UK 24 03

Page 1


On January 10, Thailand’s government announced that it is reversing its progressive policies toward cannabis, just 18 months after becoming the first nation in Southeast Asia to legalize the drug. The new government, led by Prime Minister Srettha Thavisin, aims to limit cannabis use strictly to medical purposes, as indicated by a recently proposed bill.

After taking office last year, Srettha pledged to “rectify” cannabis laws within six months due to concerns that decriminalization had led to a spike in recreational drug use.

The proposed bill, drafted by the Ministry of Public Health, not only restricts cannabis use to medical purposes but also reintroduces strict penalties for both possession and use, including hefty fines and up to one-year prison sentences. New Health Minister Cholnan Srikaew has announced that cannabis extracts containing more than 0.2 percent of the active ingredient tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, will be classified as narcotics. He says the purpose of the law is to rectify what the government perceives as the “wrong usage of cannabis.”

Srettha’s stance marks a striking shift from the pioneering stance taken by the government of Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha, which removed cannabis from the country’s

register of illegal narcotics, allowing the legal cultivation, trade, and use of marijuana and hemp. Nearly overnight, this sparked a boom in cannabis-related businesses, such as dispensaries, weed cafes, and hemp spas. Cities like Chiang Mai and Bangkok embraced the trend, hosting weed festivals that attracted tourists and further fueled the growth of the cannabis industry.

In media interviews, Srettha has expressed concerns about drug abuse. “Cannabis policy will be medical cannabis,” he said in an interview shortly after taking office. “On recreational use, I do not agree with that.”

Meanwhile, Anutin Charnvirakul, the former public health minister who was the main proponent of legalization, clarified that the focus was never on allowing public recreational cannabis use. Instead, the intention was to promote cannabis policies for medical purposes, which would in turn create economic opportunities for farmers.

The abrupt reversal has disappointed pro-legislation advocates, sparking concerns about its impact on the economy and the numerous businesses invested in the cannabis sector. Advocacy groups such as the Future Cannabis Network argue that the government’s shift is a knee-jerk reaction, suggesting that it is too late to reclassify cannabis as an illegal narco-

tic. Kitty Chopaka, a pro-cannabis advocate, told Voice of America that she hoped that the government would stop short of a blanket ban. “What I hope it meant was that he will get rid of all those places that don’t have any licenses or get rid of all illegal cannabis,” she said, expressing fears that recriminalization would have a heavy impact on the poor.

While economic ramifications are a focal point, the policy reversal could also have legal implications. The shift from a decriminalized cannabis environment to a restrictive one presents potential legal challenges. The existing entrepreneurs in Thailand’s cannabis industry may face difficulties adapting to the new regulations.

The shift introduces potential challenges in areas such as contracts, possibly leading to disputes. Groups like the Future Cannabis Network may explore legal avenues to express concerns and contest the government’s actions in court.

Thailand’s abrupt shift back toward criminalization underscores the diverse attitudes and approaches that nations have taken and reflects the complex interplay of cultural, political, and social factors shaping drug policies across the globe.

cali collection barney' s farm new releases Barney’s Souvenirs BV | Haarlemmerstraat 98, 1013 EW Amsterdam | Wholesale enquiries: +31 204 117 249 | FIND YOUR NEAREST WHOLESALER OR RETAILER ICE CREAM CAKE RUNTZ X LAYER CAKE MIMOSA X ORANGE PUNCH AUTO PINEAPPLE EXPRESS SOUR STRAWBERRY GIRL SCOUT COOKIES GELATO BISCOTTI PURPLE PUNCH X LEMON DRIZZLE www.barneysfarm.CO.UK New *Shipping FROM ONLY €7.50 - FREE Seeds & Merchandise with every order! Orders up to £135 ZERO import tax!

Barney’s Kush Mintz The multi flower rocket

12 Cannabis Seeds vs Clones

Legal weed on the US east coast Travel report

16 Growing Cannabis Outdoors and Heat Stress

Jealousy Z XL Auto® Sweet Seeds®’ most coveted pearl

Page 14
Page 18
Scannen Sie den QR-Code:

Stoney TarkCelebrating 10 Years with Soft Secrets Magazine!

We would like to congratulate Stoney Tark on hitting the 10year mark as head writer for Soft Secrets, and it has been a real pleasure to work with him during this time. A writer who is exceptionally well versed in his field and always sets the highest standards with his work, we are proud to celebrate his work with Soft Secrets so far, and for many more years to come! Read more to find out his story, how he got involved with cannabis and his journey so far.

Growing up around plants

Stoney: I grew up around cannabis plants that my parents would grow from Dutch bag seed in the 1990s. Being so young, getting involved in growing, plant training and learning about breeding seemed normal, and there was never any negative energy around cannabis for me.

