymnastics. A prize medal of the International Games of the First Olympiad

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The Athlete. Auguste Rodin. 1901. France.


Melpomene, the muse of tragedy. Simmons Edward, 1891. Washington, Thomas Jefferson Building.

14. How many events comprise the Olympic programme of track and field athletics? А. 12 (10 men’s and 2 women’s). B. 47 (24 men’s and 23 women’s). C. 24 (12 men’s and 12 women’s). D. 100 (50 men’s and 50 women’s).

15. How many medal events are held in track and field disciplines at the World Indoor Championships? А. 28. B. 26.

C. 25. D. 27.

16. How many medal events are held in track and field disciplines at the World Junior Championships? А. 44. B. 47.

C. 26. D. 38.

17. How many medal events are held in track and field disciplines at the World Youth Championships? А. 44. B. 47.

C. 38. D. 28.

18. When did women join the competitions for the Olympic championship in track and field athletics? А. 1928, Amsterdam. B. 1908, London.

C. 1904, St. Louis. D. 1912, Stockholm.

A special attraction for the participants of the Olympic Games was the marathon race, not least because of the great number of prizes and gifts to be awarded to the champion in this competition. Despite the fact that only male athletes were eligible to participate in the marathon, as prescribed by the Olympic Games programme, 30-year-old Stamata Revithi, a resident of Piraeus, the suburb of Athens, born into a poor family, was eager to enter the competition in the hope of gaining a victory over men. Her plans drew the keen attention of journalists who could not wait to see what would come out of this unusual development. However, members of the Organizing Committee were adamant and refused to change the rules and grant permission for her to run. Neither did the priest of Marathon agree to give her blessings for the run since Stamata was not an officially accredited participant of the Olympic Games. In protest, Stamata Reviti ran the marathon distance in 5 1/2 hours on the next day after the official competition. At the end of the distance she ran around the Marble Stadium since she was not allowed to enter its territory, whereas men runners finished the Olympic marathon race in that stadium. By the way, this was not a single incident of that sort. In fact, several days before the unveiling of the Olympic Games, another woman ran the regulation distance of the marathon in 4 1/2 hours. These events were ignored by the Olympic Games organizers. However, the actions of these women got the sympathy of different strata of the Greek society, and they went into the Olympic history under the allegoric name of Melpomene, the muse of tragedy in the Greek mythology.

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10. The І International Olympic Games. 11. The 1896 Games of the I Olympiad. 12. 12. 13. Track and field athletics. 14. 47 (24 men’s and 23 women’s). 15. 26. 16. 44. 17. 38. 18. 1928, Amsterdam.

19. Track and field athletics is a conservative sport. For more than 50 years male athletes had contested 24 Olympic medal events. Since when has the Olympic track and field programme remained unchanged? А. 1956. B. 1960.

C. 1964. D. 1952.

20. What women’s athletic discipline is not included into the Olympic competitive programme? А. The marathon (42 km 195 m). B. The 10,000-metre race. C. The 20-kilometre race walk. D. The 50-kilometre race walk.

21. When was the first World Athletics Championships held? А. 1983. B. 1993.

C. 1973. D. 1963.

22. What is the ratio of the men’s and women’s events in the programme of the World Athletics Championships? А. 24 men’s and 24 women’s. B. 24 men’s and 23 women’s.

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German runners. Standing in the centre is Karolina (Lina) Radke of Germany, the winner of the gold medal in the 800 m (2 min 16.8 sec). The 1928 Games of IX Olympiad. Amsterdam.

C. 23 men’s and 20 women’s. D. 20 men’s and 20 women’s.


Elizabeth (Betty) Robinson of the USA was the first Olympic champion in the 100 m dash (12.2 sec).

23. When was the first World Indoor Championships in Athletics held? А. 1985. B. 1990.

C. 1983. D. 1987.

24. What is the ratio of the men’s and women’s events in the programme of the World Indoor Championships in Athletics? А. 10 men’s and 15 women’s. B. 15 men’s and 10 women’s.

C. 14 men’s and 13 women’s. D. 13 men’s and 13 women’s.

25. Once every two years the IAAF holds the World Junior Championships for athletes of 18-19 years old. When was the first World Junior Championships organized? А. 1986. B. 1995.

C. 1989. D. 1987.

26. What is the ratio of the men’s and women’s events in the programme of the World Junior Championships? А. 24 men’s and 20 women’s. B. 22 men’s and 22 women’s.

C. 22 men’s and 20 women’s. s. D. 20 men’s and 18 women’s.

27. The first World Youth Championships for boys and girls ununc z. der the age of 18 was held in the Polish city of Bydgoszcz. When was it? А. 1999. B. 1990.

C. 1989. D. 1987.

woood of Ethel Catherwood nner of Canada, the win winner piic gold the first Olympic iggh jump medal in the high (1 m 59.6 cm).

The Athlete. Auguste Rodin. 1904. France.

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19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.

1956. The 50-kilometre race walk. 1983. 24 men’s and 23 women’s. 1985. 13 men’s and 13 women’s. 1986. 22 men’s and 22 women’s. 1999.

An antique illustration of Peewit’s eggs harvesting

28. In 1998–2009 the IAAF held an annual series of competitions for top athletes of the world, which consisted of 6–7 stages. What was the name of this series? А. The IAAF Silver League. B. The IAAF Ruby League.

C. The IAAF Golden League. D. The IAAF Diamond League.

29. The IAAF Golden League was replaced by the IAAF Diamond League upon the decision by the IAAF. When did it happen? А. 2010. B. 2011.

C. 2013. D. 2008.

30. In order to become a contender for the championship in the Diamond League an athlete should participate in a certain number of events within a competitive season and definitely in the final. Name the number of the obligatory events. А. 8. B. 7.

C. 5. D. 6.

31. What male athlete gained the largest number of the Olympic medals? And what was this number? А. Paavo Nurmi, 12. B. Carlton Lewis, 10.

C. Martin Sheridan, 9. D. Raymond Ewry, 8.

32. What is the largest number of the Olympic medals gained by one female athlete in track and field disciplines? А. 7. B. 9.

C. 8. D. 11.

Carl Lewis’ Long Jump. Steve Kuzma. USA.

Lampis of Sparta. Craig Cunningham. 21st cent. USA. The High Jump. Vladimir Ljubarov. Russia.

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Bruce Jenner’s High Jump.William Nelson. 20th cent. USA.

The Triple Jump. Wilfrid Wood. 2012. Great Britain.

33. What female athlete gained the largest number of the Olympic medals? А. Renate Stecher-Meissner (GDR). B. Irena Szewińska (Poland). C. Merlene Ottey (Jamaica). D. Shirley Strickland de la Hunty (Australia).

Olympic Pole Vaulting. Leroy Neiman. 1980. USA.

34. What maximum number of the gold Olympic medals was gained by one athlete throughout the Olympic history? А. 7. B. 9.

C. 8. D. 10.

35. What athletes gained the largest number of the gold Olympic medals? А. Paavo Nurmi (Finland), Carlton Lewis (USA). B. Paavo Nurmi (Finland), Raymond Ewry (USA). C. Carlton Lewis (USA), Raymond Ewry (USA). D. Raymond Ewry (USA), Martin Sheridan (USA).

36. What maximum number of the gold Olympic medals was gained at the Games of one Olympiad? And who was their owner?

The Pole Vault. Gavin Mayhew. 21st cent. Great Britain.

А. Paavo Nurmi (5 medals, 1924). B. Carlton Lewis (4 medals, 1984). 4). C. Raymond Ewry (3 medals, 1900, 1904). D. Usain Bolt (3 medals, 2008, 2012). The long Jump. Roger James. USA.

Pole Vaulting of Joe Dial. Phillip Carrero. 20th cent. Argentina.

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28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35.

The IAAF Golden League. 2010. 7. Paavo Nurmi, 12. 9. Merlene Ottey (Jamaica). 9. Paavo Nurmi (Finland), Carlton Lewis (USA). 36. Paavo Nurmi (5 medals, 1924). The Sprinter. Joe Vandello. USA.

37. Who got the largest number of medals in the total individual count at the Games of one Olympiad? А. Paavo Nurmi. B. Vilho Eino Ritola. C. John Walter Tewksbury and Irving Baxter. D. Alvin Kraenzlein.

38. Who got the largest number of medals in the individual disciplines at the Games of one Olympiad? А. Paavo Nurmi. B. Usain Bolt.

C. Raymond Ewry. D. Alvin Kraenzlein.

39. What female athlete succeeded in gaining the Olympic medals at the Games of five Olympiads? А. Jackie Joyner-Kersee (USA). B. Irena Szewińska (Poland). C. Merlene Ottey (Jamaica). D. Heike Drechsler (Germany).

40. What female athlete got the largest number of the gold Olympic medals at the Games of one Olympiad? А. Elizabeth Cuthbert (A (Australia). B. Bärbel Wöckel-Ecker ckel-Eckertt (G (GDR). C. Francina Blankers-Ko oen (Netherlands). Blankers-Koen D. Evelyn Ashford (USA). (USA A).

The Sprinter. Bronze. Marilyn Ines Rodriguez. 21st cent. USA.

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The Hurdles. William Greengrass. 1932. Great Britain.


“You will have nothing in your life if you do not work hard to achieve something, so I think that running is a mental thing in the first place.” Kipchoge “Kip” Keino, the Olympic champion

41. What maximum number of the gold Olympic medals was gained by a female athlete at the Games of one Olympiad? А. 5. B. 6.

C. 4. D. 3.

42. Outstanding athletes of the modernity Alfred Oerter ter (USA) – the discus throw, Vladimir Golubnichiy (USSR) – the race ton Lewis walk, Viktor Saneyev (USSR) – the triple jump, Carlton (USA) – the sprint and the long jump, Jan Železný (Czechoslovakia, Czech Republic) – the javelin throw are the “longlivers” at the Olympic arena. Name the number of thee Olympic Games at which they managed to gain the Olympic medals. А. 4. B. 5.

C. 3. D. 6.

43. Which of the mentioned athletes was/were lucky to get the es of four Olympic medals of the highest value at the Games subsequent Olympiads? А. Raymond Ewry (USA), John Flanagan (USA). B. Alfred Oerter (USA), Carlton Lewis (USA). C. Alfred Oerter (USA), Raymond Ewry (USA). D. Paavo Nurmi (Finland), Jan Železný (Czechoslovakia, Czech Republic).

The Long Jump. Sheilla Gill. 21st cent. Great Britain.

The Orienteer of Pound Ridge. Bronze. Sterett Gittings Kelsey. USA.

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37. John Walter Tewksbury and Irving Baxter. 38. Alvin Kraenzlein. 39. Merlene Ottey (Jamaica). 40. Francina Blankers-Koen (Netherlands). 41. 4. 42. 4. 43. Alfred Oerter (USA), Carlton Lewis (USA).

44. What female athletes succeeded in gaining the gold Olympic medals at the Games of three subsequent Olympiads? А. Irena Szewińska (Poland), Evelyn Ashford (USA). B. Jackie Joyner-Kersee (USA), Merlene Ottey (Jamaica). C. Jackie Joyner-Kersee (USA), Irena Szewińska (Poland). D. Jackie Joyner-Kersee (USA), Evelyn Ashford (USA).

45. An American hammer thrower is a holder of a unique record: he is the only athlete in the Olympic history to have gained his first Olympic (silver) medal at the 1908 Games of the IV Olympiad in London and his second silver medal 16 years later at the 1924 Games of the VIII Olympiad in Paris. Name this record holder. А. Matthew John McGrath. B. Alfred Oerter.

C. Carlton Lewis. D. Raymond Ewry.

46. A unique female athlete surpassed the men’s record of the Olympic “longevity”. She was lucky to have been winning her Olympic medals within 20 years. Her first medal was gained at the 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad in Moscow and her last medal was at the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney. Name this athlete. А. Merlene Ottey (Jamaica). B. Ulrike Meyfarth (Germany). C. Marlies Göhr (Germany). D. Heike Drechsler-Daute (Germany).

Ethiopian runners achieved a world-wide success in the middle and long distances. Among them are: the legendary Abebe Bikila – the only person in history who ran the marathon barefoot and became the champion at the Olympic Games, while setting both world and Olympic records; Belayneh Dinsamo – a former world record holder; Haile Gebrselassie – a two-time Olympic champion and a former world record holder in the marathon; Kenenisa Bekele – a current double world record holder; Miruts Yifter – the winner in the 5,000 metres and the 10,000 metres at the XXII Olympic Games in Moscow; Derartu Tulu – a two-time Olympic Champion in the women’s 10,000 metres (1992 and 2000); the Dibaba sisters: Tirunesh – a triple Olympic champion and a five-time world champion in the 5,000 metres and the 10,000 metres, the 2012 world champion in the 1,500 metres, and Genzebe – A two-time world indoor champion in the 1,500 and the 3,000 metres (2012, 2014), a multiple world record holder in the 1,500, the 3,000 and the 5,000 metres, the silver medallist of the World Cross Country Championships (2011).

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Bekoji in Ethiopia is the town of runners. It is located at an altitude of 2,810 metres above the sea level, with the population of 17 thousand inhabitants. Bekoji is the hometown of triple Olympic champion Kenenisa Bekele, triple Olympic champion Tirunesh Dibaba, double Olympic champion Derartu Tulu and many other famous long-distance runners. Over the last three decades Kenyan long distance runners, among which the representatives of the Kalenjin nationality stand out most, have dominated at the world stage. The Kalenjin people live on high plateaus of the Rift Valley Province in Kenya. Men graze cattle and children help them, running long distances every day. As the result they are perfectly developed from their childhood. However, it is an absolute myth that the children of this nation, who became the Olympic champions, had had to run to school and back for tens of kilometres a day.

47. Name the record number of the Olympic Games, in which male athletes participated. А. 4. B. 6.

C. 5. D. 3.

48. Throughout the whole history of the modern Olympic Games only two female athletes were able to participate in the Games of seven Olympiads. Name them. А. Merlene Ottey (Jamaica), Lia Manoliu (Romania). B. Merlene Ottey (USA), Olga Fikotova (Czech Republic). C. Willy Wait (USA), Irena Szewińska (Poland). D. Merlene Ottey (USA), Irena Szewińska (Poland).

49. The record holder by the number of years between the first and the last participation of an athlete in the Olympic Games is František Janda Suk. This Czech (Bohemian) discus thrower performed a throw at 35.14 metres at the 1900 Games, which gave him the silver Olympic medal. When did this athlete take part in the Olympic Games for the last time? А. 1912. B. 1920.

C. 1924. D. 1928.

The Kenyans appeared on the Olympic arena suddenly and immediately in large numbers. Already at the 1988 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Seoul the runners of this country won all but one gold medals in the middle and long distances. The Kenyans are the greatest runners in the world.

The Kenyan success formula has a large number of components: “...an active difficult childhood, running barefoot, nutrition, a presence of role models, running at high altitudes, a simple approach to training, running camps, a necessity to get to school on foot, an ability to focus on work and doing it with a great dedication, a burning desire to succeed and to change their lives, an anticipation of victory, a strength of mind, a lack of alternatives, an excess of running trails, an ability to recover, an omnipresent culture of running and respect for this activity.” Adharanand Finn. A journalist.

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44. Irena Szewińska (Poland), Evelyn Ashford (USA). 45. Matthew John McGrath. 46. Merlene Ottey (Jamaica). 47. 5. 48. Merlene Ottey (Jamaica), Lia Manoliu (Romania). 49. 1924. 50. Dorothy Tyler-Odam. 51. Raymond Ewry. 52. 6 – Vilho Eino Ritola, Usain Bolt. 53. Robert Mathias (17), the decathlon. 54. Barbara Pearl Jones (15), 4 х 100-metre relay. 55. 48. 56. Merlene Ottey.

50. A 16-year old British 50 Br Britis female athlete performed a high jump ra of 1.60 metres, ranked second and received the silver medal at the 1936 Games of the VIII Olympiad in. Twenl i 1956 19 she took part in the Games of her ty years later in last Olympiad. Also the Olympic history holds the names of four more female athletes who were able to compete at the highest Olympic level for 20 years; those were Touko Yoshima Nakamura (Japan), Lia Manoliu (Romania), Francie Larrieu Smith (USA) и Merlene Ottey (Jamaica). Name the British female jumper who was the fifth female athlete whose Olympic career had lasted for 20 years. А. Dorothy Tyler-Odam. B. Berta Krauter

C. Telma Hopkins. D. Dorothy Shirley

51. Name the athlete who succeeded in winning the largest number (9) of the gold medals in the individual athletic disciplines at the Games of the Olympiads. А. Raymond Ewry. B. Carlton Lewis.

C. Paavo Nurmi D. Vilho Eino Ritola.

52. What was the largest number of medals and who gained 5 them in the track and field events at the Games of the Olympiads? А. 6 – Vilho Eino Ritola, Usain Bolt. B. 6 – Irving Baxter, John Walter Tewksbury. C. 6 – Paavo Nurmi, Vilho Eino Ritola. D. 5 – Vilho Eino Ritola, Usain Bolt.

American athlete Raymond Ewry entered the history of the modern Olympic Games as an owner of eight gold medals gained at three Olympic Games (and all of the eight awards were of the highest value in a variety of standing jumps). He was the first one in standing high jump (1 metre 65.5 centimetres – a world record), in standing long jumping (3 metres 21 centimetres) and in standing triple jump (10 metres 58 centimetres) in 1900 Paris. In St. Louis at the 1904 Games he was the champion in the standing long jump (3 metres 48 centimetres – a world record), in the standing triple jump (10 metres 54 centimetres) and in the standing high jump (1 metre 50 centimetres). And in 1908 London he championed in standing long jumping (3 metres 33.5 centimetres) and in the standing high jump (1 metre 57.5 centimetres).

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53. Name the youngest Olympic male champion in track and field. А. Robert Mathias (17), the decathlon. B. Edward Cook (18), the pole vault. C. Lee Barnes (18), the pole vault. D. John Jones (17), the 4 х 100-metre relay.

54. Name the youngest Olympic female champion in track and field. А. Barbara Pearl Jones (15), the 4 х 100-metre relay. B. Elisabeth Robinson (16), the 100-metre race. C. Ulrike Meyfarth (16), the high jump. D. Mihaela Peneş (16), the javelin throw.

Over the years of performances at the Olympic Games Merlene Ottey of Jamaica brought together a collection of eight awards – more than any other athlete. But among these Olympic awards there was no gold medal – three silver and five bronze ones.

55. The most considerably aged athlete – an Olympic medallist was British race walker Terence Lloyd Johnson (1948) over the whole Olympic history. At what age did he succeed in winning the bronze Olympic medal? А. 48. B. 46.

C. 47. D. 50.

56. Being the most considerably aged female medallist of the Olympic Games, a female athlete of Jamaica mounted the Olympic podium at the age of 40 twice at the 2000 Olympic Games in Sydney. Name her. А. Merlene Ottey. B. Tayna Lawrence.

C. Beverly McDonald. D. Lorraine Graham.

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I n Ancient Olympia he Olympic Games are believed to have started in Ancient Greece in 776 BC, when the name of the first Olympic winner was officially recorded. They had no fixed calendar dates. The Ancient Greek Games were held once every four years in honour of Zeus, the Master of Olympus and the Lord of deities and humans in the settlement of Olympia, located in the north-western part of the Peloponnesus peninsula. Only men, worthy citizens of their city-states, were admitted to Olympic competitions. The programme of the first Olympic Games consisted of a stadion (192.27 metres) race. This distance was measured by Heracles himself, it was equal to 600 of his feet. It was this distance he could run in a single breath. The first Olympic champion was a baker of Elis – Koroibos. Winners of Olympic competitions were awarded a wreath of sacred olive branches. For more than 50 years the stadion had been the only competition in Olympia. It gained such a tremendous popularity that for four years following the Games the Olympiad had the name of the winner in the stadion. In 724 BC the programme of the Games was expanded through the inclusion of a double-stadion race – the diaulos. In 720 BC long-distance running, first for 8 and ( then for 24 stadia (about 4.6 kilometres), was added. In 632 BC boys’ competitions (starting from 12 years old) were introduced into the Olympic programme. prog In 520 BC the Olym-

T

Olympian Zeus. A Roman copy of the Greek original. The 5th centuryy BC. St. Petersburg, the State Hermitage.

The history shows that festivities in Olympia accompanied by athletic competitions had been held since the 10th century BC. In their very beginning those festivities were local. And the first Pan-Hellenic (All-Greek) Games took place in 776 BC.

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The Hellanodikai were the judges of Olympic competitions. They were responsible for the organization and carrying out of the Games. The judges were extremely competent and possessed unlimited rights. They could expel anyone who did not comply with the rules from the Games, impose fines on violators in competitions, chasten for bribing an opponent. The Hellanodikai’s task was making the decisions, which would ensure the high prestige of the Games. The duties of the judges included declaring and awarding winners as well as keeping records of Olympic champions – the Olympionics.


In the time of Antiquity, the Olympic Games had been taken as the national holiday and announced as the days of the general truce.

pic programme was enriched with the two- and four-stadion races in full armour – hoplitodromos. In 708 BC the pentathlon was instituted into the Olympic programme. Athletes competed in the discus throw, the javelin throw, the stadion, the long jump and wrestling in order to decide on the most versatile athlete – the best of the best. Athletes in Olympia competed nude after one of the athletes had lost his loincloth while running, which had given him an absolute advantage over the others, at the Games of the 15th Olympiad in 720 BC. During the Olympic Games in Olympia, sculptors, poets, philosophers and other artists were creating their works. Bodies and achievements of Olympians were the source of their inspiration. In their heyday the Olympic Games lasted for 5 days. The last one – the fifth day – was devoted to awarding winners and the overall celebration. The Games in Olympia had been held regularly for over 1000 years and were banned by the Byzantine, Christian emperor Theodosius I in AD 393. All the buildings in Olympia were razed to the ground by the order of Theodosius II in 426 AD. Earthquakes and floods completed the destruction, and, little by little, the site disappeared underground and vanished from memory.

The Olympic Games of Ancient Greece were held in the sanctuary of Olympia – the place sacred for all Greeks, in the state of Elis located in the Peloponnese. The sanctuary of Olympia was situated on the right bank of the River Alpheus at the foot of Mount Cronus. The Olympic Games had no exact staging date. They were held every 4 years during the full moon of the summer solstice.

The Krypte. The present appearance of the entrance to the stadium in Olympia. In ancient times only participants of the Games, priests and judges could enter the stadium through the Krypte. Spectators were located on the slopes around the stadium.

The winged goddess of retribution Nemesis punished for the violation of civil and moral standards, as well as distributed happiness or unhappiness to people according to their deeds. The Goddess was depicted with the attributes of control (scales, a bridle), punishment (a whip) and speed (a winged chariot drawn by griffins). Her name is synonymous with an inevitable punishment.

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1.

Where and when did the Olympic Games originate? А. Ancient Rome, 798 BC . B. Ancient Greece, 776 BC. C. Ancient Egypt, 1206 BC. D. Ancient China, 998 BC.

2.

In whose honour were the Olympic Games held? А. Apollo – the god of light, music and poetry. B. Poseidon – the god of seas. C. Zeus – the lord of gods and people. D. Dionysus – the god of wine and wine-making.

3. Baby Heracles Strangling the Serpents. A Fountain Statue from Ancient Rome, the 1st century AD. Saint-Petersburg, the State Hermitage.

Where were the first Olympic Games held? А. In Athens. B. In Sparta.

4.

Name the first Olympic competition event of antiquity. А. Swimming. B. Wrestling.

5.

C. In the sanctuary of Olympia. D. On Mount Olympus.

C. Jumping. D. Running.

How many spectators could oversee the Olympic competitions of antiquity? А. 3–5 thousand. B. 10–5 thousand.

C. 45–50 thousand. D. 15–20 thousand.

Farnese Heracles. An Imperial Roman copy by Glicones of the Greek original by Lysippos. Approx. 320. BC. From the Caracalla Thermae. Naples, the National Museum. The Birth of Heracles

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Heracles in the Helmet of the Lion Skin. The reverse side pictures the sculpture of Zeus by Phidias. Antique coins. A silver tetradrachm of the period of Alexander the Great. 336–323 BC. London, the British Museum.

6.

Ancient Greeks did not construct bleachers for spectators, preserving an ancient democratic tradition of sitting on grass. But the centre of the stadium had 12 stone thrones. Whom were they intended for? А. For priests. B. For Greek rulers. C. For representatives of city-states, where the Games’ participants came from. D. For judges.

7.

The only married woman – the priestess of the Goddess Demeter – was allowed to the Olympic stadium. Why? А. Demeter was considered to be the guardian of life. B. Demeter had been worshiped in Olympia before Zeus. C. Demeter was the second daughter of Cronus and Rhea. D. Demeter was a sister and a love mate of Zeus.

8.

When was the first stadium built in Olympia? А. The 5th century BC. B. The 6th century BC.

A metope of the Temple of Olympian Zeus depicting one of the twelve Heracle’s Labours – the Apples of the Hesperides. Heracles is holding the celestial dome, while Atlas brings him the golden apples of Hesperides. The Goddess Athena helps Heracles to hold the celestial dome. The antique sculpture. Metope №9 of the Temple of Olympian Zeus. Approx. 480 BC. Olympia, the Archaeological Museum

C. The 7th century BC. D. The 3rd century BC.

Boy Heracles. The 2nd century BC. Roman copy of the Greek original of tne 4th century BC. SaintPetersburg, the State Hermitage.

Heracles at the Crossroads. Benvenuto di Girolamo. End of the 15th century. Venice, the Francetti Gallery.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Ancient Greece, 776 BC. Zeus – the lord of gods and people. In the sanctuary of Olympia. Running. 45–50 thousand. For judges. Demeter had been worshiped inn Olympia before Zeus. The 6th century BC.

Those wishing to compete in Olympia were required to arrive at Elis one month before the Games. The right to participate was granted only to free Hellenes. Barbarians (foreigners), slaves and women were not admitted to the Games. Within the first month in Elis the procedure of checking the origin and the age of the participants as well as the level of athletic preparation was carried out. Thus the organizers (the Hellanodikai) ensured interesting and exciting competitions.

9.

What architect designed the stadium in Olympia? А. Leonidas. B. Skopas.

C. Philippos. D. Callicrates.

10. What was the shape of an ancient Greek stadium? А. Rectangular. B. Square.

C. Round. D. Oval.

11. What was the length of a running track at the stadium in Olympia? А. 192.27 m. B. 225.28 m.

C. 200 m. D. 400.28 m.

12. The length of the Olympic distance in Ancient Olympia was equal to 600 Heracles’ feet. Why was this very distance chosen for competitions according to the legend? А. Heracles could run this distance in one breath. B. For convenience in counting. C. The length of the Olympic valley corresponded to 600 Heracles’ feet. D. Heracles could run this distance in three breaths.

Each athlete swore that he had not disgraced himself with an unworthy act and had conscientiously trained for the competition and would not use illegal manoeuvres. Before the start of the Olympic competition a herald asked the audience if they knew anything that could disrepute an athlete. A member of Ancient Greek Olympic Games was supposed to be a good citizen first and only then an athlete. The outcries: “Axios! Axios! Axios!” meant that the athlete was worthwhile.

Reconstruction of the sculpture of the goddess Nike of Paeoniy. 420 BC. The Olympia Archaeological Museum.

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The competitions of the Hoplites (race in full armour) were an effective means of training for military actions. Red-figure ceramics, 510–500 BC. London, the British Museum.

13. The Olympic stadium had no marking for running lanes. However, according to historians, the distance between athletes at their start was equal to four Olympic feet. How long was this distance in metres? А. 1.25 m. B. 1 m.

C. 1.5 m. D. 2 m.

14. What was the name of the start line in the Olympic stadium? А. The Balbidis. B. The Linea.

C. The Startis. D. The Startus.

15. What was the method of starting positions distribution in running in Ancient Greece? А. By order of applications from city-states. B. In the alphabetical order. C. By drawing lots. D. By the judges’ choice based on preliminary try-outs.

16. False starts were forbidden in ancient times. What punishment awaited those who took off running before others? А. Exclusion from competitions. B. Disciplining with rods. C. A monetary fine. D. Verbal warning.

The stadion. Black-figure ceramics (a fragment). End of the 6th century BC. New York, the Metropolitan Museum.

An image of an athlete. (A fragment of an antique vase). Competitions in the foot race were an integral part of all Olympic Games in Ancient Greece.

The Balbidis – the start line on the stadium in Olympia

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9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Leonidas. Rectangular. 192.27 m. Heracles could run this distance in one breath. 1.25 m. Balbidis. By drawing lots. Disciplining with rods.

The Hippios – a middle distance race. Blackfigure ceramics (a fragment). 480–470 BC. New Hampshire, the Ashby Castle.

17. In the 4th century BC the Greeks invented a starting mechanism – a starting gate made of wood, which guaranteed an honest competition. What was its name? А. The Startis. B. The Archis.

C. The Hysplex. D. The Kartheres.

18. How many athletes participated in one race at the Olympic stadium? А. 7. B. 20.

C. 6. D. 16.

19. The entrance to the stadium was decorated by a special marble arch – the Krypte. What was the length of this Krypte? А. 20 m. B. 1m.

Long distance (dolichos) runners. Attic, black-figure ceramics. 333 BC. London, the British museum.

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C. 32 m. D. 0.5 m.

20. Who had the right to enter the Olympic stadium through the Krypte? А. Anyone wishing to do so. B. Athletes and their trainers.

C. Spectators. D. Athletes, judges, priests.

Spectators of the Olympic competitions were located on the slopes of Mount Cronus. Tens of thousands of people travelled to Olympia in carts and ahorse, came by boats. Spectators gathered for the Games not only from Greece itself, but also from its colonies. So many tents were encamped around Olympia that they practically formed a town. To watch the event the audience were located on the hills surrounding the valley. In loud cheers they encouraged the competing athletes. Writers and poets came to the Olympic Games to recite their works in front of thousands of listeners from all over the Hellenic world. According to a legend it was here that Herodotus first read his History aloud.


A bronze discus of the winner in the pentathlon, Publicius Asclepiade. 214 AD. Olympia, the Archaeological Museum.

21. What was the name of the place, where the judges of the Olympic competitions (the Hellanodikai) were seated? А. The rostrum. B. The presidium.

C. The podium. D. The secretorium.

22. What is a «meta» at an ancient stadium or a racetrack? А. A turning column. B. A start line.

The Dromos is a one-stadion race. Black-figure ceramics (a fragment), 500 BC. Paris, the Louvre.

C. A finish ribbon. D. A signal to start.

23. How was the victory in a one-stadion race fixed? А. In minutes. B. In points.

C. In seconds. D. In memory of spectators.

24. How was a one-stadion race called? А. The Stadion. B. The Sprintus.

C. The Dromos. D. The Zevus.

25. How was a two-stadion race called? А. The Diaulos. B. The Dualos.

C. The Bidromos. D. The Didromos.

The Hoplitodromos, a race in full armour. Black-figure ceramics (a fragment). 500 BC. London, the British Museum.

The Foot-race. Black-figure ceramics. Approx. 4th century BC. Saint-Petersburg, the State Hermitage.

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Greek style of discus throwing (reconstruction)

17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

The Hysplex. 20. 32 m. Athletes, judges, priests. The rostrum. A turning column. In memory of spectators.. The Dromos. The Diaulos. 26. What was the name of the long-distance run from 7 to 24 stadia? А. The Tetradromos. B. The Dolichos.

C. The Septastadion. D. The Cholidos.

27. What was the name of the race in full heavy armour, which was a part of the Olympic competitions? А. The Hoplitodromos. B. The Equiperodus.

C. The Aremos. D. The Hoplitostadios.

28. Hoplite racing was held in the very end of the Games. What was it supposed to remind of? А. The end of the Olympic Games. B. The end of the Olympic armistice. C. The Marathon battle. D. The military combat readiness of Greek warriors. An ancient athlete is improving his discus throwing technique. Red-figure ceramics (a fragment). The 5th century BC.

A bronze disc with an engraved image of a javelin thrower. The javelin at length unlike the javelin at target was a part of the pentathlon. The 5th century BC. Berlin, the National Museum.

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29. For how many Olympiads did athletes compete only in a one-stadion race? А. Six. B. Thirteen.

A javelin thrower. Red-figure ceramics (a fragment of decoration). 500 BC. Munich, the Museum of Antiquities.

C. Two. D. Eight.


The long jump technique with the use of weights. Reconstruction by K. Iliakis.

30. Starting from 708 BC a complex competition – the pentathlon – was introduced into the competition programme of the Olympic Games. What sports comprised the Ancient Greek pentathlon? А. Long jumping, running, discus and javelin throwing, wrestling. B. Running, acrobatics, ritual, ceremonial and martial dances. C. Racing in full armour, chariot racing, javelin throwing and the tug of war. D. High and long jumping, discus and javelin throwing, swimming.

An athlete with a disc. Red-figure ceramics. SaintPetersburg, the State Hermitage Museum.

31. Long jumping competitions were a part of the pentathlon. In order to achieve better results athletes were holding stone dumbbells (halteres) weighing 1.5 to 2 kilograms in their hands. What results did Ancient Greek long jumpers achieve? А. 7 m. B. 8 m.

C. 10 m. D. 16 m.

32. Five young men of the fifty Argonauts who accompanied Jason in his voyage to Colchis in pursuit of the Golden Fleece were the best in Ancient Greece in discus and javelin throwing, running, long jumping and wrestling. Jason decided to determine the best of the best, so he declared competitions in these five athletic disciplines, giving them the name of the pentathlon. Which of the Argonauts became the first winner in the pentathlon? А. Orpheus. B. Polydeukes.

An athlete during the long jump. Red-figure ceramics (a fragment of decoration). The 5th century BC. Boston, the Museum of Fine Arts.

C. Peleus. D. Castor. A javelin thrower in the final stages of the throw. Red-figure ceramics (a fragment of decoration). 420 BC. Berlin, the National Museum.

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26. The Dolichos. 27. Hoplitodromos. 28. The end of the Olympic armistice. 29. Thirteen. 30. Long jumping, running, discus and javelin throwing, wrestling. 31. 16 m. 32. Peleus.

33. One of the disciplines in the pentathlon was long jumping. Ancient Greek historians testify that athletes of antiquity showed extremely high results in it. They used a special method of jumping: in the flying phase they dropped an object, which they were holding in their hands. What was this object? А. A mascot. B. A marble kettlebell.

C. Iron dumbbells. D. A sand pouch.

34. The Olympic Competitions in Ancient Greece were held according to the age categories: boys, young men (ephebes) and grown men. Name the age of the barefaced participants (ephebes). А. 18–20 years old. B. 16–18 years old.

The Doryphoros (Spearman) – one of the most famous statues of antiquity by sculptor Polycleitus. 450–440 BC. Naples, the National Museum. The Doryphoros is not the image of a particular athlete, a winner, but a perfect example of the structure of an athlete's body, which later became known as the canon.

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C. 14–16 years old. D. 15–19 years old.

Agon. One of the ancient Greek gods, personifying an abstract idea of inspiration and victory and was Agon. Agon was connected with everything that people did to realize their dreams and hopes. The name of this deity was given to a principle of agonistics which meant competition. Agonistics was professed during the competition and even in art.


A long jumper during the running start. Red-figure ceramics. 500 BC. Heidelberg, the Archaeological Institute of the University.

35. From what age were boys allowed to participate in the Olympic competitions?

The Ancient Greeks saw in the beauty of an individual not only physical perfection, but also such qualities as physical and spiritual strength, dignity and kindness, agility and endurance, a blend of physical perfection and moral ideals, as well as creativity. This moral and aesthetic ideal at the heart of the culture of Ancient Greece constituted a harmony of physical, mental and spiritual perfection, known as kalokagathia.

А. Starting from 10 years old. B. Starting from 14 years old. C. There were no restrictions in age. D. Starting from 12 years old.

36. On what day of the Olympic Games were the boys’ competitions held? А. On the fifth. B. On the first.

C. On the second. D. Before the start of the Olympic Games.

37. It is known that the programme of the Olympic Games was being changed occasionally. When was the duration of the Olympic Games extended up to two days? А. 680 BC. B. 676 BC.

C. 524 BC. D. 416 BC.

A statuette of Nike. 440–420 BC. Munich, the State Museum of Antiquity and the Glyptothek.

An athlete preparing for the race in the palaestra. Red-figure ceramics. Approx. 510–500 BC. Berlin, the Antique collection.

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33. 34. 35. 36. 37.

A marble kettlebell. 18–20 years old. Starting from 12 years old. On the second. 680 BC.

38. Starting from the 77th Olympiad the programme of the Olympic competitions was extended: the Games were being held for five days. When did it happen? А. 500 BC. B. 482 BC.

C. 544 BC. D. 472 BC .

39. What was happening on the fifth day of the Olympic Games? А. Sacrificial offerings in demonstration of gratitude. B. Competitions of sculptors. C. Winners awarding ceremonies. D. Competitions of sculptors and poets.

40. The victory in the first and only for the next thirteen Olympiads competitions was of special significance for Ancient Greeks. The victor gave his name to the Olympiad for four years that followed. Name this competition. Athletes cleaning their bodies with strigils after training. Red-figure ceramics, 420–400 BC, Geneva, a private collection.

А. The Pankration. B. The Pentathlon.

C. The Stadion. D. The Marathon.

41. Who was awarded at the Olympic competitions?

A statue of a youth known as the Marathon Boy. Bronze. 335–325 BC. Athens, the Arachaeological Museum.

А. Winners. B. Finalists. C. Participants occupying the first and the second places. D. Participants occupying the first, the second and the third places.

An aryballos for storing olive oil with which athletes ointed their bodies. The 1st–2nd century AD. London, the British Museum.

Alyptis massages an athlete’s back under a paedotribes’ control. Red-figure ceramics (a fragment of decoration). 480 BC. Rome, Villa Giulia.

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To cleanse the body following the training, Hellenic athletes had used special premises called ‘nutron’, where they took various rehabilitative procedures. Red-figure ceramics (a fragment). 420 BC. London, the British Museum.

Bronze scrapers (strigils) used for cleaning the body from dust, sweat and oils after exercise. The 5th–4th centuries BC. The Olympia Archaeological Museum.

42. What award was given to the winners of the Olympic competitions in Ancient Greece? А. An olive wreath. B. A laurel wreath. C. A pine wreath. D. A wreath made of oak-tree branches.

43. What was the name given to the winners of the Olympic Games in Ancient Greece? А. The Hellanodikai. B. The Olympionics.

C. The record-holders. D. The Champions.

44. What was the name of the first Olympic champion? А. Heracles. B. Odysseus.

C. Koroibos. D. Jason.

45. What was the occupation of the first Olympic champion? А. A baker. B. A cook.

C. A warrior. D. A carpenter.

A scene of training in a palaestra: to the left – an athlete is holding a strigil to clean his body after training, to the right – a paidotribes is watching carefully the training of a discus thrower. Red-figure ceramics. 430 BC. London, the British Museum.

A statue of an athlete cleaning his body from oil and dust. A Roman copy of sculptor Lysippos’ work. The 4th century BC. Rome, the Vatican Museums.

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38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45.

472 BC. Winners awarding ceremonies. The Stadion. Winners. An olive wreath. The Olympionics. Koroibos. A baker.

46. The winner of the Ancient Olympic Games was crowned with an olive wreath in the Temple of Zeus. The olive branches were cut with a golden knife in the sacred grove. For the first time it happened at the Games of the VII Olympiad in 752 BC. Who was the first Olympian to be crowned with such a wreath? А. Callisthenes. B. Diakles.

C. Hero. D. Cylon.

47. What was filleted on the winner of the Olympic competitions right after his victory? А. Leather belts. B. Golden bracelets. C. A red ribbon around his head, arms and legs. D. Shoulder shawls.

