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THECUTTINGEDGE

Published by ANGER MACHINING GmbH

How many gears will shift the future?


THECUTTINGEDGE

At The End Of The Day, It’s Called Premium. A conversation with Joachim Eisenhut (ZF) Page 12 Anton Anger His name appears on our machines Page 16

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Success Through Consistent Focus On Change

We Provide The Goldsmith With His Hammer How we see our machines. Page 17 And This Is What It Looks Like An overview

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The State Of Play: Remarks to EMO

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Award-Winning Work “State Innovation Prize 2011” Page 22

Optimized For The Future Energy efficiency on the test bench Page 24

“Energy Costs Are Already Higher Than Tool Costs.” When Flowers Fly To The The Bee, ... The idea behind a new technology Page 4

Looks Old From the glasses in 1982 to double machining of engine blocks. One thing that all the different applications through the ages have in common: precision and the machine principle.

What has really changed in the machining industry? Page 6

The Art Of Parts A different look at components Page 8

Heinrichshöhe The Volkswagen plant near Kassel Page 10

Views of Prof. Eberhard Abele Page 25

One Must Imagine Mechanical Engineers Happy University Cooperation. Research & Development. Page 28


Dear Readers,

Klaus Dirnberger

Dietmar Bahn

We now have the first edition of a newspaper that we have created for all customers, employees, business and industry colleagues, interested parties and friends of the company. It is appearing here at the EMO in 2011 and has the job of presenting the company and is intended to also give a brief look at what is yet to come. Therefore, we have dubbed it “2012”. The successful development of our company in the past few years has its origin in change. There is a tradition at ANGER of taking new directions and looking for new technical solutions in order to constantly advance industrial manufacturing productivity yet another step forward. From the original machines for manufacturing spectacles frames, we have continued to develop the technology over the course of the years into solutions for complex automotive precision parts. ANGER has had an ongoing history of change in the 30 years since the company was founded in 1982. That was the only way for the company to survive. Today it is recognized internationally as a provider of innovative solutions for metal processing in series production. ANGER in the Circle of the Best Machine-Building Companies

Let’s Build Machines A current situation: Is there enough offspring for the industry? Page 30

In view of the upcoming anniversary, we look back at the positive development of the past years with great pleasure. It the pleasure found in the fact that with our efforts, we have been able to satisfy the leading customers in the automotive industry, continue to develop existing relationships, and convince new customers. We are proud to have been included in the club of the best. We are very thankful for the trust you have placed in us.

where manufacturing has to react quickly to changing requirements, but still has to end up with lower unit costs than with traditional MCs in order to remain competitive. In 2011, we are developing a very close and competent service partnership in the USA, based in Cincinnati, Ohio, for our North American customers. Training of all new ANGER specialists at the headquarters in Austria will last several months, and will also be held for an increasing number of German service technicians from our service subsidiary in Karlsruhe. Extensive measures have been initiated for the optimization of our value-creation chain in order to reduce our throughput times. These measures range from parts logistics and new project software tools up to modularization and standardization of the control programs. ANGER Technology Introduced in the BRIC Countries ANGER is planning to take the successes in the major industrial countries like Germany and the USA to growth markets as well in the next few years. The customer potential for Transfer Center technology is an order of magnitude greater than we can address at this time. We will exploit these opportunities with the rapid development of China, Mexico, Brazil and other growth markets. Besides investments in sales and the qualifications of personnel resources, we consider a great challenge to be adapting the machine technology to the rules and possibilities of these markets and to define new technical standards. Moreover, anywhere where there isn’t sufficient know-how in the process-safe manufacturing of high precision parts, it will be production support that will be decisive for achieving higher levels of efficiency and quality. Here, we will play an important role as a technology and solution provider - and we offer solutions exactly for this. Expansion of the Traun Location into an International Know-How Center

A short historical reflection. ANGER has a solid foundation for 2012. We have had an average growth rate of 30% per year since 2006 - even Page 32

Our strategy is to develop the original company in Austria into a know-how center. The extensive machining process knowledge and engineering competence for machining projects is to be made available worldwide as a platform. The actual machine building, procurement, automation, and also specific programming are to be setup at the other locations as well, depending on customer requirements and with realization partners.

Engines From Tomorrow

We hope that with “2012” we have created an interesting and inspiring magazine. Thank you for your interest and feed back.

Austria And The Automobile

An upcoming step: Champions League.

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Knight Moves Detroit from a different view Page 34

The Beginning, Not The End A project in Kokomo, Indiana

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Everything In Life Comes Back Again So does the multi-spindle head. Page 38

Splitter Imprint

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Well Equipped for the Future

in the crisis year 2009. In 2011, we are even expecting growth of around 50%. A solid profit and capital structure are the outcome of our restructuring. With the gradual expansion and modernization of our plant premises, we have created the conditions for continued growth. Our staff, which has now grown to around 125 employees, receives constant training, and the level of training will be increased further. Through careful growth management and continuous development of the organization and processes, it has been possible to considerably raise and bundle the efficiency, innovative power and creativity of the managers and employees. The Austrian Federal Prize for Innovation 2011 is a high mark of distinction, and at the same time, we consider it to be a mandate to continue to justify this award in the future. Sustainable Continuation of the Growth Path In our key markets of Europe and North America, we are focusing on consistent ongoing development of our process solutions. This can be summarized as delivering more productively, more flexibly, more ecologically, and faster. The strategy that has been adopted since 2007 of concentrating on the highest-value transmission and engine parts will be developed even further. Following successful installations and assignments that have drawn attention worldwide in this demanding segment, new concepts are being applied at ANGER for engine blocks, cylinder heads, bed plates, valve control units, transmission cases, and similarly intelligent new concepts, possibly also including innovative cooperation models with other machine manufacturers. The new, highly flexible “ANGER HCXchange” machine has great potential. It will be used in the Tier 2 supplier segment anywhere

D. Bahn K. Dirnberger General managers, proprietors ANGER MACHINING GmbH.


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THECUTTINGEDGE


When The Flowers Fly To The Bee, You Get A Transfer Center. In this case, the busy bee spares itself from having to buzz around so eagerly, and saves time and space. It can concentrate considerably more on the individual blossoms, and at the end of the day it saves work and time. That is the idea behind the ANGER HCX Transfer Center. The system is generically referred to as transfer center technology. In principle, it is the logical extension of highly productive transfer lines combined with the flexibility of machining centers - and that flexibility is becoming more and more important. It is the best of both worlds, in a manner of speaking. It has a very compact and space-saving footprint, and it makes a highspeed machining system available that has the essential advantage of workpieces coming to the tool and not vice versa.

If you always do what you always did you will always get what you always got. Abraham Lincoln said that. “That is the future, without a doubt”, says recognized university professor and production researcher Eberhard Abele elsewhere (see: The energy costs are already higher than the tool costs.) The scientist sees in this a “thoroughly revolutionary technology - namely handling the part and not just the tool!” In the history of machinery manufacturing, which is more than 80 years, only the tool has been handled and never the workpiece. And now – as Eberhard Abele continues – it is necessary to inform the industry and production planners that this can be used to create more cost-effective concepts. And that is exactly what we want to do at this point. The expanded HCXchange concept, which is aimed at more flexibility and efficiency, is based on the already mature architecture of HCX, which has been used very successfully by a variety of premium customers in the

automotive industry. This technology has now been expanded to include a tool changing system with variable positioning that makes up to 2x2 main spindles and changing units possible. Hence, the basic machine includes either one or two double spindles. In addition, however, the well-known ANGER advantages can be exploited. This means that multi-spindle heads can be combined in all variations in one and the same machine room for simultaneous volume production, permanently mounted HF spindles for very high precision machining, turrets and tool change units. And it does this simultaneously. The stable position of the tool - with a moving workpiece - makes it possible to change the tool during machining, and in fact the tool can be changed on the main spindle while machining on other spindle units. Hence the net cycle times are reduced considerably without stressing the spindles too much during slow down and acceleration, as is the case with a conventional machining center. Change does not just refer to changing the tool, but also the position behind it. Change represents the next step towards even more efficient and hence more economical machining technology. And this is why the machine has been named HCXchange.


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THECUTTINGEDGE


1948

Looks Old.

And it is. It was photographed sometime in the last 80 years - expressed quite vaguely. “For approximately 80 long years, only the tools were handled in the industry, and never the workpiece.” That is a quotation from Eberhard Abele. And then... “Now someone suddenly comes along who also handles the workpiece. Basically, it is a revolutionary technology.” This wonderful document of American industrial history stands for this. ANGER didn’t exist when metalworker and toolmaker Alex Tiebs was photographed here in the famous Ford plant called the River Rouge Complex at the Rouge River. It was a long journey from the original assembly line workers of Henry Ford to today’s production technology. And nevertheless, some of the processes have remained unchanged, in principle. Actually, it is very surprising that it took more than 80 years before someone had the idea: “You could also move the workpiece in the machine!” Suddenly, everything else looks old.


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THECUTTINGEDGE


2011

The Art of Parts...

It is sculptures that you can see here. They are sculptures, like ones you might see enthroned on a pedestal in a museum of modern art. The Viennese photographer Bernhard Angerer thought so too, when he staged these parts. And ANGER MACHINING also does. “We build machines and are proud of our products,” says Dietmar Bahn, “but the things that these machines can do are even more impressive. They make our clients’ components!” You can read more on this philosophy elsewhere: “We provide the goldsmith his hammer.” For all of you who are not very familiar with this type of art, you can see a gearbox housing case on the left, and the critical valve body of an 8-shift automatic transmission is on the right. Art of Parts - this title pertains to each individual part, parts that do not simply have the effect of exceptional gems, but which are gems as well.


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THECUTTINGEDGE


1997

Heinrichshöhe

You can see it in the evening sun - the industrial equivalent to the castle at Wilhelmshöhe. The building that was purchased in the aera of Heinrich Nordhoff lets us know who lives there in a very unmistakable way: VOLKSWAGEN. The lettering on the so-called north edge building is 190 meters wide and five meters high. The factory on the hills in the vicinity of Kassel was originally responsible for aircraft engines. It was built in 1936 for Henschel. Volkswagen moved in 1957. No cars were built there, rather components. Hence, Kassel is the “primary plant” for transmission construction. At 3 million transmissions per year, it is even one of the largest in the world. The plant has its own aluminum and magnesium foundry. Machines from ANGER have been here since 1997 or more correctly one would have to refer to Braunatal. By the way, the lettering is illuminated in Volkswagen blue in the night. On the fiftieth anniversary of the plant, the letters K and S were highlighted brightly in the lettering. It was a sign of solidarity with Kassel. The prefix KS is the code for the city of Kassel on German license plates.


THECUTTINGEDGE 12

At The End Of The Day, It’s Called Premium...

Joachim Eisenhut talks about cars, ANGER, production and perfect driving.