His first ever memory of the Soft Secrets paper

Before everything was digital, you had to travel far and wide to find a copy of the Soft

Secret’s printed newspaper. For me, it was a matter of getting on the bus to Stockport, where a small tattoo/seed shop at the back end of town had them. That was almost 20 years ago!

How it all started and writing alongside his inspirations

Like many UK growers, we all had a pile of Soft Secrets papers, which allowed us to wonder in awe and disbelief at how there was another

world just an hour away in Holland. It was in 2014 when I met Clifford Cremer in Amsterdam, the legendary chief editor of Soft Secrets and HighLife Cup organiser, who took the magazine from previous owner Wernard (of Mellow Yellow and Positronics fame), and turned it into an international smash hit with 7 different language editions.

Cliff gave me the chance to write alongside my role models at the time which were Ed Rosenthal and Jorge Cervantes.

Head writer of cultivation

It feels like a lifetime ago I used to read the grow reports, strain guides and anything cultivation related during my early twenties, and nowadays, I am the one who writes the grow reports and cultivation related topics!

I am beyond proud of my achievements so far, and love the fact that illegal or not, I am helping growers from all walks of life become the best they become.

His top tips book on Growing Cannabis and The Roll Models audiocast

After many requests, I decided to write my first ever book titled ‘ Stoney Tark’s Top Tips on Growing Cannabis available on Amazon.

At the same time, I decided to produce a short series of audio cast episodes that interview the old school members of the cannabis industry and rack their brains for as much great information and advice as possible, which is available on YouTube.

Soft Secrets congratulates it’s main writer and let’s put in another 20 years at least!

Cliff Cremer, chief editor of all edtions of Soft Secrets:

“When I met Stoney I recognised immediately the passion, the love and the able green fingers this English bloke had in relation to the cannabis plants.

I offered him all the space he needed in Soft Secrets and I think it’s safe to say Stoney educated a whole generation of European growers. Well done, mate!”

Stoney Tark z miłością swojego życia.

Abonnieren Sie unseren Newsletter

Scannen Sie den QR-Code:

Secret Jardin Grow Stations are elegantly designed grow kits that empower you to grow your own vegetables, fruits, herbs, and flowers in the comfort of your home. These user-friendly kits, operating quietly at 24 volts, feature the latest technologies in lighting, ventilation and high quality materials for successful home cultivation, combined with lowest consumption.

The Original 60 is ideal for cuttings and seedlings with its spring-like lighting and shelves, while For Twenty 100 provides intensive summer lighting and web support for fruit-bearing plants.

6 Products



Seed bank: Dutch Passion

Strain: Banana Blaze

Pot size: 10 liter pot

Medium: Coco + Atami Upgrade

Lighting: 2 x SANlight Gen 2

Nutrients: Atami NRG line + Great White Myco

Veg time (18/6): 4 weeks

Veg Temp: 24.3 degrees Celsius

Veg humidity: 68%

Flowering time (12/12) 8.5 weeks

Flowering Temp: 22.5 degrees Celsius

Flowering humidity: 42% humidity

Vegetative stage: 28 days

I got my hands on a pack of feminized Banana Blaze from Dutch Passion, which is basically an old school Afghani with large yielding potential. I usually grow tall OG and Haze strains, but this time it will be a good change to grow an indica. The seed was planted directly into the growing medium as usual, lightly watered and left to germinate under two SANlight LED lights.

The grow room temperature is set to 24.5 degrees and 69% humidity, and for the first week, the Banana Blaze seed is watered with a 2ml mild solution of per liter of ATA Root-C, Growth-C, Alga-C, Cal mag and ATAzyme. It takes 72 hours for the seed to emerge with a dark green and strong look.

By day 14, I increased the nutrients to 3 ml per liter of ATA Root-C, Growth-C, Alga-C, Cal mag and ATAzyme. The plant is now 19 cm tall and is growing with fat club shaped fan leaves. The temperature of the grow room is 24.3 degrees and 72% humidity, with two oscillating fans providing lots of fresh air currents.

By day 28 of the vegetative stage, the nutrients are increased to 5ml per liter of ATA Root-C, Growth-C, Alga-C, Cal mag and ATAzyme, and when measuring the Banana Blaze, the plant is 44 cm tall, with a short and stocky appearance, a fat main stem and tight internal space.


The timer is switched over to 12/12, and I also take this chance to lower the humidity levels to 55%. The lower parts of the canopy have been pruned away, to allow better air flow. The nutrients are now increased to the maximum amount of 5 ml per liter of Growth-C, Alga-C, Cal mag, ATAzyme, with 2ml Flower-C, Bloom-C.