48. Upon the end of the Olympic competitions the winner was filleted with red ribbons and given a branch as a symbol of peace. A branch of what tree was used for this symbolic ceremony? А. An oak-tree branch. B. A cherry-tree branch. The Head of Goddess Hera. 420 BC. Athens, the Archaeological Museum.

C. An olive-tree branch. D. A palm-tree branch.

49. It is known that one of the Olympic awards was a palm branch symbolizing peace. In honour of what event was the winner awarded a palm branch? А. In honour of Theseus’ victory over Minotaurus. B. In honour of Andromeda who had saved Perseus. C. In honour of Prometheus’ heroic deed. D. In memory of Achilles’ death.

Running was the sole event of the Heraean Games. Athletes participating in the Heraean Games used to wear knee-length chitons without a shoulderstrap on the right shoulder. Black-figure ceramics (a fragment). End of the 6th century BC. Rome, the Vatican Museums. A figurine of a girl during competitions in the foot race. Bronze. The 6th century BC. London, the British Museum.

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50. When were the Olympic champions declared and awarded wreaths of sacred olive branches? А. At the crack of dawn. B. On the last day of the Olympic festivities. C. At the new moon. D. Upon the end of competitions in an athletic event.

51. How did the Ancient Greeks explain the victory at the Olympic Games? A. As a result of assiduous training of an athlete and his teacher. B. A game of chance. C. A sign of gods’ benevolence to an athlete and the city where he came from. D. An expected result for his loyal service during a war.

52. In honour of the most famous Olympionics the marble statues were erected and coins minted. How many times did an Olympian have to win for his hometown to be granted a permission to erect a statue with his portret resemblance? А. 1. B. 3.

C. 6. D. 10.

The terracotta figurines of female acrobats. The 4th century BC. Taranto (Italy), the National Archaeological Museum.

Hera was the wife of Zeus, the patroness of women, family life, the keeper of marital fidelity and birthing mothers. In her honour the competitions for girls – the Games of Hera (the Heraia) – were held in Olympia every four years. Girls competed at a distance of 160 metres – the 5/6 of a stadion. Winners in three age categories were awarded a wreath and given a part of the sacrificial pig’s meat.

A bronze statue of a female runner. The 6th century BC.

16 hostesses of the Games of Hera. The symbol of the sacred truce.

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46. Diakles. 47. A red ribbon around his head, arms and legs. 48. A palm-tree branch. 49. In honour of Theseus’ victory over Minotaur. 50. On the last day of the Olympic festivities. 51. A sign of gods’ benevolence to an athlete and the city where he came from. 52. 3. 53. Awarding a cultic status of a hero. 54. Hippias. 55. Bronze statues of Zeus set by athletes, who had violated the rules of the Olympic Games. These statues were placed at the entrance to the Olympic stadium for edification of other athletes 56. Money collected by fining athletes. 57. 230.

53. It is known that upon their return from the Olympic Games winners were welcomed by honouring and banquets in their hometown. They received a for-life exemption from taxes, free meals. Monuments were erected in Olympia and on squares in other cities. Hymns and odes were dedicated to them. They were given monetary awards. Coins were minted with their portraits. And what was the highest degree of honouring for Ancient Greeks? А. Awarding a status of an honorary citizen of the city. B. Minting golden coins with portrait resemblance. C. Erecting a column on the central square of the Olympian’s hometown in the Olympian’s honour. D. Awarding a cultic status of a hero.

54. For 1168 years there were 293 Olympic Games held. They determined 4237 Olympic champions. Unfortunately, only 921 names of the winners of the Ancient Greek Olympic competitions survived to our days. Who started records of Olympic champions? А. Herodotus. B. Hippias.

C. Aristotle. D. Eratosthenes.

55. What are Zanes? А. Golden statues of Zeus erected by representatives of cities to honour victories. B. Bronze statues of Zeus set by athletes who had violated the rules of the Olympic Games. These statues were placed at the entrance to the Olympic stadium for edification of other athletes. C. Bronze statues of Zeus set by winners in their hometowns. D. Silver statues dedicated to gods mounted a year before the Games.

The first record of Olympic champions according to oral testimonies was made in 400 BC by Hippias the Sophist. Hippias’ initiatives were supported by Aristotle, then by Eratosthenes, Phlegon and others. Thanks to these records the names and the backgrounds of 921 Olympic winners survived in history.

The Diadumenos. A Roman copy of the Greek original of Polycleitus. 440–430 BC. Madrid, the National Museum of Art.

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A winner making a sacrifice to Zeus. Red-figure ceramics (a fragment of decoration). 460–444 BC. London, the British Museum.


56. Bronze statues of Zeus – Zanes – were set at the entrance to the Olympic stadium as a warning to other athletes to show that rules violation was impermissible. Whose funds were used for their casting? А. Money collected by fining athletes. B. Voluntary contributions of spectators. C. Funds of city-states. D. Funds of the Hellanodikai.

57. The sacred Altis (the olive grove, where the first tree was planted by Heracles himself) in Olympia was filled with statues of the Olympic Games’ winners. The legendary Pausanias described them in his work Description of Hellas. How many statues did Pausanias mention? А. 100. B. 170.

C. 230. D. 150.

A winner is being awarded. Mosaic. 5th century BC. Larissa, the Archeological museum.

Awarding a winner of athletic competitions. Antique red-figure ceramics. The end of the 5th century BC. Vienna, the State Museum of Arts, the Antique Collection.

The Diadumenos, an athlete crowned w wned BC with a victorious bandage. 100 BC. A copy of the ancient Greek Polycleitos’ eitos’ o onal sculpture of 430 BC. Athens, the National Archaeological Museum. eum.

A winner of the Olympic Games was greeted by all inhabitants of the city upon his return home. In recognition of the glory reflected upon his fatherland a statue was erected. The most enduring runners were sent to deliver the news about the victory to the hero’s hometown. Upon his return the hero was carried in sedan-chairs or driven in decorated chariots. All these actions were accompanied by hymn singing, banquets, which lasted for several days. Olympians were awarded valuable gifts and money gifts. Some of them were provided with monetary allowances and other benefits by their cities.

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Renaissance and Modern Era n the 17th –19th centuries AD the most developed countries of Europe experienced significant changes in the outlook of people, in the economic and social conditions of their life that had taken place during the Renaissance (in the 15th –16th centuries) and the period of the New Age (since the 17th century). Thanks to this, an atmosphere which contributed to the renewal of the spiritual values of the Ancient Greek civilization lost centuries ago was created within these societies. These positive processes also affected the spheres of physical education and sports, including those varieties, which later on were translated into the modern multi-faceted components of track and field athletics. Furthermore, when the people of the Renaissance turned again to the cultural heritage of Ancient Greece, running, jumping and throwing exercises were used in military training as well as in various systems of physical education in a number of countries of Western Europe. As in those days there were no explicit official competition rules, participants of each separate competition had to agree on its rules with each other. Gradually athletic competition rules were improved and stabilized.

I

A lesson of physiŃ al education at the Schnepfenthal Philanthropic School, Germany.

A folk festival with sports competitions in the Alps in 1808. Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun.

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Gymnastic exercises on the sports ground

At the beginning of the 17th century in Cotswolds, a small English town, upon the initiative of a lawyer Robert Dover, the Cotswold Olympic Games were held (the first ones were staged there in 1612). The programme included different athletic events, including such disciplines as running, jumping and sledge-hammer throwing. These Games were developing at varying degrees of intensity, sometimes terminating, until they reached the 21st century. In the 18th –19th centuries in some European countries and in North America (the United States) important components of physical education systems were running, jumping and throwing (in their various forms) disciplines, which to some extent were the precursors of the corresponding running, jumping and throwing components of the modern track and field athletics. Running competitions were staged either on the road or on the racetrack. For example, in 1770 the result was recorded in the 1-hour run, which constituted 17 kilometres 300 metres. In 1789 D. Busch of Germany cleared a height equal to 2 metres 83 centimetres in a pole vaulting event.

In 1820, in Prussia there were many gymnasia, where the curriculum included gymnastics. Classes were held in the open air on sports fields with various equipment, sometimes gymnastic skills were practiced on the back of a horse.

The first school sports clubs appeared in the Monge and Valenciennes schools, initiated by Coubertin, after 1887. The photograph captured students taking the start from the school in Paris.

Posters by Alphonse Mucha devoted to the 6th and 7th Congress of the Sokol society.

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In 1792 Englishman F. Powell completed a distance of one mile, which corresponds to 1 kilometre 609.3 metres, in 5 minutes 32 seconds. And D. Todd ran from London’s Hyde Park to Oxbridge, the distance of about one mile, in 4 minutes 10 seconds in 1803. In France the Rondeau Seminary located in DauphinÊ, not far from Grenoble, staged its own Olympic Games in 1832. Their programme comprised a number of different sporting events, including pole vaulting, discus throwing and other competitions. And in the first half of the 19th century track and field athletics formed into a sports discipline. Researchers of sports development believe that the history of modern track and field athletics dates back to 1837, when the English town of Rugby witnessed the competitions of local college students that were held at a distance of about two kilometres if converted to the metric system. In the future the similar competitions were held in other schools of England. As time passed the programme of such competitions included sprinting, hurdling, weight throwing and later (since 1851) long and high jumping with an approach run. Since 1850 Much Wenlock, a town in the Shropshire County in Wales, hosted the Much Wenlock Olympic Games on the initiative of a doctor and social activist,

Thomas Arnold – the Director of the Rugby College. Philipp Thomas. 1839. London, the National Portrait Gallery.

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William Penny Brookes, a native of the town. Among the sports events that were introduced into the programme there were such athletic disciplines as running at various distances, long and high jumping, stone putting, etc. These Games have survived to our days in one form or another. And in Athens, Greece, thanks to the active participation and the financial support of great patriot and wealthy landowner Evangelis Zappas, the first Pan-Hellenic Olympic Games were staged in 1859. Like at the Ancient Greek Olympic Games, the programme included the one- and two-stadion races, the long jump, the discus throw, the javelin throw (at a distance and at a target) and a number of other events. In the future, after the death of Zappas who died in 1865, the programme of the Games was complemented with the high jump, the pole vault, the triple jump, stone throwing, etc. In 1864 in England the first competitions between the Universities of Cambridge and Oxford, which later on transformed into the traditional annual bilateral matches, took place. In 1866 England first held the National Championship in athletics. The programme of that first official, as a matter of fact, sporting event in this discipline was quite broad. And those were the results of the winners in individual events: the 100-yard race (corresponds to 91.44 metres in the metric system) – 10.5 seconds; the 440-yard race –

Physical exercise in a gymnasium in London. 1868.

Minutes of the meeting, which established the National Olympic Association. Liverpool. November 6, 1865.

The Olympic Games in Much Wenlock. Spectators were seated on natural slopes. 1876.

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In the 19th century competitions in Bavaria were extremely popular. They were organized in Munich in the line of the Olympic Games. Foreign delegations, even the royals, arrived to participate in these festivals.

55.0 seconds; the 880-yard race – 2 minutes 05.0 seconds; 1-mile race – 4 minutes 39 seconds; the 120-yard hurdles – 18.5 seconds; long jumping – 5 metres 99 centimetres; high jumping – 1 metre 75 centimetres; pole vaulting – 3 metres 05 centimetres; shot putting – 10 metres 62 centimetres; hammer throwing – 23 metres 91 centimetres. The further development of track and field athletics in England was spurred by the activities of the London Athletic Club founded in 1869 and the Amateur Athletic Association established in 1880, which became the supreme governing body for track and field sports in the country that united all athletic organizations of the British Empire in those days. In the 60s – 70s of the 19th century track and field athletics began developing in the United States. There in 1868 the Athletic Club was created in New York, and in 1875 – the Student Sports Union, which contributed to the development of track and field athletics in the United States and its wide spreading into American universities. In 1876 the first official United States Championship in Athletics was held according to the competition programme adopted in England. However, then results The Cotswold Olympic Games. Drawing of the 17th century.

Sports competitions in France, following the example of the British sports. Paris, 1890.

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shown by American athletes were much lower than those shown by British athletes ten years before (in 1866). For example, the winning results of the United States Championship in 1876 were as follows: long jumping – 5 metres 28 centimetres, high jumping – 1 metre 65 centimetres, the 880-yard race – 2 minutes 10 seconds. In the late 80s of the 19th century the Amateur Athletic Union of the United States was founded. It became the governing body for the development of track and field athletics as a sport discipline in this country and took upon itself the organization of both national and international competitions, which helped to improve the athletic performance of the US athletes. And in 1895 in a match between the two clubs – one of London (the strongest in England) and the other one of New York (the strongest in the US) the Americans won by a wide margin, and from that point Brits had some difficult times in competing with their rivals from the United States. Track and field athletics was developing in France, Germany, the Scandinavian countries and in other regions.

John Ward – the winner of the Olympic competitions in pentathlon. Much Wenlock, 1878.

A cover of the exhibition catalogue at the Zappas Olympic Games. 1888. Athens, the Literature and Memory Archives.

The Olympic Games in Athens in 1877. G. Durand, 1877.

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The Emblem of the London Athletic Club

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In various countries of the European continent athletic competitions of the second half of the 19th century were carried out either as a part of the football clubs’ events, or as a component of the gymnastic events programmes at certain military and civilian institutions. But in the late 80s and 90s of the 19th century purely athletic clubs and sections, which eventually merged into various national athletic organizations (associations, federations, etc.) were being established. In the 19th century best athletes managed to show athletic performance results rather high for their time. For example, Englishman D. Low was the first to clear the 7-metre mark in long jumping (7 metres 04.5 centimetres). In 1866 Englishman R. Maychl cleared the bar at 3 metres 21 centimetres in pole vaulting and American R. Dikkenson cleared 3 metres 58 centimetres in 1891. Along with the development of amateur athletics in the 19th century the development of professional athletics was also taking place. For example, in the spring of 1827 in different cities of Sweden professional athlete F. Israel held a number of demonstration runs, during which he showed a very high endurance, attracting a great attention of the audience and the press. In the USA the first manager to organize professional running competitions in 1835 was D. Stephens who announced a prize of one thousand dollars for someone

Leonard Hurst – winner of 1896 Paris Marathon. Le Petit Journal. August, 2. 1896.


Badges of the New York Athletic Club founded in 1868

who would run 10 miles (corresponding to 16.093 kilometres) in less than one hour. Only one of the nine members of the race, a farmer from the State of Connecticut G. Stannard managed to achieve this. He completed the 10-mile distance in 59 minutes 48 seconds. In the second half of the 19th century athletics competitions in running (with cash prizes) were quite popular in the United States. As an example we may speak of sixday indoor events, in which athletes had to overcome the longest distances possible, in New York in the 70s of the 19th century. A unique record was established by runner Littlewood who ran 1003 kilometres in six days. However, in the 80s of the 19th century the popularity of professional running contests decreased. Instead amateur competitions developed increasingly. Since the World Athletics Championships had not been held for quite a long time (until 1983), a powerful stimulus to the development of this sport on a global scale was given by the modern Olympic Games, where track and field events have occupied a solid place in their programmes starting with the 1896 Games of the I Olympiad held in Athens.

A team of athletes: Harry Buermeyer (right) and Bill Curtis (centre). The New York Athletic Club, 1873.

William (Bill) Curtis (1870) 870) was known as «Father Bi Bill» ll»» in the athletic world. He was one o e of the most important proponents poon nents off organized athletics in n lat llate te 18000 in America. Competitor, orr, offi o cial cial.l. sport editor, organizer an nizzer and d administrator. min nissttra rattor. r.

Jo John C. Babcock (1890) wa was the first elected VicePr President of the New York At Athletic Club (NYAC), wh where he encouraged the sep separation of amateur an and professional athletics.

American athletes: Harry Buermeyer (left) and Bill Curtis (right), 1873.

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The Running man. Jan Vitezslav Dusek. 20th cent. Czechoslovakia.

R unning rack and field running events belong to the disciplines of cyclical nature subdivided into several groups: • the sprint; • middle-distance running; • long-distance running; • the marathon; • the hurdles; • the steeplechase; • the relays; • cross-country running. Track and field running events can be staged at a stadium and outside of it – on a road or on broken terrain as well as indoors. Running competitions can be held as individual or team (relay) events. The length of a standard running track at a stadium, consisting of two parallel straights and two curves of the same radius, is 400 metres. Running events were incorporated into the programme of the Ancient Greek Olympic Games; and from the end of the 19th century AD they have been included into the programmes of various national championships and other track and field competitions; since 1896 they have been introduced into the programmes of all the Games of the Olympiads; and since 1983 – into the programmes of all the World Athletics Championships.

T

Liddell. Alasdair Banks. 20th cent. Great Britain.

A Male Track Athlete. 1930s. The Marathon Runner. Bronze. 1930. Vienna. Austria.

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Running the Race. Eric Holmlund. 2012. USA.

The Hurdler. Alasdair Banks. 20th cent. Great Britain. The Sprinter. Bronze. R.Tait McKenzie. 1902. Canada.

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S print he sprint (the sprint race) is a group of track and field running events at distances up to 400 metres inclusive. The Olympic competitions in sprinting were held at the 1896 Games of the I Olympiad in Athens for the first time, where sprinters (men only) competed in the 100 metres and 400 metres. The first Olympic champion in sprint was Thomas Burke from the United States who won 100-metre race (with the result of 12.0 seconds) and 400-metre race (with the result of 54.2 seconds). At the 1900 Games of the II Olympiad in Paris sprinters contested in four medal events at the distances of 60 metres, 100 metres, 200 metres, 400 metres as well as at the following 1904 Games of the III Olympiad in Saint- Louis. The first Olympic champion in men's 60 metres was Alvin Kraenzlein from the United States who completed this distance at the 1900 Games of the II Olympiad in 7.0 seconds. And the first Olympic champion in the 200 metres was John Walter Tewksbury (USA) who covered this distance at the 1900 Games of the II Olympiad with the result of 22.2 seconds. Since the 1908 Games of the IV Olympiad in London and to this day, the men’s sprint events of the Olympic athletics programme include three distances – 100 metres, 200 metres, 400 metres.

T

At the 1896 Games of the I Olympiad in Athens Thomas Burke from the United States became a double Olympic champion winning the 100-metre race (12.0 seconds) and the 400-metre race (54.2 seconds). These results shown in the end of the 19th century are not too impressive today in the second decade of the 21st century, that is, almost 130 years later, but then in 1896 these seconds determined the outcome of the competition among the strongest sprinters of the world.

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American John Walterr Tewksbury gained his vic victories ctooriiees in two events of the Olympic ym mpiic athletics programme att the th he 1900 190 900 Games of the II Olympiad iad d in n Paris – in the 200 metres res an and in the 400-metre hurdles.

A American athlete Charles Hahn leaded in three sprint H eevents at the 1904 Games of the III Olympiad in St. Louis th – the 60, 100 and 200 metres.


The Olympic competitions in the women’s sprint were first held at the 1928 Games of the IX Olympiad in Amsterdam. Elizabeth Robinson from the United States became a champion in the 100-metre race, winning with the result of 12.2 seconds – a world record. At the 1948 Games of the XIV Olympiad in London the Olympic sprint programme for women was expanded to include the 200-metre event. The first Olympic champion in the 200-metre race was Francina Blankers-Koen from the Netherlands with the result of 24.4 seconds – an Olympic record (then a world record belonged to Stanisława Walasiewicz (Poland) who ran 200 metres in 23.6 seconds in 1935). At the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo the Olympic women’s sprint events introduced the 400 metres in addition to the 100 metres and 200 metres. The first Olympic champion in the 400-metre race was Elizabeth Cuthbert from Australia with the result of 52.0 seconds – an Olympic record (then a world record belonged to Sin Kim Dan from North Korea – 51.9 seconds). Since that time, women’s sprint events as a part of Olympic athletics programme have introduced three distances – 100 metres, 200 metres, 400 metres. Three men’s sprint distances (100 metres, 200 metres, 400 metres) and three women’s sprint distances (100 metres, 200 metres, 400 metres) have been included into the programme of the World Athletics Championships starting from the very first one held in 1983 in Helsinki (Finland).

A two-time Olympic ympic champion at the 1912 Games off the V kholm Olympiad in Stockholm was American athlete ho was Ralph Craig who the winner in thee 100prints. and 200-metre sprints.

At the 1908 Games of the IV Olympiad in London Wyndham Halswelle from the UK won the title of the Olympic champion in the 400 metres, covering the distance in a unique final race, in which he was the only contestant as two days earlier three of his American competitors grossly violated the rules obstructing the British runner so that one of them could achieve an unfair victory, and when the results of that final were annulled, the Americans refused to start again.

Two gold medals at the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad in Stockholm were gained by American Charles Reidpath – in the 400-metre sprint (with a world record – 48.2 seconds) and in the 4x400-metre relay (where the US team won with a world record of 3 minutes 16.6 seconds).

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Canadian athlete Percy Williams won the competitions in two sprint distances – the 100 metres and the 200 metres – at the 1928 Games of the IX Olympiad in Amsterdam and became a two-time Olympic champion.

American sprinter Charles Paddock got two gold medals for his victory in the 100 metres and in the 4x100-metre relay (the US team won with a world record of 42.2 seconds) at the 1920 Games of the VII Olympiad in Antwerp.

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The first world champions in the men’s sprint were: the 100 metres – Carlton Lewis of the United States (10.07 seconds); the 200 metres – Calvin Smith of the United States (20.14 seconds); the 400 metres – Bert Cameron of Jamaica (45.05 seconds). And the first world champions in the women’s sprint were: the 100 metres – Marlies Göhr of East Germany (10.97 secodns); the 200 metres – Marita Koch of East Germany (22.13 seconds); the 400 metres – Jarmila Kratochvílová from Czechoslovakia (47.99 seconds – a world record). The owners of the current Olympic records in the men’s sprint disciplines are: the 100 metres – Jamaican athlete Usain Bolt who won with the result of 9.63 seconds at the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London; the 200 metres – the same Usain Bolt who came first with the result of 19.3 seconds at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing, the 400 metres – US athlete Michael Johnson who won with the result of 43.49 seconds at the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta.

Raymond Barbuti from the United States became a double Olympic champion in the 400 metres and in the 4x400-metre relay (as a member of the team of his country) with a world record of 3 minutes 14.2 seconds at the 1928 Games of the IX Olympiad in Amsterdam.


In the athletics competitions of the 1928 Games in Amsterdam not only men but women as well competed for Olympic medals. American Elizabeth Robinson won in the women’s 100 metres (with the highest world achievement of 12.2 seconds).

The holders of the current Olympic records in the women’s sprint disciplines are: the 100 metres – Florence Griffith-Joyner of the USA (10.49 seconds – in 1988); the 200 metres – the same Florence Griffith-Joyner (21.34 seconds – in 1988); the 400 metres – Marie-José Pérec of France (48.25 seconds – 1996). The owners of the existing world records (as of early 2015) in the men’s sprint disciplines (outdoors) are: the 100 metres – Usain Bolt of Jamaica (9.58 seconds in 2009); the 200 metres – the same Usain Bolt of Jamaica (19.19 seconds in 2009); the 400 metres – the US athlete Michael Johnson (43.18 seconds in 1999). The holders of the existing world records in the men’s sprint (indoors) are: the 50 metres – Donovan Bailey of Canada (5.56 seconds – 1996); the 60 metres – Maurice Greene from the United States (6.39 seconds – 1998); the 200 metres – Frank Fredericks of Namibia (19.92 seconds – 1996); the 400 metres – Kerron Clement from the United States (44.57 seconds – in 2005). The owners of the existing world records (as of early 2015) in the women’s sprint (outdoors) are: the 100 metres – Florence-Griffith Joyner of USA (10.49 seconds – in 1988);

American sprinter Thomas Edward Tolan excelled in the races of 100 and 200 metres at the 1932 Games of the X Olympiad in Los Angeles. In the 100 metres he repeated then a world record of Canadian Percy Williams – 10.3 seconds.

American Ame erica athlete William Arthur Carr became a two-time two -tim tim Olympic champion of the 1932 Games of the X Olympiad. Ol He was awarded the gold medals for h his vvictories in the 400 metres (with a world record reco ord – 46.2 seconds) and in the 4x400-metre relayy (w (where the US team also set a world record of 3 minutes min 8.2 seconds).

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Polish athlete Stanisława Walasiewicz became an Olympic champion in the women’s 100 metres (with a world record of 11.9 seconds) at the 1932 Games in Los Angeles. And at the 1936 Games in Berlin in the same 100-metre race she won the silver medal.

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the 200 metres – the same Florence Griffith-Joyner (21.34 seconds – in 1988); in the 400 metres – Marita Koch of East Germany (47.60 seconds – 1985). And the existing world records’ holders in the women’s sprint disciplines (indoors) are: the 50 metres – Irina Privalova of Russia (5.96 seconds – 1995); the 60 metres – Irina Privalova of Russia (6.92 seconds – 1993); the 200 metres – Merlene Ottey of Jamaica (21.87 seconds – 1993); the 400 metres – Jarmila Kratochvílová of Czechoslo slovakia (from 49.59 seconds – 1982). The only athlete who was so far capable of winning four Ol Olympic gold medals in the sprint (excluding relays) is Usain Bo Bolt (Jamaica), a double winner at the 2008 Games of the XX XXIX Olympiad in Beijing – in the 100 metres (9.69 seconds – a world record) and in the 200 metres (19.30 seconds – a world record), and twice at the 2012 Games of the XXX Ol Olympiad in London – in the 100 metres (9.63 seconds – an Olympic record) and in the 200 metres (19.32 seconds). Three Olympic gold medals in the sprint (excluding rellays) la y were awarded to three athletes: Charles Hahn (USA) aatt the 1904 Games of the III Olympiad in St. Louis – the 6 0 metres (7.0 seconds), the 100 metres (11.0 seconds) 60

A prominent American athlete James Owens was a four-time Olympic champion – in the 100 metres and the 200 metres, in the 4x100-metre relay (the US team set a world record “coming out” of the forty seconds for the first time – 39.8 seconds) and in long jumping at the 1936 Games of the XI Olympiad in Berlin.

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and the 200 metres (21.6 seconds – an Olympic record); Carlton Lewis (USA) who won at the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles twice – in the 100 metres (9.99 seconds) and in the 200 metres (19.8 seconds – an Olympic record) and at the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul– in the 100 metres (9.92 seconds – an Olympic record) and Michael Johnson (USA) who was a champion at the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta twice – in the 200 metres (19.32 seconds – a world record) and in the 400 metres (43.49 seconds – an Olympic record) and at the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney – in the 400 metres (43.84 seconds). And in the Olympic women’s sprint (excluding relays) three Olympic gold medals were awarded to Elizabeth Cuthbert (Australia) – twice at the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad in Melbourne – in the 100 metres (11.5 seconds) and in the 200 metres (23.4 seconds) and at the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo – in the 400 metres (52.0 seconds – an Olympic record); Marie-José Pérec (France) – at the 1992 Games of the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona – in the 400 metres (48.83 seconds) and twice at the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta – in the 200 metres (22.12 seconds)) and in the 400 metres (48.25 seconds – an OlymOlym pic record).

American sprinter Lindy Remigino became a double Olympic champion – in the 100 metres and in the 4x100 metre relays as a member of the US team – at the 1952 Games in Helsinki.

At the 1948 Games of the XIV Olympiad held in London American athlete Harrison Dillard was awarded two gold medals – for the victory in the 100 metres and in the 4x100-metre relay (a member of the US team), and at the following 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad in Helsinki this athlete won two gold medals – in the 110-metre hurdles and in the 4x100-metre relay, thus becoming a four-time Olympic champion.

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Andrew Stanfield from the United States (left) won two gold medals – in the 200 metres and in the 4x100metre relay at the 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad in Helsinki.

1 1..

The history of sprint originates from the ancient Olympic Games. The programme of the first Olympic Games included one competitive discipline. Name it. А. The stadion race. B. The long jump.

2. 2

What is the length of one stadion? А. 190.27 m. B. 191.27 m.

Au But (The Finishing Line). Bronze. Alfred Boucher. 1890. France.

3.

C. 720 BC. D. 708 BC.

What type of running disciplines in track and field unites races over 60, 100, 200, 400 metres? А. Long distances. B. Middle distances.

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В 192.27 m. D. 193.27 m.

The sprint distances at the Ancient Greek competitions included the stadion (one-stadion race) and the diaulos (two-stadion race). When was the diaulos included into the programme of the Ancient Olympic Games? А. 776 BC. B. 724 BC.

4.

C. The pentathlon. D. The marathon.

C. Short distances (sprint). D. Average distances.

At the 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad in Helsinki Australian athlete Marjorie Jackson won both sprints confidently ahead of her rivals. In the 100 metres she excelled by repeating her world record (11.5 seconds) in the final. And at the distance of 200 metres, where the athlete set a world record (23.4 seconds) in the semi-finals, it was enough for her to win with the result of 23.7 seconds in the final.


5.

How many athletes take part in the sprint race at major competitions? А. 10. B. 7.

6.

What is the numbering order of track lanes? А. From left to right. B. Chequer-wise.

7.

C. From right to left. D. Deliberately.

A metal construction with shields fixing it to the lane is used for the start in sprint. Name it. А. Startises. B. Starting blocks.

8.

C. 8. D. 6.

American athlete Melvin Patton became a double Olympic champion at the 1948 Games of the XIV Olympiad in London. He excelled in the 200 metres and – as part of the US team – in the 4x100-metre relay.

C. Pads. D. Starters.

Who, when and where first used the starting blocks in competitions? А. Thomas Burke, Athens (1986). B. Ralph Craig, Stockholm (1912). C. Charles Hahn, St. Louis (1904). D. Alvin Kraenzlein, Paris (1900).

Australian runner Elizabeth Cuthbert won three gold medals at the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad in Melbourne – in the 100 metres, in the 200 metres and in the 4x100-metre relay. And eight years later at the 1964 Games in Tokyo she excelled in the 400 metres. Thus she became a four-time Olympic champion.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

The stadion race. 192.27 m. 724 BC. Short distances (sprint). 8. From left to right. Startin blocks. Ralph Craig, Stockholm (1912).

9.

What language is used for starting signals at the international competitions? А. English. B. French. C. English and French. D. The language of the host country.

10. Until the end of the 19th century track and field athletes did not use the crouch start. The distance running was initiated from the vertical positions. When did athletes begin to use the crouch start? А. 1887. B. 1877.

C. 1897. D. 1867.

11. Who came up with an idea of the crouch start? One of the main victors in athletics competitions at the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad in Melbourne was American Robert Joe Morrow who won three Olympic gold medals – in the 100 metres, the 200 metres and the 4x100-metre relay, where the US team set a world record of 39.5 seconds.

А. American sprinter Alvin Kraenzlein. B. American sprinter Charles Sherrill. C. Italian stayer Dorando Pietri. D. American sprinter Thomas Burke.

Italian sprinter Livio Berruti won the gold medal in the 200 metres repeating the world record (20.5 seconds) at the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome.

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A German Ge athlete, a sprinter from the FRG, Armin Hary was awarded two gold medals for his victory in the 100 metres (10.2 seconds – an Olympic go reco record) and in the 4x100-metre relay at the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome. The quartet of the united German team repeated the world pia record of 39.5 seconds in this race.

12. What 12 W spurred the American A sprinter to create the crouch start? А. Watching the kangaroo move. B. Watching the cheetah run. C. Watching the cricket jump. D. Watching the antelope run.

13. In case of a false start, the race is stopped, and an athlete who has fouled up is recorded a false start and… Finish the phrase. А. Given a warning. B. Allowed to continue the competition, but his result is not taken into account. C. Penalized with some monetary fine. D. Disqualified.

14. What punishment is intended for an athlete who made a false start twice? А. A strict warning. B. A monetary fine. C. A disqualification. D. This athlete is eliminated from the event.

American sprinter Wilma Rudolph won three gold medals at the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome. She excelled in the 100 metres and 200 metres, and – as a part of the US team – in the 4x100-metre relay. She also had bronze medal in the 4x100-metre relay from the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad in Melbourne. In 1961 the athlete set a world record in the women’s 100 metres (11.2 seconds).

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9. English. 10. 1887. 11. American sprinter Charles Sherrill. 12. Watching the kangaroo move. 13. Disqualified. 14. This athlete is eliminated from the event.

The owner of two gold medals at the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo was American Michael Larrabee, winning in the 400 metres and in the 4x400-metre relay (the US team set a world record in the final – 3 minutes 0.7 seconds).

Two gold medals were gained by American sprinter Robert Hayes at the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo: in the 100 metres (with repetition of a 10-second world record) and in the 4x100-metre relay (where the US team won with a world record of 39.0 seconds).

15. What is absolutely forbidden for an athlete at the start line? А. To touch the start line and the lane behind it. B. To drink refreshments. C. To greet the audience. D. To talk to a competitor.

16. What rules should an athlete starting in the sprint race fulfil at the signal “On your marks!”? А. Both feet are fixed in the starting blocks, both hands and at least one knee are touching the ground. B. Not to move. C. To speed up. D. To approach the start line.

17. What should an athlete do in the sprint race at the signal “Get set!”? А. To lean forward lifting the support knee of the ground. B. To start. C. To lean forward. D. To place two knees on the lane. American athlete Henry Carr became a double Olympic champion – in the 200 metres (20.3 seconds – an Olympic record) and in the 4x400metre relay (where the US team set a world record of 3 mi-nutes 0.7 seconds) at the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo.

18. In what direction do athletes run in a stadium? А. Anticlockwise. B. Diagonally.

American athlete Wyomia Tyus won twice in the Olympic finals of the 100 metres – at the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo and at the 1968 Games of the XIX Olympiad in Mexico City (where she set a world record of 11.08 seconds). Also in Mexico Cityy Wyomia won another gold medal as a member of the US team in the 4x100-metre relay, which set a world record of 42.88 seconds, and became a triple Olympic champion.

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C. Clockwise. p D. No specific rule.


19. The rules of running events stipulate the conditions of determining an athlete’s results and position by his/her certain body part touching the vertical plane closest to the finish line. Name this body part. А. A trunk. B. A hand.

American sprinter James Hines was awarded two gold medals for his victories in the 100 metres (with a world record – 9.95 seconds) and in the 4x100-metre relay (where the US team set a world record of 38.24 seconds in the final) at the 1968 Games of the XIX Olympiad in Mexico City.

C. A head. D. Any.

20. What is the name of the momentary moving tempo increase as a tactical action in speed athletics disciplines? А. The acceleration. B. The spurt.

C. The final jump. D. The final throw.

21. What movement is done by a runner at his last stride before the distance finish? А. The push. B. The jump.

C. The throw. D. The leap.

22. The running speed record for birds is 72 km.h-1. What is this bird? А. An African ostrich. B. A kiwi-bird.

C. A penguin. D. A takahe.

American athlete Tommie Smith entered the Olympic history not only with his victory in the 200-metre sprint at the 1968 Games of the XIX Olympiad in Mexico City and a world record (19.83 seconds) set at the same time, but also with a protest against racial discrimination of black people in the United States, which the athlete held together with the bronze medallist of the same event an American John Carlos during the awarding ceremony.

Lee Evans from the United States became a two-time Olympic Champion – in the 400 metres (with a world record – 43.86 seconds) and in the 4x400-metre relay (where the US team set a world record of 2 minutes 56.16 seconds) at the 1968 Games of the XIX Olympiad in Mexico City.

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15. To touch the start line and the lane behind it. 16. Both feet are fixed in the starting blocks, both hands and at least one knee are touching the ground. 17. To lean forward lifting the support knee of the ground. 18. Anticlockwise. 19. A trunk. 20. The spurt. 21. The throw. 22. An African ostrich.

23. What maximum speed can a highly qualified sprinter achieve? А. 44.72 km.h-1. B. 35.8 km.h-1.

C. 60.00 km.h-1. D. 40.15 km.h-1.

24. What frequency of strides (tempo) does an athlete develop during sprint running? А. 70 strides per minute. B. 150 strides per minute.

C. 300 strides per minute. D. 100 strides per minute.

25. What is an average stride length in a sprint race? А. 1.50–1.70 m. B. 1.80–2.50 m.

C. 1.20–1.50 m. D. 1.80–2.00 m.

26. When and where were the first sprinting shoes manufactured? А. 1920, Germany. B. 1910, USA

C. 1925, Switzerland. D. 1909, Italy.

27. Name the family who was the first one to manufacture special running shoes? А. Dassler. B. Knight.

Valery Borzov – Sprinter. The sculpture was erected at the entrance of the United States Sports Academy.

Having performed at two Olympic Games, Ukrainian sprinter Valeriy Borzov (USSR) won a total of five Olympic medals of various denominations, including two gold (1972 in Munich – the 100 metres and the 2000 metres), one silver (1972, Munich – the 4x100-metre relay) and two bronze ze (1976, Montreal – in the 100 metres and in the 4x100-metre relay).

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C. Onitsuka. D. Bauermann.


28. What company is believed to be the best sprinting ing shoe manufacturer as of today? А. Puma. B. ASICS.

C. Adidas. D. Nike.

29. To what year the result of the sprint races was measured accurately to a tenth of a second? А. 1936. B. 1966.

At two Olympic Games in Munich (1972) and in Montreal (1976) Renate Stecher (née Meissner) from East Germany won six medals (including 3 gold, 2 silver and 1 bronze). In Munich she won the 100 metres (a world record – 11.07 seconds) and the 200 metres (with a world record – 22.40 second), and also competed with the GDR team, which came second in the 4x100-metre relay. In Montreal she was awarded gold in the 4x100-metre relay, silver – in the 100 metres and bronze – in the 200 metres.

C. 1956. D. 1970.

30. When and where an electronic timer allowing the registration of time accurately to a thousandth (then rounded to a tenth of a second) of a second was first used for sprint timing? А. 1936, Berlin, the XI Olympic Games. B. 1948, London, the XIV Olympic Games. C. 1966, the European Championships. D. 1964, Athens, the XVIII Olympic Games.

31. How many stages are there in the running events in the track and field competitions (running on the stadium track lanes)? А. 2 (the semi-final, the final). B. 1 (the final). C. 3 (the quarter-final, the semi-final, the final). D. 4 (the qualification, the quarter-final, the semi-final, the ) final).

Sprinter from the GDR Bärbel Wöckel (née Eckert) – a four-time Olympic champion: at the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal she won two gold medals – in the 200 metres (with an Olympic record – 22.37 seconds) and in the 4x100-metre relay. Two medals were earned at the 1980 Games in Moscow – in the 200 metres (with an Olympic record – 22.03 seconds) and in the 4x100-metre relay (where the team of East Germany set a world record – 41.60 seconds).

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44.72 km.h-1. 300 strides per minute. 1.80–2.5 m. 1920, Germany. Dassler. Nike. 1966. 1966, the European Championships. ualification, the 31. 4 (the qualification, final,, the semi-final, semi , quarter-final, ).. the final). 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

German athlete of the German Democratic Republic Marita Koch won gold medal in the 400 metres (with an Olympic record – 48.88 seconds) and silver medal (as a member of the team of the German Democratic Republic) in the 4x400-metre relay at the 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad in Moscow. A world record in the 400-metre race (47.60 seconds) set by this athlete on October 6, 1985 at the IAAF World Cup in Canberra (Australia) has not been beaten so far.

32. What running event is considered to be the most prestigious? А. The 60 metres. B. The 200 metres.

C. The 100 metres. D. The 4 х 100-metre relay.

33. How should an athlete run the 100 metres? А. Straight on an individual lane. B. Straight, the lane does not matter. C. On an individual lane first straight and then in a curve. D. In a curve and then straight.

34. When was the first official world record in the 100-metre race set? А. 1908. B. 1912.

C. 1900. D. 1996.

35. Who was the first official world champion in the 100-metre race? А. Donald Lippincott (USA). B. Ralph Craig (USA). C. Alva Meyer (USA). D. George Patching (South Africa).