Here is my first question, just to get started: I have always been very interested in cars - and I ran across ZF for the first time in the late sixties. If found it in a newspaper article as a brand that can’t be seen on the car. Since then, ZF has had special meaning to me. By the way, it was an English car magazine. Do you have an explanation for this - from your perspective? ZF delivers systems that work hidden inside the vehicle. That means they cannot be seen on the outer shell of the vehicle. Most end consumers don’t know the manufacturers of these systems, and in fact they don’t really care as long as the systems or transmissions work perfectly in the vehicle. But it still is something special - nevertheless. If an English car magazine writes that a model - I think it was a Jaguar - will now have a ZF transmission, a five-speed transmission at that time, then that is certainly unusual. In the past, ZF never tackled the market offensively, and actively advertised the products. ZF was more involved in recommending the technology to OEMs and car manufacturers, and convincing them of the ZF technology, and not the end consumers to make them say: “I want a ZF product in my vehicle!” That has changed recently, and ZF is now advertising its own products directly in many advertising media. But, as I mentioned, that was my experience as a child, and my father then explained that ZF meant “Zahnradfabrik Friedrichshafen”. I am not aware of any other product from that time - not visible on the outer shell, as you said - that was known without any accompanying measures, like the way “Intel” was marketed with a great deal of effort to get the message of ‘Intel inside’ across, and that a computer is actually only a really good computer if it has Intel inside... However, if you think about all the systems that are incorporated into a vehicle that contribute to increasing performance, then there is quite a lot from the ZF Group transmission, chassis components, bumpers, steering, and much more. Naturally, it is quite alright with OEMs if the performance that comes from ZF is viewed as part of their own performance. Of course! Naturally, our customers also make a great contribution to development, like BMW for example, in the development of the 8 HP. However, our developers are very proud of such a good product, which is currently very well received by the market. To me, there is a “ZF legend”. It is different than Borg Warner, for example, who was the inventor of the automatic transmission. Borg Warner and ZF originally had a joint venture for the production of automatic transmissions here in Saarbrücken. However, at the beginning of the 70ies, Borg Warner thought: Europe or Germany, that is no market for automatic transmissions, and he dropped out of the joint venture. ZF continued by itself in Saarbrücken, with the conviction that over time, the automatic transmission would gain importance in Germany and Europe. Whereby, Germany is definitely a special market – for some reason, the Germans like it when they can shift – at least I have a feeling they do. The penetration of automatic transmissions in luxury vehicles is already relatively high. However, the percentage is

Interview

Joachim Eisenhut, Head of Planning at ZF Powertrain Technology, Business Unit Transmissions, in Saarbrücken, Germany. Patrick Schierholz had a chat with him.

increasing permanently in the mid-class vehicles. After VW promoted the twin clutch transmission in the Golf class, which ultimately is an automatic transmission, the penetration and acceptance has increased clearly in the mid-class as well. It has increased. But I think that nine gears could hardly be handled - you would spend all your time shifting. I don’t understand people who drive a lot in city traffic and still voluntarily use a manual transmission. I am of the same opinion. However, regardless of whether manual or automatic, each additional gear gives you the possibility stay closer to the optimum of the engine’s characteristic curve and drive more fuel-efficiently. The more gears you have, the closer you are to the optimum of the engine’s characteristic curve, which also means optimum consumption. Then, if gear shifting still works relatively well - shifting times are less than the perception limit - then that is almost “perfect driving”. That was actually always the case - at least in ZF products. Whether it was a 5-speed, 6-speed or an 8-speed, the shifting performance of all of them was extremely good. The progress, however, is different: I currently drive using our 8-speed transmission in a BMW 525. Before that I had the predecessor product - with the 6 HP. For a “normal driver”, there is hardly any difference between a 6-speed and 8-speed in the handling. However, the CO2 or alternatively fuel savings is serious. In the same class of vehicle, in principle the same motorization, I use approx. 2 litres less diesel than before. With two gears more than before... Undoubtedly, this is the result of optimization in the entire drive train - i.e. the engine and transmission - as well as other optimizations to the aerodynamics and other measures. But a large part of the savings is also attributable to our transmission. Depending on the motorization, it is more than 10% in any case. Compared to the former 5-speed transmissions, it is even up to 14%. And, we haven’t reached the end yet... Is there an upper limit? 16 cylinders in an engine is the end of the line. Is there also a magic number for transmissions, for example if we reach 12 gears, is that the limit? I can’t say; I’m not a developer. However, I heard from our development department that the configuration of the 8 HP - which means the combination of clutches, shifting components, brakes - is so optimal that there is hardly any room for improvement, even in this standard drive train. The next stage of development will surely involve some tuning on the transmission-ratio spread, or optimizations of the inside components, but in terms of the overall configuration, this transmission is absolutely future-proof. It isn’t true that one can say that ten gears are better than nine, or that nine are better than eight. The optimum comes from the transmission-ratio spread, the reduction of internal losses in the transmission, the placement of the clutch shifting components and brakes. It is only this overall configuration that results in an optimum inside the automatic transmission for the reduction of consumption and improvement of performance. But once again: I am not the development expert here. My job is to take what I am given by the developers and implement it in production in an optimum way. I would like to get back to that, but there are still a few general items that are part of the entire complex, and in production planning and preparation in particular there must be a great deal of uncertainty about where the future lies. We are now discussing eight or nine gears and further optimization. On the other hand, there is development where no one knows where the future lies.

There are hybrids and fuel cells, and no one knows which one will prevail. I recently read that Dutch and German scientists were successful at binding hydrogen in magnesium blocks, because the volume of hydrogen would require completely different tanks - not to mention that they would be small hydrogen bombs... What I would like to put into words is the question: What lies in the future? And how will production have to adjust to this, i.e. for drive systems to work in combination with electric motors, exclusively with electric motors, or with something completely different. Okay! The basic configuration of the current automatic transmission is still comparable to the mechanical design of the older series. This means, the elements making up today’s 8-speed or 9-speed transmissions, are in principle the same elements found in the 5 or 6-speed transmissions. This means, there are shafts, clutches, metal parts, aluminum parts, housing parts,... ... and gears! And gears! Of course! And therefore, it is always the goal of production planning to optimize production in such a way that it is possible to manufacture the components of the different transmission types in an optimum way. A primary shaft was also in our 5 HP or 6 HP transmissions. Only the production methods have change in part. We were able to make some serious optimizations. The cycle times, performance of the machines, accuracies have improved. And, in the development of the transmissions, we increased the performance and also optimized the production methods such that we also achieved optimization of the production costs at the same time. Does this mean that production - and I am exaggerating now - can lean back and say: I’ll just wait and see how things develop? And if the technical development or research were to say: Now we simply need lighter electric motors, and it will most likely look like this, so make sure that it is manufactured in an optimum way? Surely this has to be viewed with a certain amount of lead time. In our outlook, we know approximately what technology will be coming in the next five or perhaps even ten years. You know that already? We are quite sure. The 8 HP is now industrialized to a great extent and we are already giving some thought to how the next generation will look. It isn’t the case that we can proceed on the assumption that we now have a very good product that will still be stateof-the-art in 10 or 15 years. May I just ask a quick question? Does this 8 HP care at all where the power comes from that is has to transmit? I mean, when hybrid technology arrives, is it so flexible that it could even be a pure electric motor? We also currently have hybrid transmissions in use, that are based on the 8 HP transmission. In addition, we also build electric motors in the company.


THECUTTINGEDGE

For a combination with combustion engines?

... in combination with combustion engines. In addition, we are working on the further development of our automatic transmission in order to integrate electric motors in the transmission. That means we certainly do see development of the drive train for electrification. However, in parallel, we have to ask: What will be happening in the volume market in the next ten years? When will the new products really be ready for series production in order to be able to enter the mass market? This will certainly happen in the next ten to fifteen years, however in parallel we have to consider how we can covert our factory facilities for this new drive technology. ZF has more than 5,000 employees here in Saarbrücken, and tremendous assets in equipment and buildings. This means, we are already giving thought today to how the production technology will look when this production about-turn comes. But we don’t see it coming in the next ten years, i.e. massive entry into volume business. Electrification will indeed grow, however mechanically, hydraulically, electronically controlled transmissions will still have a large market share. The volumes in the forecast indicate that as well...

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It is a combination. In the past, we made a lot of use of transfer lines, which are naturally highly productive...

Yes, if such an installation is suitable and can be reasonably converted, then that is a tremendous advantage.

...but the least flexible!

Wear is the keyword, which leads me to my next topic, i.e. condition monitoring - which is constant monitoring of the operating condition. Actually, I thought that was quite normal and that it was always done! Why is this becoming so important now?

Right. They are not very flexible. This was followed by a trend towards flexibility, which led to the machining centers. In the process, we had to acknowledge that neither one nor the other was the 100% truth. Therefore, we looked for concepts that were both flexible as well as highly productive. They are the transfer centers, like the ones ANGER developed. It is a highly productive system, but which still ensures a certain degree of flexibility - related to the part. Is that what distinguishes the machines from ANGER in particular, in your opinion? That is one angle! And, specifically because of the range of parts for valve plates and valve bodies, we relied relatively heavily on transfer lines in the past. When a product is discontinued, however, it is usually too expensive to convert these transfer lines to a new product - even to a similarly designed product.

Today, our equipment usually runs in three shifts, around the clock. At the moment that even includes Saturdays and Sundays. This means, we have to know the condition our equipment exactly. Will specific components fail in the near future? We monitor critical components with sensors to see whether the machine or the spindle is still running properly. Is there is any imbalance or bearing damage? Or anything else! There is always a certain amount of wear. Within the framework of preventative maintenance, we have to make sure that we continuously have a reliable quantity produced. Have the demands become greater in the past few years? Absolutely! Even the planning approaches have become

Whereby, a pure electric motor actually doesn’t need this transmission any more... Well, it depends on the configuration. A few gears will always be necessary, whether for a gear ratio reduction or something else. If you think about a wheel hub motor, there is perhaps less mechanical content in it than if an electric motor were to be integrated into the rear axle or front axle with a transmission unit... That is sure to come, but whether a volume market will be created in the next few years that is comparable to the combustion engines - I personally don’t believe it. Good! However, what will happen - I believe - is that the requirements in production for flexibility and shorter product cycles – above all in the automotive industry – will play an increasingly important role. What I mean is that we used to have model lines, which didn’t change for years - one on the bottom, one in the middle, and one on the top - 3-speed, 5-speed, 7-speed and today the product range is gigantic...

...We had the challenge of a product with the highest possible requirements regarding precision and tolerances. We are talking about micrometers... Yes, the variance in our company – especially here in Saarbrücken – is quite big. Naturally we also have basic models with 8 HP transmissions, the 8 HP 45, 8 HP 70, 8 HP 90, with the respective variations, the all-wheel drive variations, the hybrid variations. Currently, we are also manufacturing a 6-speed, and even a 5-speed in China. That means we have a giant product range and also a range of parts to handle here in Saarbrücken. For the increasing number of model variations, the external form or type series of the car, is it true that in principal the transmission doesn’t matter? Can it be adapted to the conditions?

That means you pull them out completely? Usually we pull them out after a maximum of two product cycles. In the next step, we added flexibility in linked machining centers. However, we discovered that the productivity of these linked individual centers wasn’t sufficient by a long shot in order to guarantee the output on the one hand, or to reach an acceptable cost level on the other. The transfer centers are the logical link between transfer lines and the flexible centers. They are highly productive, but also flexible – to a certain degree - within the range of parts... Naturally you can’t go and machine a valve plate today and then a transmission housing tomorrow - like with a machining centre for example. That is not possible. But it is certainly possible to transfer a valve plate that comes from a predecessor product to a successor product with some conversion work. This means, as long as the lifecycles were reliably longer, the transfer lines were suitable. It is worth it in the total cost of ownership...

Yes, it is adapted accordingly, via the electronic control unit, the respective shifting configurations, shifting sequences, the converter connection, the input flange, and so on... but on the inside, transmissions are naturally the same to a great extent. Hence, we can also rely on a very high identical parts philosophy, despite the high variance. But, to get back to the production technology once again, you are right. We have focused very intensively on the standardization of our production technologies in the past few years. Ten years ago, we had more than 50 different technologies in use to produce one transmission. This also means that the variance inside the machines was relatively high. Then we started an internal project with the goal of standardizing our production technologies so that we were able to manufacture the product with fewer different technologies. We were able to reduce 50 to less than 30 different production technologies, which made a considerable contribution to standardizing the internal processes. If you take a look at the line now, you will see equivalent, standardised machines and processes in the factory.