By day 21, and the Banana Blaze has really filled and become a short but very dense plant, with baseball bat colas ready to form. I measure the height of the plant, which is now 129 cm, and it looks like she won’t stretch much more. There are loads of white pistils and bud sites forming all over, and with such tight internodal spacing, the yield looks like it will be very impressive for such a short sized plant. The nutrients are kept to 5ml per liter of, Growth-C, Alga-C, Cal mag, ATAzyme and 5ml Flower-C, Bloom-C.

As the buds are becoming more chunky with a large amount of resin on the buds and leaves, I make sure my temperature is 24.3 degrees and 40% humidity, and want to flower with dry conditions, which I find really brings out the best buds with extreme amounts of resin production.

On day 42 and I give the fat baseball bat buds a light squeeze and smell. The aroma can be described as earthy, pungent, spicy with a fruity and floral kick. The nutrients are given to the plant at 5ml per liter of Growth-C, Alga-C, Cal mag, ATAzyme and 5ml Flower-C, Bloom-C and 2 ml of ATA Flavor. By week 6 and the Banana Blaze buds are thick, compact and dense. Not only that, the surrounding leaves care covered in resin and producing resin rails. The fan leaves even have an impressive amount of trichomes, so should make some good hash afterwards.

Day 46 flush of 12/12, and I will begin to flush the plant, and harvest her 2 weeks from now. For the flush, I feed only 5 ml per liter of ATAzyme. Three of the side branches have fallen over with weight, so using garden wire, I was able to keep them upright and well-supported. The Banana Blaze plant is harvested on day 60, making it a relatively fast flowering variety, considering she expressed indica dominance in structure, grinder sized buds and tight internodal space.

One final measurement and the height is 136

cm tall and 98 cm wide. The aroma is extremely pungent, spicy, floral with a fruity side. Creamy vanilla and banana terpenes with a classic old school gassy and burnt rubber funk, The plant is chopped and hung up on a metal hook inside a temperature controlled tent. After 14 days of 15 degrees Celsius room temperature and 50% humidity, the buds will be perfect.


In terms of how easy and low maintenance the Banana Blaze was, I would strongly recommend

her to beginner growers, those with limited growing space, and anyone looking for extra large yields in a short flowering time. Make sure that your carbon filters are working properly also, as she can be a very pungent and loud variety thanks to her Afghan heritage.

You will need to add some support once you surpass week 5 of flowering, to avoid the buds from touching the walls or floor of the grow room or tent. I will end up using the high grade trim for making dry sift, so am very happy with the result and jars full of a heavy hitting indica.

With Stoney Tark A close up of the Banana Blaze. She grew with a short but compact growth structure.

Barney’s Farm strain story

Words & Pics: Green Born Identity – G.B.I.


When The Doc reads about “OG Kush” in a strain description of one of his favourite seed companies, he instantly falls for such a strain, like Pavlov’s dog he almost starts to salivate and feels an irresistible urge to get it into his grow room as fast as possible… Yes, he’s something like an OG Kush fetichist obviously! Not long ago, in the online catalogue of Barney’s Farm he discovered their new release “Kush Mintz” and it happened again – reflexively, he moved it into his shopping basket and ordered it. It was due to the fact Kush Mintz contains Critical Kush, an OG Kush hybrid based on Himalayan OG Kush genetics.

Through amalgamation of Critical Kush with Mintz, a first-class hybridisation partner, something very exciting came into existence according to Barney’s Farm: A powerful robust plant leaning to the indica side (70%), with an unique flavour and outstanding grow characteristics. For instance the ample yields Kush Mintz is able to generate under both artificial and natural light – 600-650 g/sqm. are attainable indoors whereas outdoors the dry flower outcome per plant may be counted in kilos even (up to 1.5 kg) if perfectly cultivated.

Another good message for outdoor cultivators is the strain’s early finish under natural light, ripening in the third to fourth week of September. But inside Kush Mintz doesn’t dawdle either, making it to maturity within eight to nine weeks of flowering. In the smell and taste department, it comes up with a charismatic flavour that has three main elements come to the fore: pine, coffee and mint, enriched with a nice portion of sweetness.

As a matter of course - how could it be any different with such a pedigree – Kush Mintz is a rich resin producer as well, its beautiful buds are wrapped in a thick blanket of trichome frost. The long-lasting highly potent buzz it delivers is one of a relaxing and euphoric nature.

In The Doc’s grow room: Kush Mintz put to the test

The Doc set two feminised Kush Mintz seeds out to germinate. The sprouting process was a breeze, also with this BF variety it didn’t take longer than three days until the two seedlings showed up at the surface.