36. What was the first world record in the 100-metre race? А. 10.8 seconds. B. 10.4 seconds.

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A Polish athlete Irena Szewińska (née Kirszenstein) demonstrated the versatility of her athletic talent, winning a total of seven Olympic medals of various denominations, including three gold medals at four Olympic Games (1964 Tokyo, 1968 Mexico City, 1972 Munich and 1976 Montreal). Her sports assets include gold medal in the 4x100-metre relay and two silver medals (in the 200 metres and in the long jump) at the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo; gold medal in the 200 metres and bronze medal in the 100 metres at the 1968 Games of the XIX Olympiad in Mexico City; bronze medal in the 100 metres at the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich; gold medal in the 200 metres (with a world record – 49.28 seconds) at the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal. She also established several world records set at different times in the 100, 200 and 400 metres.

C. 10.3 seconds. D. 10.6 seconds.


37. The first athlete who managed to run the 100-metre distance with the result of 10.0 seconds was German sprinter Armin Hary. Armin broke the “monopoly” of Afro-American sprinters and became the first European who set the world record in the 100-metre race. When did it happen? А. 1960. B. 1956.

C. 1952. D. 1948.

38. In the 60s of the 20th century the result of 10.0 seconds was conquered by four sprinters – Armin Hary (Germany), Harry Jerome (Canada), Horacio Esteves (Venezuela) and a 21-year old American athlete. Name the champion of 1964 who also had this highest world achievement of 10.0 seconds. А. Enrique Figuerola (Cuba). B. Wiesław Maniak (Poland).

C. Robert Hayes (USA). D. Marian Foik (Poland).

39. What is the name of a phenomenon, which refers to people completing the 100-metre sprint in less than 10 seconds? А. The 10-second limit. B. The 10-second barrier.

C. The 10-second bar. D. The 10-second fight.

40. Who was the first to overcome the 10-second barrier in the 100-metre sprint? And when? А. Lennox Miller, 1968 B. Charles Green, 1967

C. Ronnie Ray Smith, 1968 D. James Hines, 1968

41. How long did the record (a world and an Olympic) set by James Hines at the favourable wind of 1.6 metres per second in 1968 last? А. 1 year. B. 15 yyears.

C. 10 years. D. 5 years.

At the 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad in Moscow Viktor Markin (USSR) won two Olympic gold medals in the 400 metres and in the 4x400-metre relay.

M Monika Zehrt of the German Democratic Republic became the Olympic Champion in the women’s 400 metres be and in the 4x400-metre relay (where the team of East Geran many set a world record – 3 minutes 22.95 se-conds) at m the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich. th

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32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41.

The 100 m. Straight on an individual lane. 1912. Donald Lippincott (USA). 10.6 seconds. 1960. Robert Hayes (USA). The 10-second barrier. James Hines, 1968. 15 years.

42. A Cuban athlete Silvio Leonard completed the 100 metres in 9.98 seconds in 1977. Similar to James Hines (1968) Silvio Leonard (1977) broke the 10-second barrier during the competitions on the mountainous terrain (at high altitude). What conditions of the mountainous climate aided that? А. Sunny weather. B. Hypoxic environment.

C. Cool air. D. Rare atmosphere.

43. The world record of 9.95 seconds set by James Hines in 1968 at the Olympic Games in the mid-altitude Mexico was beaten only in 1983. An American sprinter ran the distance with the result of 9.93 seconds on lowland. Name him. А. Ben Johnson. B. Samuel Graddy.

C. Carl Lewis. D. Calvin Smith.

44. The International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) declared that overcoming of the 10-second barrier can be ratified only under three conditions: 1. fully automated timing, 2. no use of performance assisting substances and 3… What is the third condition? А. The wind speed should be lower than 2 metres per second. B. No false start. C. No crossing of stadium lanes. D. Competitions should be ratified by the IAAF.

45. How many athletes were successful in breacking the 10-second barrier (until 2015)? А. 20. B. 130.

C. 95. D. 50.

American sprinter Evelyn Ashford won two Olympic gold medals – in the 100 metres and in the 4x100-metre relay at the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles. At the following 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul she became the owner of the gold medal (in the 4x100-metre relay) and the silver medal (in the 100 metres) and at the 1992 Games of the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona she enlarged her collection with another Olympic gold medal (in the 4x100-metre relay), becoming a four-time Olympic champion in total.

A two-time Olympic champion was American athlete Alonzo Babers who excelled in the 400 metres and competed as a member of the US team that won in the 4x400-metre relay at the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles.

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46. The time of 9.79 seconds shown by Ben Johnson with the use of doping was restated by an American sprinter in 11 year. Name him. А. Tim Montgomery. B. Donovan Bailey.

C. Leroy Burrell. D. Maurice Greene.

47. In 2005 a 22-year old sprinter from Jamaica completed the 100 metres with a new world record of 9.77 seconds. Name him. А. Asafa Powell. B. Usain Bolt.

C. Nesta Carter. D. Tyson Gay.

48. Name a Jamaican sprinter who managed to surpass the record of his fellow countryman Asafa Powell in the 100-metre sprint. А. Yohan Blake. B. Usain Bolt.

C. Nesta Carter. D. Kirani James.

49. Who owns the current world and Olympic records in the men’s 100-metre sprint? А. Usain Bolt (Jamaica). B. Valeriy Borzov (USSR, Ukraine). C. Asafa Powell (Jamaica). D. Justin Gatlin (USA).

The hero of the athletics competitions at the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles was American athlete Carlton Lewis who won four gold medals – in the 100 and the 200 metres, in the 4x100metre relay (where the US team set a world record – 37.83 seconds) and in long jumping. Later on this outstanding athlete continued developing his collection of Olympic medals: at the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul he won two gold medals – in the 100 metres (with a world record of 9.92 seconds) and in the long jump and one silver – in the 200 metres; at the 1992 Games in Barcelona he got two gold medals (in the 4x100-metre relay, where the US team set a world record – 37.40 seconds) and in the long jump; at the 1996 Games in Atlanta he had one gold medal (in the long jump). Thus, Carlton Lewis became a nine-time Olympic champion. And by the total number of awards in various denominations – 10, which he had won in various athletics competitions at the Olympic Games, this American athlete yields only to Finn Paavo Nurmi who had 12.

Though athlete of the Czechoslovakia Jarmila Kratochvílová won only one silver medal at the Olympic Games (in Moscow-1980 she came second in the 400 metres), she takes her place in the history of athletics with the oldest world record in one of the athletics disciplines included into the programme of the Olympic Games – in the 800-metre race, set on July 26, 1983 in Munich (1 minute 53.28 seconds) and yet not broken.

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42. Rare atmosphere. 43. Carl Lewis. 44. The wind speed should be lower than 2 metres per second. 45. 95. 46. Maurice Greene. 47. Asafa Powell. 48. Usain Bolt. 49. Usain Bolt (Jamaica).

50. What record result in the 100-metre sprint belongs to Usain Bolt (as of 2015)? А. 9.63 seconds. B. 9.89 seconds.

C.9.79 seconds. D. 9.99 seconds.

51. Name an American athlete, a 6-time world champion in sprint distance running? А. Usain Bolt. B. Carl Lewis.

C. Michael Johnson. D. Asafa Powell.

52. Name an American track and field athlete, a 4-time world champion in the sprint distances. А. Carl Lewis. B. Maurice Greene.

C. Ben Johnson. D. Usain Bolt.

53. Two athletes became triple world champions in the 100-metre sprint. Name them. А. Carl Lewis, Usain Bolt. B. Eddie Tolan, Carl Lewis. C. Ben Johnson, Usain Bolt. D. Asafa Powell, Ben Johnson.

54. Since when is the record register kept in the most prestigious women’s sprint – the 100 metres? А. 1932. B. 1922.

C. 1942. D. 1912.

55. Who set the first world record in the women’s 100-metre sprint? А. Marie Mejzlikova. Maaryy Lines. B. Mary

At the1992 Games of the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona an American sprinter Mike Marsh won two gold medals – in the 200 metres and in the 4x100-metre relay (where the US team set a world record – 37.40 seconds).

At the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul a Ukrainian female athlete Olga Bryzgina (USSR) won two gold medals – in the 400 metres and in the 4x400-metre relay (where the quartet of the Soviet team set a world record of 3 minutes 15.17 seconds). And four years later at the1992 Games of the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona this athlete was awarded the gold medal in the 4x400metre relay (and thus became a triple Olympic champion) and the silver medal in the 400 metres.

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C. Emmi Haux. D. Leni Schm Schmidt.


Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson is an athlete associated with one of the bitterest pages in the history of the world athletics. He came first in the 100-metre final run with the result of 9.79 seconds, which was much better than a current world record (9.83 seconds), at the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul. Ben Johnson was awarded the gold medal. But two days later it was announced that the athlete tested positive for the use of doping – a prohibited anabolic drug. He was stripped of the title of the Olympic champion and the gold medal and given a two-year disqualification term. After the term expiration Ben Johnson resumed his performance in the competitions and took part in the 1992 Games in Barcelona, but failed. And in 1993 he got caught cheating again at the doping control, and this time he was disqualified for life.

56. Name the first world record in the women’s 100-metre sprint. А. 13.0 seconds. B. 12.5 seconds.

C. 10.0 seconds. D. 13.6 seconds.

57. Three American female athletes succeeded in becoming two-time Olympic champions in the history of the 100-metre sprint. Name them. А. Wyomia Tyus, Evelyn Ashford, Marion Jones. B. Wilma Rudolph, Evelyn Ashford, Marion Jones, C. Wyomia Tyus, Evelyn Ashford, Gail Devers. D. Valerie Ann Brisco-Hooks, Wyomia Tyus, Marion Jones.

58. Who owns the current world record in the women’s 100-metre sprint? А. Florence Griffith-Joyner. B. Zhanna Block. C. Carmelita Jeter. D. Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce.

59. When was the world record of 10.49 seconds in the women’s 100-metre sprint set? А. 1988. B. 2015.

C. 2012. D. 2008.

At the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul American sprinter Florence Griffith-Joyner won three gold medals – in the 100 metres, in the 200 metres (with a world record – 21.34 seconds) and in the 4x100-metre relay (within the team of the USA). This athlete also holds the world record in the women’s 100 metres – 10.49 seconds. Both her achievements in sprint (100 metres and 200 metres) have not been surpassed so far.

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50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57.

9,63 seconds. Michael Johnson. Maurice Greene. Carl Lewis, Usain Bolt. 1922. Marie Mejzlikova. 13.6 seconds. Wyomia Tyus, Evelyn Ashford, Gail Devers. 58 Florence 58. Fl G Griffith-Joyner Griffith iffith JJoyner. Griffith-Joyner. 59. 1988.

60. When did the men’s 200-metre sprint become a part of the track and field programme? А. 1896. B. 1900.

C. 1904. D. 1908.

61. The first world record in the men’s 200-metre sprint fixed by a manual timer in 1952 belongs to American athlete Andy Stanfield. What result was shown by this athlete? А. 20.5 seconds. B. 20.8 seconds.

C. 20.7 seconds. D. 20.6 seconds.

62. The current (as of 2015) world record in the men’s 200-metre sprint – 19.19 seconds – was set by Usain Bolt (Jamaica). When did it happen? А. 2009. C. 2010.

C. 2008. D. 2011.

63. The first world record in the women’s 200-metre sprint – 28.6 seconds – was registered in 1922. Who showed this result? А. Alice Cast (Great Britain). B. Marie Mejzlikova (Czechoslovakia). C. Mary Lines (Great Britain). D. Gladys Elliot (Great Britain).

Canadian sprinter Donovan Bailey became a double Olympic champion – in the 100 metres (with a world record – 9.84 seconds) and as a member of his country’s team in the 4x100-metre relay at the 1996 Games of the XXVІ Olympiad in Atlanta.

64. Who owns the current world record in the women’s 200metre sprint? А. Florence Griffith-Joyner (USA). B. Allyson Felix (USA). C. Veronica Campbell-Brown (Jamaica). D. Bärbel Wöckel (née Eckert) (GDR).

French athlete Marie-José Pérec won her first Olympic gold medal at the 1992 Games of the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona in the women’s 400 metres. And four years later at the 1996 Games in Atlanta the athlete won two awards of the highest value in the 200 metres and the 400 metres, and became a triple Olympic champion.

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65. When was the current world record in the women’s 200-metre sprint set? А. 1992. B. 1996.

C. 1988. D.1990.

66. Name the result of Florence Griffith-Joyner, which has remained the best world achievement for 17 years. А. 21.34 seconds. B. 22.0 seconds.

C. 21.54 seconds. D. 21.44 seconds.

67. Name a female athlete who got three gold medals in the 200-metre sprint at the World Championships. А. Marita Koch. B. Florence Griffith-Joyner.

n her fi first American Gail Devers won rst Olympicc gold medal at the 1992 Games of the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona in the women’s 100 metres, and at the 1996 Games in Atlanta she added two more awards of the highest value into her collection – in the women’s 100 metres and in the 4x100-metre relay (within the US team), becoming a three-time Olympic champion.

C. Barbara Ferrell. D. Allyson Felix.

68. A discipline, one of sprint distances included into the track and field running programme, is called the long sprint. Name it. А. The 200-metre sprint. B. The 400-metre sprint.

C. The 800-metre sprint. D. The 300-metre sprint.

69. What discipline of the track and field running programme is called the sprint marathon? А. The 800-metre sprint. B. The 3,000-metre sprint.

C. The 400-metre sprint. D. The 1,500-metre sprint.

An American Quincy Watts became a two-time Olympic Champion in the 400 metres (with an Olympic record – 43.50 seconds) and in the 4x400-metre relay (the US team set a world record of 2 minutes 55.74 seconds) at the 1992 Games of the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona.

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60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69 69.

1900. 20.6 seconds. 2009. Marie Mejzlikova (Czechoslovakia). Florence Griffith-Joyner (USA). 1988. 21.34 seconds. Allyson Felix (USA). The 400-metre sprint. 400 m. m 70. What starting position is applied by athletes in the 400-metre sprint? А. The crouch position. B. The standing start.

C. On the go. D. At the run-up.

71. In what case athletes start on separate lanes according to the rules of the competitions? А. If the length of the competitive distances is less than 400 m. B. At an athlete’s preference. C. If the length of the competitive distances is less than 200 m. D. If the length of the competitive distances is more than 100 m.

72. What is the starting method at distances, at which competitions are held not on separate lanes so that athletes are at the same distance to the finish line? At the 2000 Games of the XXVІІ Olympiad in Sydney American athlete Marion Jones was awarded three gold medals (in the 100 metres, the 200 metres and in the 4x400-metre relay) and two bronze ones (in the 4x100metre relay and in long jump). But a few years later she admitted the use of prohibited substances in the course of the anti-doping testing in the matter of the BALCO Laboratory conducted in the USA and had to return the Olympic awards.

А. On the arched line. B. With the headstart. C. According to the preliminary result. D. According to the lot.

73. Who owns the current (as of 2015) world record in the men’s 400-metre sprint? А. Kirani James. B. Michael Johnson.

American sprinter Maurice Greene won two gold medals – in the 100 metres and in the 4x100-metre relay (the US team) at the 2000 Games of the XXVІІ Olympiad in Sydney. And at the 2004 Games in Athens he added the bronze medal gained at the distance of 100 metres and the silver medal in the 4x100-metre relay to these awards.

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C. Asafa Powell. D. Usain Bolt.


74. When was the current world record in the men’s 400-metre sprint set? А. 1999. B. 2000.

C. 2004. D. 2008.

75. Name the highest result in the men’s 400-metre sprint. А. 43.48 seconds. B. 43.38 seconds.

C. 44.0 seconds. D. 43.18 seconds.

American athlete Jeremy Wariner won two gold medals – in the 400 metres and in the 4x400-metre relay (the US team) at the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad in Athens. And at the following 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing he added “silver” in the 400-metre race and “gold” in the 4x400-metre relay to his collection of awards, and became a three-time Olympic champion.

76. Who owns the current world record – 47.60 seconds – in the women’s 400-metre sprint? А. Irena Szewińska (Poland). B. Marita Koch (GDR). C. Jarmila Kratochvílová (Czech Republic). D. Riitta Salin (Finland).

77. How many years has the world record in the women’s omen’’s 400metre sprint remained unsurpassed? А. 5. B. 2.

C. 10. D. 20.

78. Name a track and field running discipline, which has nd twice been a part of the Olympic programme, and today is a part of World and European Indoor Championships. А. The 50-metre sprint. B. The 60-metre sprint.

C. The 30-metre sprint sprint. t. t. D. The 75-metre sprint sprint.

Merlene Ottey of Jamaica won her first Olympic medal – the bronze in the women’s 200 metres – being 20 years old at the 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad in Moscow. Then there were two bronze medals at the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles (in the 100 meters and in the 200 metres), later the bronze medal in the 200 metres at the 1992 Games of the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona, two silver medals (in the 100 meters and in the 200 metres) and one bronze (in the 4x100-metre relay) at the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta. And at the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney the Jamaican runner got the silver medal (in the 4x100-metre relay) at the age quite considerable for a sprinter – 40 years old. Then she competed at the 2004 Games in Athens that time for Slovenia, but could not win any medal there.

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70. The crouch position. 71. If the length of the competitive distances is less than 400 m. 72. On the arched line. 73. Michael Johnson. 74. 1999. 75. 43.18 seconds. 76. Marita Koch (GDR). 77. 20. 78. The 60-metre sprint.

79. The 60-metre sprint used to be a part of the Olympic track and field programme. What Olympic Games held medal events at this distance? А. The Games of the I and II Olympiads (1896, 1990). B. The Games of the II and III Olympiads (1900, 1904). C. The Games of the IV and XI Olympiads (1908, 1936). D. The Games of the V and IX Olympiads (1912, 1928).

80. Name the first Olympic champion in the 60-metre sprint. А. Edmund Minahan (USA). B. Alvin Kraenzlein (USA). C. Stanley Rowley (Australia). D. John Walter Tewksbury (USA).

81. The winner in the 60-metre sprint set world and Olympic records. What was his winning result? А. 7.0 seconds. B. 7.5 seconds.

C. 8.0 seconds. D. 7.8 seconds.

82. What is an average time for an elite athlete to complete in the 60-metre sprint? А. Less than 6 seconds. B. Less than 7 seconds.

C. Less than 8 seconds. D. Less than 5 seconds.

83. Name a sprint distance included into the Olympic programme of the Games of the I Olympiad? А. The 70-metre sprint. B. The 60-metre sprint.

C. The 100-metre sprint. D. The 110-metre sprint.

84. Who was the first Olympic champion in the 100-metre sprint? А. Thomas Burke (USA). B. Fritz Hofmann (Germany). C. Alajos Szokolyi (Hungary). D. Francis Lane (USA).

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Irina Privalova – a Russian Russsian athlete, th the champio champion of the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney in the women’s 400-metre hurdles (53.02 seconds), the 1992 silver medallist in the 4x100-metre relay, the 1992 bronze medallist in the 100 metres, the 2000 bronze medallist in the 4x100-metre relay. A 1993 world champion in Stuttgart, a two-time silver medallist (1991 and 1993) in the 4 x 100-metre relay, the silver medallist of the 1995 World Championships in Göteborg in the 200 metres, a two-time bronze medallist of the World Championships of 1993 – in the 200 metres and in 1995 – in the 100 metres. A three-time world indoor champion: 1991 – the 60 metres; 1993 – the 200 metres; 1995 – the 400 metres, a two-time silver medallist of 1991 in the 200 metres and of 1993 in the 60 metres. A three-time European champion (1994 – the 100 and 200 metres, 1998 – the 200 metres).


85. What result allowed Thomas Burke getting the gold medal? А. 12.2 seconds. B. 12.1 seconds.

C. 12.0 seconds. D. 12.3 seconds.

86. At the 1936 Games of the XI Olympiad in Berlin Jesse Owens was the winner in the 100-metre sprint with a world record of 10.2 seconds. How long did Jesse Owens’ record last? А. 1 year. B. 5 years.

C. 2 months. D. 20 years.

87. When were the first women’s 100-metre distances introduced into the Olympic programme? А. 1924. B. 1928.

C. 1920. D. 1912.

Francis Obikwelu – a Portuguese sprinter. The silver medallist at the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad in Athens in the 100-metre sprint (9.86 seconds). In the final of the Olympic 100-metre race he yielded 0.01 second to an American Justin Gatlin and beat the winner of the previous Games Maurice Greene by 0.01 second at the finish. The European Athlete of the Year in 2006.

88. Who was the first Olympic champion in the women’s 100-metre sprint? А. Elizabeth Robinson nson (USA). d (Canada). B. Fanny Rosenfeld anaada). C. Ethel Smith (Canada). Germany). D. Erna Steinberg (G (Germany).

89. What result allowed weed Elizabeth Robinson mounting the O highest tier of thee Olympic podium? А. 12.2 seconds. B. 12.3 seconds.

C.12.1 seconds. D. 12.4 seconds.

Kirani James – a Grenadian n the sprinter. The champion of th he 2012 Games of the XXX OlymOlyym piad in London in the 400 metres (43.94 seconds). The 2011 World Champion iin seconds), the 400 metres (44.60 second d he was 0.03 0 03 second ahead off the 2008 Olympic champion American LaShawn Merritt. Merrittt.

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79. The Games of the II and III Olympiads (1900, 1904). 80. Alvin Kraenzlein (USA). 81. 7.0 seconds. 82. Less than 7 seconds. 83. The 100-metre sprint. 84. Thomas Burke (USA). 85. 12.0 seconds. 86. 20 years 87. 1928. 88. Elizabeth Robinson (USA).. 89. 12.2 seconds.

Asafa Powell – a Jamaican sprinter. The champion of the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing in the 4x100-metre relay race. A two-time world record holder in the 100 metres – 9.77 seconds (2005) and 9.74 seconds (2007). The 2008 World Champion in the 4x100-metre relay race, a two-time bronze medallist in the 100 metres of 2007 and 2009, the silver medallist in the 4x100-metre relay race.

90. Who owns the current (as of 2015) world record in the women’s 100-metre sprint? А. Marie-José Pérec (France). B. Florence Griffith-Joyner (USA). C. Marion Jones (USA). D. Merlene Ottey(Jamaica).

91. What record result was shown by Florence Griffith-Joyner in 1988? А. 10.62 seconds. B. 10.63 seconds.

C. 10.65 seconds. D. 10.64 seconds.

92. When was the men’s 200-metre distance introduced into the Olympic programme? А. 1896. B. 1904.

C. 1900. D. 1908.

93. Who was the first Olympic champion in the men’s 200-metre sprint? А. John Walter Tewksbury (USA). B. Norman Pritchard (India). C. Stanley Rowley (Australia). D. William Joseph Holland (USA).

94. What was the winning result of the first Olympic champion in the men’s 200-metre sprint, who set an Olympic record? А. 22.2 seconds. B. 22.9 seconds.

C. 22.8 seconds. D. 22.7 seconds.

Tyson Gay – an American sprinter. A three-time world champion of 2007 in Osaka: in the 100 metres, in the 200 metres and in the 4x100-metre relay, the silver medallist in the 100 metres (2009, Berlin). Tyson Gay is the second sprinter in history after Maurice Greene who won in the 100 metres, the 200 metres and in the 4x100-metre relay in a single World Championships. He is the second fastest sprinter in the world in the 100 metres (9.69 seconds).

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95. The current (as of 2015) Olympic record in the 200-metre sprint set in 2008 belongs to Usain Bolt. Name it. А. 19.40 seconds. B. 19.35 seconds.

C. 19.30 seconds. D. 19.32 seconds.

96. Two-time Olympic champions in the men’s sprint were 11 athletes: 8 American athletes – Thomas Burke, Ralph Craig, Charles Hahn, Edward Thomas Tolan, James Owens, Robert Joe Morrow, Carlton Lewis, Michael Johnson, Canadian Percy Williams, a Soviet (Ukrainian) athlete and Usain Bolt of Jamaica. Name a Ukrainian athlete and the year, when he succeeded in the Olympic “double”. А. Viktor Bryzgin (1980). B. Aleksandr Apaychev (1984). C. Anatoliy Dovgal (2004). D. Valeriy Borzov (1972).

Yohan Blake – a Jamaican sprinter. A champion of the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London in the 4x100-metre relay race, a two-time silver Olympic medallist in the 100 metres and the 200 metres. A two-time world champion of 2011 in Daegu: in the 100 metres (9.92 seconds) after the disqualification of the world record holder Usain Bolt for a single false start and in the 4x100-metre relay.

97. When was the women’s 200-metre distance introduced into the Olympic programme? А. 1936. B. 1964.

C.1948. D. 1968.

Athl lete of the United States Athlete LaS LaShawn haw Merritt became a two-tim Olympic Champion two-time – in the 400 metres and in the 4x40 00-m 4x400-metre relay (within the tteam of his country) at the 22008 Games of the XXIX Olym mpi in Beijing. Olympiad

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90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96.

Florence Griffith-Joyner (USA). 10.62 seconds. 1900. John Walter Tewksbury (USA). 22.2 seconds. 19.30 seconds. Valeriy Borzov (1972 – the 100 and the 200 m). 97. 1948.

Sprinter from Jamaica Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce got four medals – two gold and two silver – at the Olympic Games of 2008 and 2012. She won twice in the 100 metres in Beijing (2008) and in London (2012). And also at the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad she came second in the 200 metres and competed as a member of the team of Jamaica, which ranked second in the 4x100-metre relay.

98. Who was the first Olympic champion in the woman’s 200-metre sprint? А. Audrey Williamson (Great Britain). B. Audrey Patterson (USA). C. Francina Blankers-Koen (Netherlands). D. Shirley Strickland (Australia).

99. A world record in the woman’s 200-metre sprint in 1948 belonged to Polish athlete Stanisława Wałasiewicz. What result brought her the first gold Olympic medal at this distance? А. 23.8 seconds. B. 23.6 seconds.

C. 24.4 seconds. D. 24.0 seconds.

100. In all the Olympic history of the woman’s 200-metre sprint only two athletes succeeded in becoming two-time Olympic champions. Name them. А. Allyson Felix (USA), Audrey Williamson (Great Britain). B. Allyson Felix (USA), Veronica Campbell-Brown (Jamaica). C. Bärbel Wöckel (née Eckert) (GDR), Veronica CampbellBrown (Jamaica). D. Audrey Williamson (Great Britain), Veronica CampbellBrown (Jamaica).

101. The Olympic record in the woman’s 200-metre sprint (as of 2015) set in 1988 belongs to Florence Griffith-Joyner. Name it. А. 21.44 seconds. B. 21.64 seconds.

C. 21.54 seconds. D. 21.34 seconds.

Christine Ohuruogu – a British athlete, a sprinter. The champion at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing in the 400 metres, the silver medallist of the 2012 Games at the same distance. The world champion of 2007 and 2013. A three-time bronze medallist (2005, 2007, 2013) in the 4x400-metre relay.

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102. When was the distance of 400 metres first staged in the men’s Olympic programme? А. 1896. B. 1904.

C.1908. D. 1912.

103. Thomas Burke who became the first Olympic champion in the 100-metre sprint won his second gold medal at the 1896 Games of the I Olympiad in the 400-metre sprint with an Olympic record. What was the athlete’s result? А. 54.2 seconds. B. 55.4 seconds.

C. 55.2 seconds. D. 55.6 seconds.

104. A current Olympic record in the 400-metre sprint of 43.49 seconds was set in 1996. Name the author of this record. А. Roger Black (Great Britain). B. Davis Kamoga (Uganda). C. Michael Johnson (USA). D. Alvin Harrison (US).

105. Name the “youngest” discipline among women’s Olympic sprints. А. The 500 metres. B. The 350 metres.

C. The 400 metres. D. The 440 metres.

C Carmelita Jeter – an American sprinter. The champion of tthe 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London in the 44x100-metre relay. The silver (100 metres) and the bronze ((200 metres) medallist of the 2012 Games. A three-time world champion in the 100 metres (2011) and in the w 44x100-metre relay (2007 and 2011). A three-time bronze medallist of the World Championships in the 100 metres m ((2007, 2009, 2013), the silver medallist (2011) in the 2200 metres. The silver medallist of the 2010 World Indoor Championships C hampionships in tthe 60-metre race.

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98. Francina Blankers-Koen (Netherlands). 99. 24.4 seconds. 100. Bärbel Wöckel (née Eckert) (GDR), Veronica CampbellBrown (Jamaica). 101. 21.34 seconds. 102. 1896. 103. 54.2 seconds. 104. Michael Johnson (USA). 105. The 400 metres. 106. 1964. 107. Elizabeth Cuthbert (Australia). 108. 52.0 seconds. 109. Marie-Jose Perec (1992, 1996). 110. Atlanta, 1996. 111. USA.

106. When was the distance of 400 metres first staged in the women’s Olympic programme? А. 1964. B. 1980.

C. 1972. D. 1968.

107. Who was the first Olympic champion in the woman’s 400-metre sprint? А. Ann Packer (Great Britain). B. Elizabeth Cuthbert (Australia). C. Judith Amoore (Australia). D. Antonia Munkácsy (Hungary).

108. What result allowed the first Olympic champion in the woman’s 400-metre sprint winning the gold medal and setting an Olympic record in the woman’s 400-metre sprint? А. 52.0 seconds. B. 53.4 seconds.

US athlete Allyson Felix won 6 awards (4 gold and 2 silver) at three Olympics Games (2004, 2008, 2012). In Athens (2004) she finished second in the 200 metres; in Beijing (2008) she also came second in the 200-metre race, but was awarded the gold medal in the 4x400-metre relay; in London (2012) she won three Olympic medals of the highest value – in the 200 metres and in two relays – the 4x100 metres (where the US team set a world record – 40.82 seconds) and the 4x400 metres.

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C. 52.2 seconds. D. 54.4 seconds.


109. Only one female athlete succeeded in becoming a twotime Olympic champion in the history of the woman’s 400-metre sprint. Name her. А. Cathy Freeman (2000, 2004). B. Marita Koch (1980, 1984). C. Christine Ohuruogu (2008, 2012). D. Marie-José Pérec (1992, 1996).

110. The current (as of 2015) Olympic record of 48.25 seconds in the woman’s 400-metre sprint belongs to a French athlete Marie-Jose Perec. When and where was it set? А. Seoul, 1988. B. Moscow, 1980.

C. Atlanta, 1996. D. Sidney, 2000.

111. Athletes of what country are the leaders in sprint disciplines in all the Olympic history? А. USA. B. Canada.

C. Jamaica. D. Germany (GDR).

The world’s fastest athlete of today, Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt won six Olympic gold medals. Three of those he won in Beijing at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad: in the 100 metres (with a world record – 9.69 seconds), in the 200 metres (with a world record – 19.30 seconds) and in the 4x100-metre relay (where the team of Jamaica set a world record – 37.10 seconds). Three more awards of the highest value were gained by Bolt in London at the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad: in the 100 metres (9.63 seconds), in the 200 metres (19.32 seconds) and in the 4x100-metre relay (where the team of Jamaica excelled with a world record – 36.84 seconds). And by now Usain Bolt owns two world records set by him in 2009 at the World Championships in Berlin – in the 100 metres (9.58 seconds) and in the 200 metres (19.19 seconds).

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Relay he relay race is a team competition in speed overcoming of distances segmented into legs. The relay race is a group of athletic running disciplines of a team nature. Athletes being parts of a team hand off a baton to each other after having completed their leg. The baton is a smooth one-piece hollow circular tube made of wood, metal or other solid material. The length of the baton is 28 – 30 centimetres, and its weight is not less than 50 grams. Throughout the entire relay race – from start to finish – the baton should be in the hand of one of the runners, members of a team. If the baton falls on the running lane, then only an athlete who has been the last one to hold it in his hand may pick it up, otherwise the team is disqualified. The transfer of the baton from one leg to the next one occurs in a special marked area on the running lane. The hand-off outside this zone entails disqualification of the team. The Olympic competitions in the relay race (only men’s teams) were first held at the 1908 Games of the IV Olympiad in London, where the athletics programme introduced the relay of 200 m + 200 m + 400 m + 800 m. The winner in this discipline was a team from the USA (with a world record of 3 minutes 29.4 seconds). The team was made up of the following athletes: William Hamilton, Nathaniel Cartmell, John Taylor and Melvin Sheppard who became the first Olympic champions in the relay race. The programmes of the subsequent Olympic Games did not include this type of relay any more.

T

The Relay Race. Y. Titov. 1970s. USSR.

The Relay Race. А. Kantemirov. 1983. USSR.

The Dynamics of a Relay Race. Thomas Dowdeswell. 2012. Great Britain.

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The Relay Race. M. Pereyaslavets. 1978. USSR.

Relay Race on the Moscow Ring B. A. Deyneka. 1947. USSR.


At the 1912 Games of the V O Olympiad lymp mpiiad ia in Sto Stockholm the programme of Olympic athletics competitions included two relays (men’s teams) – the 4x100 metres and the 4x400 metres for the first time. Since then both of the relays have been an invariable part of athletics competitions at the Olympic Games. In the 4x100 metre relay at the 1912 Games the winner was a team from the UK (with the result of 42.4 seconds – an Olympic record). In Stockholm the team consisted of David Jacobs, Harold Mackintosh, William Applegarth and Victor D’Arcy, who became the first Olympic champions in the men’s 4x100 metre relay. In the 4x400 metre relay at the 1912 Olympic Games, a team from the US took the lead (with the result of 3 minutes 16.6 seconds – an Olympic and a world record). The team in Stockholm consisted of Melvin Sheppard, Edward Lindberg, James Meredith, Charles Reidpath who became the first Olympic champions in the men’s 4x400 metre relay. At the 1928 Games of the IX Olympiad in Amsterdam the programme of the Olympic athletics events included the women’s 4x100 metre relay for the first time. The winner was a team of Canada (with the result of 48.4 4 seconds – an Olympic and a world record). And its members embers – Fanny Rosenfeld, Ethel Smith, Florence Bell, Myrtle yrtle Cook – became the first Olympic champions in thee wo women’s men’s 4x100 metre relay.

A sketch to the painting Relay Race. A. Deyneka. 1947. USSR.

The Relay Race. A. Shuritz. 1984. USSR.

The Relay Race. V. Rogaishis. 1964. USSR. The Relay Race. S. Sokolov. 1990. USSR.

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At the Games of three Olympiads – in Amsterdam (1928), Los Angeles (1932) and Berlin (1936) American athlete Frank Wykoff was a member of the US teams, which had gained victories in the 4х100 metre relays, thus having become a three-time Olympic champion (and each time the American squads set world records of 41.0 seсonds, 40.1 seсonds and 39.8 seсonds respectively).

American athlete Helen Stephens (left) won two gold medals in the 100-metre race and in the 4х100 metre relay (as a member of her country’s team) at the 1936 Games of the XI Olympiad in Berlin.

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At the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich the track and field programme of the Olympic competitions included the women’s 4x400 metre relay for the first time. The winner was a team of the German Democratic Republic (with the result of 3 minutes 22.95 seconds – an Olympic and a world record). And its members – Dagmar Käsling, Rita Kühne, Helga Seidler und Monika Zehrt – became the first Olympic champions in the women’s 4x400 metre relay. Competitions in the women’s 4x400 metre relay are nowadays still included into the programme of athletics competitions at the Olympic Games. The current Olympic record in the men’s 4x100 metre relay – 36.84 seconds – belongs to the Jamaican team (Nesta Carter, Michael Frater, Yohan Blake, Usain Bolt), the champions of the XXX Olympic Games in London. The current Olympic record in the men’s 4x400 metre relay – 2 minutes 55.39 seconds – belongs to the US team (LaShawn Merritt, Angelo Taylor, David Neville, Jeremy Wariner), the champions of the XXIX Olympic Games in Beijing. The current Olympic record in the women’s 4x400 metre relay – 3 minutes 15.17 seconds – belongs to the Soviet team (Tatiana Ledovskaya, Olga Nazarova, Maria Pinigina and Olga Bryzgina), the champions of the XXIV Olympic Games of 1988 in Seoul.


The 4x100 metre and the 4x400 metre men’s relays as well as the 4x100 metre and the 4x400 metre the women’s relays are today’s invariable parts of the programme amme of the World Championships in Athletics, starting from the first championship, which was held in 1983 in Helsinki (Finland). The first world champions in the 4x100 00 metre men’s relay were the US team (with the result of 37.86 seconds – a world record) with the participationn of Emmit King, Willie Gault, Calvin Smith, Carlton Lewis; is; in the 4x400 metre men’s relay it was a team from thee USSR ai Cher(Sergey Lovachev, Alexander Troshchilo, Nickolai es 00.79 netskiy, Viktor Markin) with the result of 3 minutes seconds); in the 4x100 metre the women’s relay ay – the team of the GDR (with the result of 41.76 seconds) ds) composed of Silke Gladish, Marita Koch, Ingrid Auerswald, erswald, Marlies Göhr; in the 4x400 metre the women’s relay – es 19.73 the team of the GDR (with the result of 3 minutes seconds) with the following members: Kerstin Walther, Sabine Busch, Marita Koch, Dagmar Rübsam. In the men’s 4x100 metre relay the world record cord (as of early 2015) currently belongs to the team of Jamaica in Bolt), (Nesta Carter, Michael Frater, Yohan Blake, Usain which covered the distance in 36.84 seconds at the 2012 Games in London.

A monument to Francina BlankersKoen in Rotterdam (Netherlands)

A indisputable An i di p t bl heroine h i off women’s’ track-and-fi t k d field ld events t at the th 1948 Games of the XIV Olympiad in London was 30-year old athlete from the Netherlands Francina Blankers-Koen. At her first 1936 Games in Berlin, where Blan the aathlete made her debut at the age of 18, she had not gai gained any Olympic awards (the fifth place as a part of her country’s team in the 4х100-metre relay and she shared 6th position in the high jump). And then twelve years later at the 1948 Games – after a forced twel interruption due to World War II – this athlete, with the inter nickname of The Flying Housewife given to her for her nick unusual lightness in running, did not leave a chance for unus her younger y competitors in spite of her age quite considerable for a sprinter. There she became a four-time Olympic champion in the 100 and the 200 metres, in the 80-metre cham hurdles and in the 4х100-metre relay. It is interesting to hurd note the great versatility of Blankers-Koen’s athletic talent: in London she did not take part in the Olympic high and long jump events though she was the holder of world records in these disciplines in 1948. recor

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The first Olympic gold medal was awarded to German runner of the Federative Republic of Germany Annegret Richter at the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich as a member of the FRG team winning in the 4х100-metre relay (a world record of 42.81 seconds). At the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal this athlete won her second gold medal in the 100 metres (and in the final she set a world record at this distance – 11.01 seconds, and in the same final she won with the result of 11.08 seconds), and also became the silver medallist in the 4х100-metre relay (as a FRG-team member).

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In the men’s 4x400 metre relay the world record (as of early 2015) currently belongs to the team of the USA (team members – Andrew Valmon, Quincy Watts, Harry Reynolds, Michael Johnson), which covered the distance in 2 minutes 54.29 seconds in 1993. In the women’s 4x100 metre relay the world record (as of early 2015) currently belongs to the team of the USA (Tianna Bartoletta, Allyson Felix, Bianca Knight, Carmelita Jeter), which covered the distance in 40.82 seconds at the Games of 2012. In the women’s 4x400 metre relay the world record (as of early 2015) currently belongs to the team of the USSR (Tatyana Ledovskaya, Olga Nazarova, Maria Pinigina, Olga Bryzgina), which covered the distance in 3 minutes 15.7 seconds at the Games of 1988. In addition to the above mentioned world records (outdoor) in the men’s relays of 4x100 metres and 4x400 metres and world records (outdoor) in the women’s relays of the 4x100 metres and the 4x400 metres, the IAAF official-

The team of Jamaica – the champion in the 4х400 metre relay at the Games of the XV Olympiad with a world and an Olympic record (3 minutes 03.9 seconds). From left to right: Herbert McKenley, Arthur Wint, Leslie Laing, George Rhoden.