Yes. They are highly productive, an assured quantity is produced, the flexibility is low - and the system pays for itself over time. Now, however, the lifecycles of the individual types of transmissions are considerably shorter. Our 4-speed transmission ran for an order of magnitude of twelve years.

Are they transfer lines, are they MCs or transfer centers like the ones ANGER offers?

And then you can modify them!

And it ran for 12 years? Yes - with the ramp-up and phase-out, it was even a bit longer. This was followed by the 5 HP with an order of magnitude of eight to ten years. And then came the 6-speed transmission, and now the 8 HP - and now we are already thinking about how we can further upgrade the 8 HP in order to remain competitive. There will be changes again. When a specific production volume is reached, it is extremely expensive in the transmission building business to install a completely new manufacturing facility and scrap everything else. This means, we have to fall back on the production facilities of the predecessor models. And if the runtimes of the transmissions become even shorter, the equipment is naturally not even worn out.

much more aggressive. In the past we talked about 90% or 95% technical availability. Today we are talking about an order of magnitude of 97% and 98%. This means, in the past you said: “Oops, the spindle is broken - we have to replace it now.” And today, you try to prevent it from happening right from the start? Earlier, there was no way to have such specific monitoring. These technologies have arrived in the past few years and we use them to monitor the performance of the machines accordingly and to avoid any downtime of the machines, to optimize the runtime of the tools, and to run everything in a threshold range in order to be able to manufacture the transmissions and components with optimum costs. To me, ZF is a premium manufacturer. As a car driver and a person with an affinity for cars, that is absolutely premium to me. Let me say, it couldn’t get better! That is actually our claim! That has certainly hit home with consumers and with me. The performance of our products is in the uppermost segment. We produce our transmissions here in a high-wage country and we also know that we are not the cheapest with our products. My question was related to that: Just like Mercedes, Audi, BMW - that is a price structure following the motto: It costs what it costs! No, no! That is certainly not the case. I believe we operate in two categories. The cost pressure on our products is really enormous. Although it is a premium? Naturally you have to make reasonable offers, but isn’t it true: I definitely want a ZF transmission, because it is simply the best, because it also helps me as an OEM, and also the reputation of the car brand... There are competitive products in the market today, for example from Japan, which offer performance that we have to match up to. We are in permanent competition with them. We are also


in competition to the OEM’s own products. Mercedes and Volkswagen, for example, produce their own transmissions... But they also buy from you, right? In the automatic transmission sector, Daimler does everything itself. There are naturally discussions now and then, we mutually benchmark our products; nevertheless we have a relatively good relationship with our colleagues in Hedelfingen. That means our products - because we are an independent competitor in the market - must at least match the performance of the OEM’s own products, or alternatively be better in certain features. It doesn’t matter whether they are pricing features or technological features. Otherwise we wouldn’t have any chance at all. Whereby it is my feeling that technological features are a given - therefore I have believed so far that ZF is not under much price pressure. It isn’t the case that we can say: Okay, that is the price of the transmission! Pay up...

volumes every day. In the USA, were doing a relatively large amount of business with ANGER on the basis of the predecessor generation, HCP, for the production of a continuously variable transmission. Then there was a break. Our current products required even greater stability, even higher performance - and then there was a small break with ANGER. But for three or four years now – in the mean time the HCX was developed – things have changed again. The HCX fills this market gap exactly and is absolutely the trend. And it can also be seen that ANGER has successfully raised a certain amount of market potential relatively quickly. There was certainly a degree of risk for us when we said: Yes, we will deviate from our tried and proven concepts – whether it was the transfer lines or the flexible machining centers – and buy an HXC machine from ANGER, which had only been sold once or twice at that time. You gave them a vote of confidence? Yes – we were prepared to take a certain amount of risk, and at time I did have a bad gut feeling on occasion, until the machine produced the first parts and it was foreseeable that

Here Jürgen Gross, foreman in production 1, shows one of the most significant changes in production technology in recent years: monitoring of production that has become increasingly precise as well as the quality of parts that has become more and more accurate. Valve housings and panels are produced in this area of ZF’s almost kilometre-long production hall in Saarbrucken. The DMD, the diameter-measuring device, uses cores to identify and determine the diameter-position/bulk during the production process.

What You See Is A Thousandth Of A Millimeter

Pay up - or you don’t get it! Right! We have good and longstanding delivery relationships with customers like, for example, BMW, Audi, Jaguar, and so on. But, despite the high technical claim, the cars and our products cannot be endlessly expensive. Cost analysts from our customers come to us in our factory and delve into the depths of the transmission. They know our factory and discuss with us what a component may cost. We are subject to the respective benchmarks and are therefore under enormous price presure. We are forced to permanently optimize the systems that we have. And that doesn’t just apply to the production technology, but also to all elements of the transmission. State of the art products and technology plus the schnapps must be better than our competition...

we would get everything under control. We definitely didn’t realize the first installation just by snapping our fingers, but together – ZF and ANGER – we recognized at a relatively early stage that we will get it done! So, your requirements, your technicians, your planners said that it was the right direction... ? YES. We had the challenge of a product with the highest possible requirements regarding precision and tolerances. We are talking about micrometers until the right setting was found for the machine. Then everything went relatively quickly in the subsequent installations, so that the machines fit in well in production. Therefore we chose ANGER, the HCX machine, for our capacity increase. It is not just about having faith in the technological performance of the equipment, but it is also about having faith in the team standing behind it.

Production know-how, above all...

That is very important.

Production know-how, using new technologies - that is an absolute must. We are forging ahead there on a permanent basis!

I feel the same way - ZF is simply very, very important. That is naturally pride as well, because ZF is a premium brand...

Do you sometimes dream of an ‘it would be ideal if...’ technology? Do you sometimes think about a technology that takes what ANGER has now – the highly productive transfer lines on one hand, the flexible machining centers on the other, and now the transfer centers – as a possibility of combining the best of both worlds – do you sometimes think that is would be ideal if...? Do you see any further development there?

We are well aware that we opened one or two doors for ANGER. ZF is a reference for ANGER in the automotive industry, but also with other transmission manufacturers. Naturally, I hope this results in a long-lasting delivery relationship.

As a production engineer - I have now been in the business for 25 years - I think that one naturally always attempts to think about an optimum machining concept for the individual parts. What is needed to reach that optimum? What type of machine concepts? I have known ANGER for more than 10 years, even from my time in the USA. We were running older generations of ANGER machines. Older generations are before the HCX, right? Yes, the HCPs were built considerably lighter. These machines are still in use in Saarbrücken today. They have been in production for more than 10 years and deliver the required

We all know that there was a crisis. We now have the Sword of Damocles, i.e. Greece, hanging over us. I was recently talking to a banker and said: “I am worried about Greece.” And he replied: You can’t imagine how much we are worried!” Because we don’t know what will happen there! No experts know. It could be that they can’t cut it and Greece becomes bankrupt, reintroduces the Drachma, and has absolutely no impact on the rest of the world. It could be, however, that we end up with Lehmann Brothers II, so to speak. Naturally, I also ask myself: What will happen next? We receive forecasts from our customers, and in principle everyone wants to grow. These volumes accumulate and arrive here, but then there is a justified question? Who is going to buy all these vehicles?

At some time, even China will be saturated! I believe that too! There is another question that I ask myself: Where is the future regarding speed limits, CO2 requirements, and other restrictions? Are we setup correctly for this? One last topic that I would like to address is the environment - in connection with minimum quantity lubrication... Sure, minimum quantity lubrication: When using lubricating coolants, there are usually umpteen cubic meters of cooling emulsions. The means oils and greases with chemical additives with a very, very complex composition. If it were possible to eliminate them, then that would be a major success in the direction of cost optimization and improving the environment... Is it very expensive for you to dispose of the chemical compositions? The cooling emulsion is also very complex and expensive to prepare. The water is evaporated, the emulsion is thickened, which must then be disposed of. That is already very expensive. A technical feature like minimum quantity lubrication drops the consumption of oils and greases dramatically. The costs for disposal alone are gigantic... We are consistently taking the direction of converting from wet machining to dry machining. This is a complex development process. It must come from the machine tool, but also from the means of cutting. Prof. Abele from TU Darmstadt recently explained to me that high-precision parts in particular are causing more and more concerns, because there are thermal fluctuations if there is not enough cooling... High-precision machines are extremely sensitive to temperature fluctuations. In some hall areas we even have to close the skylights. We do this in summer as well so that no gusts of cold air can come in through the skylights to the machining area, because that could change the dimensions in the micrometer range. Therefore, we now have all critical machines on a cold water line. Critical components are cooled – the spindles, machine bed, etc. They are permanently kept at a specific temperature. We must ensure this constantly in order to be able to maintain the tolerances of the components and thereby guarantee the precision of the transmission. Any dimensional deviation in the tolerance, for example in a valve body, is noticed in a negative way in the shifting behavior of the transmission. Absolute constancy and perfection is required right from the first day. You certainly wouldn’t want to by a car with an automatic transmission from ZF and then be annoyed at the poor shifting performance. Therefore, this constancy in production must be guaranteed - it then results in the performance of the product... At the end of the day, it’s called premium... Which is undoubtedly what your brand is. And that completes the circle. Mr. Eisenhut, thank you for this interview!


THECUTTINGEDGE 16

1982

His Name Will Still Be On The Machines

Anton Anger founded the company that still bears his name 30 years ago. Asked what technological development he envisions in the near future, the 83 year-old replied: “Oh, I don’t know. I never really paid much attention to it! I have always simply gone to customers and listened to what problems they are having. Then, it is necessary to resolve them! Whether or not there is a technological trend is not important to me. You can also make a new trend yourself - you just have to question everything. I have spent some time in my life with my customers’ technicians, who tried to defend their current way of working. Oh, well. We were able to convince some of them to try a new direction!” By the way, the revolutionary approach of changing over from a fixed to a moveable workpiece came from Anton Anger.


30 years - from the idea to worldwide industrial manufacturing technology

Following the retirement of Anton Anger at the end of the 1990s and the succession by his two sons Gerhard and Norbert Anger, the medium-size company was now run by the third generation under the name ANGER MACHINING GmbH. Klaus Dirnberger and Dietmar Bahn gradually took over the enterprise from 2005 to 2007. They changed the former family run company to a growth company. It was necessary to combine the virtues of the Austrian technicians with new strategic positioning, the most modern management methods, and clear customer focus in order to push ahead with the rollout of ANGER technology worldwide. The basic ANGER philosophy is still being followed to this day, which is to develop manufacturing process solutions for the industry that achieve the highest productivity and efficiency in competition. In practice, this meant the following: First of all, the German and American automotive industry tried out the transfer center technology on smaller parts in single installations. ANGER machines produced valve bodies, small aluminum parts, and drive shafts. That way automobile manufacturers and their subcontractors gained confidence in the innovative technology. A great deal was at stake, which is why new concepts for long-term capital goods have to be introduced to big industry conservatively and in a very well thought out way. The test phase was over, and the good experience in operations resulted in extraordinarily positive development in that market segment. New competent providers like ELHA (1997) or Krause Mauser (2007) were drawn into the plan.   The demand at ANGER MACHINING has increased incessantly since 2007. Even in the crisis year 2009, an operating performance growth rate of 30 percent was achieved. Individual OEMs started using ANGER as strategic manufacturing technology. This included the ZF Group, for example, for the car transmission sector, Daimler, VW, Chrysler and Mahle are some other large proponents of ANGER technology, which have now equipped complete production lines with transfer centers. And even the king of all parts (valve control units for automatic transmissions, engine blocks, cylinder heads, transmission cases, crankshafts, and so on), which were traditionally left up to the biggest machine tool vendors, are also produced by ANGER equipment today.