Three weeks the veg stage was set to last, and the two young plants got off the ground quickly. One week after germination growth noticeably picked up speed, with the two plants revealing a very strong branching

temper. They took on a bush-like appearance with medium wide internodal spacing so that The Doc noted heights of already 35 and 38 cm upon flower induction.

The flowering stage: Like new year rockets, ready for take-off

By means of quite a vehement stretching behaviour in the first half of flowering, the branches shot upwards, increasing their height by a factor of three. However, thanks to the enormous vigour running through the veins of the plants, flower formation happened likewise forcefully - after a few weeks, the plants were bestrewn with a multitude of flower clusters. In the weeks following, each of the plants produced more than ten large-sized side tops some of which became almost as voluminous as the head bud.

Reported The Doc seven weeks into flowering, “these two Kush Mintzes are having an unusual startling appearance as all their many lateral branches of almost equal length are coming off the plant right above the ground, winding upwards from there and finishing off at the top with fairly long compact buds – this scenario looks like a bunch of new year rockets placed side by side, ready for take-off. I love these multi flower rockets! Much as explosive is their resin production, just as expected the buds are generously encrusted with trichomes.

That frosty white look is beautifully contrasted by radiant orange pistils and upper shade and sugar leaves partly having turned purple red. That’s all fantastic, and the icing on the cake is the stunning fragrance the flowers are exuding, precisely displaying those aspects mentioned in Barney’s strain description: It has an earthy-spicy core really reminiscent of coffee which is freshened by notes of pine and mint and wrapped in a sweet coating – a very sophisticated flavour entirely new to me, I’m very curious about the taste.

” The Doc waited a few more days with harvesting, after a smooth 60 days (“the flower rockets have shot their wad now!”) he got to work. With final heights of 102 and 108 cm, both plants had exceeded the one metre mark in the end.

After drying: A smell of exotic coffee beans

A great quantity of big fat buds went into The Doc’s harvest basket, making for an accordingly bountiful dry end result some weeks later: the superb yield figures were 105 and 116 grams dry. Concentrated heavy aroma


clouds wafted from his big storage jars after when he opened them after the drying and curing process had been completed: “Such is the intensity and spiciness of this smell that it almost makes my eyes water! This extremely flavourful Kush Mintz weed basically smells like some exotic coffee beans. That sublime combination of flavour notes already described above has lasted through drying, but is even more harmoniously blended now.”

Up in vapour: Kush Mintz throws an aroma party on The Doc’s palate

Which came deliciously through in the taste as well then… coffee, pine and mint – all these notes were dancing on The Doc’s palate, throwing a real aroma party there which didn’t lack a good deal of sweetness either. That minty fresh element was very present on the inhale, then the earthy-spicy

notes took over and lingered on the palate very long. “Super tasty and unique, indeed”, he said, blown away. The effect, coming over The Doc already after two hits off his Mighty+ vaporizer, did its job in that usual hefty Kush manner – he lifted his eyebrows appreciatively as he felt himself getting caught up into a maelstrom of heavy stonedness!

“In no time it lulled me into a mellow state of lightheartedness, exhilaration and deep relaxation. Kush Mintz revealed an in-yourface buzz that kept me spaced out for more than two hours.”

The Doc’s verdict: Kush Mintz is soaring in higher regions

„Is it New Year’s Eve already? Kush Mintz has turned out to be a vibrant multi flower rocket soaring in higher regions, jam-packed with excellent explosive properties.

Once again a true strain ace bred by Barney’s Farm!”

Green Born Identity - G.B.I.

Genetics Kush Mintz (Critical Kush x Mintz)

Vegetative stage 21 days (after germination)

Flowering stage 60 days / 56-63 days in general

Medium Bionova Bio Soilmix, 11 litre pots

pH 6.2-6.6

EC 1.2–1.8 mS

Light up to 4 x SANlight EVO 5-100, switched to level 2 out of 3

Temperature 19-28°C

Air humidity 40-60%

Watering manually

Fertilisation Bionova Soil Supermix, plus PK 13-14 in the flowering stage

Additives/stimulants Bionova Silution, The Missing Link, Vitasol and X-cel

Tools CleanLight Pro for mould prevention

Height 102 + 108 cm

Yield 105 + 116 g


Top Tips on Growing with Greenhouses

Growing cannabis inside a greenhouse has many benefits from keeping the plants safe from wind, rain, animals and pests. If you are planning to grow this year outside in a greenhouse, then below are 6 top tips to consider as well as mistakes to avoid, helping you get the best results and yields possible this year!