The team of the USA (Frederick Newhouse, Benjamin Brown, Maxwell Parks, Herman Frazier) – the champion in the 4х400-metre relay at the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal.

ly registers world records (outdoor) in the men’s relays of 4x200 metres, 4x800 metres and 4x1500 metres and world rld records (outdoor) in the women’s relays of 4x200 metres, es, 4x800 metres and 4x1500 metres. Now (as of early 2015) the holders of these world reecords (outdoor) are: the men’s 4x200 metre relay – the he team of Jamaica (2014 – 1 minute 18.63 seconds); the he men’s 4x800 metre relay – the team of Kenya (2006 – 7 minutes 02.43 seconds); the men’s 4 x1500 metre relay ay – the team of Kenya (2014 – 14 minutes 22.22 seconds); s); the women’s 4x200 metre relay – the team of the USA SA (2000 – 1 minute 27.46 seconds); the women’s 4x800 00 metre relay – the team of the USSR (1984 – 7 minutes 50.17 seconds); the women’s 4x1500 metre relay – the team of Kenya (2014 – 16 minutes 33.58 seconds).

For years of her performances at several Olympic Games German sprinter from the GDR Marlies Ölsner (Göhr-Ölsner, Göhr) won four Olympic medals: 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal – gold in the 4х100-metre relay; 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad in Moscow – gold in the 4х100-metre relay and silver in the 100-metre sprint; 1988 Seoul – silver in the 4х100metre relay. She was the first female athlete in the world to complete 100 metres in less than 11 seconds (10.88 seconds in 1977).

Evelyn Ashford (USA) – the champion of the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles in the 100-metre sprint and the 4х100-metre relay, the champion of the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul in the 4х100-metre relay, the champion of the 1992 Games of the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona in the 4х100-metre relay.

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1.

What is the name of a team event, in which participants overcome stages (legs) one by one passing on turns to continue the distance from one to another? А. The relay race. B. The team race.

2.

Carlton Lewis – an American athlete, a nine-time Olympic champion (1984 – 4, 1988 – 2, 1992 – 2, 1996 – 1), a two-time champion of the 1984 and 1992 Olympic Games in the 4х100-metre relay. Two of his nine gold Olympic medals were gained in the 4х100-metre relay events as he was a member of the US teams. An eighttime world champion in sprint and the long jump (1983 – 3, 1987 – 3, 1991 – 3, 1993 – 1). A three-time world champion in the 4х100-metre relay (1983, 1987, 1991).

This discipline appeared in the USA in the end of the 19th century. Its prototype was charitable races of New York fire brigades. Firemen handed off wooden (later on - metal) cylinder 30.48-centimetre long (the length of a foot) batons from one to another every 300 metres on a distance. What track-and-field discipline is this? А. The relay race. B. The steeplechase. C. The team race. D. The torch race.

3.

A participant of the last relay leg is: А. The final. B. The concluder.

4.

C. The finisher. D. The anchor.

Athletes hand off the baton only in a designated zone. What is the length of this zone? А. 20 m. B. 15 m.

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C. The group race. D. The swedish race.

C. 25 m. D. 10 m.


Leroy Burrell – an American sprinter. The Olympic champion of the 1992 Games of the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona in the 4х100-metre relay. A twotime world champion in the 4х100metre relay (1991, 1993). The silver medallist of the 1991 World Championships in Tokyo in the 100-metre sprint.

5.

During the relay race athletes hand off a baton. What does it look like? А. A one-piece smooth hollow square-cut tube. B. A one-piece smooth hollow round-cut tube. C. A one-piece rough hollow round-cut tube. D. A one-piece smooth hollow ellipse-cut tube.

6.

What is the length of a baton? А. 280–300 mm. B. 240–290 mm.

7.

What is the external diameter of a baton? А. 25 mm. B. 30 mm.

8.

C. 40 mm. D. 35 mm.

What is the weight of a baton? А. No less than 100 g. B. No less than 50 g.

9.

C. 250–280 mm. D. 260–320 mm.

C. No less than 70 g. D. No less than 120 g.

What does NOT lead to athlete disqualification in the relay race? А. Switching to a different lane. B. Helping each other when the baton falls down. C. Running the distance on a designated lane. D. Handing off the baton out of the exchange zone.

n of o the Dennis Mitchell – an American sprinter, thee champion ona in the 4х1004 1992 Games of the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona spprint. metre relay and the bronze medallist in the 100-metre sprint. es of the XXVI XX XV VI He was the silver medallist of the 1996 Games ay. A two-time two-ttim me Olympiad in Atlanta in the 4х100-metre relay. metre relay. relayy. world champion (1991, 1993) in the 4х100-metre

Michael Marsh – an American sprinter. Am merican sprinter A two-time Olympic champion of 1992 (Barcelona) in the 200-metre sprint and in the 4х100-metre relay. The silver medallist at the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta in the 4х100-metre relay.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

The relay race. The relay race. The anchor. 20 m. A one-piece smooth hollow round-cut tube. 280–300 mm. 40 mm. No less than 50 g. Running the distance on a designated lane.

American athlete Gwendolyn Torrence gained a total of 5 medals, including в 3 gold, 1 silver and 1 bronze at two Olympic Games – in Barcelona (1992) and in Atlanta (1996). At the 1992 Games of the XXV Olympiad she won in the 200-metre sprint and was a member of two US relay teams (the 4х100metres – gold and the 4х400-metres – silver), and at the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad she claimed gold in the 4х100-metre relay and bronze in the 100-metre sprint.

10. What is the 4х100-metre relay methodology? А. Running on separate lanes during first two legs. B. Running on separate lanes during the first leg up to the closest point before entering a common lane. C. Running only on separate lanes. D. Running on separate lanes during first two legs and also partially in the third leg up to the closest point before entering a common lane.

11. What is the 4х200-metre relay methodology? А. Running on separate lanes during first two legs up to the closest point before entering a common lane. B. Any running pattern may be chosen. C. Running only on separate lanes. D. Running on separate lanes during first two legs and also partially in the third leg up to the closest point before entering a common lane.

12. What running pattern is not used in the 4х400-metre relay? А. Running on separate lanes during the first leg and also partially in the second leg up to the closest point before entering a common lane. B. Running on separate lanes during the first leg up to the closest point before entering a common lane. C. Running only on separate lanes. D. At an athlete’s discretion.

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A th At the he Games of four O Olym Olympiads in 2000, 2004, 22004 4, 2008, 2012 Jamaican sprinter Veronica V i C Campbell-Brown pb ll B captured seven medals, including 3 gold, 2 silver and 2 m bbronze. In Sydney she was “marked” with ssilver (in the 4х100-metre relay); in Athens – with two gold medals (in the 200-metre ssprint and in the 4х100-metre relay) and bbronze medal in the 100-metre sprint. Beijing bbrought her gold at the distance of 200 mettres; London gave silver in the 4х100-metre rrelay and bronze in the 100-metre sprint.


13. What relays do not require running on separate lanes? А. 4х800 m, 4х1500 m. B. 4х100 m, 4х1500 m. C. 4х800 m, 4х200 m. D. 4х200 m, 4х1500 m.

14. When was relay race introduced into the Olympic programme? А. 1896. B. 1900.

C. 1904. D. 1908.

15. Who could participate in the first Olympic relay race? А. Men. B. Women.

C. Mixed teams. D. Anyone.

16. What was the first Olympic relay race? А. 4х100 m. B. 4х400 m.

C. 200 + 200+ 400 + 800 m. D. 4х110-metre hurdles.

17. The team of what country became the first Olympic champion in the relay race? А. USA. B. Germany.

C. Hungary. D. Great Britain.

At the 1992 Games of the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona American athlete Michael Johnson was honoured with the first in his life gold medal for his victory in the 4х400metre relay as a member of the US team, which set an Olympic record of 2 minutes 55.74 seconds. Four years later at the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta this athlete won two more medals of the highest value for his victories in the 200-metre sprint (with a world record – 19.32 seconds) and in the 400-metre sprint. And at the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney he gained his fourth Olympic gold medal in the 400-metre sprint.

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10. Running only on separate lanes. 11. Any running pattern may bee chosen. 12. Running only on separate lanes. 13. 4х800 m, 4х1500 m. 14. 1908. 15. Men. 16. The 200 + 200+ 400 + 800 m. 17. USA. 18. Today the relay race is the only athletic team discipline in track-and-field programme of the largest international competitions, Olympic Games, World and European Championships. But this was not always the case. Name two team track-and-field disciplines, which used to be parts of the Olympic programme. А. The 5000-metre team race, rope climbing. B. The 5000-metre team race, the tug of war. C. The 3-mile team race, rope climbing. D. The 4-mile team race, rope climbing.

19. What is the Swedish relay race?

Five Olympic medals (four gold and one bronze) are on the account of American athlete Sanya RichardsRoss who claimed them at the Games of three Olympiads. In Athens (2004) she was a part of the US team, a champion in the 4х400-metre relay; in Beijing (2008) she also won gold in the 4х400-metre relay as well as bronze in the 400-metre sprint; in London (2012) this athlete won her gold twice – in the 400-metre sprint and in the 4х400-metre relay.

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А. 100+200+400+800 m. B. 800+400+200+100 m. C. 200+400+800+100 m. D. 400+100+200+800 m.

20. What sprint relays are included into the programme of international competitions? А. The 4х100 m and 4х400 m men’s and the women’s relay. B. The 4х110 m and 4х400 m men’s relay. C. The 4х100 m and 4х200 m the women’s relay. D. The 4 х110 m and 4х400 m men’s relay and 4х100 m and 4х400 m the women’s relay.


21. The ekiden athletic event traces its origin back to 1917, when a 516-kilometre race consisting of 23 legs was organized under the auspices of the Yomiuri Shimbun newspaper. What is the ekiden today? А. The road relay race at the marathon distance. B. The relay race on mountainous terrain. C. The relay race on cross-country terrain at the marathon distance. D. The relay race on sand grounds at the marathon distance.

22. During the relay race athletes hand off a baton. What do they hand off during the ekiden? А. A torch. B. A sash.

C. A lamp. D. A lampion.

23. When and where was the first Ekiden enn World Championship held? А. 1992, Funchal (Portugal). B. 1993, Kopenhagen (Denmark). C. 2008, Almaty (Kazakhstan). D. 1988, Budapest (Hungary).

Allyson Michelle Felix– an American sprinter, gained six Olympic medals (four gold and two silver medals). At the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad in Athens finished second in the 200-metre sprint, also ranked second at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing, but was awarded the gold medal in the 4х100metre relay (as a member of the US team); at the 2012 Games Gam Ga m of o the XXX Olympiad in London Allyson got three thre eee gold go Olympic medals: in the 200 metres and two relays rela ayys of the 4х100 metres and the 4х400 metres. An eight-time eigh ht-tim world champion (Helsinki-2005, Osaka-2007, h BerlinBerl llin- 22009, Daegu-2011) in the sprint. Five times she wass distinguished dist with the gold medals at the World Championships Cha aampi in the relay events: Osaka – 4х100 metres, met ttres, tr r 44х400 metres, Berlin – 4х400 metres, Daegu – 4х400 4х40 000 m metres and 4х400 metres.

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18. The 5000-metre team race, the tug of war. 19. 800+400+200+100 m. 20. The 4х100 m and 4х400 m men’s and women’s relay. 21. The road relay race at the marathon distance. 22. A sash. 23. 1992, Funchal (Portugal). 24. 1912, Stockholm. 25. 1928, Amsterdam. 26. USA. 27. Jamaica 28. USA – 2012, London. 29. 1983. 3. 30. USA. USAA. 31.. USSR. 31 U SR US S . SR.

24. When Whe were the men’s 4х100 and 4х400-metre relays introduce into the athletics programme of the Olympic compeduced titio titions? А. 1912, 1 Stockholm. B. 1920, 1 Antwerp.

C. 1924, Paris. D. 1928, Amsterdam.

25. Whe 2 When was the women’s relay race introduced into the athletic programme of the Olympic competitions? letics А. 1928, 1 Amsterdam. B. 1924, 1 Paris.

C. 1920, Antwerp. D. 1932, Los Angeles.

26. The team of what country has been the world leader in the 2 men’ and the women’s relay races for more than 100 years men’s th history of the discipline? in the А. U USA. B. Great G Britain. Usain Bolt (nicknamed Lightning Bolt) – a Jamaican sprinter. A six-time Olympic champion (2008 Beijing – 3 medals, 2012 London – 3 medals, of those two medals were gained in the 4х100-metre relay). An eight-time world champion (2009–2013), including three victories in the relay (2009 Berlin, 2011 Daegu, 2013 Moscow). A two-time silver medallist of the World Championships – in the 200-metre sprint and in the 4х100-metre relay (Osaka-2007).

Jamaican athlete Nesta Carter – a two-time Olympic champion (2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing and 2012 Games of the XXX X Olympiad in London – both times in the 4х100-metre relay), where thee teams of this country set their world records – 37.10 seconds (in Beijing) and 36.84 seconds (in London).

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C. USSR. D. Germany.

2 27. The team of what country is the current world leader in the men s relay races? men’s А. Jamaica. B. USA.

C. Kenya. D. Germany.


28. Who owns the current world record in the women’s 4х400metre relay race? When was it set? А. USSR – 1988, Seoul. B. The CIS United Team – 1992, Barcelona. C. USA – 2000, Sidney. D. USA – 2012, London.

29. When was the first men’s relay race held at the World Athletics Championships? А. 1983. B. 1987.

C. 1989. D. 1991.

30. The team of what country was the first world champion in the men’s 4х100-metre relay? А. USA. B. USSR.

C. Great Britain. D. Germany.

Michael Frater (Jamaica) – a two-time Olympic champion in the 4х100-metre relay: at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing (with the record shown by his country’s team – 37.10 seconds) and at the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London (where the team of Jamaica set a world record – 36.84 seconds).

31. The team of what country was the first world champion in the men’s 4х400-metre relay? А. USA. B. USSR.

C. Great Britain. ain. D. Germany.

Yohan Blake (nicknamed Beast) – a Jamaican sprinter. The Olympic champion (2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London) in the 4х100-metre relay, a two-time silver medallist (London-2012) in the 100- and 200-metre sprints. A two-time world champion (Daegu-2011) in the 100-metre sprint and in the 4х100-metre relay. A two-time world champion in the relays (4х100 metres Nassau-2014).

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H urdles urdling is a type of running competition when athletes have to jump over ten barriers which are set at certain heights, set at precisely measured distances, and have a specific pull over force, while running. The number of hurdles knocked down by a runner has no effect on the result. Passing a leg outside the hurdles will result in disqualification. For the first time the Olympic events in the 110-metre hurdles (men only) were held at the 1896 Games of the I Olympiad in Athens. Then the first Olympic champion in this track and field discipline was Thomas Curtis from the United States who overcame the distance in 17.6 seconds. At the 1900 Games of the II Olympiad in Paris the athletic programme (men only) included the 200-metre and 400-metre hurdles. At two of these distances the winner was Alvin Kraenzlein (USA): the 110-metre hurdles in 15.4 seconds; and the 200-metre hurdles in 25.4 seconds. And the first Olympic champion in the 400-metre hurdles was John Walter Tewksbury (with the result of 57.6 seconds).

H

The Jump. Henriette Brossin de Polanska. 1924. Olympic Art Contest 1920 Antwerp. Silver medal. France.

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The Greek legend. Mina Papatheodorou-Valiraki. 1992. Greece. The Hurdlers. E. Sutor. 1936 Olympic Art Contest in Berlin. Gold medal. Germany.

At the 1904 Games of the III Olympiad in St. Louis the programme kept the same three disciplines of hurdling events as at the previous Games in 1900. The 1908 Games of the IV Olympiad in London had the 110-metre and the 400-metre hurdles in track and field programme (men only), but there was no longer 200 metre hurdles. At the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad in Stockholm the track and field programme (men only) included the 110-metre hurdles but no 400-metre hurdles. Since the 1920 Games of the VII Olympiad in Antwerp and at all subsequent Olympic Games till nowadays the Olympic track and field athletic programme (men) has introduced the 110-metre and 400-metre hurdles. The Olympic events (women) in hurdles took place at the 1932 Games of the X Olympiad in Los Angeles for the first time. There the Olympic women's athletic programme introduced the 80-metre hurdles. And the first Olympic champion in this distance was Mildred Didrikson from the United States with the result of 11.7 seconds (the highest world achievement).

Towards the record. E. I. Glebova. 20th cent. USSR.

The Hurdlers. M.G. Reuter. 20th cent. USSR.

Hurdling. E. Yanson-Manizer. A. Chudina. Bronze. 1952. USSR.

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The first Olympic champion in the 110-metre hurdles was an American athlete Thomas Curtis, who overcame this distance in 17.6 seconds at the 1896 Games of the I Olympiad.

The 80-metre hurdles competitions for women were introduced into athletic programme from 1932 to 1968. At the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich the 80-metre hurdle race was replaced by the 100-metre hurdles, which remains in the programmes of the Olympiads up to this day. And the first Olympic champion in the women’s 100-metre hurdles was a German athlete of the GDR Anneliese Ehrhardt, who won in this distance with the result of 12.59 seconds (a world record). At the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles a the 400-metre hurdles event was added to the women's 100-metre hurdles. And the first Olympic champion in this competition was a Moroccan athlete Nawal El Moutawakel who overcame the 400-metre hurdles in 54.61 seconds (an Olympic record). Since then and to this day the Olympic athletic programme for women has included the 100-metre and 400-metre hurdles. The holder of the Olympic record in the men’s 110-metre hurdles today is Liu Xiang from the People's Republic of China who won at the 2004 Games of the

The hero of track and field events at the 1900 Games of the II Olympiad was an American Alvin Kraenzlein who demonstrated his multiple sports talents in Paris and became a four-time Olympic champion: he excelled in three running disciplines (60 metres, 110-metre hurdles, 200-metre hurdles), and he won in long jump with a running start.

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XXVIII Olympiad in Athens with the result of 12.91 seconds, while in the 400-metre hurdles the winner was Kevin Young from the United States who was the first with the result of 46.78 seconds at the 1992 Games of 1992 of the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona. The Olympic record holder in the women’s 100-metre hurdles is Joanna Hayes from the United States, who was the champion at the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad in Athens with the result of 12.37 seconds, and in the women’s 400-metre hurdles the winner was Jamaican athlete Melanie Walker who excelled (with the record of 52.64 seconds) at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing. In 1980 the Women's World Championships in the 400-metre hurdles was held for the first time. Sittard (Netherlands) was chosen as the venue for this event. And the first world champion in the 400-metre hurdles was German athlete of the GDR Bärbel Broschat who ran this distance in 54.55 seconds.

Harry Hillman from the United States at the 1904 Games of III Olympiad excelled in the 400-metre run, the 200-metre hurdles and the 400-metre hurdles thus becoming a three-time Olympic champion in St. Louis.

In the women’s athletics programme at the 1932 Games of the X Olympiad in Los Angeles American Mildred Didrikson showed her great athletic talent by winning two gold medals – in the 80-metre hurdles (which was the highest world achievement of 11.7 seconds) and in javelin throwing (a world record – 43 metres 69 centimetres), and the silver medal in high jumping (with the highest world achievement of 1 metre 65 centimetres).

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Percy Beard was an American athlete, the silver medallist of the 1932 Games of the X Olympiad in Los Angeles in the 110-metre hurdles (14.7 seconds).

The programme of the first World Athletic Championships that took place in 1983 in Helsinki (Finland) included competitions for men in the 110-metre and the 400-metre hurdles and competitions for women in the 100-metre and the 400-metre hurdles. The world champions in these competitions were athletes from the United States Gregory Foster (with the result of 13.42 seconds) in the men's 110-metre hurdles; Edwin Moses from the United States (with the result of 47.50seconds) in the 400-metre hurdles; German athlete from East Germany Bettine Jahn (with the result of 12.35 seconds) in the women’s 100-metre hurdles; Katherina Fesenko from the Soviet Union (with the result of 54.14 seconds) in the 400-metre hurdles. A world outdoor record holder in the men's 110metre hurdles today (as of early 2015) is Aries Merritt from the United States who ran the distance in 12.80 seconds in 2012, and Kevin Young from the United States who at the Games in 1992 overcame the dis-

Glenn Hardin was an American athlete, a champion at the 1936 Games of the XI Olympiad in Berlin in the 400-metre hurdles (52.4 seconds). A silver medallist at the 1932 Games of the X Olympiad in Los Angeles in the 400-metre hurdles, he set a world record of 51.85 seconds. At that time a winner of this race was an Irish runner Robert Tisdall who showed a record time of 51.7 seconds, which was not recognized because he hit a barrier during the run which was unacceptable for the world record ratification by the rules of the IAAF.

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tance in 46.78 seconds setting a record in the 400-metre hurdles race. The holder of the world outdoor record in the women’s 100-metre hurdles is Bulgarian athlete Yordanka Donkova who completed the distance in 12.21 seconds in 1988, and Yulia Pechyonkina from Russia Yulia Pechyonkina in the 400-metre hurdles in 2003 as she ran the distance in 52.34 seconds. Among the holders (as of 2015) of world indoor records in different distances in hurdling (men) are: Mark McKoy from Canada in the 50-metre hurdles (1986 – 6.25 seconds); Colin Jackson from Britain in the 60-metre hurdles (1994 – 7.30 seconds); at women: – Cornelia Oschkenat from the GDR in the 50-metre hurdles (1988 – 6.58 seconds); Susanna Kallur from Sweden in 60-metre hurdles (2008 – 7.68 seconds). Forrest Towns was an American athlete, a champion at the 1936 Games of the XI Olympiad in Berlin in the 110-metre hurdles (14.2 seconds). In 1936 F. Towns ran the 110-metre hurdles in 13.7 seconds, becoming the first athlete to break the 14-second mark in this race.

Richard “Dick” Attlesey was an American athlete who specialized in hurdling. He set 2 world records in 1950 in the 110-metre hurdles, 13.6 seconds and 13.5 seconds. Richard Attlesey won the 110-metre hurdles in 1950 in a championship organized by the Amateur Athletic Union.

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1.

Name the artificial obstacle made of wood and metal which is used in track and field running disciplines? A. A hurdle. B. A bar.

2.

What is the weight of an athletic hurdle? A. Not less than 5 kg. B. Not less than 10 kg.

3.

C. A parapet. D. A barrier.

C. Not more than 15 kg D. Not less than 15 kg

What force should be applied to the middle part of the top of the hurdle to knock it down? A. 3.6–4kg. B. 6kg.

C. 3kg. D. 5kg.

Australian Shirley Strickland de la Hunty won her first Olympic gold medal at the 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad in Helsinki where she excelled in the 80metre hurdles setting a world record in the finals (10.9 seconds). And four years later at the 1956 Games in of the XVI Olympiad in Melbourne this athlete won two gold medals in the 80-metre hurdles (an Olympic record of 10.7 seconds) and the 4x100-metre relay (where the Australian team set a world record in the finals – 44.5 seconds). Thus, Shirley Strickland de la Hanty became a triple Olympic champion.

American Lee Calhoun at the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad in Melbourne excelled in the 110-metre hurdles, and four years later at the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome he repeated his success by winning again at the same distance, and he became a double Olympic champion.

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4.

Does a number of hit hurdles have an impact on the result of an athlete? A. Yes. B. Only if all hurdles are knocked down. C. No. D. If 5 or more hurdles are knocked down.

5.

For what can an athlete be disqualified? A. For passing over a leg outside a hurdle. B. For hitting a hurdle. C. For falling in the distance. D. For reducing speed in front of a hurdle.

6.

What is the distance from the start line to the first hurdle in the men’s 110-metre hurdles? А. 13.72 m. B. 14.02 m.

7.

C. 13.02 m. D. 14.72 m.

What is the distance between hurdles in the men’s 110- metre hurdles? А. 9.14 m. B. 9.72 m.

At the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad in Melbourne American athlete Glenn Davis won the gold in the 400-metre hurdles, and at the next Games in 1960 in Rome the athlete repeated his triumph as four years ago in the same distance of the 400-metre hurdles and successfully performed in the 4x400-metre relay (the US team set a world record of 3 minutes 02.2 seconds) – and thus he became a three-time Olympic champion.

C. 9.00 m. D. 8.59 m.

For the world record in the 400-metre hurdles (48.1 seconds) set at the 1968 Games of the XIX Olympiad in Mexico City David Hemery from Great Britain was awarded the Olympic gold medal.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

A hurdle. Not less than 10 kg. 3.6–4 kg. No. For passing over a leg outside a hurdle. 13.72 m. 9.14 m.

8.

What is the distance from the last hurdle to the finish line in the men’s 110-metre hurdles? А. 15.00 m. B. 14.52 m.

9.

C. 14.00 m. D. 14.02 m.

What is the distance from the last hurdle to the finish line in the men’s 400-metre hurdles? А. 45 m. C. 40 m.

B. 47 m. D. 43 m.

10. What is the distance from the last hurdle to the finish line in the women’s 100 m hurdles? Maureen Caird – an Australian athlete, the champion at the 1968 Games of the XIX Olympiad in Mexico City in the women’s 80-metre hurdles (10.39 seconds, an Olympic record). M. Caird became the youngest Olympic champion in the history of athletics in individual competitions. In 1968 she was 17 years old.

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А. 13 m. B. 8.5 m.

C. 10.5 m. D. 11 m.

11. What is the distance from the last hurdle to the finish line in the women’s 400-metre hurdles? А. 35 m. B. 40 m.

C. 42.5 m. D. 45 m.

Pamela Kilborn – an Australian athlete, specializing in hurdling. The silver medallist at the 1968 Games of the XIX Olympiad in Mexico City in the hurdles (10.46 seconds) and the bronze medallist at the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo in the same distance (10.6 seconds).


12. What is the distance from the start line to the first hurdle, between the hurdles and from the last hurdle to the finish line in the women’s 100-metre hurdles? А. 13 m – 8.5 m – 10.5 m. B. 17.5 m – 8 m – 10.5 m.

C. 8.5 m – 9 m – 10.5 m. D. 22 m – 7.5 m – 10.5 m.

13. What is the distance from the start line to the first hurdle, between the hurdles and from the last hurdle to the finish line the 400-metre hurdles? А. 20 m – 40 m– 20 m. B. 90 m – 30 m – 40 m.

Karin Balzer-Richert – a German athlete (GDR), the champion at the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo in the women’s 80-metre hurdles (10.5 seconds), the bronze medallist at the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich in the women’s 100-metre hurdles (12.90 seconds). A two-time European champion of 1966 and 1969 in the 80-metre and the 100-metre hurdles respectively.

C. 95 m – 30 m – 35 m. D. 45 m – 35 m – 40 m.

14. Initially the hurdles used in running events were of the T-shape, however, because of their large traumatic risk they were replaced by L-shaped hurdles. When did this happen? A. 1924. B. 1952.

C. 1935. D. 1956.

15. How many barriers does an athlete have to overcome in the course? A. 8. B. 12.

C. 10. D. 14.

Athlete from Uganda John Akii-Bua at the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich became the Olympic champion in the 400-metre hurdles, setting a world record (47.82 seconds).

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8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

14.02 m. 40m. 10.5 m. 40 m. 13 m – 8.5 m – 10.5 m. 45 m – 35 m – 40 m. 1935. 10.

16. Men’s hurdling entered the Olympic programme bach in 1896. What was the length of the distance in which the athletes competed? A 110 m. B. 400 m.

C. 100 m. D. 120 m.

17. At the 1900 Games of the II Olympiad the programme added another type of hurdle running competitions. Which ones? A. The women’s 400-metre hurdles. B. The 200 and 400 metres. C. The women’s 100 metres. D. The women’s 400 metres.

18. When was the Olympic debut in the women’s hurdle run? A. 1928. B. 1932. Rodney Milburn was an American athlete who specialized in hurdles. The champion at the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich in the 110-metre hurdles (13.24 seconds, a world and an Olympic record).

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B. 1936. D. 1948.

19. What was the length of the first Olympic distance in the women’s hurdles? A. 50 m. B. 110 m.

C. 80 m. D. 100 m.

Guy Drut – a French athlete, the champion at the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal in the 110-metre hurdles (13.30 seconds), the silver medallist at the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich in the 110-metre hurdles (13.34 seconds). The 1974 European champion in Rome in the same distance. The 1972 European indoor champion in Grenoble in the 50-metre hurdles.


20. When was the women’s 400-metre hurdles event introduced into the Olympic track and field programme? A. 1964. B. 1968.

C. 1984. D. 1988.

21. Today women are competing at the Olympic Games in the 100-metre hurdles and in the 400-metre hurdles. When was the first event in the 100-metre hurdles introduced into the Olympic programme? A. 1968. B. 1964.

B. 1972. D. 1976.

22. In what distances do male hurdlers compete? A. 100 m and 400 m. B. 110 m and 400 m.

C. 110 m and 200 m. D. 100 m and 200 m.

23. In what distances do female hurdlers compete? A. 110 m and 300 m. B. 100 m and 400 m.

C. 110 m and 200 m. D. 100 m and 200 m.

At the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal American athlete Edwin Moses became the Olympic champion in the 400-metre hurdles, setting a world record of 47.63 seconds. And eight years later at the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles (the 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad in Moscow were skipped by US athletes as well as by some other countries because of the boycott initiated by the leaders of a number of states). Edwin Moses, who by that time established a world record in the 400-metre hurdles of 47.02 seconds, won again in this race (with the result of 47.75 seconds), thus becoming a two-time Olympic champion. At the next 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul Moses won the bronze medal in the 400-metre hurdles.

Renaldo Nehemiah – an American hurdler. A multiple world record holder of 1979– 1982. The first man to break the 13-second barrier in the 110-metre hurdles. Four times he topped the list of the best hurdlers of the world.

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16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

110 m. The 200 and 400 metres. 1932. 80 m. 1988. 1972. 110 m and 400 m. 100 m and 400 m.

24. Name the first Olympic champion in the men’s 110 m hurdles. A. Thomas Curtis (USA). B. John McLean (USA). C. Grantley Goulding (United Kingdom). D. Alvin Kraenzlein (USA).

25. What was the victorious result of the first Olympic champion in the men’s hurdles? A. 17.8 seconds. B. 17.6 seconds.

C. 17.9 seconds. D. 18.0 seconds.

26. Who was the first Olympic champion in the men’s 400-metre hurdles? A. George Orton (Canada). B. William Lewis (USA).

C. Henri Tauzin (France). D. John Walter Tewksbury (USA).

27. What was the first Olympic record in the men’s 400-metre hurdles? A. 57.6 seconds. B. 58.3 seconds.

C. 58.5 seconds. D. 58.4 seconds.

Grazyna Rabsztyn – a Polish athlete, a participant of three Olympic Games in 1972, 1976, 1980. A holder of two world records in the women’s 100-metre hurdles: 12.48 seconds (1978, repeated in 1979) and 12.36 seconds (1980).

At the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles and at the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul the fastest athlete in the 110-metre hurdles was American Roger Kingdom who became a two-time Olympic champion.

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28. When did the men’s 110-metre hurdles enter the World orld Championships programme? A. 1983, Helsinki. B. 1991, Tokyo.

C. 1987, Rome. D. 1993, Stuttgart.

29. Who became the first world champion in the men’s 110-metre metre hurdles? A. Greg Foster (USA). B. Arto Bryggare (Finland).

C. Willie Gault (USA). D. John Ridge (Great Britain).

30. What result did the champion of the first World Athletics Championships show in the 110-metre hurdles? A. 13.46 seconds. B. 13.42 seconds.

The women’s part of the Olympic athletic competitions introduced the 400-metre hurdles at the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles. The first Olympic champion in this race was Moroccan Nawal El Moutawakel with the result of 54.61 seconds, an Olympic record.

C. 13.45 seconds. D. 13.48 seconds.

31. When was the men’s 400-metre hurdles event introduced into the World Athletics Championships programme? A. 1983, Helsinki B. 1985, Rome.

C. 1991, Tokyo. D. 1993, Stuttgart.

Marina Stepanova – a Russian (Soviet) athlete specializing in the women’s 400-metre hurdles. The champion of the International Friendship Events in 1984, an alternative to the Olympic Games in Los Angeles in the 400-metre hurdles. The 1986 European Champion in Stuttgart (a world record), the winner of the 1986 Goodwill Games in the same distance. A three-time world record holder in 1976, 1986 (twice). She established her last world record at the age of 36 years and 139 days, setting a world record in the age registered in the Guinness Book of Records.

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24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31.

Thomas Curtis (USA). 17.8 seconds. John Walter Tewksbury (USA).. 57.6 seconds. 1983, Helsinki. Greg Foster (USA). 13.42 seconds. 1983, Helsinki.

32. Who was the first world champion in the men’s 400-metre hurdles? A. Harald Schmid (Germany). B. John Akii-Bua (Uganda).

C. Edwin Moses (USA). D. Kevin Young (USA).

33. What was the winning result of the first world champion in the men’s 400 metre hurdles? A. 49.03 seconds. B. 48.00 seconds.

Yordanka Donkova – a Bulgarian athlete, the champion at the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul in the women’s 100-metre hurdles (12.38 seconds, an Olympic record), the bronze medallist at the 1992 Games of the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona in the same distance (12.70 seconds). The European Champion of 1986 in Stuttgart in the 100-metre hurdles. A five-time world record holder (1986 – 12.36 seconds; 1986 – 12.35 seconds; 1986 – 12.29 seconds; 1986 – 12.26 seconds, 1988 – 12.21 seconds).

At the 1992 Games of the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona American athlete Kevin Young set a world record in the 400-metre hurdles (46.78 seconds), which brought him the gold medal. This world record remains still unbeaten.

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C. 46.61 seconds. D. 47.50 seconds.

34. Who was the first world champion and what was his result in the men’s 110 metre hurdles? A. Forrest Smithson (USA) – 15.0 seconds. B. Earl Thomson (Canada) – 14.8 seconds. C. Sten Pettersson (Sweden) – 14.8 seconds. D. Percy Bird (USA) – 14.4 seconds.


35. Who was the first world champion and what was his result in the men’s 400 metre hurdles? A. Charles Bacon (USA) – 55.0 seconds. B. Frank Loomis (USA) – 54.0 seconds. C. Sten Pettersson (Sweden) – 53.8 seconds. D. Morgan Taylor (USA) – 57.0 seconds.

36. Who was the first Olympic female champion in the 100metre hurdles? A. Valeria Bufanu (Romania). B. Karin Balzer (GDR). C. Pamela Ryan (Australia). D. Annelie Ehrhardt (GDR).

37. What was the winning result of the first Olympic champion in the women’s 100-metre hurdles? A. 12.84 seconds. B. 12.59 seconds.

Liu Xiang – a Chinese athlete, the champion at the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad in Athens in the 110-metre hurdles (12.91 seconds, an Olympic record and a repeated world record). The 2007 World champion (12.95 seconds), the silver medallist of the World Cups in 2005 (13.08 seconds) and 2011 (13.27 seconds). The bronze medallist of the 2003 World Cup (13.23 seconds). The World Indoor champion of 2008 in the 60 metres (7.46 seconds), the 2004 silver medallist (7.43 seconds), the bronze medallist of the World Indoor Championship in 2003 (7.52 seconds).

C. 12.90 seconds. D. 12.98 seconds.

38. Who was the first Olympic champion in the women’s 400metre hurdles? A. Giusy Brown (United States). B. Cristieana Cojocaru (Romania). C. Nawal El Moutawakel (Morocco). D. Pilavullakandi Usha (India).

At the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney American athlete Angelo Taylor gained his first Olympic gold medal winning the 400-metre hurdles (47.50 seconds, an Olympic record). Eight years later at the 2008 Games in Beijing the athlete won two awards of the highest value – in the 400-metre hurdles and in the 4x400-metre relay (the US team), thus becoming a three-time Olympic champion. And at the 2012 Games in London he added the silver medal in the 4x400-metre relay to his collection of Olympic medals.

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32. Edwin Moses (USA). 33. 47.50 seconds. 34. Forrest Smithson (USA) – 15.0 seconds. 35. Charles Bacon (USA) – 55.0 seconds. 36. Annelie Ehrhardt (GDR). 37.. 12.59 seconds. 38.. Giusy Brown (USA).

39. What was the first Olympic record in the women’s 400metre hurdles? A. 54.61 seconds. B. 55.20 seconds.

C. 55.41 seconds. D. 55.42 seconds.

40. When did the women’s 100-metre hurdles enter the programme of the World Championships? A. 1983, Helsinki. B. 1987, Rome.

C. 1995, Göteborg. D. 1991, Tokyo.

41. Who became the first world champion in the women’s 100-metre hurdles? Allen Johnson – an American athlete, the champion at the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta in the 110-metre hurdles (12.95 seconds). A four-time world champion in the 110-metre hurdles (1995, 1997, 2001, 2003), a two-time world indoor champion (2003, 2004) in the same distance.

A. Ginka Zagorcheva (Bulgaria) B. Ana Ambrazienė (USSR) C. Bettine Jahn (GDR) D. Kerstin Knabe (GDR).

42. What was the winning result of the first world champion in the women’s 100 metre hurdles? A. 12.62 seconds. B. 12.52 seconds.

Ginka Zagorcheva Z h – a Bulgarian B l i athlete, the world champion and the world record holder of 1987 (Rome) in the women’s 100-metre hurdles (12.25 seconds).

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C. 12.42 seconds. D. 12.35 seconds.


43. When did the women’s 400-metre hurdles enter the programme of the World Athletics Championships? A. 1983, Helsinki. B. 2003, Saint-Denis.

B. 1999, Seville. D. 1997, Athens.

44. Who was the first world champion in the women’s 400metre hurdles? A. Katerina Fesenko (USSR). B. Ana Ambrazienė (USSR). C. Ellen Neumann-Fiedler (GDR). D. Bettine Jahn (GDR).

45. What was the result of the first world champion in the women’s 400-metre hurdles? A. 54.15 seconds. B. 54.14 seconds.

C. 54.55 seconds. D. 54.45 seconds.

Aries Merritt – an American athlete, a world record holder in the 110-metre hurdles (12.80 seconds). The champion at the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London in the 110-metre hurdles. The World Indoor champion of 2012 in Istanbul in the 60-metre hurdles.

46. Who was the first world record holder and what was her result in the women’s 100-metre hurdles? A. Karin Balzer (GDR) – 13.3 seconds. B. Teresa Sukniewicz (Poland) – 13.3 seconds. C. Pamela Kilborn (Australia) – 13.3 seconds. D. Chi Cheng (Taiwan) – 12.8 seconds.

Dayron Robles – a Cuban sprinter. The champion at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing in the 110-metre hurdles (12.93 seconds). The World Indoor champion of 2010 in Doha in the 60-metre hurdles, a silver medallist of 2006 in Moscow. A world record holder in the 110-metres hurdles (12.87 seconds).

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39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51.

54.61 seconds. 1983, Helsinki. Bettine Jahn (GDR). 12.35 seconds. 1983, Helsinki. Katerina Fesenko (USSR). 54.14 seconds. Karin Balzer (GDR) – 13.3 seconds.. Krystyna Kasperczyk (Poland) – 56.51 s econds. USA. Lee Calhoun (1956, 1960) and Roger Kingdom (1984, 1988). Edwin Moses (1976, 1984). Shirley Strickland de la Hunty (1952, 1956).