We Provide The Goldsmith With His Hammer The year is 1982: Renowned industrialist Anton Anger is once again brooding over a technical problem. Naturally, he doesn’t know that his approach to the solution will revolutionize manufacturing technology - or perhaps he does suspect it. He had already written technology history in the 1970s. By inventing twin-screw extrusion technology, he paved the way for the plastic industry’s comet-like rise. Now, however, the task is manufacturing spectacle frames. Having each processing step in a separate operation took too long, cost too much, and ultimately meant endless amounts of unproductive non-machining time. There must be a way to combine multiple tasks into one operation or even to completely process a workpiece in one setting - the ultimate goal made possible by CNC controlled transfer from one stationary spindle to the next... “It was the stone age at that time,” says Anton Anger today. “Each workpiece had to be turned umpteen times.” And he developed the solution, which would be the beginning of a decade long success story.

Times change, even in the manufacturing industry. The cost pressure is so high today that there has not been any elbowroom for deeply entrenched paradigms for a long time. The transfer center technology is making massive inroads into Germany, where every square meter of space is worth hard cash. If, for example, a single 3-fold 5 axes HCX machine can machine more than 700,000 input shafts for an automatic transmission, then that means a location factor that secures Stuttgart. Double or even triple machining is the standard today at ANGER Machines in the western industrial world. Don’t forget: Accuracy is playing an increasing role in manufacturing. Ecological sustainability implemented in environmental regulations requires new generations of engines and transmissions. All together this represents the tightening of precision requirements. Low cycle times and high accuracy - those are exactly the inherent benefits of the Transfer Center.

The introduction of the technology, which was called the “inline transfer concept” at that time, turned the spectacles’ industry upside-down. There is no notable spectacles manufacturer in Europe, Russia, Japan or the USA that is not associated with the name Anger. The world famous Ray Ban “Wayfarer” model is produced on an ANGER machine in Ireland. It started with optimising spectacles manufacturing, but soon moved into other circles. This is because today, many branches of industry are dealing with the problem that up to 70 percent of the entire machining time of workpieces is attributable to unproductive secondary time, especially setting up and changing tools. ANGER recognized that as an opportunity. This is where the greatest potential is found for reducing unit costs. The challenge of that non-machining time became the main area of focus of his newly founded company. From that moment on, ANGER marketed a new type of machine: the “Transfer Center”. The technology was introduced in other industry segments in the 1990s. It was used for machining plastic, magnesium and aluminum parts. Above all, it included the automotive industry. The four requirements that are considered to be the success factors for ANGER technology came to a head there in particular: high precision, high volumes, a great deal of machining per workpiece, and high cost pressure.

Recently, a focus on the other needs of transfer center customers has joined the initial focus on pure productivity. No machine has been delivered for years, which can’t cover at least one family of parts. The focus is on flexibility through the reconfiguration of complete processes for changing over to a new part. Another benefit of this technology is the considerably lower TCO costs. It is quite easy: fewer feed axes, fewer coolant systems, fewer moving parts, less automation in fewer machines. The result: Lower costs. Three decades after Anton Anger’s invention, the transfer centers are making extensive inroads into the industry, and ANGER has set the goal of being the worldwide market leader in this segment. This involves the creativity to develop the most efficient process solution, the innovative power for continuous further development of the machine architecture, as well as professional handling through the most modern process and project management. These are the ingredients in the ANGER anniversary cocktail for the 30 years since the company was founded.   We will probvide the goldsmith with his hammer. Today and tomorrow.


THECUTTINGEDGE 18

Dipl.-Ing. Roland Haas Technical Director “The HCX has shown itself in recent years to be extremely powerful machine architecture in a real operational environment”.

Transfer lines are expensive and inflexible, but that is why they produce high, consistent volumes at low cost. BAZ machining centers on the other hand, are much more flexible and can be adjusted more easily to fluctuations in demand and converted to other part variants. This comes however at a price: higher operating and unit costs and a larger footprint. As manufacturing technology, the transfer center combines the advantages of both systems. The ANGER HCX Transfer Center can be designed both for productivity and flexibility.

And This Is What It Looks Like HCX – Productive, Efficient, Precise and Fast – the Downtime Killer… The market leader in productivity systems for mass production offering rigidity and dynamics. Large machining space facilitates multiple and large-part machining and can be flexibly automated. Both aluminum and solid steel machining. Modular construction for part-specific design in different sizes and strengths. Proven powerful machine architecture since late 2008. Technical process solutions Complex technical process solutions for machining systems ensure compliance with all quality criteria required, from adherence to tight tolerances to proof of statistical repeat accuracy and technical availability of the systems:

The range of services provided by ANGERs in its delivery of a turnkey process solution: • Entire process engineering and design of the machining process • Design of the specific system components like spindles, clamping devices, automation and design to customer specifications • Project management • Programming PLC and CNC • Supply management • Quality assurance and measurement instrumentation Virtual engineering The most advanced software tools are used here for 3D process simulation in real time. This means that the mechanical limits of processing can be explored at the preplanning stage (collision detection) and customers have the option of modifying their manufacturing processes during the operation and programming these in their CAM software.


Heinz Bürgstein, Expert System Engineering

“Continuously extending the technical frontiers in order to achieve the final micron.”

HCP – Dynamic productive machine, proven in operation since 2000. Small and medium size parts, aluminum, magnesium, steel parts. Can be flexibly automated, efficient and space saving.

“The HCX is the productivity weapon for western industrial countries.”

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User interface control (HMI) Remote maintenance, operational data analysis and graphic visualization modules in the control complete the ANGER machines as intelligent systems and innovative software modules are used to avoid operator errors in complex machining processes, perform change-over processes, change tools quickly and smoothly and detect any sources of faults.

Productivity

Christian Boucek, Project Engineering, Sales

The ANGER experts, in the company for many years with extensive experience in design, process engineering and completion of hundreds of ANGER projects.

Anger Maschinen.

Snezana Gavrilovic, PLC programming with university degree

HCX 1400 and HCX 2000, productive machines for medium to large parts, with fixed spindles for maximum output, selectable in two horizontal travels, 1400mm and 2000mm in the horizontal axis, depending on the processing requirements.


THECUTTINGEDGE

Innovations from ANGER 2012 - showcased at the EMO in Hanover from September 19 - 24, 2011 – The state of play:

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The modular system includes different technical solutions for MMS processing, both single and two-channel, as well as different loading systems and software applications for easy programming, simulation and collision-free operation of the machine.

Volume or Flexibility? Both, says ANGER.

Flexibility: zero point clamping system Flexible tensioning for fully automated machine equipping

ANGER has now managed to bridge the gap combining productivity and flexibility, with the new HCXchange machine type. In the technology Transfer Center, the components are usually clamped twice and transferred under CNC control from machining tool to tool. This new type of machine symbolizes the transformation in traditional machine designs in the processing industry. Behind the product name HCXchange is the brave claim to change and ANGER’s new machine concept is currently a sensation in the industry. The HCXchange has for the first time integrated one or optionally two tool double changers in one Transfer Center.

The HCXchange features a zero point clamping system that allows prompt setting of new parts. Standardized mounts, rapid process control changes and uncomplicated quality settings for tools and components are available for selection. The main advantage of the system used is the pneumatic self-cleaning system. This is made possible by chip-free change in both the vertical and horizontal position. It is provided by four blow-off dowels on the supporting points that are extended on decoupling. In addition there is the central locking that is not susceptible to dirt. A piston also extends on decoupling and closes the mount hole for the retractable nipple. In addition, this closure is charged with seal air, which allows repeatable accurate zero point clamping. The clamping elements can also be equipped with four media couplings for oil, water, compressed air or vacuum.

Werner Bramhas, Director Project Engineering, Product Management & Purchasing “The HCXchange is a completely new machine type. Productive and flexible at the same time, this is cost effectiveness.”

Flexible production for automotive suppliers his highly flexible HCXchange now allows even medium-sized companies to use machine technology that was previously only reserved for the big players. “We have developed ANGER’s basic technology used in high-volume production with the enormous precision and operational requirements of automobile manufacturers to such an extent that we can finally bridge the difficult gap between productivity and flexibility. A prerequisite for this was consistent solution development and a focus on customer benefits,” says Werner Bramhas with conviction. Just how innovative this new type of machine is, was recognized by the jury for the Austrian Federal Prize for Innovation, which was awarded in 2011 to ANGER.

HCXchange 1400 and HCXchange 2000. Flexible machines selectable with 1-fold or 2-fold double tool changer configuration.

Flexibility: the intelligent, adaptable modular system The HCXchange has a modular system that means a wide range of mechanical and processing modules can be combined. The new flexibility concept includes the automation, the tensioning system, and all kinds of machining units, from the tool changer, special spindles and standard or part-specific multi-spindle heads to crown turrets.

ANGER HCXchange, configure variable machining units in one machine area. In the picture for double machining of an aluminum transmission housing.

An overview of the key benefits: • Pneumatic self-cleaning system • Not susceptible to dirt with central locking system • High level of process stability on unmanned production • Smooth handling even with adverse weight distribution due to special clamping nipple geometry • Integrated media ducts • High permanent drawing force and reliability from vibration-proof spring force • Support and tension check

Zero point clamping system with the Speedy Sweeper 2000 from “STARK Spannsysteme”


Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL)

The key benefits of ANGER MQL manufacturing solutions:

System combinations 1-channel / 2-channel in multi-spindle heads ANGER has developed innovative MQL solutions and manufacturing processes in consultation with its customers and project partners and perfectly designed production sequences for MQL suitability and requirements. The replacement of conventional cooling lubricants is not just a high priority for our customers because of the economic and environmental issues.

Flexibility

HCXchange – Transfer Center With Integrated MC!

MQL machining, the machining standard of the future

When it comes to sales project engineering, the company can draw on 10 years of project experience with MQL systems. The planning of system requirements in MQL processing comprises the MQL unit, the rotary coupling, spindles, clamping set, tool holder and tool. The coordination between the machining process, the material, operational data and dosage of the lubricant quantity is just as important as the tool design, specifically the cutting material, the coating, the structural design of the tools and the aerosol channels.

• Coordination between processing and MQL system (1-channel, 2-channel) and mode of application (inside / outside) • 1-channel / 2-channel system combinations are possible in ANGER Transfer Centers • Machining spindles can be designed for higher speeds and feeds • Optimization of the aerosol flow rate and system pressure for the removal of chips • Extraction of aerosol residues or metal dust • Flow-optimized media feed from MQL device into the machine as far as the tool’s cutting edge • Solutions for multi-spindle head machining

Hadi Taam, General Manager North America

Stable volume processes with MQL machining, combines 1-channel and 2-channel in multi-spindle heads

“We are bridging the gap between highly productive manufacturing and fast change over times.”


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THECUTTINGEDGE


2011

Award-Winning Work

The “State Innovation Prize 2011” is most likely the highest – and certainly the most coveted – award that is given out by the Republic of Austria to the industry. The picture above shows Austria’s Minister for Economics Reinhold Mitterlehner (in the picture on the left). Beside him is Klaus Dirnberger, CEO of ANGER MACHINING. Starting with the high number of 614 company innovation submissions, the high-profile jury of experts made six nominations – just like in Hollywood. The decision ultimately went to the HCX technology from ANGER.


THECUTTINGEDGE 24

Optimized For The Future.