When it comes to a glass greenhouse on a hot summer’s day, one thing that is guaranteed is the temperatures inside can become hot, causing the air to become sticky and tough for plants.

My top tip here is to make sure that the air flow and ventilation inside the greenhouse is fresh, and you have a window or two open to allow hot air to rise up and disperse out. Closing the greenhouse doors and windows is a good idea when the weather turns cold and wet during winter time, but always keep a good level of ventilation.


This can be done using an old school thermometer but for the sake of being as processional as you can, it is best to buy a small sized digital hygrometer that comes with a sensor.

My top tip here is to hang the sensor just above the canopy so you can see the temperature of the space between the canopy and top part of the greenhouse. A digital hygrometer also allows you to see the highest and lowest data recordings over a 24-hour period.


By watering your cannabis plants inside the greenhouse in the evening times, or as soon as the sun is setting, will allow the plants to use the available nutrients and water, without having as much pressure on them to transpire.

My top tip here is to avoid watering when it is the hottest point in the day, and depending on what is most practical for you, either water close to sun-

rise or sunset. Either way, the plant’s will respond much better and also be able to deal with heat stress much better.


If you have not heard of companion plants before, then they are just normal plants you can find at the local garden centre, which help keep cannabis plant’s camouflage, they also help protect against bugs. Mint, basil, camomile, lavender, sunflower and peppermint, as just some of the different companion plants that can be grown inside a greenhouse for extra cover and to keep nosey neighbours second guessing.


Depending on where you live, the temperatures may dramatically drop once the sun sets, and when you have seedlings or immature plants inside the greenhouse, the drop in temperature can often cause issues.

The easiest way to combat the significant nighttime drop, is to use a heater to take the edge off and bring the temperature back to above 16 degrees and as close to 20 degrees as possible. Electric heaters are ideal or if you are not near an electric source, you can always use fuel burners that use paraffin.


Insects can quickly spread, and before you know it, will produce eggs and larvae and eat your crop alive. My top tip is to always check your plants for bugs, and thoroughly inspect the tops and undersides of the leaves. Be vigilant for signs of insects, such as tissue damage, or tiny marks on the leaf surface.

My top tip here would be to invest your money in predatory insects that can be left inside the greenhouse, and will fight off other insects and use them as a food source. If you think you have bugs on your plants already, then look online to see which predators you need and let them loose until the insect damage in non-existent.


1. Keeping windows closed

Forgetting to open the greenhouse window before you go out for the day, will be a silly mistake you kick yourself for, especially if the heat stress caused is severe. Always make sure that there is somewhere that the hot air can rise up from.

2. Letting cats or dogs enter

Letting the cat or dog follow you into the greenhouse whilst you work is the best idea, as there is a good probability they will bring insects or mites into the greenhouse. This can be the case if you live in a rural woodland area and your animals are free to roam.

3. No room to work

Give yourself room to walk around in and have space to move plants around. Avoid overcrowding your cannabis plants to the point where you cannot comfortably get around and manoeuvre!

Photography: Unsplash.
C M CM MY CY K ai1713440055301_W&B Cocos_SoftSecrets_255mmx183mm.pdf 1 18/4/24 13:34 Scannen Sie den QR-Code:



Cannabis is a wonderfully diverse and resilient plant that can thrive under most conditions. What makes working with cannabis plants even more special, is the fact you can choose to grow with either cannabis seeds or clones. If you are new to growing and have not heard about cloning, then sit back and prepare to find out all you need to know about cannabis seeds and clones, the benefits of each and what to consider when deciding which is the best choice and most practical for you.

The different types of cannabis seeds

Before we go ahead and start to compare which is best, first you must understand that there are different types of cannabis seeds. Basically, there are regular sexed ones that produce either male or female plants, and feminized seeds which means they are genetically programmed to produce only females.

On top of that the seeds will either be photoperiod meaning they require 18/6 an 12/12 to grow and flower, or you can have autoflowering seeds which will grow and begin to flower automatically after 4 weeks regardless of the light cycle.

Regular or female cannabis seeds?

Regular seeds do not refer to the quality of the seeds or genetics, but is a name for the original seeds before feminized seeds took over. You will find that old school growers still choose to grow with regular sexed seeds and take the time to remove male plants and keep the chosen females. You may think what a total waste of time, space, nutrients and plant count, however this is the way regular seeds work and was how every seed grower operated before 1999. Feminized seeds totally revolutionized the way that the seed game was looked at, and now growers who depended on female plants did not need to worry about potentially sexing males and losing a percentage of the final crop. Feminized seeds were ideal for hydroponic growers who could use up all their systems without the need to rip half of them out later on once pre flowers emerged. Nowadays, it is fair to say that 95% of the marketplace are feminized seed and the demand for them only increases by the day!