47. Who was the first world record holder and what was her result in the women’s 400-metre hurdles? A. Krystyna Kasperczyk (Poland) – 56.51 seconds. B. Tatiana Storozheva (USSR) – 55.74 seconds. C. Karin Rossley (GDR) – 55.63 seconds. D. Tatiana Zheleznova (USSR) – 55.31 seconds.

48. Athletes of which country are most successful in hurdling disciplines? A. USA. B. Canada.

C. Cuba. D. France.

49. Only two athletes in history managed to win twice in the 110-metre hurdles at the Olympic Games. Name them.

Melaine Walker – a Jamaican athlete, the champion at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing, the 2009 world champion in Berlin in the women’s 400-metre hurdles.

A. Lee Calhoun (1956, 1960) and Roger Kingdom (1984, 1988). B. Allen Johnson (1996, 2000) and Gregory Foster (1984, 1988). C. Dayron Robles (2008, 2012) and Colin Jackson (1988, 1996). D. Liu Xiang (2008, 2012) and Terrence Trammell (2000, 2004).

Dawn Harper – an American athlete, the champion at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing, the silver medallist at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing in the women’s 100-metre hurdles.

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50. Three male athletes in history became two-time Olympic champions in the 400-metre hurdles: Glenn Davis (1956, 1960), Angelo Taylor (2000, 2008). Who is the third twotime Olympic champion in this event? A. Kerron Clement (2008, 2012). B. Edwin Moses (1976, 1984). C. Félix Sánchez (2000, 2004). D. Gregory Foster (1984, 1988).

51. Among female hurdlers only one athlete was lucky to become a two-time Olympic champion. Name her. A. Shirley Strickland de la Hunty (1952, 1956). B. Lyudmila Narozhilenko-Enqvist (1992, 1996). C. Michelle Perry (2004, 2008). D. Neza Biduan (1996, 2000).

Natalya Antyukh – a Russian athlete, the champion at the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London in the women’s the 400-metre hurdles, the silver medallist in the 4x400-metre relay. The 2004 Olympic silver medallist in the 4x400-metre relay, the bronze medallist in the women’s 400-metres. A two-time world champion in the 4x400metre relay (2005 – Helsinki; 2013 – Moscow), a three-time bronze medallist of the World Championships (2009, 2011 (twice)) in the 4x400-metre relay and in the 400-metre hurdles. A two-time world indoor champion in the 4x400-metre relay (2003, 2006).

Joanna Hayes – an American athlete, the champion at the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad in Athens in the women’s 100-metre hurdles with an Olympic record of 12.37 seconds.

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Middle Distances iddle-distance running is a group of running athletics disciplines at distances ranging from 800 metres to 2,000 metres inclusive. The Olympic events in middle distance running (men only) were first held at the 1896 Games of the I Olympiad in Athens. The programme introduced distances of 800 metres and 1,500 metres. The first Olympic champion in middle distance running was an Australian athlete Edwin Flack who won in the 800 metres (with the result of 2 minutes 11.0 seconds) and in the 1,500 metres (with the result of 4 min 33.2 seconds) running events. Since then and until now (1896–2012) these two distances (800 metres and 1500 metres) have been invariable to athletics programme at the Olympic Games in the men’s events. At the 1928 Games of the IX Olympiad in Amsterdam the first Olympic the women’s events were held in the 800-metres, and the first Olympic champion in this race was Karoline Radke-Batschauer from Germany winning with the result of 2 minutes 16.8 seconds (a world and Olympic record). But for the following 32 years the women’s 800-metres were not included into the Olympic programme. And it returned only in 1960 at the Games of the Olympiad in

M

Thee hippios, a middle distance race. Black-fi Th Black-figure gure ceramics (a fragment). 480–470 BC. New Hampshire, the Ashby Castle.

Running. Franz Keil. 1936. Germany.

Running. A. Samokhvalov. 1930. USSR.

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An Olympian O n breaking the tape

Running. Aleksandr Deyneka. 1933. USSR.

Rome where Ukrainian ath Rome, athlete thlete Lyud Lyudmila Shevtsova-Lysenko (USSR) excelled at this distance, winning with the result of 2 minutes 4.3 seconds (a world and Olympic record). Since then and until now the women’s 800 metres have been consistently introduced in the programme of the Olympic Games. And the Olympic competitions in the women’s 1500-metre were first held at the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich, where the first Olympic champion was Lyudmila Bragina (USSR), winning with the result of 4 minutes 1.38 seconds (a world and Olympic record). Since then and until now the women’s 1500-metres have always been a part of the programme of the Olympic Games. The only athlete who succeeded in becoming a threetime Olympic champion in middle-distance running was a New Zealander Peter Snell: at the 1960 Games he won in the 800-metre race (with the result of 1 minute 46.3 seconds – an Olympic record), and at the 1964 Games he excelled twice at the distances of 800 metres (1 minutes 45.1 seconds – an Olympic record) and 1,500 metres (3 minutes 38.1 seconds).

Running. M. Kuris. 1974. USSR.

Two Runners with the Backdrop of a City. Jean-Louis Jardley. 20th cent.

The Marathon. Steve Kuzma. 20th cent. USA.

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Seven athletes became two-time Olympic champions in middle-distance running: the above-mentioned Edwin Flack (Australia) – at the 1896 Olympic Games (800 metres – 2 minutes 11.0 seconds and 1,500 meters – 4 minutes 33.2 seconds); James Lightbody (USA) – at the 1904 Olympic Games (the 800 metres – 1 minute 56.0 seconds – then an Olympic record, and the 1,500 metres – 4 minutes 5.4 seconds – then an Olympic and world record); co ord) Melvin Sheppard (USA) – at the 1908 Games (the 80 800 00 m metres – 1 minutes 52.8 seconds, which was the highest hig ghes world achievement, the 1,500 metres – 4 minutes seconds, which was an Olympic record); Albert Hill 3.4 4 se (United (U nite Kingdom) – at the 1920 Games (800 metres – minute 53.4 seconds and the 1,500 meters – 4 minutes 1m min seconds); Douglas Lowe (United Kingdom) – at the 1.8 8 se 1924 19 924 Olympic Games (the 800 metres – 1 minutes 52.4 seconds) co onds and the 1928 Games (the 800 metres – 1 minute 51.8 51 .8 sseconds, which was an Olympic record); Malvin Whitfield fie eld ((USA) – at the 1948 Games (the 800 metres – 1 minute 49.2 seconds – then an Olympic record) and the 1952 nu te 4 Games Ga ame (the 800 metres –1 minute 49.2 seconds, a repetitio tion on o of his own Olympic record); Sebastian Coe (Great Britain) ain n) – at the 1980 Games (the 1500 metres – minutes 38.40 seconds) and the 1984 Games 3m minu (the 1,500 metres – 3 minutes 32.53 seconds). (th he 1

Edwin Flack – the champion in the 800-metre (2 minutes 11.0 seconds) and the 1500-metre distances (4 minutes 33.2 seconds) at the 1896 Games of the I Olympiad in Athens.

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At the 1900 Games of the II Olympiad in Paris Alfred Tysoe (Great Britain) became a double Olympic champion: a personal victory in the 800 metres was added up to a victory in the team race of 5,000 metres.


A two-time Olympic champion at the 1900 Games in Paris was British athlete Charles Bennett – at the distance of 1500 metres and in the 5000-metre team event.

Additionally one should mention such athlete as Alberto Juantorena (Cuba) who became a double Olympic champion, having won in one of middle distances – in the 800-metre race (with the result of 1 minute 43.50 seconds – a world and Olympic record) and in the “long sprint” distance – the 400 metres (44.26 seconds) at the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal. The only female athlete who was able to become a threetime Olympic champion in middle-distance running was Tatyana Kazankina (USSR): at the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad she won twice at the distances of 800 metres (with the result of 1 minute 54.94 seconds – a world and Olympic record) and 1,500 metres (with the result of 4 minutes 5.48 seconds), and at the 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad she took priority at the distance of 1,500 metres (with the result of 3 minutes 56.56 seconds – an Olympic record). Two female athletes became two-time Olympic champions in middle-distance running: Svetlana Masterkova (Russia) – at the 1996 Games (the 800 metres – 1 minute 57.73 seconds and 1500 metres – 4 minutes 0.83 seconds); Kelly Holmes (Great Britain) – at the 2004 Olympic Games (800 metres – 1 minute 56.38 seconds and 1,500 metres – 3 minutes 57.90 seconds). The holder of the current Olympic record in the men’s 800-metre race is now David Rudisha from Kenya who won at this distance at the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London with the result of 1 minute 40.91 seconds.

Three victories at the Olympic Games of 1904 in St. Louis – at the distances of 800 metres, 1500 metres and in 2,590-metre steeplechase – were gained by American James Lightbody.

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US runner Melvin Sheppard – a four-time Olympic champion: at the 1908 Games of the IV Olympiad in London he won three gold medals – in the 800 metres (with a world record of 1 minute 52.8 seconds), in the 1,500 metres and in the relay of 200 + 200 + 400 + 800 metres as a member of his country’s team (where Sheppard ran the final leg); at the following 1912 Games of the V Olympiad in Stockholm this athlete gained two more awards – gold (in the 4x400-metre relay, where the US team set a world record of 3 minutes 16.6 seconds) and silver (in the 800 metres).

The holder of the current Olympic record in the men’s 1500-metre race is now Noah Ngeny from Kenya who came first at this distance at the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney. His result was 3 minutes 32.07 seconds. The current holder of the Olympic record in the women’s 800-metre race is Ukrainian athlete Nadezhda Olizarenko (USSR) who won at this distance with the result of 1 minute 53.43 seconds at the 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad in Moscow. And the owner of the current Olympic record in the women’s 1,500-metre is Paula Ivan from Romania who excelled at this distance with the result of 3 minutes 53.96 seconds at the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul. The competitions in the 800- and 1,500-metre men’s running events and the women’s running events are included into the programme of the World Athletics Championships starting from the first one, which took place in 1983 in Helsinki (Finland). There the first world champions in the middle distance events were: the 800 metres (men) – a German athlete of the FRG Wilhelm Wülbeck (1 minute 43.65 seconds); the 1,500 metres (men) – Stephen Cram from Great

US athlete James Edwin Meredith was awarded two gold medals for his victory in the 800-metre race (with the world record – 1 minute 51.9 seconds) and in the 4x400-metre relay as a member of his country’s team setting a world record – 3 minutes 16.6 seconds) at the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad.

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Albert George Hill from the UK became a double Olympic champion winning in the 800- and 1,500-metre running events, and he also won a silver medal in team race in the 3000 metres at the 1920 Games of the VIII Olympiad in Antwerp.

Britain (3 minutes 41.59 seconds); the 800 metres (women) – Jarmila Kratochvílová of Czechoslovakia (1 minute 54.68 seconds); the 1,500 metres (women) – Mary Teresa Slaney (née Decker) from the USA (4 minutes 0.90 seconds). The owner of the current (as of early 2015) world record in the men’s 800-metre race (outdoors) is the athlete already mentioned before – David Rudisha from Kenya who excelled with the result of 1 minute 40.91 seconds at the 2012 Games. And the current owner (as of early 2015) of the world outdoor record in the men’s 1,500-metre race is a Moroccan athlete Hicham El Guerrouj who covered this distance in 3 minutes 26.00 seconds in 1998. The current owner (as of early 2015) of the world outdoor record in the women’s 800-metre is the athlete alreadyy mentioned before – Jarmila Kratochvílová of Czechoslo-d vakia with her result of 1 minute 53.28 seconds achieved in 1983.

A German athlete Karoline Radke-Batschauer (pictured in the centre) became the champion in the women’s 800 metres setting a new world record (2 minutes 16.8 seconds) at the 1928 Games of the IX Olympiad. She surpassed her own previous achievement by 2.8 seconds.

Douglas Lowe from the UK was twice the strongest athlete in the 800-metre race at the VIII Olympic Games in Paris in 1924 and at the IX Olympic Games in Amsterdam in 1928.

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1.

What running disciplines in the track and field belong to middle distances? А. Up to 1000 m. B. Up to 5000 m.

2.

C. Above 400 m up to 3000 m. D. Up to 2000 m.

What start is used in the 800-metre race? А. The crouch start. B. The high start with separate starting positions. C. The high start off the bow-shaped line. D. The crouch start off the starting blocks.

3. Thomas Hampson – a British runner. The champion of the 800-metre race at the 1932 Games of the X Olympiad in Los Angeles, the silver medallist in the 4x400 metre relay.

At the end of the first curve in the 800-metre race runners must enter the common lane and run the remaining part of the distance alongside. What distance should runners cover before entering the common lane? А. 115 m. B. 120 m.

4.

When did the 800-metre race become a part of the Olympic programme? А. 1900. B. 1904.

New Zealander John Lovelock excelled in the 1,500-metre race with a world record (3 minutes 47.8 seconds) at the 1936 Games of the XI Olympiad in Berlin.

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C. 200 m. D. 150 m.

C. 1920. D. 1896.


Canadian athlete Philip Edwards won a total of five medals participating in three Olympic Games (Amsterdam – 1928, Los Angeles – 1932, Berlin – 1936). But all medals were bronze: one in Amsterdam – in the 4x400-metre relay; three in Los Angeles – in the 800- and 1,500-metre running events and in the 4x400-metre relay; the one in Berlin – at the distance of 800 metres.

5.

Who was the first Olympic champion in the 800-metre race? А. Edwin Flack (Australia). B. Arthur Blake (USA). C. Nandor Dani (Hungary). D. Dimitrios Golemis (Greece).

6.

What was the result of Edwin Flack in the 800-metre race at the Games of the I Olympiad? А. 2 min 20.0 seconds. B. 2 min 00.0 seconds.

7.

When did the 800-metre women’s event become a part of the Olympic programme? А. 1932, Los Angeles. B. 1928, Amsterdam.

8.

C. 2 min 05.0 seconds. D. 2 min 11.0 seconds.

C. 1936, Berlin. D. 1948, London.

Who was the first Olympic female champion in the 800metre race? А. Kinue Hitomi (Japan). B. Karoline Radke-Batschauer (Germany). C. Inga Gentzel (Sweden). D. Jenny Thompson (Canada).

Gunder Hägg – a Swedish runner who specialized in the middle distances. A multiple world record holder. He became the first athlete in the world to run 5,000 metres in less than 14 minutes.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Above 400 m Up to 3,000 m. The high start with separate starting positions. 115 m. 1896. Edwin Flack (Australia). 2 min 11.0 seconds. 1928, Amsterdam. Karoline Radke-Batschauerr (Germany).

9.

Name the oldest world record and its author in trackand-field disciplines introduced in the programme of the Olympic Games. А. 1 min 53.28 s, Jarmila Kratochvílová (800 metres). B. 4 min 05.01 s, Lyudmila Bragina (1,500 metres). C. 3 min 50.46 s, Qu Yunxia (1,500 metres). D. 3 min 26.00 s, Hicham El Guerrouj (1,500 metres).

10. When was the oldest current world record in track and field disciplines set? А. 1983. B. 1985.

C. 1980. D. 1984.

11. An athletics discipline, a part of the middle distances running programme, which has been included into the programme of the Olympic Games since 1896, also as a part of the athletics decathlon. А. The 1,200-metre race. B. The 1,500-metre race.

C. The 800-metre race. D. The 3,000-metre race.

12. Since when has the 1500-metre women’s event been included into the Olympic programme? А. 1964. B. 1968.

US athlete Malvin Whitfield got two gold medals at the 1948 Games of the XIV Olympiad in London – in the 800-metre race and in the 4x400-metre relay (as a member of the US team). Four years later – at the 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad in Helsinki – the athlete was first again in the 800 metres, thus becoming a three-time Olympic champion. Michel Jazy (France) – the silver medallist of the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome in the 1,500 metres (3 minutes 38.4 seconds), the 1962 champion of Europe in the 1,500 metres (3 minutes 40.9 seconds). He also excelled in the 5,000 metres (13 minutes 42.8 seconds) at the 1966 European Championships.

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C. 1972. D. 1976.


13. Who was the first Olympic female champion in the 1,500-metre race? А. Gunhild Hoffmeister (GDR). B. Lyudmila Bragina (USSR). C. Paola Cacchi (née Pigni) (Italy). D. Karin Krebs (née Burneleit) (GDR).

Thomas “Tom” Courtney – an American middle distance runner, a two time olympic champion at 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad in Melbourne in 800 metres (1 minute 47,7 seconds, olympic record) and 4x400 relay.

14. Three athletes an Englishman Douglas Lowe (1924, 1928), an American Malvin Whitfield (1948, 1952), a New Zealander Peter Snell (1960, 1964) won two Olympic gold medals each in the 800-metre race. And only one athlete managed to win two gold medals in the 1500-metre race. Name him. А. Sebastian Coe (1980, 1984). B. Pekka Vasala (1972, 1976). C. Jurgen Straub (1980, 1984). D. David Rudisha (2008, 2012).

15. There was the only female athlete who managed to get gold medals at two Olympic Games in the same middle distance event – 1,500 metres. Name her. А. Tatyana Kazankina (1976, 1980). B. Lyudmila Bragina (1972, 1980). C. Lyudmila Shevtsova-Lysenko (1960. 1964). D. Nouria Merah-Benida (2000, 2004).

Ralph Doubell – an Australian athlete, gold medallist at the 1968 Games of the XIX Olympiad in Mexico City in the 800 metres (1 minute 44,3 seconds).

Herbert “Herb” Elliott – an Australian aan n athlete, one of the worlds greatest middle distance tance runners. At the 1960 Games of the XVI Olympiad piad in Rome won the 1,500 metres gold medal in world record time (3 minutes 35,6 seconds).

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9.

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Rus Russian athlete Lyudmila Bragina (USSR) came to Munich for the Games (US of the t XX Olympiad in 1972 as a world record holder in the women’s 1,500 reco metres – 4 minutes 6.9 seconds. The met Olympic events at this distance were Oly held in three stages: preliminary heats, sem semi-finals and finals. And in each of her three performances Bragina was sett setting a new world record, and her bes best result was in the final – 4 minutes 1.38 seconds.

1 min 53.28 s, Jarmila Kratochvílová (the 800 metres). 1983. The 1,500-metre race. 1972. Lyudmila Bragina (USSR). Sebastian Coe (1980, 1984).) Tatyana Kazankina (1976, 1980).

16. Three female athletes managed to win the gold medals in middle distance running. Those were Russian runners Tatyana Kazankina and Svetlana Masterkova and their British colleague. Name her. А. Kelly Holmes. B. Anne Smith.

C. Nouria Merah-Benida. D. Kenenisa Bekele.

17. Who set the first world record in the men’s 800 metres? And when? А. Ted Meredith, 1912. B. Otto Peltzer, 1926. C. Tommy Hampson, 1932. D. Ben Eastman, 1934.

18. Name the result of the first official world record in the 18 men’s 800 metres? А. 1 min 51.9 seconds. B. 1 min 52.4 seconds.

C. 1 min 53.0 seconds. D.1 min 54.0 seconds.

19. When were the competitions in the men’s 800 metres first 19 held at the World Athletics Championships? А. 1983, Helsinki. B. 1985, Rome.

New Zealand athlete Peter Snell won the gold medal in the 800-metre race at the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome. And four years later – at the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo – he achieved another two victories at the distances of 800 and 1,500 metres, becoming a three-time Olympic champion.

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C. 1991, Tokyo. D. 1993, Stuttgart.


Several runners succeeded to win Olympic gold medals in both middle distance events – the 800 and 1,500 metres: Australian Edwin Flack (1896), Americans James Lightbody (1904) and Melvin Sheppard (1908), Englishman Albert Hill (1920) and Peter Snell of New Zealand (1964).

20. Name the first world champion in the men’s 800 metres. А. Rob Druppers (Netherlands). B. Willi Wülbeck (Germany). C. Joaquim Cruz (Brazil). D. Sebastian Coe (Great Britain).

21. What was the winning result in the men’s 800 metres at the first World Athletics Championships? А. 1 min 44.20 seconds. B. 1 min 44.27 seconds.

C. 1 min 43.65 seconds. D. 1 min 44.0 seconds.

David Wottle – an American athlete who specialized in the 800 metres. The Olympic champion of 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in the 800-metre race (1 minute 45.86 seconds).

22. Who set the first world record in the men’s 1,500 metres? And when? А. John Zander, 1917. B. Paavo Nurmi, 1924.

C. Albert Kiviat, 1912. D. Otto Peltzer, 1926.

23. Name the result of the first official world record in the men’s 1,500 metres. А. 3 min 56.8 seconds. B. 3 min 67.1 seconds.

C. 3 min 56.0 seconds. D. 3 min 55.8 seconds.

Pekka Vasala – a Finnish athlete, a middle distance runner. Won the Olympic gold medal in the 1,500 metres at the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich (3 minutes 36,3 seconds) ahead of the legendary Kip Keino.

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16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

Kelly Holmes. Ted Meredith, 1912. 1 min 51.9 seconds. 1983, Helsinki. Willi Wülbeck (Germany). 1 min 43.65 seconds. Albert Kiviat, 1912. 3 min 55.8 seconds.

Nadezhda Olizarenko – a Soviet middle distance runner. The 1980 Olympic champion in the 800-metre race. The bronze medallist of the 1980 Games in the 1,500 metres. A world record holder in the 800-metre race, a world record holder in the 4x800-metre relay race. The 1986 European Champion in the 800 metres, a two-time silver medallist (1978 – the 800 metres and the 4x400metre relay). The silver medallist at the European Indoor Championships (1985 – the 800 metres).

24. When were the competitions in the men’s 1,500 metres first held at the World Athletics Championships? А. 1983, Helsinki. B. 1997, Athens.

C. 1991, Tokyo. D. 1993, Stuttgart.

25. Name the first world champion in the men’s 1,500 metres. А. Steve Scott (USA). B. Saїd Aouita (Morocco). C. Steve Cram (Great Britain). D. Sebastian Coe (Great Britain).

26. What was the winning result in the men’s 1,500 metres at the first World Athletics Championships? А. 3 min 41.59 seconds. B. 3 min 41.87 seconds.

C. 3 min 42.08 seconds. D. 3 min 42.10 seconds.

27. Who set the first world record in the women’s 800 metres? And when? А. Mary Lines (Great Britain), 1922. B. Georgette Lenoir (France), 1922. C. Lina Radke (Germany), 1927. D. Inga Gentzel (Sweden), 1928.

Cuban athlete Alberto Juantorena won in the 400-metre and 800-metre (a world record d – 1 minute 43.50 seconds) running events, becoming a two-time Olympic champion in Montreal at the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad.

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Alberto Juantorena. Mina Papatheodorou-Valyraki. 20th cent. Greece.


British athlete Sebastian Coe won the gold medal in the 1,500 meters and the silver medal in the 800 metres at the 1980 Games mess of the XXII Olympiad in Moscow. At the following 1984 Gamess of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles he repeated his previous success: once again he became the champion in the 1,500-metree race (thus becoming a two-time Olympic champion) and he also won the silver medal at the distance of 800 metres. Today Seb Coe is the Vice-President of the International Association off Athletics Federations (IAAF).

28. Name the first world record in the women’s 800 metres. А. 2 min 22.6 seconds. B. 2 min 23.8 seconds.

C. 2 min 30.4 seconds. D. 2min 20.4 seconds.

29. When were the competitions in the women’s 800 metres first held at the World Athletics Championships? А. 1983, Helsinki. B. 1987, Rome.

C. 1991, Tokyo. D. 1993, Stuttgart.

30. Name the first world champion in the women’s 800 metres. А. Jarmila Kratochvílová (Czechoslovakia). B. Lyubov Gurina (USSR). C. Yekaterina Podkopayeva (USSR). D. Doina Melinte (Romania).

31. What was the winning result in the women’s 800 metres at the first World Athletics Championships? А. 1 min 56.11 seconds. B. 1 min 54.68 seconds.

C. 1 min 57 seconds. D. 1 min 57.59 seconds.

Stephen Cram – a participant of the Games of three Olympiads (1980, 1984, 1988), the silver medallist of the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles, the world champion (1983) in the 1,500-metres, a world record holder in the 1,500 metres, the 2,000 metres and the 1-mile race.

Steve Ovett – an outstanding British middle distance runner. The 1980 Olympic champion in the 800 metres and the bronze medallist in the 1,500 metres. A 1978 European champion in the 1,500-metre race – 3 minutes 35.59 seconds. The silver medallist of the 1974 European Championships (1 minute 45.76 seCha conds) and the 1978 Championships cond ((1 minute m 44.09) in the 800-metre rrace. A two-time world record holder race – 1983 19 in the 1,500-metre race (33 minutes m 30.77 seconds) and 1981 19 981 in the 1-mile race (3 minutes 48.40 48.4 48 4 seconds).

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24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31.

1983, Helsinki. Steve Cram (Great Britain). 3 min 41.59 seconds. Georgette Lenoir (France), 1922. 2 min 30.4 seconds. 1983, Helsinki. Jarmila Kratochvílová (Czechoslovakia). 1 min 54.68 seconds.

Russian athlete Tatyana Kazankina (USSR) won two gold medals at the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal – in the 800 metres (with a world record – 1 minute 54.94 seconds) and the 1,500 metres, and the third gold medal was earned at the 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad in Moscow (in the 1,500 metres). Thus she became a three-time Olympic champion.

32. Who set the first world record in the women’s 1,500 metres? And when? А. Anne Smith (Great Britain), 1967. B. Maria Gommers (Netherlands), 1967. C. Paola Cacchi (nee Pigni) (Italy), 1969. D. Jaroslava Jehličková (Czechoslovakia), 1969.

33. Name the first official world record in the women’s 1,500 metres. А. 4 min 15.6 seconds. B. 4 min 12.4 seconds.

C. 4 min 17.3 seconds. D. 4 min 15.8 seconds.

34. When were the competitions in the women’s 1,500 metres first held at the World Athletics Championships? А. 1983, Helsinki. B. 1999, Seville.

C. 1991, Tokyo. D. 1993, Stuttgart.

35. Name the first world champion in the women’s 1,500 metres. А. Zamira Zaytseva (USSR). B. Gabriella Dorio (Italy). C. Yekaterina Podkopayeva (USSR). D. Mary Decker (USA).

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Wilson Kipketer – a Danish athlete of the Kenyan origin who specialized in the 800-metre race. A three-time world champion (1995, 1997, 1999) and the 1997 world indoor champion. The Olympic silver medallist at the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad and a bronze medallist at the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad. For more than 13 years (1997–2010) he had owned a world record in the 800 metres. The 2002 European Champion.


36. What was the winning result in the women’s 1,500 metres at the first World Athletics Championships? А. 4 min 01.19 seconds. B. 4 min 02.25 seconds.

C. 4 min 00.90 seconds. D. 4 min 03.25 seconds.

37. When was the first world record in the men’s 800-metre race ratified by the IAAF? А. 1912. B. 1913.

Russian runner Svetlana Masterkova became a two-time Olympic champion at the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta at the distances of 800 and 1,500 metres.

C. 1914. D. 1915.

38. Two athletes succeeded in setting three world records in the men’s 800-metre race in over a 100-year history of the discipline. Name these two outstanding athletes. А. Wilson Kipketer (Denmark) and David Rudisha (Kenya). B. Sebastian Coe (Great Britain) and Alberto Juantorena (Cuba). C. Peter Snell (New Zealand) and Alberto Juantorena (Cuba). D. Peter Snell (New Zealand) and David Rudisha (Kenya).

Noureddine Morceli – an Algerian athlete, a triple world champion. The champion of the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta in the 1,500 metres (3 minutes 35.78 seconds), a triple world champion in the same distance (1991, 1993, 1995). He set seven world records in various middle distances.

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32. Anne Smith (Great Britain), n)), 1967. 33. 4 min 17.3 seconds. 34. 1983, Helsinki. 35. Mary Decker (USA). 36. 4 min 00.90 seconds. 37. 1912. arrk) 38. Wilson Kipketer (Denmark) y ya). and David Rudisha (Kenya). riitain) 39. Sebastian Coe (Great Britain) C Cuba). and Alberto Juantorena (Cuba). 40. Nina Otkalenko. n))), 41. Steve Ovett (Great Britain), Gunder Hägg (Sweden). 42. 1967. 43. 4 min 17.3 seconds. 44. Lyudmila Bragina and Tatyana Kazankina.

British athlete Kelly Holmes won two Olympic gold medals in the women’s 800 and 1,500 metres at the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad in Athens.

39. Two athletes managed to set two world records in the history of the men’s 800 metres. Name them. А. Wilson Kipketer (Denmark) and David Rudisha (Kenya). B. Sebastian Coe (Great Britain) and Alberto Juantorena (Cuba). C. Peter Snell (New Zealand) and Alberto Juantorena (Cuba). D. Peter Snell (New Zealand) and David Rudisha (Kenya).

40. A Soviet runner of the 60s of the 20th century was the most successful contestant in the women’s 800-metre race. Name her. А. Lyudmila Shevtsova. B. Tatyana Kazankina.

C. Valentina Gerasimova. D. Nina Otkalenko.

41. In the history of the discipline there were two athletes who became triple-record holders in the men’s 1500-metre race. Name them. А. Sebastian Coe (Great Britain), Gunder Hägg (Sweden). B. Steve Ovett (Great Britain), Gunder Hägg (Sweden). C. Olavi Salsola (Finland), Steve Ovett (Great Britain). D. Steve Ovett (Great Britain), Herbert Elliott (Australia).

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42. When did the IAAF first ratify records in the women’s 1500-metre race? А. 1966. B. 1967.

C. 1968. D. 1964.

43. Anne Smith was the first official record holder in the women’s 1,500-metres race. Name the first official world record in this discipline. А. 4 min 18.0 seconds. B. 4 min 16.3 seconds.

C. 4 min 17.3 seconds. D. 4 min 17.9 seconds.

44. Soviet female athletes of the 1970’s –1980’s set a great number of world records in the women’s 1,500-metre race. Name them. А. Nadezhda and Tatyana Kazankina. B. Lyubov Smolka and Tatyana Samoylenko. C. Lyudmila Bragina and Tatyana Kazankina. D. Lyudmila Bragina and Tatyana Samoylenko.

Moroccan athlete Hicham El Guerrouj gained two gold medals by winning in the 1,500- and 5,000-metre at the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad in Athens. Previously the Moroccan athlete had a silver medal in the 1,500-metre race at the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney. His world record in the 1,500 metres (3 minutes 26.00 seconds) set in summer of 1998 remains unbeaten up till now.

A Kenyan athlete David Rudisha set a world record in the 800 metres (1 minute 40.91 seconds), which brought an Olympic gold medal to him at the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London. No one was able to beat this world record yet.

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Long Distances ong-distance running, or endurance running, is a group of continuous running disciplines over distances ranging from 3,000 metres to 10,000 metres included. For the first time the Olympic programme involved long-distance running (men only) at the 1900 Games of the II Olympiad in Paris, it was a 5,000-metre team run, where a winning team was determined by the lowest sum of the top places taken by the members of the team. That competition was won by the team of Great Britain/Australia. At the 1908 Games of the IV Olympiad in London the track and field programme included the 3-mile race (corresponding to 4,828 metres) for men only. At the same 1908 Games of the IV Olympiad in London the track and field events were held in the individual 5 miles (8,046.57 m) competitions. In this distance the Olympic champion was Emil Voigte from Great Britain with the result of 25 minutes 11.2 seconds.

L

A. Sais, or Running Footman. Leopold Muller. 1878. Germany.

The Distance Covered. Sergey Laisk. 21st cent. Russia.

The Running Clock Sculpture, Glasgow, Great Britain. 21st cent.

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An antique bronze statue of a runner from the Villa of the Papyri, Ercolano, Italy.


Long-distance (dolichos) runners. Attic. Black-figure ceramics. 333 BC. London. British museum.

The Olympic events in the 5,000-metre and 10,000-metre distances (men only) were first held at the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad in Stockholm. There, Hannes Kolehmainen from Finland became the first Olympic champion in the 5,000-metres (with the result of 14 minutes 36.6 seconds – the highest world achievement) and the first Olympic champion in the 10,000 metres (with the result of 31 minutes 20.8 seconds, an Olympic record ). Since then and until now, the men’s competitions in the 5,000 metres and the 10,000 metres have always been introduced in the programme of the Olympic Games. At the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad in Stockholm there was such track and field athletic event as the men’s 3,000-metre long-distance run. The team 3,000-metre run (men only) was included into the Olympic programme at the 1920 Games at the VII Olympiad in Antwerp (where the US team won) and at the 1924 Games of the VIII Olympiad in Paris (where the team from Finland excelled). The competitions for women in long-distance running were included into the Olympic programme at the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles for the first time. There the first female Olympic champion in the 3,000-metre race was Maricica Puică from Romania who covered this distance in 8 minutes 35.96 seconds (an Olympic record).

Post men running with postal articles. 1850's.

An antique bronze statue of a runner from the Villa of the Papyri, Ercolano, Italy.

Training. A. D. Shurits. 1984. USSR.

At the Stadium. Poster. 1930-s. USSR.

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The Winner. A. A. Okladnikov. 1970. USSR.

At the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad iad in Seoul the distance of 10,000 metres was added to the 3 3,000 000 metres in the women’s athletics programme. The first female Olympic champion in the 10,000-metre event was Olga Bondarenko (USSR) – with the result of 31 minutes 05.21seconds (an Olympic record). And at the 1992 Games of the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona women competed in 3,000-metre and 10,000-metre long-distance races. At the 1996 Games of XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta the women’s track and field programme kept the 10,000-metre race, but the 3,000-metre distance was replaced with the distance of 5,000 metres. The first Olympic champion in the women’s 5,000 metres was Wang Jun of the People’s Republic of China who won with the result of 14 minutes 59.88 seconds (an Olympic record). Since then and until now the women’s competitions in the 5,000 metres and in the 10,000 metres have always been introduced into the programme of the Olympic Games. The holder of the current Olympic record in the men’s 5,000-metre race is Kenenisa Bekele from Ethiopia who won with the result of 12 minutes 57.82 seconds at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing.

Two Women Running on the Beach (The Race). Pablo Picasso. 20th cent. France – Spain.

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The holder of the Olympic record in the men’s 10,000-metre race today is the same Kenenisa Bekele (Ethiopia) who took priority in this distance at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing with the result of 27 minutes 01.17 seconds. The holder of the Olympic record today in the women’s 5,000 metres is Gabriela Szabo of Romania who won this distance with the result of 14 minutes 40.79 seconds at the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney, while the 10,000-metre distance was conquered by Tirunesh Dibaba from Ethiopia who excelled in this distance at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing with the result of 29 minutes 54.66 seconds. The first World Championships in the women’s 3,000metre run took place in 1980, and the venue for the event was Sittard (Netherlands). There the first world champion in this distance was Birgit Friedmann from West Germany with the result of 8 minutes 48.05 seconds. The programme of the first World Athletics Championships held in 1983 in Helsinki, Finland (as well as the next world championships) introduced two long-distance races of 5,000 metres and 10,000 metres. The first world champion in the 5,000 metres was Eamonn Coghlan from Ireland (13 minutes 28.53 8.53 seconds). And the first world champion in the 10,000 00 metres was Alberto Cova from Italy (28 minutes 01.04 4 seconds).

The Running Man. Kazimir Malevich. 1920. USSR.

Graphic of Roches-Brunes. Hans Erni. 2005. Switzerland. Running. Fedor Konnov. 1950-s. USSR.

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George Daunis was a British athlete, a twotime world record holder in the 5,000-metre distance in 1897 (16 minutes 34.6 seconds) in Paris and in 1899 (16 minutes 29.2 seconds) in London. Both records are ratified by the IAAF.

Charles Bennett was a British athlete, a double champion at the 1900 Games of the II Olympiad in Paris in the 1,500 metres (4 minutes 06.2 seconds – a world and Olympic record) and in the 5,000-metre team race, the silver medallist in the 4,000-metre steeplechase (12 minutes 58.6 seconds). A world record holder in the 1,500 metres and the 5,000 metres – 4 minutes 06.2 seconds and 15 minutes 12.0 seconds respectively (1900).

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The competitions in the women’s 10,000 metres have been included into the World Athletics Championships programme since the second Championships held in 1987 in Rome (Italy). There the first female world champion in the 10,000 metres became Ingrid Kristiansen from Norway (31 minutes 05.85 seconds). The women’s programme of the World Athletics Championships included the event of 5,000 metres instead of 3,000 metres at the V World Championships held in 1995 in Göteborg (Sweden). There the first world female champion in the 5,000 metres became Sonia O’Sullivan from Ireland (14 minutes 46.47 seconds). The holder of the current (as of early 2015) world record in the men’s 3,000 metres (outdoors) is Daniel Komen from Kenya who completed this distance in 7 minutes 20.67 seconds in 1996, and the current record holder in the 5,000 metres (outdoors) is Kenenisa Bekele of Ethiopia who ran this distance in 12 minutes 37.35 seconds in 2004. The same Kenenisa Bekele is the current holder (as of early 2015) of the world record in the 10,000 metres. In 2005 the athlete from Ethiopia ran this distance in 26 minutes 17.53 seconds.

Alfred Shrubb was an English middle and long distance runner. The year of 1904 was the most successful for Alfred, he set world records in the 5,000 metres (44 minutes 59.0 seconds), 10,000 metres (31 minutes 02.4 seconds), 6 miles (29 minutes 59.4 seconds), one-hour run (18.742 kilometres). He often competed in the relays and against famous racehorses.


Today the holder of the current (as of early 2015) world record in the women’s 3,000 metres (outdoors) is Wang Jun from the People’s Republic of China who covered this distance in 8 minutes 06.11 seconds in 1993, and in the women’s 5,000 metres (outdoors) is Tirunesh Dibaba from Ethiopia who showed the result of 14 minutes 11.15 seconds in 2008. And the current (as of early 2015) world record holder in the women’s 10,000-metre run (outdoors) is already mentioned Wang Jun (China) who overcame this distance in 29 minutes 31, 78seconds in 1993. In indoor long-distance running competitions the IAAF registers official world records in the men’s and women’s 3,000-metre and 5,000-metre distances. The current world indoor records holders in these distances are: the men’s 3,000 metres – Daniel Komen of Kenya (1998 – 7 minutes 24.90 seconds); the men’s 5,000 metres – Kenenisa Bekele of Ethiopia (2004 – 12 minutes 49.60 seconds); the women’s 3,000 metres – Genzebe Dibaba of Ethiopia (2014 – 8 minutes 16.60 seconds); the women’s 5,000 metres – Meseret Defar of Ethiopia (2009 – 14 minutes 24.37 seconds).

At the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad in Stockholm in the 5,000-metre final race there was a very intense rivalry between the main favourites – Frenchman Jean Bouin and Finn Hannes Kolehmainen. The French athlete conceded just one tenth of a second and won the silver medal. Jean Bouin hoped to take a revanche at the next Games of the VI Olympiad that were to take place in 1916 in Berlin but were cancelled because of the outbreak of World War I in 1914. The French athlete went to the front and he was killed in a battle against the Germans.

Hannes Kolehmainen from Finland won four gold and one silver medal at the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad in Stockholm in track and field competitions. He won the 3,000 metres (a world record of 8 minutes 36.8 seconds), the 5,000 metres (with the highest world achievement of 14 minutes 36.6 seconds), the 10,000 metres and the 12,000-metre cross-country. He was a member of the Finnish national team which came second in the 12,000 metres. Eight years later this Finnish athlete won marathon at the 1920 Games of the VII Olympiad in Antwerp thus becoming a five-time Olympic champion.

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1.

An endurance running athlete. A. A long-distance runner. B. A steeplejacker. C. A fast runner. D. A sprinter.

2.

What distances belong to long-distance running? А. From 1,000 m and longer. B. From 2,000 m and longer.

3.