Higher output with less energy consumption – ANGER’S innovative manufacturing concept

Energy saving at multi-spindle heads at continuous mode achieved by contact free sealing.

work process with higher primary machining time in less space with less logistics for parts energy efficiency made by ANGER. A comparison worth mentioning here is the machining of valve bodies and valve plates at ZF in Saarbrücken. Nine machining centers process max. 150,000 units there each year. On the same floor space, the six HCXs from ANGER can achieve an output of 500,000 units in the same time period. The Cost Factor is found in the Details

Energy consumption of Transfer Centers compared to machining centers (MC) Product: Knuckle; Material: AlSi7Mg Company: Daimler AG, Stuttgart; complete machining

By Maximilian Berggold

The topic is quickly outlined; it keeps all production technology providers equally busy, and concentrates on the following question: How will successful manufacturing technology work in high-wage countries in the future? The complexity of the problem is obvious: a great variety of influencing factors, constantly changing conditions, and that which seems to be cost-effective today is far too expensive tomorrow. So, what is the solution? It must be specific, logical and lasting. ANGER offers a suitable approach here. It is assumed that improvement of production technology is based on optimization. It is dependent on increasing the efficiency of processes, on flexibility, and on the exact use of energy. Optimization means taking highperformance components in flexible systems in conjunction with innovative software and pushing them to the limit, and even then finding a way to continue to improve. This is where the innovative manufacturing concept from ANGER starts. Reducing Energy Demand by Shortening Work Processes The focus is on energy efficiency, implemented in a series of measures. Right at the top of the list is the use of inline/transfer center technology in medium to high-volume series production, which saves energy right from the start. Why? Depending on the configuration, a transfer center replaces 3 - 5 machining centers. Quite simply, this means fewer axes to drive, fewer coolant pumps, and less automation. Or, it means the perfect configuration of spindle units relating to their speed and torque, which drastically reduces unnecessary consumption in the speed-sensitive ramp-up mode. Furthermore, in practice, the multi-spindle heads simply means that tool changes, abrupt acceleration and deceleration are no longer necessary, because now all machining is taken care of by a single spindle (“oversizing” is excluded). In other words, this means a shorter

However, what are the consequences of the innovations mentioned above in production technology when it comes to the actual energy consumption? The analysis is amazing: 75 percent of the consumed energy is attributed to the aggregates and only 25 percent is needed for the cutting process. The consequence of this is logical: 1. The higher the primary machining time and the shorter the process, the more efficient the energy utilization. 2. It is well worth taking a closer look, because the cost factor is found in the details. There is a considerable opportunity to minimize energy consumption in each functional module. The high-pressure pump of the cooling system, for example, uses speed control to not only prevent excess flow, but it also cuts the energy demand by more than half. Moment of inertia reduction, non-contact forms of sealing, central lubrication systems, automatic standby management - they are small but that much more significant improvements at often insignificant places in the complex production run that give way to objective resource optimization. Energy Input through Energy Output In the area of energy efficiency, there is no end in sight at ANGER. Together with the Technical University of Vienna, other machine manufacturers and architects, exhaust air recirculation for MQL operation is now being studied as part of a research project. Up to 60 percent of the exhaust air can be reused in the machine for blow-off operations. This is called “reduction of the energy input through reuse of the energy output.” Where will this lead? What will be the next innovation? One thing is sure: This is how successful manufacturing technology will work in high-wage countries in the future.


Research

Energy Costs Are Already Higher Than Tool Costs.

Prof. Eberhard Abele doesn’t just come to this amazing realization in his current research projects. He has even more in store:


THECUTTINGEDGE 26

T

here is a casual feeling, like on a Friday afternoon, but it is just Thursday. Two students nod in a friendly way; they are just coming out of a short meeting. The professor seems like one of his students, just a little older. This is how the atmosphere is depicted in films - elite universities you know what I mean. Buddies on campus. Professor Eberhard Abele serves the coffee himself. You can find a great deal about him if you just use Google: Adaptability in production. Manufacturing intelligently. Integrated product and process development. Change in the car drive train. Challenges for production research – the elite and the “Federal Ministry for Education and Research” are already delving into this one. There are symposiums, conferences, research summits, and public discourse. Against such a comprehensive background, one could ask the most important question: What would the industry actually do if it didn’t know what it was in for what would the automotive industry and its subcontractors do for example? Will everything be hybrid tomorrow? Or will everything be electric? Will there be Lohner Porsches - The Next Generation - with wheel hub engines, or will we fuel up with hydrogen that produces electricity through a chemical reaction? The industry is just about to start a horse race. And now, please place your bets on a horse ... “If you take a look at the future development of the motor vehicle drive system from the perspective of a production engineer, then there is a great deal of uncertainty about the products, the number of units, the variations,” answers Eberhard Abele, “because he doesn’t know how the number of units, the requirements, or the tolerances will ultimately develop. We cannot predict the success of the electric motor, but we can conditionally predict how the fuel cells will work or become established, but what remains is the uncertainty in the area of production planning.” And the bottom line is as follows: If you can’t make a commitment, then you have to remain flexible. Exactly this also applies to machine concepts that will be in demand in the future. Therefore, ANGER MACHINING - we are getting together to discuss this topic - has hit it on the nose. Prof. Abele nods briefly, and immediately continues: “But flexibility is only one side of the coin; the other side is the topic of costs, i.e. the production costs. We will only have a chance to manufacture the future, new, drive systems here in Europe if we are also successful in keeping the costs competitive. We must be excellent in both disciplines. The new “Exchange Series” from ANGER is a particularly good

example here. Flexibility is merged superbly with the topic of productivity here. This is because the basic concept that ANGER offers includes exactly this basic flexibility, and therefore makes it much more cost-effective than is the case with many other machine concepts.” Today, a production engineer actually can’t provide enough system flexibility in modern production systems At the end of the day, it is always the TCO, the total cost of ownership. Will the pressure that comes from low-wage countries and emerging countries also become more and more intense in machine building? “A production location like Germany could not survive with the concepts that we had here in Europe in the past thirty years. The technology has long become state of the art in other countries as well.” is the clear answer. “The curriculum of knowledge will exist very quickly in the next few years.” says Eberhard Abele elsewhere (see page 28). “If we in the high-wage countries still have a chance, then we must be a relevant step ahead with the production concepts and hence with the machines as well - in the direction of flexibility, in the direction of productivity, but also in the direction of environmental soundness. The same thing applies to space requirements - i.e. the setup space. ANGER has certainly completed some pioneer work in this area. The workspace productivity of this concept is simply higher than is the case with many other concepts.” Let’s summarize here: The transfer center technology is “the best of both worlds” like Robert Palmer says. It is the best of the machining center and the best of the transfer line. The professor chuckles. Clearly, people who write things like that like to lay it on thick. “There is most likely no ideal system for production, for machining as such. Rather, everything must be matched to the production volumes and the products. However, I certainly do believe that the concept from ANGER has great opportunities, especially in the automotive sector, because it is very well suited due to a number of factors, and it still has potential for further attractive improvements. Speed and also standardization will still be an issue for topics like tool changing systems and multiple tool changing systems. This is progress that can be made together with customers. Standardization of exchangeable heads and spindle units will be necessary to be able to examine the costs critically. I believe that the concept is a super development - and it certainly has potential for certain further developments.” “I believe that the concept is a super development” In the opinion of ANGER MACHINING, the new HCXchange generation is already standardized to a high degree in its basic concept. Prof. Abele also agrees. And he adds: “That is certainly the future. However, one shouldn’t overlook the fact that classical machine building, and hence classical production engineers as well, are relatively conservative elements. ANGER’s basic approach is indeed revolutionary technology - namely handling the part and not just the tool. For 80 years, only the tools were handled in the industry, and never the workpiece. Now, someone suddenly comes along who also handles the workpiece. Communicating to the industry and production engineers that this can be used to create more economical concepts is surely only possible with a great deal of persuasion. The segment is extremely well serviced with many providers who take more of a classical approach.” So, now we are getting out. Out and away from the very familiar, round, yellow symbol: “Nuclear power? No thanks!” The step from “providing” to “worrying” is a small one, and the worries are great among energy providers regarding who will pay for everything when lucrative profits can no longer be reaped from nuclear power. Research for low-energy machine tools is a major focus here at the Institute for Production Management, Technology and Machine Tools (PTW) of the Technical University of Darmstadt. And Prof. Abele already has the numbers on the table.   For the industry, the electricity prices have already increased by around 150% in the past six years. But it is not just about electricity for industry. The accuracy of the tools is constantly becoming greater, which is leading

to, and has already led to, new demands on the climate. Primarily, this means exact control of the room temperature in which the machine tools are installed. Wherever there is waste heat, the waste heat of the machine tools has to be cooled down again expending a great deal of energy. The following findings from the institute are amazing: If one kilowatt hour of electricity can be saved on the machine tool, then the potential is approximately 1.5 to 2 kilowatt hours in the area of air-conditioning. Therefore, besides the most likely higher costs for industrial electricity, the energy costs can be leveraged. This is only due to the increase in accuracy in the next few years. The energy cost factor will become much more important than it was ten years ago. If one kilowatt hour of electricity can be saved on the machine tool, then the potential is approximately 1.5 to 2 kilowatt hours in the area of air-conditioning. In addition, the main use of energy today is in the highpressure and low-pressure cooling circuit of a machine tool for pumping the cooling lubricant. Prof. Abele also has a specific paper on this topic on his desk. There are more, very remarkable findings in a research project for a large automobile manufacturer. In that specific case, the costs for the tools are around 19 cents. In contrast, the energy costs for the rotary table machine is already more than 20 cents. The energy costs are already higher than the tool costs. For years and even decades, the industry has put a lot of effort into rationalizing the tool costs. It involved a great deal of effort, but there was also success. In contrast, saving energy costs is still in its infancy - and we are right at the beginning. There are many approaches in the institute of TU Darmstadt. There are approaches that are already being pursued in projects with the motor vehicle industry and also with the machine tool industry. One of them seems likely: Technical solutions are being researched and tested to design individual drive components of the machine, like the pumps or traversing axes, to be as energetically optimum as possible. The respective potential can already be seen here. The keywords are “energy-efficient engines”, which in fact cost somewhat more, but will have paid for themselves in two to four years. A second approach deals with the mode of operation of the machines. One idea sounds like an automatic start/ stop system. All consumers that are not needed at that moment are switched off, and then switched back on as needed. Naturally that is easier said than done, because the temperature of the machine starts to have a life of its own. It becomes cooler when everything is switched off, and hotter when it is switched back on. The machine breathes. However, research can prove that up to 50% of the energy costs can be saved here. “However, only half of this is cost-effective based on the current state of costs,” explains Eberhard Abele, “the other 25% are indeed technically possible without further ado, but the investments for this are still relatively high and not financially justified as such.” Another approach is found in planning the building - in energetic optimization of the entire production hall. Heat that is generated under the machine is used above for the cooling system. However, the entire infrastructure of a production hall has to be questioned. New halls would have to be built, or at least completely new air-conditioning equipment installed, which however can completely change carefully planned and operational procedures. Prof. Abele is not expecting a revolution in this area. The physical effects are known; the emergence of a completely new approach is not to be expected. The potential is found in constant evolution. Eberhard Abele makes no secret of how much he appreciates the “tasters of the nation” here. And those who are prepared to accept financial disadvantages in order to gain more knowledge for future goals - like Lufthansa for example, which made a decision a while ago to test expensive bio-kerosene on some routes in order to be able to improve the environmental balance of flying. Eberhard Abele mentioned companies like Bosch or Rexrodt, who are already taking measures that are not necessarily cost-effective in order to get their CO2 balance under control. They are setting goals like 20% or 25% CO2 savings by the year 2020. This can only be achieved if all options are also exploited that are available today in machine tools. The environment is - as already mentioned - also a topic about which Prof. Abele has something to say. How is MQL, i.e. minimum quantity lubrication, compared to a lubrication and cooling system (LCS)? In his opinion, minimum quantity lubrication is an important development, both in the direction of the environment as well as energy. And it is undoubtedly a major step forward. Regarding energy, it is more than impressive. Anyone who works with MQL no longer has to put a great deal of effort into pumping, cleaning and transferring the volumes of coolant. There is just a small quantity that is added in a very regulated way. The energy demand is therefore minimum. The energy savings make a quantum leap.