Autos or photoperiod?

Photoperiod cannabis plants have been around for decades and were all most growers knew until autoflowering genetics gained popularity. To keep it as simple as possible, photoperiod plants when grown outdoors will produce a bushy plant during the summer months, and begin to grow tall and flower as the days get shorter. Photoperiods are reliant on the seasons, and when grown indoors, require a vegetative cycle of 18–20 hours of light per day and to induce flowering, 12 hours of light and 12 hours of dark. Autos are different to photoperiod plants because they will flower regardless of the amount of sunlight, darkness or time of the year. If you imagine planting autos outside during March until May, you would find they will flower and produce top quality buds. Autos are extremely popular in hot parts of the world such as South America, Southern Europe and California. Known for being smaller sized plants that can be easier to hide and require very little maintenance.

The benefits of growing with cannabis seeds

There may be several reasons why an indoor grower would choose to grow with cannabis seeds instead of clones. It could be that they simply cannot source clones from any reliable growers

locally, and it is far easier to take a trip to the grow shop, or find the latest deals and seed promotions online. There are many benefits to growing with cannabis seeds, and they are listed below.

• There is an incredible wide variety of cannabis seeds and seed banks available.

• Seeds can be a pest and pathogen free and safe way to grow, compared to clones

• It is possible to grow many different strains at once when using feminized seeds.

• Clones can always be taken off a selected keeper phenotype grown from seed. Cannabis seeds will produce different phenotypes that will all express themselves. Regular sexed breeding projects require male and female plants to cross with. Seed banks offer will packs of 3 for small time bedroom growers on a budget.

• Cannabis seeds will arrive secure and dis creetly at your home address in the post.

What is cloning, and how does it work?

Cloning just means you can obtain a genetic replica of a single source plant, allowing you to mass produce the strain, keep it alive for years as a mother plant, or to work with from a breeding standpoint. You may be reading this and thinking, why would anyone spend money on seeds when

I can just clone? Well, the answer is maybe they were not aware of cloning or had bad luck in the past with infected clones from another grower that filled your room with spider mites

Is cloning easy, and what do I need?

Cloning cannabis plants is very easy to do, but there are specific parameters that must be in place for the cuttings to form roots. There are several ways to clone, with the most traditional being using a blade, rooting hormone and a jiffy plug, or the more complex method using water and a bubbler. The propagator should be between 2024 degrees Celsius with a high humidity of 75%.

1 x sharp scalpel or blade

• Rooting hormone 1 x propagator

• Coco coir jiffy plugs

The benefits of growing with cannabis clones

• Clones are easy to produce and source, saving a grower money on seeds.

The vegetative time can be reduced before flowering compared to seeds.

Cloning will produce an exact genetic replica of the selected keeper phenotype.

• Mother plants and clones can be kept alive for

Lots of different fems growing in coco for a phenotype selection hunt.

long periods of time.

• Male and female plants for breeding projects save time and hunting through seeds.

Potential problems with clones

Unfortunately, growing with cannabis clones is not always as straightforward as it should be, and more often than not will have an issue. Below are some of the problems that may arise when sourcing clones from a third party.

Spider mites

If you have ever been given clones that had spider mites on, and without knowing infected your entire garden, then you will know how much of a logistical nightmare that is. Spider mites are the worst pest, as they can stick around and put up a fight against pesticides and predators. Check the clones for any signs of spider mite damage on the leaves and do frequent checks.

Getting rid of white fly is not the end of the world, compared to thrips or spider mites, but they can easily enter your grow room hidden on clones. White fly can quickly spread if not dealt with in time. Washing the leaves of the clones in a 3% hydrogen peroxide solution, will get rid of any hidden flies and potential laid eggs.

Powdery mildew

Mildew spores will attach themselves to the foliage of leaf tissue and remain there. When an infected clone is passed to another grower, the spores can begin to infect other plants, and if not dealt with, causes the leaves to be covered in a white talc substance. Powdery mildew can be killed using UV clean lights.

Hop latent viroid

It was only in recent years when this systemic viroid was even discovered in cannabis plants, and quickly spread amongst the US scene. HLVd is a serious issue and is still being researched to

this day, with high hopes cannabis can overcome the virus. The worst part about HLVd is that it cannot be detected just by looking, and will cause plants to grow stunted, brittle stems, reduced trichome production, lower yields and cause chlorosis of the leaf tissue.

Clones won’t root

There will be times when no matter what you do, you will not be able to get your clones to root. It can happen for several reasons, but when it does, not only can set you back with plant count and crop rotation, it can also be a heavyweight confidence breaker, resorting you to go back to seeds. You should always try and have back up stock in case of an emergency, however for those who cannot call in a table full of clones so easily, then failed clones really can be a worse case scenario.