Slow running at a very short pace and a very low raise of the hip of the swing-up leg. A means of warm-up and recovery. А. Jogging. B. The tempo.

4.

C. From 3,000 m and longer. D. From 5,000 m and longer.

C. Interval running. D. The fartlek.

How many stages are there in the athletic competitions for a championship in the cross country, road running, race walking and the combined events? А. 2 (the semi-final, the final). B. 1 (the final). C. 3 (the quarter final, the semi-final, the final). D. 4 (the qualifying round, the quarter final, the semi-final, the final).

At three Olympic Games – in Antwerp (1920), Paris (1924) and Amsterdam (1928) outstanding runner from Finland Paavo Nurmi won a total of 12 Olympic medals, including 9 gold and 3 silver ones. In Antwerp Nurmi got three victories in the 10,000-metre distance, in the 8,000-metre cross country and the 8,000-metre team race; he was second to finish the 5,000-metre distance. In Paris this Finn won five highest awards in the 1,500 metres and the 5,000 metres, in the 10,000-metre cross-country race and in the 3,000- and the 10,000-metre team races. He came second in the 10,000 metres. In Amsterdam Nurmi won the 10,000 metres and was second in the 5,000 metres.

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5.

What long-distance running disciplines are introduced in the Olympic programme? А. The 5,000 and the 10,000 m. B. The 3,000 and the 5,000 m. C. The 10,000 m and the 15,000 m. D. The 3,000 m and the 10,000 m.

6.

Long-distance running entered the Olympic programme in 1900. What kind of long-distance running was staged at the Olympic Games of 1900–1908? А. The team. B. The relay.

7.

What number of teams took part in the 5,000-metre race at the 1900 Games of the II Olympiad? А. 7. B. 5.

8.

C. The group. D. The shuttle.

C. 2. D. 8.

At the 1948 Games of the XIV Olympiad in London Emil Zátopek, a Czechoslovak long-distance runner, gained his first success by winning the gold medal in the 10,000 metres and the silver medal in the 5,000 metres. Another Zatopek’s great triumph was at the 1952 Games in Helsinki, where he won the competitions in three distances – the 5,000 metres, the 10,000 metres and the marathon, becoming in total a four-time Olympic champion.

Only two teams representing three countries took part in the first Olympic competitions in the team 5,000-metre race. How was it possible? А. Great Britain and Australia (two states) competed as one team as Australia was under the protectorate of Great Britain. B. The countries of the USSR, which were united. C. Great Britain and Germany, which was divided. D. China, which was divided.

The 10,000-metre event at the 1932 Games of the X Olympiad in Los Angeles was won by Polish athlete Janusz Kusociński. Injuries prevented him from participating in the next 1936 Games of the XI Olympiad in Berlin, but then the athlete managed to restore himself and he began training for the 1940 Games of the XII Olympiad, which were not staged because of World War II that began in 1939 with Hitler’s Germany attack on Poland. Kusociński fought against the enemies at the front, and then in the underground, later he was captured by the Gestapo and shot to death.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

A long-distance runner. From 3,000 m and longer. Jogging. 1 (the final). The 5,000 and the 10,000 m. The team. 2. Great Britain and Australia (two states) competed as one team as Australia was under the n. protectorate of Great Britain.

9.

Name the first Olympic winner of the team 5,000-metre race. А. The team of Russia. B. The team of Kenya. C. The team of Great Britain /Australia. D. The team of Ethiopia.

10. Since when has the men’s individual 5,000-metre race been an Olympic discipline? А. 1900. B. 1904.

C. 1908. D. 1912.

11. Where are the 5,000-metre events staged? А. On the road. C. In the stadium. B. On the mountainous terrain. D. On the broken terrain.

12. How do athletes in the 5,000-metre race start? А. From the crouch start. B. From the high start and the common starting position. C. From the common starting position. D. From the high start.

Gunder Hägg was a Swedish middle and long distance runner. A multiple world record holder, he set his records in 1942–1944. In particular, he won the 5,000 metres in 1942 with 13.58.2 minutes. Finnish athlete Vilho Eino Ritola won 6 medals, including 4 gold and 2 silver at the 1924 Games of the VIII Olympiad in Paris. He excelled in the 10,000 metres (a world record – 30 minutes 23.2 seconds) and the 3,000-metre steeplechase, in the team 3,000 metres and 10,000 metres, and he was second at the distance of 5,000 metres and 10,000-metres cross-country. Four years later at the 1928 Games of the IX Olympiad in Amsterdam this athlete from Finland added two more medals – gold (5,000 metres) and silver (10,000 m) ones to his Olympic collection, thus becoming a five-time Olympic champion.

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13. Long-distance running has a deep history. Where did the 5,000-metre race originate and what was the prototype of the discipline? А. Australia, the 3-mile race (4,828 metres). B. Russia, the 4,5 versta race. C. Greece, the 3-mile race (4,828 metres). D. Great Britain, the 3-mile race (4,828 metres).

14. Who was the first Olympic champion in the men’s 5,000 metre race? А. Hannes Kolehmainen (Finland). B. Jean Bouin (France). C. George Hutson (Great Britain) D. George Bonhag (USA).

15. What result allowed Hannes Kolehmainen mounting the highest tier of the Olympic podium? А. 15 minutes 09.8 seconds. B. 14 minutes 36.7 seconds.

C. 15 minutes 07.6 seconds. D. 14 minutes 36.6 seconds.

16. Who was a world leader in 1910s–1930s in long distance running? А. Finnish long-distance runners. B. Kenyan long-distance runners. C. Ethiopian long-distance runners. D. Moroccan long-distance runners.

Vladimir Kuts (USSR) won both long distances (the 5,000 metres and the 10,000 metres) in track and field athletic competitions at the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad in Melbourne and became a two-time Olympic champion.

Pyotr Bolotnikov was a Soviet (Russian) track and field athlete, a champion of the 1960 Games of the XII Olympiad in Rome in the 10,000-metre event. The European Champion of 1962 in the 10,000 metres, the bronze medallist of the 1962 European Championships in the 5,000 metres.

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9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

The team of Great Britain / Australia. 1912. In the stadium. From the high start and the common starting position. Great Britain, the 3-mile race (4,828 metres). Hannes Kolehmainen (Finland). 14 minutes 36.6 seconds. The Finnish long-distance runners.

17. The first world record in the men’s 5,000-race (16.34.6) was shown in 1897 in Paris. Who made it? А. Charles Bennett (Great Britain). B. Georges Touquet-Daunis (France). C. Alfred Shrubb (Great Britain). D. Edwin Flack (Australia).

18. The first world record in the 5,000-metre race was ratified by the IAAF only in 1912. Who was its author and what was the result? А. Paavo Nurmi (Finland) 14 minutes 35.4 seconds. B. Alfred Shrubb (Great Britain) 14 minutes 59.0 seconds. C. Hannes Kolehmainen (Finland) 14 minutes 36.6 seconds. D. Charles Bennett (Great Britain) 15 minutes 29.8 seconds.

19. Who was the first one to break the 14-minute barrier in the men’s 5,000-metre race? And when? А. Gunder Hägg (Sweden), 1942. B. Taisto Mäki (Finland), 1939. C. Lauri Lehtinen (Finland), 1932. D. Emil Zátopek (Czechoslovakia), 1954.

20. Starting from the 1970s African athletes of Kenya, Ethiopia, Morocco have been the leaders in long-distance running. What unites these athletes besides their continental affiliation? А. Training on the mountainous terrain. B. The speed of running. C. The speed of running and living on the mountainous terrain. D. Living and training on the mountainous terrain.

Australian long-distance runner Ronald Clarke is known for setting an impressive number of world records in the 5,000 metres (13 minutes 16.6 seconds) and the 10,000 metres (28 minutes 15.6 seconds, and later – 27 minutes 39.4 seconds) in the 60s of the twentieth century. But he could never become an Olympic champion; only once he won the bronze medal finishing third in the 10,000 metres at the 1964 Games of XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo.

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Mohamed Gammoudi from Tunisia won four Olympic medals of different value over the years: at the1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo he got silver in the 10,000 metres; at 1986 Games of the XIX Olympiad in Mexico City he won gold in the 5,000 metres and bronze in the 10,000 metres; at the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich he won silver in the 5,000 metres.


21. Who was the first to break the 13-minute barrier in the men’s 5,000-metre race? And when? А. David Moorcroft (Great Britain), 1985. B. Saïd Aouita (Morocco), 1982. C. Henry Rono (Kenya) 1981. D. Haile Gebrselassie (Ethiopia), 1994.

22. Name the first two-time Olympic champion in long-distance running at the distances of 5,000 and 10,000 metres, who won his awards at the Games of one Olympiad. А. Hannes Kolehmainen (Finland). B. Leonard Komon (Ethiopia). C. Kenenisa Bekele (Ethiopia). D. Wang Junxia (China).

23. Only one athlete was capable of gaining the Olympic medals in the long-distance run at 5,000 metres twice in history. Say who it was and when. А. Lasse Virén (1972, 1976). B. Emil Zátopek (1948, 1952). C. Paavo Nurmi (1920, 1928). D. Kenenisa Bekele (2004, 2008).

24. Athletes of what country achieved the greatest success in long-distance running disciplines of the Olympic programme? А. Ethiopia. B. Finland.

C. Czech Republic. D. USSR.

Kipchoge Keino – a Kenyan athlete. At the 1968 Games of the XIX Olympiad in Mexico City he became the champion in the 1,500 metres and the silver medallist in the 5,000 metres, and at the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich he was the winner in the 3,000-metre steeplechase and the runner-up in the 1,500-metres.

At the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich Lasse Viren of Finland excelled twice in the 5,000 metres (an Olympic record of 13 minutes 26.42 seconds) and in the 10,000 metres (a world record of 27 minutes 38.35 seconds). And at the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal the athlete repeated his double victory of four years ago: he won again both long distances (the 5,000 and the 10,000 metres) and thus became a fourtime Olympic champion.

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17. Georges Touquet-Daunis (France). 18. Hannes Kolehmainen (Finland) 14 minutes 36.6 seconds. 19. Gunder Hägg (Sweden), 1942. 20. Living and training on the mountainous terrain. 21. Saïd Aouita (Morocco), 1982. 22. Hannes Kolehmainen (Finland). 23. Lasse Virén (1972, 1976).. 24. Finland.

25. How many years later were women allowed to the long-distance running competitions at the Olympic Games? А. 50. B. 60.

C. 70. D. 80.

26. When was the women’s Olympic debut in long-distance running competitions at the Olympic Games? А. 1964. B. 1984.

C. 1976. D. 1968.

27. What women’s long-distance running discipline was the first one to be introduced into the Olympic programme? А. The 3,000 m. B. The 5,000 m.

C. The 7,000 m. D. The 10,000 m.

28. Who was the first Olympic champion in the women’s long-distance race? А. Wendy Sly (Great Britain). B. Cindy Bremser (USA). C. Maricica Puică (Romania). D. Lynn Williams (Canada).

Runner from Ethiopia Miruts Yifter excelled in both long distances of 5,000 and 10,000 metres at the 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad in Mocow; at the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich he also added the bronze medal won in the 10,000 metres to his collection.

Henry Rono – a Kenyan athlete who specialized in long-distance running. He was the best athlete in the world according the magazine Track and Field News in 1978. For 81 days of 1978 he set four world records in the 3,000 metres (7.32.1), the 5,000 metres (13.06.20), the 10,000 metres (27.22.47) and the 3,000-metre steeplechase (8.05.4).

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29. In 1996 the women’s 3,000-metre race was replaced by a longer distance. What distance is it? А. The 4,000 m. B. The 5,000 m.

C. The 6,000 m. D. The 7,000 m.

30. Name the first Olympic champion in the women’s 5,000metre race. А. Wang Junxia (China). B. Fernanda Ribeiro (Portugal). C. Pauline Konga (Kenya). D. Roberta Brunet (Italia).

31. Two female athletes succeeded in becoming two-time Olympic champions in long-distance running. One of them was a double champion in the 10,000 metres. Name her. А. Derartu Tulu (1992, 2000). B. Gabriela Szabo (2000, 2004). C. Tirunesh Dibaba (2004, 2008). D. Wang Junxia (1993, 1996).

Zola Budd – a South African long-distance runner. In 1985 she claimed the world record in the women’s 5,000 metres – 14.48.07, while representing Great Britain. She runs barefoot.

32. Name a female athlete who won both Olympic long distances in 2008. А Tirunesh Dibaba. B. Edith Masai.

C. Meselech Melkamu. D. Paula Radcliffe.

The 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles staged the 3,000-metre event in the women’s Olympic programme for the first time. The first Olympic champion in this race was Romanian athlete Maricica Puică (with the result of 8 minutes 35.96 seconds).

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25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32.

80. 1984. The 3,000 m. Maricica Puică (Romania). The 5,000 m. Wang Junxia (China). ) Derartu Tulu (1992, 2000). Tirunesh Dibaba.

33. Name a stadium discipline in long-distance running? А. The 8,000 m. B. The 10.5 km.

C. The 10,000 m. D. The 9,000 m.

34. When did the men’s 10,000-metres become an Olympic track and field distance? А. 1908. B. 1912.

C. 1900. D. 1914.

35. Since when was the 10,000 metres held in one lap at the Olympic Games? А. 2000. B. 1996.

C. 1992. D. 2004.

36. How many full laps should athletes run in the 400-metre stadium in order to cover the distance of the 10,000 metres? А. 25. B. 26.

C. 24. D. 23.

37. What distance should be considered a prototype of the modern Olympic 10,000 metres? А. The 5 miles. B. The 6 miles.

C. The 7 miles. D. The 8 miles.

Ingrid Kristiansen – a Norwegian athlete, the bronze medallist of the 1980 World Championships in the 3,000 metres. The world champion of 1987 in Rome in the 10,000 metres (31.05.85). The World Cross Country Champion (1988).

Saïd Aouita – a Moroccan athlete. The Olympic champion at the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles in the 5,000 metres. The bronze medallist at the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul in the 800 metres. The world champion at the 1987 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome in the 5,000 metres, the world indoor champion in the 3,000-metres in 1989 (Budapest).

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Moses Kiptanui – a Kenyan athlete, the 1996 Olympic silver medallist in the 3,000-metre steeplechase. A world record holder in the 3,000 metres, 5,000 metres (1995 – 12.55.30 minutes) and the 3,000-metre steeplechase.


38. Before 1970 the 10,000-metre running events had not been allowed for women on medical considerations. In 1980s this distance gained a great popularity because of the records of the outstanding Norwegian runner. Name her. А. Vicki Huber. B. Elizabeth McColgan.

C. Ingrid Kristiansen. D. Ezinne Okparaebo.

39. When did the women’s 10,000-metres first appear in the Olympic programme? А. The Games of the XXV Olympiad, 1992. B. The Games of the XXIV Olympiad, 1988. C. The Games of the XXVI Olympiad, 1996. D. The Games of the XXVII Olympiad, 2000.

40. Since when has the women’s 10,000 metre race been introduced in the programme of the World Athletics Championships? А. 1983. B. 1985.

C. 1999. D. 1987.

Wang Jun of China became the Olympic champion in the 5,000 metres (with an Olympic record of 14 minutes 59.88 seconds) and the silver medallist in the 10,000-metre race at the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta. Her world records in the women’s 10,000 metres (29 minutes 31.78 seconds) and the 3,000 metres (8 minutes 06.11 seconds) set in 1993 remain unbeaten to this day.

41. Who owns the first officially registered world record in the men’s 10,000 metres – 30 minutes 58.8 seconds? А. William Jackson (Great Britain). B. Hannes Kolehmainen (Finland). C. Albin Stenroos (Finland). D. Jean Bouin (France).

Ethiopian athlete Haile Gebrselassie excelled at the Olympic Games twice: in the 10,000 metres at the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta with an Olympic record (27 minutes 07.34 seconds) and at the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney.

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42. Which athlete managed to break the 30-minute barrier in the 10,000-metre race – 29 minutes 52.6 seconds? And when?

33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.

The 10,000 m. 1912. 2004. 25. The 6 miles. Ingrid Kristiansen. The Games of the XXIV Olympiad, 1988. 40. 1987. 41. Jean Bouin (France).

А. Taisto Mäki (Finland), 1939. B. Ilmari Salminen (Finland), 1936. C. Arvo Askola (Finland), 1937. D. Volmari Iso-Hollo (Finland), 1938.

43. Which athlete managed to break the 29-minute barrier in the 10,000-metre race – 28 minutes 54.2 seconds? А. Vladimir Kuts (USSR), 1956. B. Alì Mimoun O’Kacha (France), 1954. C. Emil Zátopek (Czechoslovakia), 1954. D. Aleksandr Anufriyev (USSR), 1953.

44. Which athlete managed to break the 28-minute barrier in the 10,000-metre race – 27 minutes 39.4 seconds? А. William Mills (USA), 1964. B. Ronald Clarke (Australia), 1965. C. Mohammed Gammoudi (Tunisia), 1965. D. Demissie Wolde (Ethiopia), 1964.

45. Which athlete managed to break the 27-minute barrier in the 10,000-metre race – 26 minutes 58.38 seconds? Birgit Friedmann – a German track and field athlete, the world champion of 1980 in Sittard (the Netherlands) in the women’s 3,000 metres (8.48.1).

А. Yobes Ondieki (Kenya), 1993. B. Khalid Skah (Morocco), 1992. C. Richard Chelimo (Kenya), 1992. D. Addis Abebe (Ethiopia).

Alberto Cova – an Italian long-distance runner, the Olympic champion at the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles in the 10,000 metres. The world champion of 1983 in the same distance. A. Cova was the last runner without African roots who won the 10,000 metres at the Olympic Games.

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46. Name the holder of the first world record in the women’s 10,000-metre race? А. Cathleen Ann O’Brien (Ireland), 1967. B. Elena Sipatova (USSR), 1981. C. Mary Decker (USA), 1982. D. Raisa Sadreydinova (USSR), 1983.

47. Name the athlete who managed to break the 32-minute barrier in the women’s 10,000-metre race. А. Lyudmila Baranova (USSR), 1983. B. Wang Junxia (China), 1993. C. Mary Decker (USA), 1982. D. Ingrid Kristiansen (Norway), 1986.

48. Name the athlete who managed to break the 31-minute barrier in the women’s 10,000-metre race – 30 minutes 59.42 seconds. А. Yelena Sipatova (USSR), 1981. B. Mary Decker (USA), 1982. C. Cathleen Ann O’Brien (Ireland), 1967. D. Ingrid Kristiansen (Norway), 1985.

49. Name the athlete who managed to break the 30-minute barrier in the women’s 10,000-metre race – 29 minutes 31.78 seconds. А. Derartu Tulu (Ethiopia), 1992. B. Wang Junxia (China), 1993. C. Fernanda Ribeiro (Portugal), 1996. D. Dеtе Sаmi (Ethiopia), 1994.

Paul Tergat – a Kenyan long-distance runner, a two-time silver medallist in the 10,000 metres (1996, Atlanta and 2000, Sydney). A two-time silver medallist (1997, Athens and 1999, Seville) and the bronze medallist of the World Championships in the 10,000 metres (1995, Göteborg), a two-time world champion in the half-marathon (1999, 2001).

Daniel Komen – a Kenyan athlete, the 1997 world champion in Athens in the 5,000 metres. The current world record holder in the 3,000 metres outdoors – 7 minutes 20.67 seconds. The world record holder (1997) in the 5,000 metres.

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42. Taisto Mäki (Finland), 1939. 43. Emil Zátopek (Czechoslovakia), 1954. 44. Ronald Clarke (Australia), 1965. 45. Yobes Ondieki (Kenya), 1993. 46. Elena Sipatova (USSR), 1981. 47. Mary Decker (USA), 1982. 48. Ingrid Kristiansen (Norway), 1985. 49. Wang Junxia (China), 1993. 50. Kenenisa Bekele. 51. Wang Junxia. 52. Emil Zátopek (Czechoslovakia). 53. Ingrid Kristiansen (Norway). 54. Haile Gebrselassie. 55. Haile Gebrselassie (Ethiopia). a). a) 56. 100 times.

50. The current world record in the 10,000-metre race – 26 minutes 17.53 seconds was set by an Ethiopian runner in 2005. Name him. А. Kenenisa Bekele. B. Haile Gebrselassie. C. Yilma Berta. D. Demissie Wolde.

51. The record in the women’s 10,000-metre race of 29 minutes 3.78 seconds set by a Chinese runner in 1993 is yet unbeaten. Name the athlete. А. Dong Yanmei. B. Wang Junxia. C. Jiang Bo. D. Liu Shixiang.

52. Name a long-distance runner who set five world records in the 10,000-metre race. А. Paavo Nurmi (Finland). B. Haile Gebrselassie (Ethiopia). C. Kenenisa Bekele (Ethiopia). D. Emil Zátopek (Czechoslovakia).

53. Name a female athlete who set the largest number of world records – 2 in the 10,000 metres. А. Mary Decker (USA). B. Wang Junxia (China). C. Ingrid Kristiansen (Norway). D. Olga Bendarenko (USSR).

Sonia O’Sullivan – an Irish athlete specializing in long-distance running. The Olympic silver medallist (2000, Sydney) in the women’s 5,000 metres. The 2005 world champion in Göteborg in the 5,000 metres. The silver medallist of the World 1993 Championships in Stuttgart in the 1,500 metres.

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Kenenisa Bekele – a three-time Olympic champion, a long-distance runner of Ethiopia. At the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad in Athens he won the 10,000 metres (with the result of 27 minutes 05.10 seconds, an Olympic record), and at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing he excelled in the 5,000 metres (with the result of 12 minutes 57.82 seconds, an Olympic record) and in the 10,000 metres (with 27 minutes 01.17 seconds, an Olympic record). A five-time world champion in long-distance running in 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 (2). The world indoor champion (Moscow, 2006) in the 3,000 metres. A world champion in the steeplechase.


54. Only five athletes were successful in becoming two-time Olympic champions in the 10,000-metre race. They are Lasse Virén (1972, 1976), Paavo Nurmi (1920, 1928), Emil Zátopek (1948, 1952), Kenenisa Bekele (2004, 2008) and an Ethiopian runner (1996, 2000). Name him. А. Haile Gebrselassie. B. Paul Tergat. C. Miruts Yifter. D. Daniel Komen.

55. Name a long-distance runner who is a two-time Olympic champion, a four-time world champion and a four-time world indoor champion. А. Kenenisa Bekele (Ethiopia). B. Vladimir Kuts (USSR). C. Haile Gebrselassie (Ethiopia). D. Saleh Hissou (Morocco).

56. The longest running distance in track and field disciplines completed on stadium lanes during the Olympic Games is the 10,000 metres, and the shortest one is the 100 metres. How many times less does it take to cover 100 metres than 10,000 metres? А. 110 times. B. 100 times.

Gabriela Szabo – a Romanian athlete, the Olympic champion (2000, Sydney) in the women’s 5,000 metres, the silver (1996) and the bronze (2000) medallist in 1,500 metres. A three-time world champion (1997, 1999, 2001) in the 5,000 and the 1,500 metres. In 1999 she won the Golden League. The Best Female Athlete of 2000.

C. 130 times. D. 160 times.

Meseret Defar – an Ethiopian runner, a two-time Olympic champion in the 5,000-metre race (2004, 2012), the bronze medallist of the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing in the 5,000 metres. A two-time world champion (2007, 2013) and the silver medallist (2005) and a two-time bronze medallist of the World Championships in the 5,000 metres. A four-time world champion in indoor 3,000 metres. The Best Athlete of the World in 2007. Long distance runner from Ethiopia Tirunesh Dibaba won five awards – three gold and two bronze – at three Olympic Games (2004, 2008, 2012). At the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad in Athens she won the bronze medal in the 5,000 metres; at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing she won two gold medals in the 5,000 and 10,000 metres; at the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London she expanded her Olympic collection with the gold medal (10,000 metres) and the bronze medal (5,000 metres). Her world record in the 5,000 metres set in 2008 (14 minutes 11.15 seconds) remains unbroken as of today.

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S teeplechase he steeplechase is a track and field running event, which takes place (for a number of years now) in the distance of 3,000 metres. In each lap athletes have to overcome five obstacles – barriers (each 91.4 centimetres high (76.2 – for women ) and 3.96 metres wide, 80–100 kilograms of weight, and the fourth obstacle (at the far turn on the finish line) is followed by a water jump (3.66 x 3,66 metres). The bottom of the pit then slopes upward from 50 centimetres deep to the level of the track lane. Running the distance of 3,000 metres athletes have to negotiate a course of 28 hurdles and 7 water jumps. The fouls resulting in disqualification are bringing the foot aside of the obstacle or escaping the water jump. The Olympic event (men only) in the steeplechase first took place at the Games of the II Olympiad of 1900 in Paris in two distances of 2,500 metres and 4,000 metres. The Olympic champion in the 2,500-metre steeplechase was George Orton from Canada with 7 minutes 34.4 se-conds. John Rimmer of Great Britain won the 4,000-metre steeplechase with the result of 12 minutes 58.4 se-conds and became the Olympic champion.

T

The track and field discipline the 3,000metre steeplechase was initiated as a result of a bet. In 1850 a student of Oxford Halifax Wyatt had a bet with his classmates that he would bypass them in the steeplechase (then an equestrian competition) but without horses. Wyatt not only won the bet, but also entered history as a founder of a sports discipline.

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At the Games of the III Olympiad of 1904 in St. Louis the steeplechase competitions were held in the 2,590 metres and at the Games of the IV Olympiad of 1908 in London in 3,200 metres. The programme of the Games of the V Olympiad of 1912 in Stockholm had no steeplechase events. At the Games of the VII Olympiad of 1920 in Antwerp the steeplechase event (men only) was held in the 3,000 metres for the first time, then the Olympic champion was Percy Hodge from Great Britain with the result of 10 minutes 00.4 seconds. Later all the Olympic men’s steeplechase events were held in the 3,000-metre distance (except the Games of the X Olympiad in Los Angeles (1932), where due to the judges’ foul athletes ran an extra lap factually covering 3,460 metres instead of 3,000 metres). The only athlete who managed to become a two-time Olympic champion in the steeplechase was Volmari IsoHollo from Finland. At the Games of 1932 in Los Angeles he completed the 3,460 metres in 10 minutes 33.4 seconds, and at the Games of 1936 in Berlin (where the distance was 3,000 metres) he showed the result of 9 minutes 03.8 seconds (the highest world achievement).

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John Rimmer – a British athlete, twice a champion of the II Olympic Games in Paris in 1900 in the 4,000-metre steeplechase (12 minutes 58.4 seconds – an Olympic record) and in the team steeplechase of 5,000 metres.

The Olympic competitions among women in the steeplechase were first held in the 3,000-metres in 2008 at the Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing. There the first Olympic champion in this event was Russian athlete Gulnara Galkina-Samitova who ran 3,000 metres in 8 minutes 58.81 seconds (a world record). The current holder of the Olympic record in the men’s 3,000-metre steeplechase event is Julius Kariuki from Kenya who won the Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul in 1988 with the result of 8 minutes 05.51 seconds. The holder of the Olympic record in the women’s 3,000-metre steeplechase event is the already mentioned Gulnara Galkina-Samitova (Russia) who excelled at the Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing in 2008 (8 minutes 58.81 seconds). The first world champion in the 3,000-metre steeplechase was German athlete Patriz Ilg (with 8 minutes 15.06 seconds), the winner in this event at the first World Athletics Championships held in 1983 in Helsinki (Finland).

G George Orton – a Canadian athlete, the champion and the bronze m medallist of the II Olympiad of 1900 in Paris in the 2,500-metre s steeplechase (7 minutes 34.4 seconds – an Olympic record) and the 4 400-metre hurdles respectively. D. Orton became the first Canadian to w the Olympic gold medal. win

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And the first world champion in the women’s 3,000 -metre steeplechase was Dorkus Inzikuru of Uganda who won in 2005 (with 9 minutes 18.24 seconds) at the X World Athletics Championships in Helsinki (Finland), where the women’s steeplechase was included into the programme of the World Championships for the first time. The world record holder in the men’s 3,000-metre steeplechase today (as early of 2015) is athlete from Qatar Saif Shaheen who ran the distance in 7 minutes 53.63 seconds in 2004. The holder of the world record in the women’s 3,000metre steeplechase (as early of 2015) is the already mentioned Gulnara Galkina-Samitova (Russia) who overcame this distance in 8 minutes 58.81seconds at the Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing.

James Lightbody – an American athlete, a three-time champion of the Games of the III Olympiad of 1904 in St. Louis in the 800-metres, in the 1,500-metres and in 2,560-metre steeplechase (7 minutes 39.6 seconds). The silver medallist of 1904 in the 4-mile team race.

Arthur Russell – a British athlete, the champion of the Games of the IV Olympiad of 1908 in London in the 3,200-metre steeplechase (10 minutes 47.8 seconds).

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1.

The steeplechase got its name from a similar type of horse competitions, which involve jumping over fences and pits with water. What is the distance for the obstacle race (steeplechase)? A. 5,000 m. B. 3,000 m.

2.

Where was the obstacle race (steeplechase) originated? A. United Kingdom. B. Germany.

3.

C. 2,000 m. D. 1,000 m.

C. France. D. Sweden.

In what period did is the steeplechase appear as a sports discipline? A. By the early 19th century. B. By the mid-19th century. C. By the end of the 19th century. D. By the beginning of the 20th century.

4.

How many obstacles does an athlete have to overcome in the competitive distance? A. 35 B. 20.

Percy Hodge was a British athlete, the winner of the 3,000-metre steeplechase at the VII Olympics of 1920 held in Antwerp. He won with the Olympic result of 10 minutes 00.4 seconds.

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C. 25. D. 30.

Ville Ritola (known as The Flying Finn and The Peräseinäjoki Wolf) – a Finnish athlete. He was a five-time Olympic champion in long-distance running and a three-time Olympic silver medallist (1924, 1928). He won the 3,000-metre steeplechase at the 1924 Games with 9 minutes 33.6 seconds (an Olympic record).


5.

During the 3,000-metre steeplechase race an athlete overcomes a different number of obstacles, water jumps included. How many times does an athlete have to overcome barriers and water jumps during the race? A. 40 times barriers and 10 times water jumps. B. 3 times barriers and 3 times water jumps. C. 28 times barriers and 7 times water jumps. D. 12 times barriers and 12 times water jumps.

6.

The height of the barriers for men is 91.4 centimetres and 76.2 centimetres for women. Unlike the barriers in hurdling, the steeplechase barriers are fixed, they cannot be moved or toppled in the course of the race. What is the height of a barrier for men? A 91.4 cm. B. 91.9 cm.

7.

C. 90.4 cm. D. 92.4 cm.

What is the height of a barrier in the steeplechase race for women? A 75.2 cm. B. 74.2 cm.

C. 76.2 cm. D. 77.2 cm.

Toivo Loukola – a Finnish athlete, the champion of the Games of the IV Olympiad of 1928 in Amsterdam (9 minutes 21.8 seconds – an Olympic record). At these Games the whole Olympic victory podium in this discipline was occupied by the Finnish athletes. The silver medal was earned by Paavo Nurmi and the bronze one by Ove Andersen.

Volmari Iso-Hollo – a Finnish athlete. A two-time Olympic gold medallist (Los Angeles-1932, Berlin-1936) in the 3,000-metre steeplechase. The first athlete in the history of the track and field athletics who managed to win the gold medals in this discipline at two consecutive Olympics Games. At the 1932 Games of the X Olympiad he showed the result of 10 minutes 33.4 seconds because the officials lost count of the number of laps and athletes ran one extra lap. At the 1936 Games of the XI Olympiad he won with the world record of 9 minutes 03.8 seconds.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

3,000 m. United Kingdom. By the end of the 19th century. 35. 28 times barriers and 7 times water jumps. 91.4 сm. 76.2 сm.

8.

The barriers in the steeplechase are harder and more stable than the hurdling barriers. How much do they weigh? A. 30–50 kg. B. 50–60 kg.

9.

C. 60–80 kg. D. 80–100 kg.

One of the obstacles in the steeplechase is a water jump. What is the length of this obstacle? A. 3.66 m. B. 3.50 m.

C. 4.00 m. D 3.85 m.

10. Is it obligatory to jump over the obstacle in the steeplechase according to the rules of the competition? A. Absolutely. B. Not specified by the rules. B. No, it is possible to overcome the obstacle by stepping on it. D. It depends on the chief judge’s decision.

11. The depth of the water jump varies in its length. How is it changing?

Tore Sjöstrand – a Swedish middle distance runner. The champion of the Games of the XIV Olympiad of 1948 in London in the 3,000-metre steeplechase (9 minutes 04.6 seconds). At the 1948 Games in London the entire podium at the 3,000-metre steeplechase awarding ceremony was occupied by the Swedish athletes. The silver medal was awarded to world record holder Eric Elmsäter, the bronze medal – to Göte Hagström.

A. From 700 mm behind the barrier to zero at the edge of the jump. B. From 500 behind the barrier to zero at the edge of the jump. C. From 650 mm behind the barrier to zero at the edge of the jump. D. From 600 mm behind the barrier to zero at the edge of the jump.

12. The judge signals the last lap to each athlete. In which way? A. By a white flag signal. B. By a red flag signal. C. By a yellow card. D. By a special bell ring.

Horace Ashenfelter – an American athlete, the champion of the 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad in Helsinki (8 minutes 45.4 seconds – an Olympic record).

Christopher Brasher – a British track and field athlete, the champion of the Games of the XVI Olympiad in Melbourne in the 3,000-metre steeplechase – 8.45.4 minutes (a world and an Olympic record).

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13. Who showed the first record result in the 3,000-metre steeplechase for men? And when? A. Pentti Karvonen (Finland), 1955. B. Vasily Vlasenko (USSR), 1955. C. Sandor Rozsnyoi (Hungary), 1954. D. Jerzy Chromik (Poland), 1955.

14. What was the first world record in the men’s 3,000 metres steeplechase set? A. 8 minutes 49.6 seconds. B. 8 minutes 41.2 seconds.

C. 8 minutes 47.8 seconds. D. 8 minutes 47.0 seconds.

15. Who holds the current world record (as of 2015) in the men’s 3,000-metres steeplechase established in 2004? Zdzislaw Kshyszkowiak – a Polish athlete, the champion of 1968 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome (8 minutes 34.2 seconds – an Olympic record) in the 3,000-metre steeplechase. He set two world records in this discipline (1960 – 8 minutes 34.2 seconds, 1961 – 8 minutes 30.4 seconds).

A. Brahim Bulam (Morocco). B. Saif Saaeed Shaheen (Qatar). C. Bernard Barmasai (Kenya). D. Moses Kiptanui (Kenya).

16. What is the current world record in the men’s 3,000-metres steeplechase? A. 7 minutes 53.63 seconds. B. 7 minutes 55.28 seconds.

C. 7 minutes 55.72 seconds. D. 7 minutes 55.73 seconds.

Gaston Roelants – a Belgian athlete, the champion in the 3,000-metre steeplechase at the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo (8 minutes 30.8 seconds – an Olympic record). He set two world records in this discipline (1963 – 8 minutes 29.6 seconds, 1965 – 8 minutes 26.4 seconds).

Amos Biwott – a Kenyan middle distance runner. The champion of the Games of the XIX Olympiad of 1968 in Mexico City in the 3,000-metre steeplechase (8 minutes 51.0 seconds). He won the first Olympic gold medal for Kenya.

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8. 80–100 kg. 9. 3.66 m. 10. No, it is possible to overcome the obstacle by stepping on it. 11. From 700 mm behind the barrier to zero at the edge of the jump. 12. By a special bell ring. 13. Sandor Rozsnyoi (Hungary), 1954. 14. 8 minutes 49.6 seconds. 15. Saif Saaeed Shaheen (Qatar)..... 16. 7 minutes 53.63 seconds.

17. When was the current (as of 2015) world record of 7.53.63 in the men’s 3,000-metre steeplechase established? A. 2004. B. 2008.

C. 2006. D. 2010.

18. Who holds the current world record (as of 2015) in the women’s 3,000-metre steeplechase? A. Gulnara Samitova-Galkina (Russia). B. Habiba Ghribi (Tunisia). C. Yulia Zaripova (Russia). D. Sofia Assefa (Ethiopia).

19. What is the current (as of 2015) world record set by Russian female athlete? A. 8 minutes 58.80 seconds. B. 8 minutes 57.81 seconds.

C. 8 minutes 58.81 seconds. D. 8 minutes 59.81 seconds.

20. When was the current world record of 8.58.81 minutes in the women’s 3,000-metre steeplechase set? A. 2008. B. 2009.

C. 2010. D. 2012.

Kipchoge Keino – a Kenyan athlete, the champion of the Games of the XX Olympiad of 1972 in Munich in the 3,000-metre steeplechase – 8 minutes 23.64 seconds – an Olympic record.

Anders Gärderud – a Swedish athlete, the champion of the Games of the XXI Olympiad of 1976 in Montreal in the 3,000-metre steeplechase – 8 minutes 08.02 seconds (a world and Olympic record). A four-time world champion of 1972–1976.

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21. The Olympic programme included competitions in the 2,500-metre and 4,000-metre steeplechase. At which Olympic Games were these events held? A. The Games of the I Olympiad, 1896. B. The Games of the IV Olympiad, 1908. C. The Games of the II Olympiad, 1900. D. The Games of the III Olympiad, 1904.

22. Who became the first Olympic champion in the 2,500-metre steeplechase? A. George Orton (Canada). B. Sidney Robinson (Great Britain). C. Jacques Chastanie (France). D. Arthur Newton (USA).

23. What was the result of the first Olympic champion and Olympic record-holder in the 2,500-metre steeplechase? A. 7 minutes 34.4 seconds. B. 7 minutes 38.0 seconds.

C. 7 minutes 41.0 seconds. D. 7 minutes 40.5 seconds.

24. Who became the Olympic champion in the 4,000-metre steeplechase? A. John Thomas Rimmer (Great Britain). B. Charles Bennett (Great Britain). C. Jacques Chastanie (France). D. Sidney Robinson (Great Britain). Julius Korir – a Kenyan athlete, a middle distance runner. The champion of the Games of the XXIII Olympiad of 1984 in Los Angeles in the 3,000-metre steeplechase (08 minutes11.80 seconds).

In the steeplechase race athletes use special spiked shoes, which are different from the running shoes used by athletes in other track events. They are made in the way to let the water out after overcoming the water pit.

Bronislaw Malinowski – a Polish athlete, the champion of the Games of the XXII Olympiad of 1980 in Moscow in the 3,000-metre steeplechase – 8 minutes 09.70 seconds. The Olympic silver medallist of 1976 in Montreal in the same distance – 8 minutes 09.11 seconds. A two-time European champion of 1974 in Rome and of 1978 in Prague in the 3,000 m steeplechase.

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17. 2004. 18. Gulnara Samitova-Galkina (Russia). 19. 8 minutes 58.81 seconds. 20. 2008. 21. The Games of the II Olympiad, 1900. 22. George Orton (Canada). 23. 7 minutes 34.4 seconds. 24. John Thomas Rimmer (Great Britain).

25. What was the result of the first Olympic champion and Olympic record-holder in the 4,000- metre steeplechase? A. 12 minutes 58.4 seconds. B. 12 minutes 58.6 seconds.

C. 12 minutes 58.8 seconds. D. 13 minutes 00.5 seconds.

26. The programme of which Olympic Games included competitions in the 2,590-metre steeplechase? A. The Games of the I Olympiad, 1896. B. The Games of the IV Olympiad, 1908. C. The Games of the II Olympiad, 1900. D. The Games of the III Olympiad, 1904.

27. Who was the winner of the Games of the III Olympiad of 1904 in the 2,590-metre steeplechase? A. James Lightbody (USA). B. John Daly (Ireland). C. Arthur Newton (USA). D. George Bonheg (USA).