Energy savings make a quantum leap with MQL The significance is also just as great for the topic of the environment. LCS media has to be used in large quantities, which costs a lot of money, has to be processed with a great deal of energy, and is very costly to dispose of. In addition, it contains components that get into the air and have to be extracted, because they could be harmful in a working environment with frequent skin contact. “Could” because the topic is still very disputed. In addition, one must be very meticulous about preventing these LCS lubricants from getting into the ground. The amount of work involved is therefore enormous. On the other hand, technicians know that you don’t get anything for nothing. The disadvantage of MQL is that the thermal activity of the machine starts to live. The use of a minimum quantity means that a small drop of a frictionreducing substance is used. Cooling is no longer necessary. In contrast, the large LCS systems flush several liters onto the workpiece per minute, thereby maintaining a constant temperature of around 24°C. With MQL - with intense use of drilling or milling - the workpiece becomes very hot and the accuracy is therefore jeopardized. Naturally, research is at work using simulations to determine the resulting temperatures accurately in order to provide a way to accurately determine the extent to which the component will change when it is subsequently cooled. The direction of the trend in the medium term is highly disputed. There are still numerous advocates of LCS lubrication, who consider it to be the only way to operate machines in a stable way during the process. That way, the workpiece no longer ‚breathes’. Others are convinced that MQL is the right way. “MQL will certainly work well for specific parts,” summarizes Prof. Abele, “however only under the condition that the machines are built accordingly and are not very susceptible to thermal fluctuations. However, in the motor vehicle field in particular, there are functions that are very critical when it comes to thermal expansion. Others are perhaps less so. However, there is no general rule for specific components.” By the way, it is worth noting that the learning factory in Darmstadt is a practice-based initiative of Prof. Abele. The size of the factory right in the middle of the campus is impressive, and it is already being used for research projects and is important to the entire machine building industry. However, it is possibly also just the right step for the future, in a way that you can read more about on page 28.

Patrick Schierholz talked with Prof. Abele

If one kilowatt hour of electricity can be saved on the machine tool, then the potential is approximately 1.5 to 2 kilowatt hours in the area of air-conditioning.


THECUTTINGEDGE 28

Mechatronic simulation of HCX machine architecture. Continuous FEM optimization of the structural model. Calculations of cutting forces, vibrations and machine component attitudes.

One Must Imagine Mechanical Engeneers Happy. .

Research and development. That is what ANGER is all about: collaboration with the Darmstadt Manufacturing Technology Institute, Technical University of Munich, University of Stuttgart, Vienna Technical University, RISC Software and, of course – more or less on the doorstep – the Production Technology Research Institute PROFACTOR.

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Gunther Reinhart Full professor for industrial management and assembly technology at the Technical University Munich. Extensive experience in industry, e.g. at BMW Group and at IWKA Corporation, a large German supplier of engineering, robotics and plant equipment. Chairman of the Bavarian Cluster for Mechatronics and Automation and head of the Fraunhofer IWU research-department for Resource-Efficient Converting Machines (RMV) in Augsburg.

When writing about a very complex topic, one should somehow set a casual at the start. The magazine SCIENCE was obviously thinking the same thing a while ago, when it wrote: “Science is the most exciting thing you can do with your trousers up.” Germany’s ZEIT MAGAZIN seized on this headline, stating: “Talk about nuclear physics or genetic technology at any party and you’ll kill the conversation!” This was followed by: “Scientific thinking has a lot to do with passion (which school education manages to knock out of people, sadly). And there is nothing more exciting – SCIENCE is right about what it says here – than the feeling of happiness people get when together they solving a puzzle that has been worked on for a long time.” And that is why, we as mechanical engineers, have to show that we are just as happy as anyone else.

The Eberhard Abele Training Factory at the Production, Technology and Machine Tools Institute at Darmstadt Technical University ... ... – already described in detail elsewhere – is definitely a particularly good example. In fact, the whole Technical University Institute, with which ANGER MACHINING has already worked in close collaboration for a number of years. But not just with Darmstadt. The company has also had a long history of successful collaboration with the Institute for Machine Tools and Industrial Management at the ...

... Munich Technical University.

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Michael Zäh Full professor for machine tools and manufacturing technology at the Technical University Munich. Extensive industrial experience, e.g. at Gleason-Pfauter Maschinenfabrik GmbH. Member of acatech, the German academy of technical science, of the WGP (German Scientific Society for Production Technology) and several other institutions.

The Hochschule states that “the main task of the topic group is the interdisciplinary development, construction and optimization of machine tools and the implementation of an appropriate methodical approach.” In its collaboration with ANGER MACHINING, it deals with the mechatronic simulation of HCX-machines and the resulting mechatronic optimization. This makes the targeted optimization of components to the machining result possible. The optimum process structure, depending on the frequency response of compliance, is guaranteed both in high-accuracy fine drilling operations and heavy-duty cutting operations, by parametric models in the machining area. ”The jointly developed models and knowledge are a valuable contribution to the further development of HCX architecture as one of the most


powerful machine types in batch production industry worldwide,“ says Dipl.-Ing. Roland Haas, Technical and Development Head in ANGER as he summarizes the significant progress made together to date.

University Of Stuttgart: “... More Cost-Conscious Production in the German Economic Landscape marked by Automotive Production.“ Prof. Dr.-Ing. Uwe Heisel A current example of this is the exchange between ANGER and the University of Stuttgart, with the Institute for Machine Tools run by Professor Heisel. Worthy of note is the project “Improving efficiency with intelligent planning” - agent-based production system planning of reconfigurable transfer centers by Dipl.-Ing. Walter Maier and Dipl.-Ing. Alexander Bader. They can be found on the Internet in pdf format. “The key to increased efficiency of production through the use of the transfer centers is the needsbased planning of the flexibility offered in terms of the processing procedures that can be used and machine configurations. The configuration of the transfer centers is determined by the component to be machined and influenced by numerous factors with the design conditions of the machining modules and the production technical influences linked to the machining stages required for the production. So to support the production system planner, a complexity-reducing agent-based assistance system has been developed for the planning of a manufacturing system.“The goal of increasing efficiency in production can be achieved firstly through optimum process-

technical planning of the production system on the part of the manufacturer. Secondly, this increase in efficiency can be achieved by the inclusion of reconfiguration procedures in the design planning of the assistance system on the part of the customer. This makes it possible for the user himself to adapt at all times, an excellently designed production system to the turbulent environment through the safe, predictable and validated reconfigurations. The increased use of the Transfer Center machine types promises significant energy-and resource-efficient and therefore more cost-conscious production in the climate of the German economic landscape marked by automotive production.

TU Vienna. Energy Efficiency in Machines and Production Halls Another important research project is running as part of the “IFT - Intelligent Manufacturing Technologies“ program, along with other machine manufacturers – General Motors in Aspern Vienna and some home automation companies, which are important partners in this project. It involves both the reduction of energy inputs in production. ANGER’s role is to examine the reduction potential of the energy requirement of transfer centers through the targeted disabling of individual units and spindles, reduction of speeds and use of energyoptimized components. As well as this, solutions for the further use of the energy output are being sought. This includes, for example, the cooling of machines through home automation and vice versa. What comes out of this is the use of exhaust heat for heating of offices, or simply just the water.

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Uwe Heisel, Head of the Institute for Machine Tools, University of Stuttgart

Andrea Möslinger, Managing Director Profactor GmbH

PROFACTOR. Digitale Fabrik The Produktionstechnik-Forschungsinstiut (production technology and research institute) and ANGER MACHINING have been working together for several years on the issue “digital factory”. The aim is to develop a holistic, digital engineering and manufacturing concept for customer-specific engineering to accelerate the development process while reducing resource requirements. Among other things, the process simulation software NX-Cam has already been successfully introduced at ANGER as the CNC automatic program generation. Joint work was also undertaken as part of a multi-year EU research project “Micro Launch“. This involved the use of piezoelectric sensors for fine tuning of clamping devices in a machine.

Machine testing and research facility of the iwb TU Munich.

RISC Software. Intelligent Control. www.risc-software.at

In the RISC Software GmbH, specialized software solutions are being developed for modelling and analyses in engineering (computational engineering) and for simulation and control of manufacturing systems and production processes (manufacturing systems and processes) for blue-chip clients in sectors like engineering, automotive and aircraft industries. One of the most important joint projects involved the development of the PLC software module for collision avoidance, called AutoRetrace™. In 2012 an R & D project will be focused intensely on the subject of cycle time reduction. Along with RISC and other partners, the modular design of the PLC programming for Plug & Produce, and automatic code generation of the PLC codes of ANGER machines is being driven forward. The objective is ultimately virtual start-up, which should facilitate a considerable reduction in cycle times. It was the expert in brain research Valentin Braitenberg, who came up with the slightly jocular theory that people have a “catch-on drive“ which is quite similar to the sexual drive. And as a renowned researcher – a human biologist – also said recently in ZEIT MAGAZIN: “So far it has been exciting. Now it’s getting dramatic!“ That probably sums up engineering as well.

Schloss Hagenberg, Unique scientific and educational center for software development. Highly specialized industrial software companies are also located in the park, such as RISC Software GmbH.


THECUTTINGEDGE 30

Let’s Build Machines. And A Park. By Patrick Schierholz

Traffic is heavily backed up. The young taxi driver follows the virtually non-existent flow of traffic, inching forward a little bit, going by feeling rather than looking because he is turned around half over the backrest and looking backward. By way of the euro crisis, microcredit and Muhammad Yunus, who initiated it in Bangladesh in 1976, we have now gotten to the subject of Adam Smith, Scotsman, 200 years earlier. While the latter can certainly be credited with having founded modern economics, the former could basically be described as a type of economic historian. While it is true that he is not focusing very much on the events in traffic, he is concentrating on the big picture. That is what you get when you’re talking to someone who’s a taxi driver and an economist at the same time. “As a rule, our students all have jobs. They have jobs in the machine building industry. They’re not taxi drivers!” This clear observation comes from Eberhard Abele, head of the Institute of Production Management, Technology, and Machine Tools (PTW) at the Technical University of Darmstadt. He is referring to the results of regular surveys. Six months after completing their studies, the graduates receive a short questionnaire. Do you already have a job? Where? How much do you earn? And so on. Eberhard Abele sums up the results in a sobering statement: “Theirs is a miniature golden kingdom!“ Even though the machine building industry building is considered to be anything but romantic. Besides the romanticism, the scene lacks young talent. This has not just been the case since the economic crisis and the ensuing boom; rather, it is a situation that has been hovering around for years. “We have to start creating more enthusiasm for technology among the youth again!” is the


.