What time of year can I plant clones outside?

Planting photoperiod and autoflowering seeds outside is one of the most common ways to grow

To answer this question, you will need to ask yourself if you can even source clones in the first place, are you able to root clones from your own home, and are you confident enough to rely on taking clones to keep your crop rotation flowing? At the same time, you do not necessarily need to pick clones over seeds or vice versa, and remember that every clone out there, would have come from a seed in the first place.

How practical is growing with seeds or clones, should really be the question, and do you have back up genetics in the event that something goes wrong in the grow room? My advice to you would be to grow from seed and learn to take clones of the best plants you come across. Overtime, you can keep a genetic copy and always have something to revert to at a later date, or if you have your heart set on breeding.

My conclusion

I personally am a big fan of regular seeds and doing extensive phenotype hunts. That being

The same clones when grown closely together and flowered.

cannabis, however did you know that you can plant clones outside also? You will need to wait until you are closer to mid-August and early September, but can knock out a top quality crop. This is often what growers in south Spain will do, to avoid the heat wave and flower clones when the temperature is much cooler and more forgiving.

So, which is better for a beginner grower, seeds or clones?

said, I also have my fair share of favourite clones that have been tried and tested with excellent results.

The more options you have as a grower, the better, but always beware of the risk to reward factor when outsourcing cannabis clones from other growers. Other than that, good luck learning about growing from seed and clones, and seeing which works best and why!

White fly These clones will be used for a large scale Sea of Green (SOG) indoor set up.

International Report


America’s best weed comes from the West Coast, which is also where the green wave of legalisation began. It took a while for that wave to reach the East Coast, but even there the genie is now out of the bottle. In autumn of 2023, Soft Secrets’ reporter Derrick Bergman travelled to the three major cities on the East Coast, Philadelphia, Washington DC, and New York, to find out about the state of legalisation on the East Coast.

Around the world, American cannabis culture is associated with the West Coast , California in particular. Cali weed was a household name long before Dutch coffee shops and cannabis clubs in Spain and the UK started selling it. The fact that the West Coast trumps the east coast has to do with the climate being much more suitable for cannabis, but also with the freedom-loving mentality of the wild west.

However, cannabis, of course, is also consumed on the other side of the country. A lot more, in fact, as the East Coast is home to more than twice as many people as the West Coast. It took until July 2018 for legal recreational cannabis sales to begin in the first East Coast state. Massachusetts, with its capital Boston, had the first and today by far the most dispensaries (see box) of all East Coast states. Maine followed in October 2020, and you can currently legally buy cannabis for adult use in eight of the 14 East Coast states. Over 40 per cent of the 118 million East Coast residents live in legal states. New Jersey Governor Phil Murphy signed three laws legalising cannabis in February 2021. The first legal weed was sold over a year later, on 21 April 2022, which is indeed one day after 420. ‘Today marks the beginning of an entirely new industry for our state,’ tweeted Murphy, ‘and a historic moment in our work for social and economic justice’.

Medicinal cannabis has already been legal in New Jersey since 2010, which is having a major impact on the rollout of recreational use legalisation. Most medicinal dispensaries have also started selling adult use cannabis. These companies obviously have a competitive edge; the shops are already there. This applies to most East Coast states: legalising medical first, followed by recreational.

The base for my East Coast cannabis tour is the historic town of Doylestown in Pennsylvania.

There is an ATM in the entrance area; as cannabis is banned at the federal level, banks boycott the cannabis industry, and everything is done in cash by necessity. On touchscreen screens, you

Medicinal cannabis is legal in this state, but adult use isn’t yet. So we drove to New Jersey for my first visit to a US dispensary. Zen Leaf in Lawrence is the closest, so I’ll start there. The shop is located near college town Princeton, on the highway between New York and Philadelphia. A large, rather anonymous-looking building with ample parking out back.

Before I’m even able to take photo, a security guard comes to tell me I’m not allowed without permission. Inside, a friendly lady explains that photos and interviews must be coordinated

with the communications department of Verano, the parent company of Zen Leaf. Welcome to the world of corporate cannabis. Verano is an MSO, a multi state operator. Active in 13 states, with 95 dispensaries and 12 cultivation and processing facilities, together accounting for over a million square metres of cultivation capacity. A big player.

Big would also be the best way to describe the Zen Leaf shop in Lawrence. The reception area where your ID is checked is big, the retail space even bigger. The product range, too, is... big.

can see exactly what is on sale and what offers are available. That information can be found on their website too: locations/lawrence/recreational-menu/.