28. What was the result of the first Olympic champion in 1904 in the 2,590-metre steeplechase? A. 7 minutes 39.6 seconds. B. 7 minutes 37.6 seconds.

C. 7 minutes 40.6 seconds. D. 7 minutes 38.6 seconds.

Julius Kariuki – a Kenyan athlete, the champion of the Games of the XXIV Olympiad of 1988 in Seoul in the 3,000-metre steeplechase – 8 minutes 05.51 seconds (an Olympic record).

The Steeplechase. Aaron Purser. 2013.

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Matthew Birir – a Kenyan athlete, the champion of the Games of the XXV Olympiad of 1992 in Barcelona in the 3,000-metre steeplechase – 8.05.51minutes.


29. The Games of which Olympiad included the 3,200-metre race with obstacles? A. The Games of the I Olympiad, 1896. B. The Games of the IV Olympiad, 1908. C. The Games of the II Olympiad, 1900. D. The Games of the III Olympiad, 1904.

30. Who was the Olympic champion in the 3,200-metre steeplechase in 1908? A. Arthur Russell (Great Britain). B. Archie Robertson (Great Britain). C. Charles Holden (Great Britain). D. John Eisele (USA).

31. What was the result of the first Olympic champion in the 3,200-metre steeplechase? A. 10 minutes 48.4 seconds. B. 10 minutes 47.8 seconds.

C. 11 minutes 00.8 seconds. D. 11 minutes 00.7 seconds.

Moses Kiptanui – a Kenyan athlete, the silver medallist of the Games of the XXVI Olympiad of 1996 in Atlanta in the 3,000-metre steeplechase (8 minutes 08.33 seconds), the world champion of 1991, 1993 and 1995. He set two world records in this discipline in 1992 (8 minutes 02.08 seconds) and in 1995 (7 minutes 59.18 seconds). He was the first athlete in the world to run the 3,000-metre steeplechase in less than eight minutes.

32. When did the men’s 3,000-metre steeplechase make its debut at the Games of Olympiad? А. 1920. Б. 1924.

В. 1908. D. 1912.

33. Who was the first Olympic champion in the 3,000-metre steeplechase? A. Patrick Flynn (USA). B. Ernesto Ambrosini (Italy). C. Gustaf Mattsson (Sweden). D. Percy Hodges (Great Britain).

Reuben Kosgei – a Kenyan athlete, the champion of the Games of the XXVII Olympiad of 2000 in Sydney in the 3,000-metre steeplechase – 8 minutes 21.43 seconds. The World Champion of 2001 (8 minutes 15.16 seconds).

Joseph Keter – a Kenyan athlete, the champion of the Games of the XXVI Olympiad of 1996 in Atlanta in the 3,000-metre steeplechase – 8 minutes 07.12 seconds.

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25. 12 minutes 58.4 seconds. 26. The Games of the III Olympiad, 1904. 27. James Lightbody (USA). 28. 7 minutes 39.6 seconds. 29. The GAmes of the IV Olympiad, 1908. 30. Arthur Russell (Great Britain). 31. 10 minutes 47.8 seconds. 32. 1920. 33. Percy Hodges (Great Britain).

34. What was the result of the first Olympic champion in the 3,000-metre steeplechase? A. 10 minutes 00.4 seconds. B. 10 minutes 32.0 seconds.

C. 10 minutes 21.0 seconds. D. 10 minutes 32.1 seconds.

35. Before World War II the winners in the steeplechase were Scandinavian runners V. Rittola, P. Nurmi, T. Loukola and V. Iso-Hollo. What country did they represent? A. Estonia. B. Norway.

C. Sweden. D. Finland.

36. Which of the Finnish runners managed to run the distance of the 3,000-metre steeplechase faster than in 10 minutes (9.54,2)? A. V. Rittola. B. P. Nurmi.

C. V. Iso-Hollo. D. T. Loukola.

37. Which of the Scandinavian runners managed to overcome the 9-minute barrier in the 3,000-metre steeplechase? A. E. Erik Elmseter (Sweden). B. V. Iso-Hollo (Finland). C. P. Nurmi (Finland). D. V. Rittola (Finland). Wilson Boit Kipketer – a Kenyan athlete, the silver medallist of the Games of the XXVII Olympiad of 2000 in Sydney in the 3,000-metre steeplechase (8 minutes 21.77 seconds), the world champion of 1977 in this distance (8 minutes 05.84 seconds). In 1977 he set a world record in the 3,000-metre steeplechase (7 minutes 59.08 seconds).

38. Athletes of what country have managed to hold the leadership in the steeplechase since 1968? A. Kenya. B. Ethiopia.

At the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad of 2004 in Athens the athletes of Kenya won all three medals in the 3,000-metre steeplechase. The Olympic champion was Ezekiel Kemboi, the silver medallist was Brimin Kipruto and the bronze medallist was Paul Kipsiele Koech.

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C. Sweden. D. USSR.


39. What athlete overcame the 8-minute barrier in the 3,000-metre steeplechase? A. K Keino (Kenya), 1972. B. J. Korir (Kenya), 1984. C. D. Kipkorir (Kenya), 1988. D. B Barmasai (Kenya), 1997.

40. At the Games of what Olympiad such a rare phenomenon occurred when the athletes of one country occupied the whole victory podium in the 3,000-metre steeplechase? A. The Games of the XXIV Olympiad (1988). B. The Games of the XXVI Olympiad (1996). C. The Games of the XXVII Olympiad (2000). D. The Games of the XXV Olympiad (1992).

Yekaterina Volkova – a Russian athlete, the 2007 world champion in Osaka in the 3,000-metre steeplechase. The bronze medallist at the Games of the XXIX Olympiad of 2008 in Beijing.

41. The athletes of which country won the full set of the Olympic medals at the single Olympic Games in the 3,000-metre steeplechase? A. Ethiopia. B. United States.

C. Kenya. D. Germany.

42. Who holds the current (as of 2015) Olympic record in the men’s 3,000-metre steeplechase? Saif Saaeed Shaheen – a Qatari athlete. Until August 2003 he was known under the name of Cherono. Saif Saaeed was a double world champion (2003 and 2005) in the 3,000-metre steeplechase. The world record set in this discipline by this athlete in 2004 (7 minutes 53.63 seconds) has not been beaten so far (as of early 2015).

A. Mark Rowland (United Kingdom). B. Julius Kariuki (Kenya). C. Joseph Keter (Kenya). D. Peter Koech (Kenya).

Bernard Barmasai – a Kenyan athlete, the world record holder in the 3,000-metre steeplechase (1997 – 7 minutes 55.72 seconds).

Brahim Boulami – a Moroccan athlete, the world record holder in the 3,000-metre steeplechase (2001 – 7 minutes 55.28 seconds).

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34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52.

10.00,4. Finland. P. Nurmi. A. E. Erik Elmsater (Sweden). Kenya. B Barmasai (Kenya), 1997. The Games of the XXV Olympiad (1992). Kenya. Julius Kariuki (Kenya). 1988. 2008. Gulnara Samitova-Galkina (Russia). 8 minutes 58.81 seconds. Gulnara Samitova-Galkina (Russia). Patriz Ilg (Germany). 2005. Dorcus Inzikuru (Uganda).. Kenya. Kenya.

43. When was the current Olympic record of 8.05.51 minutes in the men’s 3,000-metre steeplechase set? A. 2008. B. 1988.

44. When did the female competitions in the steeplechase make their debut at the Games of Olympiad? A. 2012. B. 2004.

C. 2008. D. 2000.

45. Who was the first female Olympic champion in the 3,000- metre steeplechase? A. Habiba Ghribi (Tunisia). B. Julia. Zaripova (Russia). C. Sofia Assefa (Ethiopia). D. Gulnara Samitova-Galkina (Russia).

46. What result allowed the first female Olympic champion in the steeplechase to mount the top of the Olympic podium? A. 8 minutes 58.81 seconds. B. 9 minutes 9.84 seconds.

Brimin Kiprop Kipruto – a Kenyan athlete, the champion of the Games of the XXIX Olympiad of 2008 in Beijing, the silver medallist of the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad of 2004 in Athens in the 3,000-metre steeplechase. The 2007 World Champion in Osaka, the silver medallist (2011, Daegu) and the bronze medallist (2005, Helsinki) of the World Championships in the 3,000-metre steeplechase.

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C. 1992. D. 1972.

C. 8 minutes 9.37 seconds. D. 9 minutes 9.83 seconds.

47. Who holds the current (as of 2015) Olympic record in the women’s 3,000-metre steeplechase? A. Yulia Zaripova (Russia). B. Gulnara Galkina-Samitova (Russia). C. Habiba Ghribi (Tunisia). D. Sofia Assefa Ababa (Ethiopia).

Gulnara Galkina-Samitova – a Russian athlete, the first in the history female Olympic champion and the current world record holder (as of 2015) in the 3,000-metre steeplechase. The champion of the Games of the XXIX Olympiad of 2008 in Beijing – 8 minutes 58.81 seconds (a world and Olympic record).


48. Name the first world champion in the 3,000-metre steeplechase. A. Bogusław Mamiński (Poland). B. Colin Reitz (Great Britain). C. Julius Korir (Kenya). D. Patriz Ilg (Germany).

49. When was the competition in the women’s steeplechase introduced into the programme of the World Athletics Championships? A. 2005. B. 2001.

C. 2003. D. 2011.

50. Name the first female world champion in the 3,000-metre steeplechase. A. Ekaterina Volkova (Russia). B. Gulnara Galkina-Samitova (Russia). C. Sofia Assefa Ababa (Kenya). D. Dorcus Inzikuru (Uganda).

51. Athletes of which country won the highest number of the Olympic medals in the steeplechase? A. Kenya. B. Great Britain.

C. Russia. D. Finland.

52. Athletes of which country dominate on the world stage in the steeplechase today? A. Great Britain. B. United States.

C. Finland. D. Kenya.

Yulia Zaripova (The Zar-Zar) – a Russian athlete specializing in the 3,000-metre steeplechase. The champion of the Games of the XXX Olympiad of 2012 in London (9 minutes 06.72 seconds). The 2011 world champion in Daegu (9 minutes 07.03 seconds), the silver medallist of the 2009 World Championships in Berlin (9 minutes 08.39 seconds). The 2010 European champion in Barcelona (9 minutes 17.57 seconds).

Ezekiel Kemboi Cheboi – a Kenyan athlete, a double champion of the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad of 2004 in Athens (05 minutes 08.82 seconds) and the Games of the XXX Olympiad of 2012 in London (8 minutes 18.56 seconds) in the 3,000-metre steeplechase. Thus he became the second athlete in history after a Finn Volmar Iso-Hollo who managed to win twice in this discipline at the Olympic Games. A three-time champion (2009, 2011, 2013) and a three-time silver medallist (2003, 2005, 2007) in athletics in the 3,000-metre steeplechase at the World Championships.

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Marathon T

Victoria. Drawing.

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he marathon race is an athletic running discipline, which belongs to cyclical running events, now held at the distance of 42 kilometres 195

metres. The name of the marathon traces back to the legend from the Ancient Greek times narrating of a Greek warrior that was sent from Marathon to Athens to rejoice the Athenians with the good news of the Greek victory over the forces of Persian invaders in the battle, which took place in 490 BC. The distance from the town of Marathon to Athens covered by the running Greek messenger equals to 40 kilometres in modern distance measurements. The same distance was covered by athletes-marathoners (men only) during the first modern 1896 Olympic Games held in Athens. And the first Olympic champion in the marathon at the 1896 Games was Spiridon Louis of Greece who overcame a 40-kilometre distance in 2 hours 58 minutes 50 seconds. At the 1900 Games of the II Olympiad in Paris athletes competed in the marathon held at a distance of 40 kilometres 260 metres; at the 1904 Games of the III

The Soldier of Marathon Announcing the Victory. Jean-Pierre Cortot. 1822. France, the Louvre.


The Hoplite. Greek vase painting, Attic, Red-figure ceramics. Skythos. 510 BC.)

Olympiad in St. Louis – 41 kilometres; at the Games of the IV Olympiad of 1908 in London – 42 kilometres 195 metres (the start was given at Windsor Castle, the royal residence of the country, and the finish was at the London White City stadium); at the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad in Stockholm – 40 kilometres 200 metres; at the 1920 Games of the VII Olympiad in Antwerp – 42 kilometres 750 metres. And since the 1924 Games of the VIII Olympiad in Paris and until now the length of the Olympic marathon distance has remained unchanged and equals to 42 kilometres 195 metres (that is such as it was at the 1908 Games of the IV Olympiad in London). Until now only two athletes in the entire period of the modern Olympic Games (1896–2012) managed to become double Olympic champions in the marathon. Abebe Bikila of Ethiopia was the champion of the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome (with the result of 2 hours 15 minutes 16.2 seconds – the world and Olympic records) and the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo (with

The Soldier of Marathon. Luc Olivier Merson. 1869. France. (Pheidippides Giving Word of Victory at the Battle of Marathon to the People of Athens).

The Death of Eucles after the Battle of Marathon. Frederick George Cotman. 1873. Great Britain.

The Olympic Marathon Runner. Bronze. Max Kruse. 1920s. Germany.

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An antique vase presented by Greek collector Professor S. P. Lambros for the winner in the marathon. Olympic champion Spiridon Louis committed this ancient vase to the museum for safe-keeping. The Silver Cup established by the King of Greece George I was awarded to the winner in the marathon – Spiridon Louis.

The Silver Cup of Michel Bréal for the winner in marathon.

the result of 2 hours 12 minutes 11.2 seconds – the world and Olympic records). German athlete of the German Democratic Republic Waldemar Cierpinski excelled at the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal (with the result of 2 hours 09 minutes 55.0 seconds – an Olympic record) and at the 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad in Moscow (with the result of 2 hours 11 minutes 3.0 s). From 1896 to 1980 inclusive the competition in the marathon at the Olympic Games were held only for men. And the Olympic women’s competitions in the marathon (at the same distance of 42 kilometres 195 metres) took place at the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles for the first time. There the first Olympic champion in the marathon was US athlete Joan Benoit with the result of 2 hours 24 minutes 52 seconds. So far, no female athlete succeeded in becoming a two-time Olympic champion in the marathon. Now the owner of the current Olympic record in the men’s marathon is Samuel Kamau Wanjiru from Kenya who won in this discipline at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing, covering the distance in 2 hours 06 minutes 32 seconds. The holder of the current Olympic record in the women’s marathon is Naoko Takahashi from Japan who excelled in this event at the 2000 Games of the XXVII

At the I Olympic Games held in the Greek capital in 1896, the longest, then a 40-kilometre, distance of the athletic competitions – the marathon (the historical roots of which originate from Ancient Greece when the legendary messenger came running to Athens with the news of the victory of the Greek army over the Persians near Marathon) Greek Spiridon Louis finished first and became his country’s national hero. The Statue of Pheidippides alongside Marathon – Athens Road

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Olympiad in Sydney with the result of 2 hours 23 minutes 14 seconds. The first world champion in the men’s marathon was Robert de Castella from Australia who won in this event with the result of 2 hours 10 minutes 03 seconds) at the first World Athletics Championships held in 1983 in Helsinki (Finland). There and at the same time the first world champion in the women’s marathon was Grete Waitz from Norway who excelled with the result of 2 hours 28 minutes 09 seconds. Now (as of early 2015) the world record in the men’s marathon is Dennis Kipruto Kimetto from Kenya who covered the distance of 42 kilometres 195 metres in 2 hours 02 minutes 57 seconds in 2014. The holder of a world record in the women’s marathon now (as of early 2015) is British athlete Paula Radcliffe who completed the distance of 42 kilometres 195 metres in 2 hours 15 minutes 25 seconds in 2003.

The Runner. The Sculpture made of glass dedicated to Spiridon Louis. Athens. 1988.

Awarding the champion in the marathon, Spyridon Louis, at the Olympic stadium in Athens (1896).

The Monument to Spiridon Louis in Cook Park at Brighton– Le-Sands on the shore of Botany Bay.

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The Dorando Pietri Monument erected in Carpi (2008) in honour of the 100th anniversary of his great Olympic performance.

1.

The marathon race was introduced into the programme at the 1896 Games of the I Olympiad of the modernity. Who initiated its inclusion? А. Michel Bréal. B. Pierre de Coubertin

2.

Italian marathon runner Dorando Pietri during the competition at the 1908 Games of the IV Olympiad in London.

A French Academician Michel Bréal proposed to introduce an Olympic discipline, a source of national pride for the Greeks, into the programme of the I International Olympic Games. The champion in the discipline was to be awarded a medal and additionally the following prizes: the silver cup of King George I of Greece, the cup of Michel Bréal, a marriage proposal on behalf of the daughter of George Averoff, a millionaire and a philanthropist, and a million drachmas dowry, a barrel of wine, free meals for one year, a for life free dress making and barber’s services, 10 centners of chocolate, 10 cows and 30 sheep. What discipline is that? А. The discus throw. B. The stadion race.

Though an Italian athlete Dorando Pietri was not decorated with Olympic medals, he entered the history of the world athletics with an episode that took place in London during the Olympic competitions of the IV Games in 1908 in the final stage of the marathon in the White City Stadium. The sprint undertaken by Pietri earlier in the forty-first kilometre threw off the athlete: he was losing conscience, falling down, getting up again but barely moving. In the end two compassionate men – one of the judges and a journalist – helped the Italian get up and get to the finish. The panel of judges disqualified Dorando Pietri as he finished the race with assistance. And the Olympic champion in that marathon was declared American Johnny Hayes who finished second.

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C. King George I of Greece. D. Demetrios Vikelas.

C. The 24-stadia race. D. The marathon.


3.

Who was the first Olympic champion in the marathon? А. Spiridon Louis (Greece). B. Dorando Pietri (Italy)

4.

Were women allowed participation in the marathon race at the Games of the I Olympiad? А. No. B. Yes.

5.

C. Gyula Kellner (Hungary). D. Kharilaos Vasilakos (Greece)

C. Yes, after the executive board approval. D. Yes, after the medical approval.

What was the award for Greeks women who completed the marathon in 1896 preceding the I Olympic Games of the modernity? А. A gratuity cup. B. A bunch of flowers and a diploma. C. A consolation prize. D. None.

6.

At the Games of the I Olympiad athletes covered the distance of 40 kilometres – the distance from the Marathon Valley to Athens. When and where was the length of the Olympic distance changed to 42 kilometres 195 metres now completed by athletes? А. 1904, Saint Louis. B. 1908, London.

Queen Alexandra presents a commemorative cup to Dorando Pietri. London. 1908.

C. 1912, Stockholm. D. 1924, Paris.

Johnny Hayes (USA) – the winner inner of the Olympic marathon (1908 Games of the IV Olympiad in London).

The winner of the marathon race an American ath athlete Johnny Hayes who had set an Olympic record (2: (2:55.18.4) was awarded a challenge prize – a bronze sta of dying Pheidippides established by the statue Olympic Committee of Greece.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Michel Bréal. The marathon. Spiridon Louis (Greece). No. None. 1908, London.

The winner of the marathon Hannes Kolehmainen running into the Olympic Stadium. Antwerp. 1920.

7.

What was the reason of changing the marathon distance? А. Doctors’ recommendations. B. For convenience of watching the race out of Windsor Palace windows. C. For convenience of watching. D. Doctors’ recommendations and convenience of watching.

8.

What event concludes the Olympic track and field programme? А. The 50-kilometre race walk. B. The women’s marathon race. C. The men’s marathon race. D. The 1,500-metre race.

Kennedy Kane “Ken” McArthur (South African Union) – the Olympic champion in the marathon at the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad in Stockholm.

9.

Where does the marathon distance finish? А. At the main Olympic stadium. B. At the main square of the city. C. In the centre of a city. D. At the starting point.

Athlete of Finland Juho “Hannes” Kolehmainen – the Olympic champion in the marathon at the 1920 Games of the VII Olympiad in Antwerp (2 hours 32 minutes 35.8 seconds).

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10. The marathon distance is a separate running discipline. Name its length. А. 42 km 195 m. B. 40 km 195 m.

C. 45 km 195 m. D. 38 km 195 m.

11. The only road running distance introduced in the Olympic programme. А. The half marathon. B. The marathon.

C. The ekiden. D. The day race.

A native of Algeria Ahmed Muhammad Boughera El Ouafi (France) – the Olympic champion in the marathon at the 1928 Games of the IX Olympiad in Amsterdam (2 hours 32 minutes 57 seconds).

12. What temperature is optimal for the marathon? А. 18—20o С. B. 16—18o С.

C. 20—22o С. D. 14—16o С.

13. In 1896 the International Olympic Committee measured the factual distance from the Marathon battlefield to Athens. What was it? А. 42.195 km. B. 42.750 km.

C. 34.5 km. D. 40.5 km.

A participant of the Olympic marathon race Paul de Bruyn (1932)

Argentinian athlete Juan Carlos Zabala after winning the marathon (with an Olympic record) at the 1932 Games of the X Olympiad in Los Angeles.

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7.

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

For convenience of watching the race out of Windsor Palace windows. The men’s marathon race. In the main Olympic stadium. 42 кm 195 m. Marathon. 14—16о С. 34.5 кm.

The first Olympic champion in the marathon a Greek peasant Spiros Louis was a guest at the 1936 Olympic Games.

14. At what modern Olympic Games a race of the marathon was really held at the distance length between Marathon and Athens? А. 2004. B. 1948.

C. 1936. D. 2012.

15. The initial length of the marathon distance was not fixed. How long was the marathon distance at the I Olympic Games of the modernity? А. 42 km. B. 40 km.

C. 42.195km. D. 41 km.

16. At the first seven Olympic Games the length of the Olympic marathon distances varied from 40 to 42.75 kilometres. How many times did it change? А. 4. B. 5.

C. 3. D. 6.

17. When did the IAAF fix the final length of the marathon distance – 42.195 kilometres? А. 1921. B. 1912.

At the XI Olympic Games of 1936 in Berlin the winner of the marathon race (with an Olympic record of 2 hours 29 minutes 19.2 second) was Korean Sohn Kee-chung who represented Japan at those Olympic Games (which had occupied Korea) under the name of Son Kitei.

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C. 1936. D. 1948.

Memorable oak trees grow in different countries. Many of them have become powerful trees over the years. Oaks at the Olympic stadium in Amsterdam (2012) planted by the winners of the Olympic Games in 1936 serve as special monuments to outstanding athletes.


18. Name the athletes who were lucky to become double Olympic champions in the marathon. А. Abebe Bikila, Emil Zátopek. B. Abebe Bikila, Waldemar Cierpinski. C. Frank Shorter, Emil Zátopek. D. Haile Gebrselassie, Abebe Bikila.

19. What is the name of the subjective condition which develops in the period of a heavy physical fatigue, which is characterized with a feeling of release: А. “The second breath”. B. “The last breath”.

C. “The first breath”. D. “The first and the second breath”.

20. When did the women’s marathon become a part of the Olympic programme? А. 1988. B. 1980.

C. 1992. D. 1984.

21. Name the first Olympic champion in the women’s marathon. А. Grete Waitz. B. Rosa Mota.

C. Joan Benoit. D. Ingrid id Kristiansen.

The first athlete who managed to win twice in the marathon at the Olympic Games was athlete of Ethiopia Abebe Bikila. He excelled at the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome (with a world record – 2 hours 15 minutes 16.2 seconds) and at the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo (with a world record – 2 hours 12 minutes 11.2 seconds). His further career of a two-time Olympic champion who dreamed of winning at the following Olympic Games of 1968 was unfortunately interrupted by a car accident, in which Bikila injured his spine and was confined to a wheelchair. A few years later he died.

A monument to an outstanding athlete from Ethiopia Abebe Bikila was erected in Addis Ababa.

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14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

2004. 40 кm. 6. 1921. Abebe Bikila, Waldemar Cierpinski. 19. “The second breath”. 20. 1984. 21. Joan Benoit.

Frank Shorter – an American longdistance runner. The champion of the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in the marathon, the silver medallist of the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in the marathon.

22. What was the winning result of the first Olympic female champion in the marathon? А. 2:26.18. B. 2:24.52.

C. 2:27.34. D. 2:26.57.

23. In 1908, standing on the ambo of the Saint Paul’s cathedral, the Bishop of Pennsylvania pronounced the phrase: «The most important thing is not to win but to take part!», which became one of the symbols of the Olympic movement. On what occasion was this phrase uttered?

Awarding the marathon winners of the 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad in Helsinki: Emil Zátopek (left) and a silver medallist Reinaldo Gorno (Argentina).

А. The performance of the marathoner Dorando Pietri in 1908. B. The first gold medal gained by James Connolly in 1896. C. The beginning of the women’s marathon events in 1966. D. When in 1896 American Gardner Williams came out of the water right after the start of the swimming race in Piraeus as the water was cold.

24. Name the winner of the marathon at the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome and the shoes he was wearing. А. Rhadi Ben Abdesselam, running shoes Adidas. B. Abebe Bikila, he ran barefoot. C. Alain Mimoun, running shoes Asics. D. Arthur Barry Magee, running shoes Nike.

Emil Zátopek – a Czechoslovak legendary long-distance runner. At the 1952 Games he won three Olympic gold medals in the 5-kilometre race, the 10-kilometre race and the marathon (with an Olympic record – 2 hours 23 minutes 03.2 seconds).

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At two Olympic Games in 1976 Montreal and in 1980 Moscow East German athlete Waldemar Cierpinski won two gold medals in the marathon race.

25. There was only one runner in history that succeeded in breaking four world records in the marathon. Name him. А. Derek Clayton (Australia). B. Abebe Bikila (Ethiopia). C. Jim Peters (Great Britain). D. Khalid Khannouchi (Morocco).

26. Who is the current world record holder in the marathon? А. Abera Kuma (Ethiopia). B. Emmanuel Mutai (Kenya). C. Dennis Kimetto (Kenya). D. Geoffrey Kipsang (Kenya).

27. Name the current world record set in 2014. А. 2:02.57. B. 2:03.57.

C. 2:04.57. D. 2:01.57.

28. Who is the current world record holder in the women’ss marathon? А. Paula Radcliffe (Great Britain). B. Aselefech Mergia (Ethiopia). C. Tiki Gelana (Ethiopia). D. Mary Keitany (Kenya).

The women’s marathon was introduced into the athletics programme at the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad In Los Angeles. Joan Benoit of the United States completed the distance of 42 kilometres 195 metres faster than anyone (2 hours 24 minutes 52 seconds) and became the first Olympic champion in the women’s marathon.

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22. 2:24.52. 23. The performance of marathoner Dorando Pietri in 1908. 24. Abebe Bikila, he ran barefoot. 25. Jim Peters (Great Britain). 26. Dennis Kimetto (Kenya). 27. 2:02.57. 28. Paula Radcliffe (Great Britain).

Valentina Yegorova – a Russian long-distance runner. The champion of the 1992 Games of the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona, the 1996 silver medallist in Atlanta in the marathon. The half marathon world champion (1995).

29. A world record in the women’s marathon was set in 2003 by Paula Radcliffe with the help of a male pacemaker – 2 hours15 minutes 15 seconds. Name the women’s world record in the marathon without men’s participation. А. 2:20.13. B. 2:18.00.

C. 2:17.43. D. 2:16.35.

30. What is the name of a runner who leads and makes the running in the mid and long distances in a pace specific to a certain distance? А. The leader. B. The pace maker.

C. The domestic. D. The gregory.

31. What advantage apart for the psychological support do athletes receive following the pace maker? А. They run at a predetermined speed. B. They run in conditions of a somewhat decreased air resistance. C. They face no threat of going off the distance. D. They run at a predetermined pace.

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Carlos Lopes – a Portuguese athlete, the marathon champion of the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles. He brought the first-ever Olympic gold medal with a new Olympic record of 2 hours 09 minutes 21 secondss to Portugal. The Silver medallist of the 1976 Games in Montreal in the 10,000 metres. A three-time world cross country champion (1976, 1984, 1985).


32. When did pace making first appear? А. In the 1980s. B. In the 1990s. C. In the 2000s. D. Simultaneously with professional running.

33. Who set the women’s current world record inn the marathon maratho on without men’s participation? А. Paula Radcliffe (Great Britain). B. Mary Keitany (Kenya). C. Tiki Gelana (Ethiopia). D. Aselefech Mergia (Ethiopia).

Rosa Mota – a Portuguese athlete who was most successful in the marathon. The champion of the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul, the 1984 silver medallist in Los Angeles marathon.The 1987 world champion. A three-time European champion (1982, 1986, 1990) in the marathon.

34. Athletes of what country were most lucky to set the he greatest number of world records in the marathon? А. Kenya. B. Morocco.

C. Ethiopia. D. Russia.

35. Special points are located at each 5 kilometres of the marathon distance. What is offered there? А. To go to the toilette room. B. To have some water. C. To have some energy drink. D. To have a snack and a drink.

Haile Gebrselassie – an Ethiopian long-distance runner and a marathoner. A two-time Olympic champion and a fourtime world champion in the 10,000 metres, a four-time world indoor champion in the 1,500 and 3,000 metres. Since 1994 he has set 27 world records at distances ranging from 2,000 metres to the marathon.

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29. 2:17.43. 30. The pace maker. 31. They run in conditions of a somewhat decreased air resistance. 32. Simultaneously with professional running. 33. Paula Radcliffe (Great Britain). 34. Kenya. 35. To have a snack and a drink. 36. +18о С. 37. +28о С. 38. Emil Zátopek. 39. 1983. 40. Rosa Mota (Portugal). 41. Rosa Mota.

Mizuki Noguchi – a Japanese long distance and marathon runner. The champion of the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad in Athens in the marathon (2 hours 26 minutes 20 seconds). The World Championships silver medallist in 2003 (2 hours 24 minutes 14 seconds). The silver medallist at the 1999 World Championships in the team half marathon.

36. What temperature is dangerous for holding the marathon? А. +20° С. B. +22° С.

C. +18° С. D. +21° С.

37. At what temperature should the marathon start be cancelled as recommended? А. +26° С. B. +28° С.

C. +30° С. D. +27° С.

38. An outstanding Czech long distance runner gained his victories at the 1952 Olympic Games in the 5,000 and 10,000 metres and the marathon. And, by the way, he ran the marathon for the first time in his life. Name the athlete. А. Emil Zátopek. B. Jan Kreisinger.

Stephen Kiprotich – a Ugandan long distance runner. The 2012 Olympic champion in the marathon (2 hours 08 minutes 01 second). The 2013 world marathon champion in Moscow.

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C. Franjo Mihalić. D. Joseph Shutö .


39. When did women first take part in the marathon withinn the World Athletics Championships? А. 1987. B. 1989.

C. 1985. D. 1983.

40. Who was the first world champion in the women’s marathon? А. Joan Benoit (USA). B. Grete Waitz (Norway). C. Ingrid Kristiansen (Norway). D. Rosa Mota (Portugal).

Stefano Baldini – an Italian athlete, a long-distance runner. The 2004 Olympic Champion in the marathon. A two-time world bronze medallist (2001, 2003) in the marathon.The half marathon world champion (1996). A two-time European champion in the marathon (1998, 2006).

41. A Portuguese female athlete ran 21 marathon races and won in 14 of them between 1982 and 1992. She was a 1988 Olympic champion (Seoul) and a 1987 world champion. Name the athlete. А. Gabriela Szabo. B. Paula Radcliffe. C. Lisa Martin-Ondieki. D. Rosa Mota.

Tiki Gelana – an Ethiopian marathon runner. The 2012 Olympic champion in the marathon (2 hours 23 minutes 07 seconds).

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The Cross Country by the Red Army Soldiers. A.A. Deyneka. Wall painting. 1937. USSR.

Cross Country ross country running is a track and field race over natural terrain. It is held in the distances of different lengths. The Olympic cross country competitions were first held at the 1904 Games of the III Olympiad in St. Louis. It was team running on a distance of 4 miles (6437.32 metres). Only two men’s teams (five athletes in each) participated in this competition and a championship was determined by summing up the top places taken by the members of the team. The winner was the team of the USA (New York), which consisted of Arthur Newton (who took the 1st place), George Underwood (the 5th), Paul Pilgrim (the 6th), Howard Valentine (the 7th), David Munson (the 8th). Their total score was 28. At the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad in Stockholm the programme of the Olympic track and field athletics competitions (men only) introduced 12 km cross-country (an individual championship). The Olympic champion was Hannes Kolehmainen from Finland with the result of 45 minutes 11.6 seconds. Simultaneously with the individual championship in the 12,000-metre cross-country race there was a team competition in which the winning team was determined by the lowest sum of places taken by three team members. The winner was the team from Sweden with Hjalmar Andersson (2nd place), John Eke (3rd place) and Josef Ternstrऺm (5th); the total score was 10.

C

A Boy Running. Yves Pires. 20th cent. France.

The Track and Field Competition. A.P. Pochteniy. The beginning of the 1930s. USSR.

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The cover of the book “Cross country". P.V. Novikov. 1930. USSR.


At the 1920 Games of the VII Olympiad in Antwerp the programme of the track and field athletics (men only) included the 8-kilometre distance (both individual and team). The individual championship was won by Paavo Nurmi from Finland who ran the distance in 27 minutes 15.0 seconds. In team competition, where a winner was determined by the smallest sum of places taken by the team members (three athletes in each) the victory was gained by the Finnish team consisting of Paavo Nurmi (1st place), Heikki Limatainen (3rd) and Teodor Koskenniemi (6th); the score was 10. At the 1924 Games of the VIII Olympiad in Paris the programme of track and field athletics (men only) introduced a 10.7-kilometre distance (both individual and team). Paavo Nurmi from Finland won an individual round with the result of 32 minutes 54.8 seconds. In the team competition where the winners were determined by the smallest sum of places taken by the team members (three athletes in each) the winner was the Finnish team, which included Paavo Nurmi (1st place), Ville Ritola (2nd) Heikki Limatainen (8th); (the score was 11). Later cross country running was excluded from the Olympic track and field programme. Racing Along the Boulevard. A.A. Deyneka. 1929–1930. USSR.

A Landscape With a Red Tree. Running. L.T. Chupyatov. 1938. USSR.

At the stadium. A.S. Shipitsyn. 1983. USSR.

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Arthur Newton was an American athlete, the champion of the 1904 Games of the III Olympiad in St. Louis in the four-mile (6,437.32 metres) team race, the bronze medallist in the 2,590-metre steeplechase and the 40-kilometre marathon.

In 1903–1972 the unofficial world championships in the cross-country running (“The Cup of the Nation”) were held for both individuals and teams. The first competitions were for men only. But since 1969 “The Cup of the Nation” was organized for both men and women. In 1973 “The Cup of the Nation” got a status of the World Cup. At the first World Cross Country Championships, which took place in Waregem, Belgium the individual competition among men was won by Pekka Päivärinta from Finland. He ran 11.98 kilometres in 35 minutes 46.4 seconds and became the first official champion of the World Cross Country Championships. The team competition (each team of nine members, the score by the six best results) was won by the Belgium team (total – 109). At the same time and place an Italian Paola Cacchi won an individual competition for women at the distance of 3.99 kilometres in 13 minutes 45.2 seconds, and became the first official female world champion in the cross-country. The team competition (each team consisted of six participants, the score by the four best) was won by the England team (the score was 40).

Hannes Kolehmainen was a Finnish athlete, one of the best long-distance runners in the history of sports. A fourtime Olympic champion in long-distance running, he won two Olympic medals in the cross country race: the gold medal in the individual 12,000-metre cross country race in Stockholm 1912 (45.11,6 minutes) and the silver medal in team competitions in the 12,000 metres.

Paul Pilgrim was an American athlete, the champion of the 1904 Games of the III Olympiad in St. Louis in four-mile (6,437.32 metres) team race.

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1.

The cross country race is one of the track and field disciplines. What is it? A. Cross country running. B. The steeplechase. C. The 10,000-metre course. D. Running at a very long distance on flat terrain.

2.

Which country is considered to be the founder of the cross country race? A. England. B. France.

3.

C. Scotland. D. Greece.

There is a historical evidence that the cross country competition was an indispensable component of various national holidays on the British Isles. When did the cross country start as a track and field discipline?

Paavo Nurmi was an outstanding Finish athlete, the owner of the largest collection of Olympic medals – 12; 9 of which were gold. He gained a victory at the 1920 Games of the VII Olympiad in Antwerp in the 8,000-metre country cross in both individual and team race competitions. At the 1924 Games of the VIII Olympiad in Paris he won the 10,000-metre cross country and the team race at more than 10,000 metres.

A. By the early 19th century. B. By the end of the 19th century. C. By the mid-19th century. D. By the beginning of the 20th century.

4.

When and where was the first competition in the cross country held? A. England, 1837. B. Switzerland, 1910.

C. Germany, 1891. D. Sweden, 1894.

Ville Ritola was a famous Finnish long-distance runner. A five-time Olympic champion. At the 1924 Games of the VIII Olympiad in Paris he won 4 gold medals: one in the 10,000 metres team race, the silver medal in individual competition in the 10,000-metre cross country race.

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1. 2. 3. 4.

Cross country running. England. By the end of the 19th century. England, 1837.

5.

What is a range of distances for athletes to compete in the cross country race? A. From 3 to 12 km. B. From 3 to 10 km.

6.

How is a track for cross country racing marked? A. By a tape on both sides. B. By a limiting net.

7.

Heikki Limatainen was a Finnish athlete. The champion of the 1920 Games of the VII Olympiad in Antwerp in the cross country, where he won the bronze medal in team race at the distance over 8,000 metres, the Games of 1924 in Paris in the team race in the 10,000 metres. The bronze medallist of 1920 in the individual event on the distance of 8,000 metres (27 minutes 37.4 seconds).

Grete Weitz was a Norwegian athlete, the silver medallist of the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad and the 1983 world champion (two medals in the marathon). The 1978 world champion in the cross country (Glasgow). In 1979–1981 she had no equal in the cross-country race at the World Championships.

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C. By a wooden fence. D. By a tape one side.

What should the width of the track for the cross country race competition be? A. 10 m. B. 3 m.

8.

C. From 5 to 10 km. D. From 3 to 15 km.

C. 5 m. D. 7 m.

Every year the municipality of San Vittore Olona, Italy, holds a cross country race, which is today one of a series of the IAAF Cross Country qualification competitions. When were these events held for the first time, and who organized them? A. 1933, Giovanni Malerba. B. 1935, the IAAF. C. 1933, the Italian Athletics Federation. D. 1933, Head of the Lombardy region.

John Ngugi – a Kenyan longdistance runner. In the history of Kenya he is the only Olympic champion in the 5000 metres (Seoul, 1988). A five-time winner of the World Cross Country Championships in individual events: in 1986 – Colombo; 1987 – Warsaw; 1988 – Oakland; 1989 – Stavanger; 1992 – Boston.


9.

What is the name of the cross country competitions founded in 1933? A. The Cross-country of the five tracks. B. The cross of the Five Mills. C. The cross of the five distances. D. The cross of the five days.

10. Who was the winner of the Five Mills competition in 1933? A. Mario Fiocchi (Italy). B. Luigi Pellin (Italy). C. Romano Maffeis (Italy). D. Umberto De Florentis (Italy).

11. What was the cross country distance at the competitions in 1933? A. 3 km. B. 10 km.

C. 6 km. D. 5 km.

12. The Five Mills competitions did not stop even during World War II. Before 1951 only Italians participated in them, but later the event became international. When did it happen? A. 1955. B. 1951.

Lynn Jennings – an American athlete specializing in longdistance running and the cross country. The World Cross Country Champion of 1987 in the team competition, and in 1990–1992 in individual events. The silver medallist at the World Cross Country Championships in 1986 in individual and in 1992 – team competitions. The bronze medallist at the 1989 World Championships team events and in individual events in 1993.