heart-felt appeal of Eberhard Abele, specifically referring to the physics and mathematics teachers. Then he adds: “We find that most students who come to us have very negative opinions of their physics and mathematics teachers – mainly the math teachers!” Oh, there is such a thing as enthusiasm for technology and it has catchy names: iPod. iPad. Smartphone. Or even Gameboy. Who puts Märklin metal building kits under the Christmas tree these days? If a father dares to buy a steam engine, then most likely that child will be ostracized by his entire group of friends.   Knowledge in this world is zeroing in on a specific equilibrium faster than we care to believe. Or, as Eberhard Abele formulates it: “Very soon, a curriculum of knowledge will have been established. In just a few years. And then the question will be asked: Who has the best tools, the best software tools? Who has the best networks in the industrial regions? ” The machine building industry is still the driving force behind exports in the German economy. “That has been the case! That is the case. But how long will it remain the case? I have my doubts!” replies the scientist without hesitation. “The machine tool industry is very important to the productivity of a political economy. If we only had the resources that are now found in India or other low-cost locations to compete with, then we wouldn’t have any opportunity to be competitive, considering the cost structure here in Central Europe. Here the machine tool and innovations around the machine tool are becoming very important to an industrial location, as such. That marks the start of our wellbeing, i.e. our future!” One important initiative is the dream of Eberhard Abele, which has already become reality. It is the learning factory at the Technical University of Darmstadt, a machine building company in the middle of the campus. The learning factory provides a way to show production to young people. It is a modern factory. “On a small scale, of course,“ states Eberhard Abele modestly, “but with it, we inspire young people for production. When someone decides to study mechanical engineering and starts here after graduation from high school, they’ll most likely have already completed some form of practical training or another in some small works or company, and usually they’ll have experienced it as dirty production work. Now, they discover the reality in our learning factory and realize that: “Wow! Production is actually something that is systematic and clean! They discover the particular processes behind it, and most of them

are interested immediately, even enthusiastic. Since we have had the factory, the proportion of students who delve deeper into and become interested in production has grown sharply here in Darmstadt. Another aspect is that the industry is also showing tremendous interest. Today, more than 50% of the utilization of the learning factory is simply due to courses with industrial companies who want to see how production processes run in an exemplary way. They are interested in methods that are relevant to their own system improvement and their quality improvement.” Generally, the learning factory is a model that is primarily suitable for showing young people the production processes and production machines, to give them a clear idea, and to also arouse enthusiasm in many cases. A visit to the learning factory - which is also an architecturally ultramodern building right beside the institute, for which the Americans invented the nice word “Brutalism” regarding its architecture - is impressive in every way. The sight is dominated by a multitude of ultramodern production machines, surrounded by an even larger number of impressive measuring devices. There are screens everywhere. “Were the machines provided by the manufacturers?” is the question, anticipating a clear “yes” to follow. “No! Being independent is very important to us. We buy and pay for all the machines. Some of them are very expensive systems!” Case in point: a side glance, accompanied by a smile, directed at the wall, revealing a number of hooks with clearly drawn silhouettes of a broom, dustpan, and hand-brush underneath. Ah yes - machine building is clean. It is applied philosophy. Wouldn’t it be possible to invite the teachers to visit the learning factory to get an impression of it? That has already been tried in Darmstadt. But the teachers don’t come. No time, overworked, perhaps even a lack of interest. In addition, one could be able to prepare young people much earlier for a better understanding of the presence of technology. Four of five girls would ultimately like to become veterinarians at some time. It is similar with the guys when it comes to being doctors. And then they are faced with the numerus clausus, or they are seated in completely overfilled lecture halls. On the other hand, technology is seen and used daily without recognizing the people who invent, develop and build that technology. “I would start as early as in kindergarten!” says Eberhard Abele. That would most likely be a good thing, but the question is: How? “Machine building” - that sounds a little like James Watt with an oil can in his hand.

Perhaps the industry should give some thought to a technology park, a type of Disneyland for machine building. Like the Autostadt in Wolfsburg, but much more entertaining. It would initially be pre-financed by different companies, but would also be a park that would most likely support itself very soon. For this purpose, large companies would build and sponsor individual attractions and also promote excursions, class field trips for schools from the entire country. Teachers who might not be that interested would be given a mandate by the respective departments of education of the individual states to take their classes there at least once. End of discussion. After all, we’re talking about building Germany’s future. The kids can take breathtaking roller-coaster rides and then see how much precision and how much technology is necessary to even make this type of thing work, as well as the machines that produce such wheels and rollers and their drive systems. And subsequently, pithy methods and games can be used to explain who the people are who deal with complex technical issues, who invent cars and aircraft and roller-coasters - and the machines that make it possible to manufacture such things in the first place. There are also machines that manufacture the parts used to make the Smartphones that kids are so obsessed with. Yes. A brave new world.


THECUTTINGEDGE 32

1899

Austria and Cars Actually a Very Long History

But, to keep it short: The first Porsche - aside from the Lohner Porsche in 1899 - was built in Gmünd. In Carinthia, Austria. The Lohner Porsche already had electric motors on the wheel hubs, which sounds more like 2012 and not 1899. The 904 GTS, a sports car legend, is one of Ferdinand Alexander Porsche’s designs. He lives in Zell am See and, by the way, he also designed the 911. Another Austrian didn’t give us a shape, rather a name. Consul Emil Jellinek named his race car from Daimler, and subsequently all Daimler vehicles that he imported, after his daughter: Mercedes. The Steyr Baby from 1936 is considered to be the first aerodynamic small car in the world. BMW engine works in Steyr was the first manufacturer to develop digital diesel technology to market maturity and hence to series production. With one of the most innovative engine developers in the world, a great deal of tradition in the field for drive technology, with plants of BMW, Magna and General Motors, Austria plays a very important role in the European car industry. Bernhard Angerer is an Austrian photographer. He photographs the parts of well-known manufacturers, which you can see as the “Art of Parts“ on several pages. The car pictures were created for the exhibition catalogue of the Technical Museum in Vienna for the special exhibition called ”Chromjuwelen - Cars with History“. Heel Verlag (www.heel-verlag.de) produced a reprint of this catalogue ISBN: 978-3-86852-062-0, under the title: ”Cars with History“, photographed by Bernhard Angerer


Next

Engines From Tomorrow.

Thomas Faller, Project Engineering Sales ANGER HCX machines are now also being applied for machining crank case, cylinder head and transmission case

Innovative Double Machining Concept from ANGER When planning a production line for the new generation of engines in the Swedish engine factory in Skรถvde, Volvo Car Corporation chose HCX machines for highly productive double machining of 4 and 5 cylinder engine blocks. The machines are equipped with extremely powerful and productive multi-spindle head technology so that more than 100 permanently mounted tools can be used per machine. By not having to change tools, ANGER can reduce non-productive times to a minimum, and hence the Transfer Center can bring its greatest technological edge fully into play. Comparisons have shown that at least 10 single-spindle machining centers (MC) or even 6 double-spindle machines can be replaced by any of these ANGER machines.

Yet the intelligent process engineering facilitates a high level of parts flexibility, because all versions of the Volvo Cars engine block types can be machined using the ANGER HCX machine. A gantry system is used for automation across the entire line. Two robots remove from the belt and load and/or unload the transfer centers from the side with 2 workpieces each in a handling station. After the clamping fixture picks up the two parts for fully automatic machining, the robots perform other processing tasks in parallel like cleaning, measuring and encoding. The high efficiency of HCX machines is achieved by parameters such as the lowest total cost of ownership, lowest space requirements and lowest overall investment. Volvo Cars is pursuing the manufacturing strategy of using different technologies within one production line and not exclusively MCs. In one specific case, drilling and threading operations for the engine blocks are bundled into productive ANGER HCX Transfer Centers and integrated into the line.


THECUTTINGEDGE 34

Moves.

Knight

By Patrick Schierholz

What impressed me most were the sheer size and the chrome-plated bust. No doubt that this was a Series 62 from 1955, with its two tusks that looked more like the tips of two bombs protruding from the left and the right side of the radiator grill. A Cadillac!

It must have been around 1957, in Northern Germany. At that time, a neighbor of ours had a Mercedes 220, and my father’s lawyer drove a BMW 501, also referred to as “Baroque Angel”. They were great cars as well, but nothing like a Cadillac. Rolls Royce I only knew at that time from pictures; and Cadillac, that was even above above and beyond in the car hierarchy of the late fifties. Almost fifty years later, a head-hunter asked me whether I could imagine moving to Detroit. Apparently there was a project to get the Cadillac brand back at the head of the pack. And, because I had been part of the core team that started repositioning Audi in 1989, a process that clearly proved to have been successfully initiated when the Audi A8 was launched in 1994, the head-hunter asked whether it was possible to do the same thing for Cadillac. I‘ll tell you up front: I didn’t move to Detroit. According to a marketing expert from Detroit, Audi wasn’t really anything to go by when talking about Cadillac and that Cadillac was aiming far higher.

This is how it is done: You change a tagline, and suddenly potential buyers see the brand in a new light and Cadillac is once again where it was at the time of the Series 62. Logically, then, Audi can’t be a role model, because who would want to spend years changing the image of a brand if it can be done simply by using a tagline? I’ve got a question for you! What does this city know about luxury? Ha?! What does a town that’s been to hell and back know about the finer things in life? This is the beginning of one of the most remarkable advertising film of 2011. More than 100 million TV viewers saw the film during the broadcasting of the Super Bowl. Duration: two minutes, music: Eminem. Who, at the end, summarized: “This is the Motor City. And this is what we are doing!” What they are doing is the new Chrysler 200. Featuring the key phrase: Imported from Detroit. I‘ve watched the film many times. What you do is turn up the volume and wait for the goosebumps. At the end, you’re This was more closely defined by, among others, Susan over the moon - about Detroit. That’s my city. I love Detroit. Docherty, who stated that the aim was to get back to “Art That’s Bob Seger. Night Moves. Out in the back seat of my and Science”, the core of the Cadillac brand. “Art & Science” `60 Chevy. China is now the largest car market in the world. It is the very brand position that appeals to consumers who are now choosing Mercedes or BMW, said Susan seems that the Chinese are impervious to the force of attracDocherty, and that the Escalade was just the right step in that tion exerted by “Art & Science”: Anyone who has money direction. I spent the next few days wondering how this type prefers to spend it on a Mercedes or an Audi; some of them of unfathomable hulk - preferred choice of colors: pitch black have a whole lot of it and reach for the Phantom right away. Cars made in the USA now come from Tuscaloosa – with huge chrome rims could possibly become the favored vehicle of rappers, and, in turn, what that could possibly County, Spartanburg or Chattanooga, and naturally also have to do with “Art & Science”. By the way: According to from Tupelo/Mississippi or Georgetown/Kentucky, where Ms. Docherty, the tagline “Life. Liberty. And the pursuit” was Toyota runs its plants. All of this is in the southwest. What to be no longer used because “Art & Science”, as already about the north? In Hitsville/USA? That’s what stood on mentioned, appeals more to those buyers who also ogle at the sign on the house of Barry Gordy Jr. when he founded Motown Records – soon to brighten our days with the Mercedes.


Men Working in Car Factory. The famous fresco by Diego Rivera. The segment exhibited in the Detroit Institute of Arts depicts a scene during the assembly process of the Ford V8 engine at the Rouge Factory in 1932.

Supremes, Temptations, and little Stevie Wonder. Even Aretha Franklyn, Madonna, Alice Cooper, Kid Rock or Eagles guitarist Glenn Frey come from Detroit, plus many rappers and half the world’s techno scene. You have to love Detroit! The U.S. might no longer be the largest car market in the world, but it will always be motor country. When I was working for Audi, I was in Simi Valley a few times. During the repositioning of the brand, we worked more with designers and technical developers than with taglines. We wanted to find a language with which the brand could express itself in the product. Simi Valley, north of Los Angeles, is the home of DCC, the Volkswagen Design Center California. J Mays, who is now with Ford, explained to me, “Of all the cars that are built anywhere in the world, you‘ll find at least one example in Los Angeles. Anyone who wants to understand cars has to start here!” (The next morning, I did in fact see an NSU Prinz 3 on Santa Monica Boulevard!)