C. 1945. D. 1948.

Paul Tergat – a Kenyan athlete, a professional long distance runner, a two-time silver Olympic medallist in the 10,000 metres (1996 – Atlanta, 2000 – Sydney). A two-time World Championships silver medallist (1997 – Athens, and 1999 – Seville) and the bronze winner (1995 – Göteborg). The winner of the World Championship in the 10,000 metres, a two-time world champion in the half marathon (1999, 2001).

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5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

From 3 to 12 km. By a tape on both sides. 5 m. 1933, Giovanni Malerba. The cross of the Five Mills. Mario Fiocchi (Italy). 6 кm. 1951.

13. When did women make their debut in the Five Mills competitions? A. 1998. B. 1975.

C. 1971. D. 1980.

14. Who was the first winner of the Five Mills competitions? A. Rita Ridley (GDR). B. Paola Pigni (Italy). C. Dora Gabriela (Italy). D. Renata Pentlinovska (Poland).

15. In 1937 the length of a cross country track at the Five Mills was increased up to 10 kilometres, and in 1938 up to 12.3 kilometres. What is the length of a cross country track today (2015)? A. 12.3 km for men, 5.5 km for women. B. 9.8 km for men, 6.5 km for women. C. 12.3 km for men, 4.5 km for women. D. 9.8 km for men, 5.5 km for women.

16. When did the cross country race enter the Olympic programme? A. At the 1896 Games of the I Olympiad. B. At the 1908 Games of the IV Olympiad. C. At the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad. D. At the 1900 Games of the II Olympiad.

Derartu Tulu – an Ethiopian long distance runner, a two-time Olympic champion in the 10,000 metres (1992 – Barcelona and 2000 – Sydney), the world champion of 2001 at the same distance, the bronze medallist of the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad in Athens in the 10,000 metres. A multiple winner of competitions in the cross country race.

Paula Radcliffe – a British athlete specializing in long-distance running, road running and cross country. As a child she was quite weak, suffering from anaemia and asthma. She gained her first victory in 1997 when she got the silver medal at the World Cross Country Championships. In 1998 and 2003 she became the European champion in the cross country.

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Benita Johnson – an Australian long-distance runner. A participant of four Olympic Games (2000, 2004, 2008, 2012). A world champion in the cross-country for individuals in 2004 (Brussels), a two-time bronze medallist of team events in 2006, 2008 (Fukuoka and Edinburgh).


17. The programme of the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad in Stockholm in 1912 introduced a new discipline – crossrunning race. In what distance? A. 10,000 m. B. 5,000 m.

C. 12,000 m. D. 8,000 m.

18. Who was the first Olympic champion in the cross country race? A. Hjalmar Andersson (Sweden). B. Hannes Kolehmainen (Finland). B. John Eke (Sweden). D. Hjalmar Iskola (Finland).

Lornah Kiplagat – a Dutch long-distance runner. The world cross country champion of 2007 (Mombasa, Kenya). A participant of three Olympic Games in 2004, 2008, 2012.

19. What result brought a gold medal to Hannes Kolehmainen? A. 45 minutes11.6 seconds. B. 46minutes 37.6 seconds.

C. 45 minutes 44.8 seconds. D. 46minutes 54.8 seconds.

20. Team cross country running in the 12,000 metres became a part of the Olympic programme in 1912. The athletes of two Scandinavian countries, Sweden and Finland, took two tiers of the Olympic podium. Which team became an Olympic champion? A. Sweden. B. Finland.

C. Norway. D. Britain.

Kenenisa Bekele – an Ethiopian athlete who specializes in the 5,000 and 10,000 metres. A three-time Olympic champion (2004, 2008 – twice). A 16-time world champion in the cross country both in individual and team competitions (2001–2008).

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13. 1971. 14. Rita Ridley (GDR). 15. For men 9.8 km, 5.5 km for women. 16. The V Olympic Games, 1912. 17. 12,000 m. 18. Hannes Kolehmainen (Finland). 19. 45 minutes 11.6 seconds. 20. Sweden. 21. Paavo Nurmi (Finland). 22. 27.15.0. 23. 10,000 m. 24. Paavo Nurmi (Finland). 25. 32.54,8. 26. 3. 27. At the 1928 Games of the IX Olympiad in Amsterdam. 28. 1973.

21. At the first post-war 1920 Games of the VII Olympiad in Antwerp there were competitions in the cross country race in 8,000 metres. Who gained the victory? A. Heikki Limatainen (Finland). B. Paavo Nurmi (Finland). C. Eric Buckman (Sweden). D. James Wilson (UK).

22. What result did Paavo Nurmi show at the VII Olympics Games in 1920? A. 27 minutes15.0 seconds. B. 27 minutes 37.4 seconds.

C. 27 minutes 17.6 seconds. D. 27 minutes 45.2 seconds.

23. The programme of the VIII Olympic Games in Paris in 1924 introduced a new cross country running distance. What was it? A. 10,000 m. B. 15,000 m.

C. 9,000 m. D. 12,000 m.

24. Who was the first Olympic champion of a newly introduced individual discipline of cross country race at the 1924 Games of the VIII Olympiad in Antwerp? A. Paavo Nurmi (Finland). B. Vilho Eino Ritola (Finland). C. Earl Johnson (USA). D. Ernest Harper (UK).

Imane Merga – an Ethiopian long-distance runner. The World Cross Country Champion of 2011. A three-time winner of the Cross de Atapuerca.

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Vivian Cheruiyot – a Kenyan athlete, a three-time world champion in long-distance running, a two-time 2012 Olympic medallist in the 5,000 and 10,000 metres. By the Laureus World Sports Award survey she was recognized the Best Athlete of the Year 2011. The world cross country champion in 2012.


25. With what result did the first Olympic champion win the gold medal? A. 32 minutes 54.8 seconds. B. 35 minutes 21.0 seconds.

C. 34 minutes 19.4 seconds. D. 35 minutes 45.4 seconds.

26. Team cross country running in the 10,000 metres became a part of the Olympic programme in 1924. The representatives of two Scandinavian countries – Sweden and Finland occupied two tiers of the Olympic podium. The team of Finland won. How many athletes from each country took part in the team competitions? A. 4. B. 2.

C. 3. D. 5.

27. When was the cross country race excluded from the Olympic programme? A. At the 1928 Games of the IX Olympiad in Amsterdam. B. At the 1932 Games of the X Olympiad in Los Angeles. C. At the 1936 Games of the XI Olympiad in Berlin. D. At the 1948 Games of the XIV Olympiad in London.

28. In the Belgian town of Waregem there were competitions in the cross country race that subsequently got a status of the official IAAF World Championships. When did this happen? A. 1983. B. 1993.

Emily Chebet – a Kenyan long-distance and cross country runner. She is the world champion in the cross country both in individual and team events in 2010 and 2013.

C. 1973. D. 1963.

Joseph Ebua – a Kenyan long-distance and cross country runner. The 2010 world champion in the cross country in individual and team events. The 2006 and 2008 World champion in the cross country team competitions.

Japhet Korir – a Kenyan longdistance and cross country runner. The 2013 world champion in the cross country in the individual event and the bronze medallist in the team competitions.

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Race Walking ace walking is a track and field discipline of cyclical nature. It is distinguished from usual walking by mandatory straightening of a support leg in its knee joint at the leg vertical position and from running – by the absence of an unsupported period of a motion phase (for violation of these rules an athlete is removed from the race). Race walking events are held on roads usually paved with asphalt as well as on athletics tracks of stadiums. Men’s race walking events were first included into the Olympic programme at the 1908 Games of the IV Olympiad in London. Moreover, the competitions for Olympic medals in race walking were held in two distances – 3,500 m and 10 miles (16,093.4 metres). The first Olympic champion in race walking was George Larner from Great Britain who won both the above-mentioned distances with the results of 14 minutes 55.0 seconds and 1 hour 15 minutes 57.4 seconds respectively. At the following 1912 Games of the V Olympiad in Stockholm the race walking event was held at a distance of 10 kilometres, where the Olympic champion was George Golding of Canada with the result of 46 minutes 28.4 seconds.

R

Captain Robert Klay, in the act of walking one mile an hour for a thousand successive hours. 1809. Scotland. An 1836 illustration of a “Walking Wager”. Philadelphia.

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The father of race walking can be considered Edward Weston (1839–1929) – an American famous for his bet. Weston came on foot from Boston to Washington, that is 770 kilometres, for the inauguration of Lincoln in 1890 in 10 days and 10 hours. At the age of 69 he walked from New York to San Francisco in 104 days, covering 6,500 kilometres. The return journey he did at the age of 70, but already in 77 days.

The world records in race walking at distances of 3,000 metres (12 minutes 53.8 seconds) and 10 kilometres (45 minutes 26.4 seconds) belonged to Gunnar Rasmussen from Denmark in the early 20s of the 20th century. At the 1920 Games of the VII Olympiad in Antwerp the race walking competitions were held at two distances – 3,000 metres and 10 kilometres. Moreover, an Olympic champion at both distances was Ugo Frigerio from Italy with the results of 13 minutes 14.2 seconds and 48 minutes 6.2 seconds respectively. This Italian athlete also excelled at the 1924 Games of the VIII Olympiad in Paris where the race walking events were held only at one distance – 10 kilometres (the result of the winner was 47 minutes 49.0 seconds). At the 1928 Games of the IX Olympiad in Amsterdam race walking was not included into the Olympic athletics programme. The first world record holder of 1921 in the 50-kilometre race walk was Hermann Müller from Germany who completed this distance in 4 hours 40 minutes 15 seconds. At the 1932 Games of the X Olympiad in Los Angeles race walking was represented by a single distance that first appeared in the Olympic athletics programme

Captain Robert Barklay is considered the father of the 19th century sport of pedestrianism, a precursor of racewalking.

The first stage of the formation of track and field athletics, which lasted until 1908, entered the history with competitions at extra-long distances Vienna – Berlin – 578 kilometres; Paris – Belfort – 496 kilometres; Turin – Marseille – Barcelona – 1,100 kilometres.

African American walking match at the North Carolina State Fair – grounds in Raleigh, North Carolina 1879.

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The origin of race walking as a part of the track and field athletics dates back to the midnineteenth century. In 1867 in England first competitions in race walking were held.

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– 50 kilometres, where British athlete Thomas Green won with the result of 4 hours 50 minutes 10.0 seconds and set an Olympic record (the world record holder in the 50-kilometre race walk was 4 hours 34 minutes 3.0 seconds was Paul Siewert from Germany). At the 1936 Games of the XI Olympiad in Berlin race walking was also represented by the 50-kilometre walk. And at the 1948 Games of the XIV Olympiad in London the masters of race walking already competed at two distances – 10 kilometres and 50 kilometres – the same as at the 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad in Helsinki. At the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad in Melbourne race walking events were held at two distances: the 50-kilometre race was preserved in the Olympic programme, and the former 10-kilometre race was replaced by the 20-kilometre race. The first Olympic champion in the 20-kilometre race walk was Russian athlete Leonid Spirin (Soviet Union) with the result of 1 hour 31 minutes 27.4 seconds, which was an Olympic record (a world record holder at this distance – 1 hour 27 minutes 58.2 seconds – was another Russian athlete from the Soviet Union – Mikhail Lavrov). Since then in the subsequent Olympic athletics programme for men (of the Olympics Games from 1956 to 2012) race walking was represented by two distances mentioned above – 20 kilometres and 50 kilometres (except for the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal, where the masters of race walking competed only in one event – 20 kilometres).

Famoust pedestrian Ada Anderson walked a quarter-mile over the 1,000 hours.


Official world records can only be set in walking races contested on track. Since walking events are held on road, winning times are not eligible for world record consideration. The first world champion in the 50-kilometre race was Veniamin Soldatenko of the USSR who won in 1976 with the result of 3 hours 54 minutes 40 seconds at the first for this distance World Athletics Championships held in Malmö (Sweden). And at the first ever World Athletics Championships held in 1983 in Helsinki (Finland) the champions in race walking were Ernesto Canto Gudiño from Mexico at the distance of 20 kilometres (with the result of 1 hour 20 minutes 49 seconds) and Ronald Weigel of the German Democratic Republic (with the result of 3 hours 43 minutes 08 seconds) at the distance 50 kilometres. The first world champion in the women’s 10-kilometre race walk was Irina Strakhova of the USSR who won (with the result of 44 minutes 12 seconds) in this discipline at the II World Athletics Championships held in 1987 in Rome (Italy). And the first world champion in the women’s 20-kilometre race walk was Liu Hongyu of the People’s Republic of China who won with the result of 1 hour 30 mi-nutes 50 seconds at the VII World Athletics Championships in Seville (Spain) in 1999. The women’s Olympic events in race walking were held at the 1992 Games of the XXV Olympiad in Barcelona

George Littlewood – a British professional pedestrian, he set a record of Great Britain, which remains valid as of today: he completed 623 miles 1,320 yards in 6 days. The record was set at Madison Square Garden (New York, USA) from November, 26 to December 1, 1888.

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In 1908 at the Games of the IV Olympiad in London race walking became a part of the Olympic programme. Only men were admitted to the race walking competitions at 3.5 kilometres and 10 miles (16,093.4 metres). The competitions were attended by 24 (3.5 kilometres), and 25 (10 miles) athletes from eight countries..

Race walking debuted in the Olympic athletics programme in 1908 at the Games of the IV Olympiad. And the first Olympic champion in this athletics discipline was George Larner of Great Britain. In London he won two gold medals in the 3,500-metre race walk (14 minutes 55.0 seconds) and at the distance of 10 miles (16,093.4 m) with a world record (1 hour 15 minutes 57.4 seconds).

At the 1912 Games of the V Olympiad in Stockholm race walking was held at the distance of 10 kilometres, where the Olympic champion was Canadian George Golding (46 minutes 28.4 seconds).

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for the first time. There athletes contested the awards at the distance of 10 kilometres, and the first Olympic champion was Chen Yueling of the People’s Republic of China with the result of 44 minutes 32.0 seconds (an Olympic record). The champion of the 10-kilometre race at the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta with an Olympic record (41 minutes 49 seconds) was Yelena Nikolayeva from Russia. At the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Atlanta the women’s 10-kilometre race walking distance was replacement of the 20-kilometre distance. And the first Olympic champion in the women’s 20-kilometre race walk was Wang Liping (China) with the result of 1 hour 29 minutes 05 seconds (an Olympic record). Since then and up till now race walking has been represented by the 20-kilometre race in the Olympic athletics programme for women (at the Games of Olympiads from 2000 to 2012). The current Olympic record in the men’s 20-kilometre race walk is the result of 1 hour 18 minutes 46 seconds, with which Chen Ding from China won at the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London; a current Olympic record in the men’s 50-kilometre race walk is the result of 3 hours 35 minutes and 59 seconds, with which Sergey Kirdyapkin (Russia) excelled at the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London; a current Olympic record in the women’s 20-kilometre race walk is the result of 1 hours 25 minutes 02 seconds, with which Elena Lashmanova (Russia) won at the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London. The owner of the current (as of early 2015) world record in the men’s 20-kilometre race walk is Bernardo Segura (Mexico) who completed this distance in 1994 in 1


Italian Ugo Frigerio – a three-time Olympic champion in race walking: at the 1920 Games in Antwerp he excelled twice – at the distances of 3,000 metres with a record (13 minutes 14.2 seconds) and 10 kilometres (48 minutes 06.2 seconds), and at the 1924 Games in Paris – at the distance of 10 kilometres (47 minutes 49.0 seconds).

hour 17 minutes 25.6 seconds, and now the current holder of the world record in the men’s 20-kilometre race walk on the road is Vladimir Kanaykin (Russia) with the time of 1 hour 17 minutes 16 seconds shown in 2007. The holder of the current (as of early 2015) world record in the men’s 50-kilometre race walk is Yohann Diniz (France) who has covered this distance in 2011 in 3 hours 35 minutes 27.2 seconds, and the owner of the now existing world record in the men’s 50-kilometre race walk on the road is the same French athlete Yohann Diniz with the result of 3 hours 32 minutes 33 seconds shown in 2014. The holder of the current (as of early 2015) world record in the women’s 20-kilometre race walk is Olimpiada Ivanova (Russia) who completed this distance in 2001 in 1 hour 26 minutes 53.2 seconds, and the owner of the now existing world record in the women’s 20-kilometre race walk on the road is Yelena Lashmanova of Russia with the result of 1 hour 25 minutes 02 seconds shown at the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London.

At the 1932 Games of the X Olympiad in Los Angeles the gold medal in the 50-kilometre race walk (then this distance was first included into the Olympic programme) was gained by Thomas Green of Great Britain with an Olympic record (4 hours 50 minutes 10.0 seconds).

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1.

When did race walking as a track and field discipline originate? А. The beginning of the 19th century. B. The end of the 19th century. C. The 18th century. D. The beginning of the 20th century.

2.

When did race walking become popular all over the world? А. The second half of the 18th century. B. The first half of the 19th century. C. The second half of the 19th century. D. The beginning of the 20th century.

3.

Where were the first competitions in the 7-mile race walk held? А. England. B. Canada.

4.

C. Australia. D. USA.

What is peculiar to the first stage of development of race walking as a track and field discipline until its inclusion into the programme of the Olympic Games in 1908? А. Competitions at extra-long distances (400–500 km). B. Competitions at the distances of 3.5 kilometres and 10 miles. C. Competitions at middle and long distances (800–10,000 m). D. Competitions at the distances of 42 km 195 metres.

Harold Whitlock from Great Britain became the Olympic champion in the 50-kilometre race walk with an Olympic record (4 hours 30 minutes 41.4 seconds) at the 1936 Games of the XI Olympiad in Berlin.

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Swedish athlete John Mikaelsson – a two-time Olympic champion in the 10-kilometre race walk: at the 1948 Games of the XIV Olympiad in London (45 minutes 13.2 seconds) and at the 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad in the Helsinki with an Olympic record (45 minutes 02.8 seconds)..


At the 1948 Games of the XIV Olympiad in London Swede John Lundgren became the Olympic champion in the 50-kilometre race walk (4 hours 41 minutes 52.0 seconds); eight years later – at the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad in Melbourne – he won the bronze medal at this distance, and at the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome – the silver medal. He is an author of six world records in race walking at different distances (set in 1951–1953).

5.

When did race walking become a part of the Olympic programme? А. 1904, St. Louis. B. 1908, London.

6.

C. 1912, Stockholm. D. 1908, Paris.

Who was admitted to the first Olympic competitions in race walking? А. Men and women. B. Adult men and young men. C. Men only. D. Anyone in the age of up to 45 years old

7.

What distances were contested by the representatives of eight countries in race walking at the 1908 Games of the IV Olympiad in London? А. 3.5 km and 10 miles (16.0934 km). B. 3.5 km and 10 km. C. 10 km and 15 km. D. 5 km and 10 km.

8.

A British race walker was the winner in both race walking disciplines at the 1908 Olympic Games. Name the first Olympic champion. А. George Larner. B. Ernest Webb.

C. Edward Spencer. D. Frank Carter.

At the 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad in Helsinki the Olympic record in the 50-kilometre race walk (4 hours 28 minutes 07.8 seconds) brought the gold medal of the Olympic champion to Italian Giuseppe Dordoni.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

The end of the 19th century. The second half of the 19th century. England. Competitions at extra-long distances (400–500 km). 1908, London. Men only. 3.5 km and 10 miles (16.0934 km). George Larner.

9.

What is the name of an athlete, a participant of race walking competitions? А. A walker. B. A pacer.

C. A race walker. D. A runner.

10. What is the name of the race walking distance with a simultaneous start? А. A start. B. A passage.

C. A simultaneous race walk. D. A dash.

11. What is absolutely prohibited for a race walker to do at the competitive distance? А. To lose contact with the surface. B. To drink water. C. To talk. D. To bend his/her leg at the knee joint after passing the momentum of vertical.

12. What punishment is intended for an athlete who employed the flying phase in a competition? А. Disqualification. B. None.

C. Oral warning. D. A monetary fine.

At the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome Donald Thompson of Great Britain set up an Olympic record in the 50-kilometre race walk (4 hours 25 minutes 30.0 seconds), which brought him the gold medal of the Olympic champion.

At the 1956 Games of the XVI Olympiad in Melbourne Leonid Spirin of the USSR won the gold medal in the 20-kilometre race walk (then this distance first appeared in the Olympic programme) with an Olympic record (1 hour 31 minutes 27.4 seconds).

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13. What distances are currently contested by race walkers (men) at largest international competitions (the Olympic Games, World Championships, World Cups, and European Cups)? А. 30 and 15 km. B. 30 and 25 km.

C. 50 and 20 km. D. 30 and 10 km.

14. What is the difference between running and race walking? А. The absence of the flying phase in running. B. A leg straightened at its knee joint while placed on a prop. C. The absence of the double prop phase in running. D. The presence of the vertical momentum.

15. It is known that an average speed of race walking is lower than that of running but naturally higher than that of usual walking by 2 – 2.5 times. It happens due to the fact that the length and the frequency of strides increase. Name the average stride length of professional race walkers and the pace (frequency) of their movement. А. 110–115 cm, 180–200 strides per minute. B. 150–155 cm, 190–200 strides per minute. C. 90–100 cm, 170–180 strides per minute. D. 100–105 cm, 150–160 strides per minute.

16. Where are the race walking competitions most frequently held? А. At the stadium. B. On the field.

C. On the road. D. Indoors.

Ukrainian athlete Vladimir Golubnichiy (USSR) was an owner of four Olympic medals of different value in the 20-kilometre race walk: at the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome he won the gold medal (1 hour 34 minutes 07.2 seconds); at the 1964 Games of the XVIII Olympiad in Tokyo he won the bronze medal (1 hour 31 minutes 59.4 seconds); at the 1968 Games of the XIX Olympiad in Mexico City he got a victory (1 hour 33 minutes 58.4 seconds) thus becoming a two-time Olympic champion; at the 1972 Games in Munich he was awarded the silver medal (1 hour 26 minutes 55.2 seconds). He was an author of world achievements in the 20-kilometre race walk – 1 hour 26 minutes 13.2 seconds (1959) and two world achievements in the 20-kilometre race walk on road – 1 hour 30 mi-nutes 30 seconds (1965) and 1 hour 27 minutes 04 seconds (1976).

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9. A race walker. 10. A simultaneous race walk. 11. To lose contact with the surface. 12. Disqualification. 13. 50 and 20 km. 14. The absence of the double prop phase in running. 15. 110–115 cm, 180–200 strides per minute. 16. On the road.

17. When was the men’s 50-kilometre race walk included into the Olympic programme? А. 1928, Amsterdam. B. 1924, Paris.

C. 1932, Los Angeles. D. 1936, Berlin.

18. Who was the first Olympic champion in the men’s 50-kilometre race walk? А. Thomas Green (Great Britain). B. Jānis Daliņš (Latvia). C. Ugo Frigerio (Italy). D. Karl Hähnel (Germany). Abdon Pamić of Italy who won the bronze medal in the 50-kilometre race walk at the 1960 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Rome succeeded with the gold medal at this distance, setting an Olympic record of 4 hours 11 minutes 12.4 seconds at the following 1964 Games in Tokyo.

19. When did they start registering world race walking records? А. 1976. B. 1912.

C. 1923. D. 1866.

20. When did they start registering world race walking records at the 20-kilometre distance at the stadium? А. 1912. B. 1915.

C. 1920. D. 1918.

21. Who set the first official world record in the men’s race walking? And when? А. Y. Diniz (2014). B. S. Kirdyapkin (2012).

C. L. Spirin (1956). D. E. Chambers (1866).

Kenneth Matthews of Great Britain won the gold medal in the 20-kilometre race walk with an Olympic record (1 hour 29 min 34.0 seconds) at the 1964 Games of the XVII Olympiad in Tokyo.

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At the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich German athlete of the GDR Peter Frenkel became the Olympic champion in the 20-kilometre race walk (with an Olympic record – 1 hour 26 minutes 42.4 seconds), and at the following 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal he won the bronze medal in this race.

22. Name the competitive distance in the men’s race walking at the first World Championships. А. 20 km. B. 50 km.

C. 10 km. D. 100 km.

23. When was men’s race walking included into the programme of World Athletics Championships? А. 1956. B. 2012.

C. 1991. D. 2014.

24. Who was the first world champion in the men’s race walking? А. А. Pamich. B. R. Hardy.

C. B. Junk. D. L. Spirin.

25. What was the winning result of the 1st world champion in race walking competitions at the first World Athletics Championships? А. 1:31:27.4. B. 1:41:37.8.

C. 1:46:24.8. D. 1:35:00.4.

26. Who set the first official world record in the women’s race walking? And when? А. O. Ivanova (2001). B. A. Pruska (2012) .

C. O. Ivanchenko (2010). D. M. Govorova (2008).

27. Name the distance where the first world record in the women’s race walking was set. А. 50 km. B. 20 km.

C. 10 km. D. 30 km.

At the 1972 Games of the XX Olympiad in Munich German athlete of the FRG Bernd Kannenberg set an Olympic record in the 50-kilometre race walk (3 hours 56 minutes 11.6 seconds), which brought the gold Olympic medal to the athlete.

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17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.

1928, Amsterdam. Thomas Green (Great Britain). 1866. 1918. L. Spirin (1956). 20 кm. 1956. L. Spirin. 1:31:27.4. O. Ivanova (2001). 10 кm.

28. When was women’s race walking introduced in the programme of World Athletics Championships? А. 2001. B. 2012.

C. 2008. D. 2006.

29. Who was the first world champion in the women’s race walking? А. O. Ivanova. B. A. Pruska.

C. O. Ivanchenko. D. M. Govorova.

30. What was the winning result in the female race walking competitions at the first World Athletics Championships? А. 1:26:53.3. B. 127:23.7.

C. 1:25:37.8. D. 1:20:54.2.

31. When did they start registering world race walking records at the 50-kilometre distance at the stadium? А. 1920. B. 1932.

C. 1928. D. 1924.

Mexican Daniel Bautista set an Olympic record in the 20-kilometre race walk (1 hour 24 minutes 40.6 seconds), which brought him the gold Olympic medal at the 1976 Games of the XXI Olympiad in Montreal.

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At the 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad in Moscow Italian Maurizio Damilano became the Olympic champion in the 20-kilometre race walk, setting an Olympic record – 1 hour 23 minutes 35.5 seconds, and further on got two bronze medals at this distance: at the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles and at the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul.

At the 1980 Games of the XXII Olympiad in Moscow Hartwig Gauder from the GDR won the gold medal in the 50-kilometre race walk with an Olympic record (3 hours 49 minutes 24.0 seconds), and eight years later – at the 1988 Games in Seoul – he won the bronze medal in this race.


32. Name the venue(s) for race walking competitions. А. A stadium, an indoor arena, a road. B. A stadium. C. A road. D. An indoor arena, a road.

33. What competitive distances are contested in the men’s race walking in an outdoor stadium? А. 3.5, 10 and 20 km. B. 10, 20 and 30 km.

C. 20 and 50 km. D. 1, 3, 5 and 10 km.

34. At what competitive distances are world indoor records fixed in the men’s race walking? А. 5,000 m. B. 10 and 30 km.

C. 5 and 10 km. D. 10,000 and 50,000 m.

35. What men’s race walking competitions are held on road? А. 20 and 50 km. B. 10 and 30 km.

Mexican Ernesto Canto Gudiño won the gold medal in the 20-kilometre race walk, setting an Olympic record – 1 hour 23 minutes 13.0 seconds at the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles.

C. 20,000 m. D. 20, 35 and 50 km.

36. What men’s race walking disciplines are included into the Olympic programme? А. 20 and 50 km. B. 10, 20 and 50 km.

C. 30 and 50 km. D. 10 and 20 km.

Mexican athlete Raúl González Rodríguez excelled in the 50-kilometre race walk by setting an Olympic record (3 hours 47 minutes 26.0 seconds) and at the distance of 20 kilometres he won the silver medal at the 1984 Games of the XXIII Olympiad in Los Angeles.

Jozef Pribilinec from Czechoslovakia won the gold medal in the 20-kilometre race walk with an Olympic record (1 hour 29 minutes 57.0 seconds) at the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul.

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28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36.

2001. O. Ivanova. 1:26:53.3. 1924. A stadium, an indoor arena, a road. 3, 5, 10 and 20 кm. 5,000 m. 20 and 50 кm. 20 and 50 кm.

37. Race walking has been a part of the Olympic programme since 1908. But these events were only contested for men. After a detailed and all-round study of the issue the IAAF Congress took a decision of including the women’s race walking events into programmes of large competitions. When did it happen? А. 1985. B. 1990.

C. 1995. D. 2000.

38. What women’s competitive events in race walking are held outdoors? А. 3.5 and 10 km. B. 3 and 20 km.

C. 5 and 10 km. D. 3.5 and 20 km.

39. What women’s competitive events in race walking are held indoors? А. 3.5 km. B. 5,000 m.

C. 5 km. D. 10,000 m.

40. What men’s competitive events in race walking are held on the road? Russian athlete Vyacheslav Ivanenko (USSR) set an Olympic record in the 50-kilometre race walk (3 hours 38 minutes 29.0 seconds), which brought him the gold medal of the Olympic champion at the 1988 Games of the XXIV Olympiad in Seoul.

А. 10 and 20 km. B. 10, 20 and 30 km.

C. 20,000 m. D. 10,000 and 15,000 m.

Yelena Nikolayeva of Russia excelled in the 10-kilometre race walk with an Olympic record (41 minutes 49 seconds) at the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta.

At the 1952 Games of the XV Olympiad in Barcelona the Olympic track and field programme included women’s race walking (at the distance of 10 kilometres) for the first time. And the first Olympic champion in this discipline was Chinese athlete Chen Yueling, whose result (44 minutes 32.0 seconds) was registered as an Olympic record.

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41. Name the Olympic women’s race walking discipline. А. 50 km. B. 10 km.

C. 20 km. D. 30 km.

42. A current (as of 2015) world record in the men’s 20-kilometre race walk is 1:16.36. Who holds it? А. Sergey Morozov (Russia). B. Yusuke Suzuki (Japan). C. Vladimir Kanaykin (Russia). D. Yohann Diniz (France).

43. The current (as of 2015) world record in the women’s race walking is 1:24.47. Who is its author? А. Elmira Alimbekova (Russia). B. Olga Kaniskina (Russia). C. Yelena Lashmanova (Russia). D. Anisya Kirdyapkina (Russia).

44. What was the record result in the men’s 20-kilometre race walk? And who achieved it? А. 1:31.44 John Mikaelsson (Sweden). B. 1:27.04 Vladimir Golubnichiy (USSR, Ukraine). C. 1:23.40 Daniel Bautista (Mexico). D. 1:38.43, Hermann Müller (Germany).

Athlete of Italy Alex Schwazer won the gold medal in the 50-kilometre race walk, setting an Olympic record of 3 hours 37 minutes 09 seconds at the 2008 Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing.

Polish athlete Robert Korzeniowski got his first Olympic gold medal at the 1996 Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta, where he won the 50-kilometre race (3 hours 43 minutes 30 seconds). At the following 2000 Games in Sydney he excelled in both Olympic walking distances – 20 kilometres (with an Olympic record of 1 hour 18 minutes and 59 seconds) and 50 kilometres (with the result of 3 hours 42 minutes 22 se-conds). And at the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad in Athens this athlete won the competitions at the 50-kilometre distance (3 hours 38 minutes 46 seconds), thus becoming a four-time Olympic champion.

At the 2000 Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney the race walking competitions included a distance of 20 kilometres for the first time instead of the previous distance of 10 kilometres. There the first Olympic champion and, accordingly, the owner of an Olympic record at this distance was Chinese athlete Wang Liping (1 hour 29 minutes 05 seconds).

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37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44.

1985. 3.5 and 10 кm. 3.5 кm. 10 and 20 кm. 20 кm. Yusuke Suzuki (Japan). Elmira Alimbekova (Russia). 1:38.43, Hermann Müller (Germany).

At the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London Sergey Kirdyapkin of Russia became an Olympic champion in the 50-kilometre race walk, setting an Olympic record (3 hours 35 minutes 59 seconds).

Olimpiada Ivanova – a Russian athlete, a world and a European champion, the silver medallist of the 2004 Games of the XXVIII Olympiad in Athens, the world record holder (2005) in the women’s 20-kilometre race walk.

45. What was the record result in the women’s race walking? And who achieved it? А. 2:24.00, Antonina Briksova (Czech Republic). B. 1:57.26, Irma Johansson (Sweden). C. 1:54.30, Irma Johansson (Sweden). D. 1:36.23, Susan Cook (Australia).

46. When did men’s 20-kilometre race walk become a part of the Olympic programme? А. 1956. B. 1960.

C. 1948. D. 1952.

47. Name the first Olympic champion in the men’s 20-kilometre race walk. А. Leonid Spirin (USSR, Russia). B. Antanas Mikėnas (USSR, Lithuania). C. Bruno Junk (USSR, Estonia). D. Norman Read (New Zealand).

48. When did women’s race walking events become a part of the Olympic programme? А. 1992. B. 2000.

At the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London Chinese athlete Chen Ding won the gold medal in the 20-kilometre race walk with an Olympic record (1 hour 18 minutes 46 seconds).

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C. 1996. D. 1988.


49. Name the first Olympic champion in the women’s race walking. А. Yelena Nikolayeva (Russia). B. Chen Yueling (China). C. Wang Yan (China). D. Elisabetta Perrone (Italy).

50. Name the first Olympic champion in the men’s 50-kilometre race walk. А. Yevgeniy Maskinskiy (USSR, Russia). B. John Lundgren (Sweden). C. Abdon Pamich (Italy). D. Thomas Green (Great Britain).

At the 2012 Games of the XXX Olympiad in London Russian athlete Yelena Lashmanova won the gold medal in the 20-kilometre race walk with a world record (1 hour 25 minutes 02 seconds), which is still to be surpassed.

51. When did the women’s 20-kilometre race walk become a part of the Olympic programme? А. 1996. B. 2000.

C. 1988. D. 1992.

52. Name the first Olympic champion in the women’s 20-kilometre race walk. А. Wang Liping (China). B. Tatyana Gudkova (Russia). C. María Vasco (Spain). D. Kjersti Plätzer (Norway).

An athlete from France Yohann Diniz holds two world records in race walking: at the distance of 50 kilometres (set in 2011 in the French Reims – 3 hours 35 minutes 27.2 seconds) and at the distance of 50 kilometres on road (fixed in 2014 in the Swiss Zurich – 3 hours 32 minutes 33 seconds).

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45. 2:24.00, Antonina Briksova (Czech Republic). 46. 1956. 47. Leonid Spirin (USSR, Russia). 48. 1992 . 49. Chen Yueling (China). 50. Thomas Green (Great Britain). 51. 2000. 52. Wang Liping (China).

53. Nowadays elite female race walkers show the 20-kilometre race walking results close to the first men’s Olympic record (1956). What is an average time of completing the distance? А. 1 hour 40 minutes. B. 1 hour 50 minutes.

C. 1 hour 30 minutes. D. 2 hours.

54. What is an average time needed for an elite male athlete to complete a 20-kilometre distance in race walking? А. 2 hours 15 minutes. B. 1 hour 05 minutes.

C. 2 hours 10 minutes. D. 1 hour 20 minutes.

55. In 1956 New Zealand athlete Norman Read became an Olympic champion in the 50-kilometre race walk with the result of 4 hours 30 minutes 42,8 seconds. What is an average today’s time for elite athletes to complete this distance? А. 3 hours 40 minutes. B. 3 hours 10 minutes.

C. 3 hours. D. 2 hours 10 minutes.

56. The programme of what Olympic Games excluded the 50- kilometre race walk? А. The 1976 Games of the ХХІ Olympiad. B. The 1972 Games of the ХХ Olympiad. C. The 1968 Games of the ХIХ Olympiad. D. The 1980 Games of the ХХII Olympiad.

At th the 2008 G Games off th the XXIX Ol Olympiad i d iin B Beijing iji Russian athlete Olga Kaniskina set an Olympic record in the 20-kilometre race walk (1 hour 26 minutes 31 seconds), which brought her the gold medal of the Olympic champion.

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57. When was the 50-kilometre race walk was returned to the programme Olympic Games? А. 1984. B. 1980.

C. 1988. D. 1992.

58. In the second half of the 20th century race walking was excluded from the Olympic programme. In order to compensate this race so important for athletes the IAAF organized an event in the Swedish city of Malmö, which was later given a status of the first World Race Walking Cup. When did it happen? А. 1976. B. 1972.

C. 1980. D. 1984.

59. Who was the first world champion in race walking? А. Veniamin Soldatenko. B. Reima Salonen.

C. Yevgeniy Yevsyukov. D. Enrique Vera.

Vera Sokolova – a Russian athlete, the bronze medallist of the 2010 European Championships in Barcelona, the world record holder in the women’s 20-kilometre race walk (2011), a two-time winner of the World Race Walking Cup at 10 kilometres (2004, 2006).

60. The programme of World Athletics Championships first included women’s race walking in 1987. What was the competitive distance for female athletes? А. 20 km. B. 15 km.

C. 5 km. D. 10 km.

Anisya Kirdyapkina – a Russian athlete, the 2013 world vice-champion, the bronze medallist of the 2011 World Cup, the 2010 vice-champion of Europe in the women’s 20-kilometre race walk.

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53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64.

65.

1 hour 30 minutes. 1 hour 20 minutes. 3 hours 40 minutes. The Games of the ХХІ Olympiad, 1976. 1980. 1976. Veniamin Soldatenko. 10 кm. 20 кm. Vladimir Golubnichiy (USSR, Ukraine). 1932. The start and the finish – in the stadium, and the distance itself – on the road. Robert Korzeniowski (Poland).

61. Starting from 1999 the programme of World Athletics Championships has undergone changes: women started to compete in race walking at a longer distance. Name the distance. А. 15 km. B. 20 km.

C. 17 km. D. 16 km.

62. Nam Name a modern race walker who has had four Olympic awar in his competitive career. awards А. L Leonid Spirin (USSR, Russia). Vladimir Golubnichiy (USSR, Ukraine). B. V C. R Robert Korzeniowski (Poland). D. D Daniel Bautista Rocha (Mexico).

63. Whe 6 When did the 50-kilometre race walk become an Olympic disci discipline? А. 1 1928. B. 1 1932.

Robert Heffernan – an Irish athlete, the 2013 world champion in the men’s 50-kilometre race walk. A participant of the Games of the XXVII, XXVIII, XXIX, XXX Olympiads in 2000–2012.

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C. 1936. D. 1948.


64. Where are 50-kilometre race walking events held? А. At the stadium. B. The start and the finish – at the stadium, and the distance itself – on road. C. The finish – at the stadium, the start and the distance itself – on road. D. On road.

65. Name the athlete who has had the largest number mber of Olympic gold medals (3) in the 50-kilometre race walk, and also –2004). one more in the 20-kilometre race walk (1996–2004). А. Vladimir Golubnichiy (USSR, Ukraine). B. Robert Korzeniowski (Poland). C. Nathan Deakes (Australia). D. Andrey Perlov (USSR).

Aleksandr Aleksand dr Ivanov – a Russian athworld champion, the lete, the 22013 worl silver medallist meedallist of the 2014 EuroChampionships pean Cha ampionsh in 2014 in the men’s 20-kilometre 20-kilometre race walk, the medallist silver me edallist of the 2012 World Championships in the men’s Junior C Champions 10-kilometre 10-kilom metre race walk.

Denis Nizhegorodov – a Russian athlete, the silver (2004) and the bronze (2008) medallist of the Games of the XXVIII and XXIX Olympiads, the world record holder (2008), the World Championships silver medallist (2011), a three-time World Cup winner (2006, 2008 – 2) in the men’s 50-kilometre race walk.

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