So, I was asked if I could write something about Detroit, the auto city in the auto country. Actually, I should have mentioned right at the beginning that one of the first major successes of the ANGER HCP took place in Detroit. It was at ZF and also at Chrysler. That was in the year 2000. But now I am losing myself in these associations in order to get to the unexpected and actually illogical connections that I can use to explain Detroit. It is nice to use the metaphor of the knight in a game of chess - the knight’s move - for this compilation of ideas that seem completely dissimilar on the surface. That’s exactly what Detroit is about. I got to know Hadi Taam a while ago. He lives in Ann Arbor - within shouting distance of CAR, so to speak. Hadi Taam is Mr. ANGER of America. It is said that he made a decisive contribution to the success of ANGER in the USA. I can’t verify the extent to which that is true, but there is something that his wife said that at least hints at it: “Anger – it’s not an emotion. It is a machine!” She is reported to have said this often. Most likely she rolled her eyes at the same time. On the other hand, she suggested the saying as a tagline for ANGER. I like it.

challenges. They will be the answers to the questions of the future. Technically sophisticated; brand new ideas for dealing with energy; amazing thoughts and solutions; eight-speed and nine-speed automatic transmissions soon to be part of Chrysler cars - just to mention a few things. That’s saying something! Sometimes you have to almost hit rock bottom before you can start picking up again. That’s an old maxim that also applies to Detroit. Promise. It is sufficiently well known that the President likes to talk about “change”. He did so in January 2011 as Messrs. Gottlieb Daimler and Carl Benz might indeed have well. Barack Obama announced in his annual “State of the invented the car, more or less at the same time that the com- Union Address” that America would be the first country in bustion engine was invented. But it was someone else who the world to have one million “Advanced Technology” cars made it a global success. He built a very simple car that was on the road by 2015. That will also change Detroit. Because A few years ago, I was chatting with the Archbishop of New available in any color as long as it was black. when Americans really determine to achieve something they York. Not kidding! He married me. At that time, he said Henry Ford. In Detroit. This is the cradle of democrati- succeed as well. In the 1980s, it was quite possible to get the following in his address: “We Americans simply love zation of the automobile, which changed our world. away with driving on a highway with worn tires or a han- everything. That’s dreadful! The Greeks have five different ging down bumper. However, if you happened to be going words to express love. But we, we love spaghetti. We love Giant murals by Diego Rivera in the Detroit Institute of Arts 56.2 miles per hour, you would soon find yourself standing our mothers. We love cars. And we love God.” remind us of the assembly line work that was used to pro- beside your car with both hands on the roof. That is called duce the cars. Detroit is not only about cars and music, but setting priorities. Know what, Reverend? You’re right. Still, I’ll say it: also about cars and art. Artists and musicians have recently The Center for Automotive Research (CAR) in Ann begun rediscovering this city and are moving back – from Arbor, west of Detroit, researches and evaluates the latest I love Detroit. the USA and all over the world. Do you get where I’m developments and technologies in the area of cars. Director going? Yes – I am convinced that great cars will be once Jay Baron and his people work closely together with an again be built in Detroit. Trust me - it always starts with art infrastructure industrial consortium - the National Research that moves into dilapidated buildings. Accompanied by the Council. The task is the development of an acceptable inframusic. That’s the circle of life. It’s always been that way. The structure for the electric car. There are 25 well-known comUSA is the number one car country and will always be the panies that belong to the industrial consortium. number one car market. Of course it’s somewhat difficult to boast about total numbers of units in a completely saturated You are currently reading “2012”. The newspaper has been market. published by ANGER MACHINING for the first time, and the The emerging countries have a need to catch up, not people at ANGER firmly believe in the USA. After all, anyone the USA. But the experience is at home in the USA. “And the who builds machines that, in turn, build the complex parts know-how runs deep in every last one of us!” is what they for cars simply has to feel positively towards the USA. (Did I also say in the Chrysler film, which is, in fact, a Detroit film. mention that the USA is the number one car country? I’ll say The cars after the crisis will be cars that are born from the new it over and over again until you finally believe me).


14 36

THECUTTINGEDGE


2012

The Beginning, Not the End

The giant hall is almost empty. “Kokomo, Indiana, is ground zero for layoffs in the automotive industry.” This is what CNNMoney said in April 2009. “Ground zero” - that is where the bomb has its greatest effect. Even the local press feared something similar: “Workers say if nothing is done to save their jobs, the town is done.” They are talking about the Kokomo Transmission Plant or KTP for short. There is now an awakening in the halls, which were originally set for demolition. Two of the most modern transmission in the world will soon be manufactured here: the 8-speed automatic transmission and the 9-speed automatic transmission for front-wheel drive. Chrysler has done something about this situation. Together with FIAT, Chrysler is about to write another new and dynamic chapter in US automotive industry. The new transmissions will be built into Chrysler models as of 2013. The man in yellow is Thomas Ernstreiter. He is the project manager responsible for the ANGER project. An ANGER system consisting of six HCX machines with fully automated robot loading will machine the valve plates and the valve body of the new transmission.


THECUTTINGEDGE 38

Everything in Life Comes Back Again. So Does The Multi-Spindle Head.

Multi-spindle machining units are key components in the Transfer Center and at ANGER they are celebrating a renaissance; in the highest production quality with the lowest maintenance requirements.

P

People say everything in life comes back again, said an aborigine in Australia shortly after he invented the boomerang. You will hear this realization in all possible contexts and it also holds true for the multi-spindle head. The machining downtimes of a Transfer Center can be reduced to a minimum through the method of guiding the component from spindle to spindle. Increasing productivity requirements have now led to process solutions in simultaneous multiple part machining becoming standard. Processing jobs can now be done simultaneously through the use of multi-spindle heads with the highest performance and accuracy. However the multi-spindle head technology required for this has only little to do with their use in conventional transfer lines and rotary table machines from past decades. What we are talking about here is “Next Generation” multi-spindle heads.

Hellmerich precision components Managing Director Gunther Kranabether “The transmission technology and manufacturing quality make the difference”

Maximum spindle speeds for the use of modern cutting materials (up to 12,000 U/min) and low mass moments of inertia of the shafts and gears for quick acceleration and deceleration of the transmissions are the primary requirements for our new generation of multi-spindle heads. One of ANGER’s major component partners is the Austrian company Hellmerich in Seeboden, the worldwide market leader in multi-spindle heads. Hellmerich spindle heads are renowned for their high component accuracy, comparable with those in the aviation industry. Mass inertia-reduced transmission components facilitate energy-saving operation and decreased loads on gear shafts and bearings, leading to greater life expectancy and the units being maintenance-free.

The non-contact sealing systems also reduce the heat otherwise generated by sealing ring friction on the multi-spindle heads and being maintenancefree, they are the ideal solution for machine operators. With the low friction included as part of the structural design, the multi-spindle heads used by ANGER MACHINING meet all the precision requirements of the components to be manufactured. Cooling systems provided as standard for transmission and spindle housing ensure very low temperature differences from the machine start-up until the operating temperature is reached and are excellent when it comes to the statistical acceptance of component features. As a result of the overall reduced level of friction in all the components of the latest technology multispindle heads, the reduced heat transfer in the machine can to a large extent be compensated for through the use of minimum quantity lubrication for cooling tools instead of conventional cooling lubricantsEfficiency, minimum use of energy and preservation of environmental resources are the benchmarks by which every component of a machine tool must be designed nowadays.

In processing units with their own multi-spindles most of these requirements are already fulfilled as part of the system. The multi-spindle heads used by ANGER achieve these requirements in technology that is even further enhanced: • One motor with one control operates up to 60 spindles. • Improved design of mass inertia (GD ²) of transmission parts reduces the engine power required when accelerating the unit • High precision gear technology provides optimum transmission efficiency • Reduced use of lubricants and components through the use of collective oil circulation lubrication systems for up to four multi-spindle heads • Friction-optimised transmission lubrication through volume-controlled lubricant supply to each of the bearings and transmission parts • Dramatic TCO benefits through durable modular design with recyclability and reduced spares inventory

Through the development of a new DIN standard for the standardization of multi-spindle drill heads for Transfer Centers (DIN 69 010 Status: in template) allows ANGER and Hellmerich in the future to replace drill head units from Transfer Center to Transfer Center even from different equipment manufacturers.


Big, practical, stylish - sounds like a bookcase from Sweden, but also applies to the next extension of the main plant of ANGER in Traun, Upper Austria. The architecture model is pictured here.

*You find splinters in most magazines. These are ours.

Splitter*

ANGER will be celebrating its 30th anniversary next year. Karl Dorn has worked for us for 40 years. Sounds like a misprint, but it is a good example for loyalty, quite common in Upper Austria. Karl Dorn already worked with industry pioneer Anton Anger for eleven years before the present company was founded.

ANGER has been successful awarded with the certificate according to ISO 9001 and, for the first time ever, ISO 14001 in June 2011

Luck and life do not rhyme Oh well – accept this line. The ribbon is red as always, the gentlemen are gleeful because they have been allowed to snip it and H3 is declared opened. Factory floor 3 doubles the production capacity. Since May 2011.

(Title of a book on rhymes – “Glück reimt sich nicht auf Leben Na ja, so ist das eben.” By Bjarne Mädel, published by Kiwi Verlag)

Has nothing to do with ANGER, we just like it.

Offspring was discussed elsewhere before. In this case offspring is female. “Girls’ Day” already has a long tradition in Traun. Pictured are Ulrike Rabmer-Koller (left), VP of the local chamber of commerce, Klaus Dirnberger and a future machining engineer. Might surprise some, but the future is female – according to the German feminine article used with the word “Zukunft” (=future).

IMPRESSUM. “2012” ist ein periodisches Druckwerk und erscheint erstmals anlässlich der Exposition Mondiale de la Machine Outil (EMO). “2012” erscheint erstmals am 19. September 2011 zur EMO in Hannover. Erscheinungsort ist Traun/Österreich. Als Verlag und Medieninhaber fungiert die ANGER MACHINING GmbH, 4050 Traun/Österreich, Zaunermühlgasse 3-5. Gedruckt bei Holzhausen Druck GmbH/A-1140 Wien. Übersetzung: Creative Translation – Susanne Kosma e. U., 1090 Wien, Alserbachstraße 15/1 und MB International Languages GmbH, Technoparkstraße 4, A-5310 Mondsee. Redaktion: schierholzsaxer ssx, Pfarrplatz 4, 1190 Wien/Österreich. Gestaltung: schierholzsaxer ssx. Art-Director: Hanns-Georg Saxer. Fotorafen: Bernhard Angerer, Seite 1, 2, 8, 9, 32 und 40; Manfred Weis, Seite 4/5, 12/13. 14/15, 25, 26/27, 30; Archive: Fotolia, Seite 2; Corbis, Seite 6/7 und Seite 34/35; alle anderen Abbildungen: ANGER Archiv, sofern nicht anders angegeben. ”2012” ist eine kostenlose, alle zwei Jahre erscheinende Information der ANGER MACHINING GmbH in Traun. Ziel ist ein informativer und unterhaltsamer Überblick zur aktuellen Lage des Maschinenbaus mit Schwerpunkt „Maschinen für die Automobilindustrie“ und zur Rolle, die ANGER MACHINING in diesem Umfeld einnimmt. ”2012“ enthält keine „entgeldlichen Einschaltungen“ oder „Werbung“.


THE ART OF PARTS presented by

2012 THE CUTTING EDGE by ANGER | en  

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