I scroll and calculate, consider my options, and end up buying 3.5 grams, an eighth ounce, Mend OG by Find. That’s a brand name of Curaleaf, the largest cannabis company in the world in terms of turnover. “Everyday Cannabis Flower” it says on the package. My second purchase is 3.5 grams of Sweet Apple Crumble Pie of Verano, the house brand. Reserve Indica,

One of Verano’s 12 cultivation facilities (Photo: Verano). Text & photography: Derrick Bergman / Gonzo Media

hand-trimmed. As a new customer, I get a discount, paying just under 13 euros per gram when converted. New Jersey and Lawrence state taxes are listed separately on the receipt. Of the $96 I pay, $5.90 goes to the state and $1.78 to the city, eight per cent altogether. The receipt also carries a warning: Not valid outside the State of New Jersey.

Half an hour later, I break the law by taking the two packages back to Pennsylvania. The Mend OG, the cheaper of the two, proves to be of above-average quality. While the black glass Verano package is prettier and better for the weed than the white plastic package from Find, the weed inside is not as good. The Find package carries the harvest date; my Mend OG was harvested on 7 August, 77 days ago.

During and after my stay in the US, I email with several Verano staff members about an interview. Only just before my deadline do I receive a


Bondy: ‘At all our shop locations, we aim to offer a wide range of products to meet the needs of each individual guest. We have a growing portfolio of national brands, including Verano, Savvy, Müv, Encore, Holy Union, On the Rocks, Avexia and Bits, alongside local brands, including CT Pharma, Connecticut’s most popular brand. We are vertically integrated in 11 of the 13 states in which we operate and we sell our brands to consumers in those states. We also offer products from other cannabis companies

industry’s growth potential. Although cannabis is one of the country’s fastest-growing job drivers, businesses are forced to conduct unsafe cash-only transactions and denied access to essential banking facilities. The SAFER Banking Act would allow cannabis businesses to benefit immensely from access to financial services. We are also closely following developments around the Department of Health’s recommendation to the DEA to move cannabis to List 3 of the Controlled Substances Act. That too would pave the way for progress, including banking services and criminal justice reform around cannabis.’

I spend a few days in Philadelphia. I regularly smell and smoke weed on the streets of the city centre. Crossing the bridge over the Delaware River brings you to legal New Jersey. In Philly, I see a billboard of a legal weed shop across the river. Such billboards, however, are banned in New Jersey itself. Even in the capital Washington DC, cannabis already seems to be completely legal. This is true, but regulation of the sale of adult use cannabis is not possible, due to a so-called rider, an addendum to the local cannabis law.

Dispensaries are therefore not allowed to sell cannabis to people without a doctor’s prescription, but they may however give it away. Not only small amounts, either, but up to ten ounces, over 280 grams. So if you buy something like a magazine at the dispensaries in Washington for sixty dollars, you receive 3.5 grams of cannabis with it for free.

I don’t try out this curious tolerance arrangement because I still have plenty of weed. As the sun shines exuberantly, I thoroughly enjoy my joint, sitting on the grass of the famous Mall, on which lie the Capitol, the White House, and the Lincoln Memorial. New York, the capital of the world, is the next destination on my East Coast cannabis tour. The disastrous legalisation there has led to an explosion of unlicensed cannabis shops. There are literally thousands of them. Meanwhile, licensed cannabis growers are in despair.

You can read all about it in East Coast Cannabis Part 2: New 1York.


The Asbury Park Press inventoried the cannabis menus of all New Jersey dispensaries. The cheapest adult use cannabis is the Goodfather by Brute’s Roots in Egg Harbor Township, an independent shop and grower. 3.5 grams costs $23, which comes to six euros per gram. It’s a bit cheaper with a medical card; it has no added tax. Although prices are slowly falling, New Jersey still has the most expensive weed on the East Coast, according to the Asbury Park Press. The average price per gram in the state of Massachusetts is just $5.55, or five euros. Data on the prices of cannabis on the East Coast show a clear trend: the more shops, the cheaper the weed.

reply by senior communications manager Grace Bondy. Flower is king, she confirms: cannabis remains most popular with consumers. But interest in vape products like cartridges and concentrates as well as edibles is on the rise.


Bondy: ‘If states legalise recreational cannabis, there may be an oversupply in the market, which has affected prices in some states. Downward pressure on prices is starting to stabilise and we remain committed to offering high-quality brands at reasonable prices amid stiff competition. In addition, Verano has developed and launched products that are widely accessible at different price levels, such as Savvy, with a larger size for a lower price. Or Verano Reserve, sold at premium prices because we use the highest quality cannabis flowers we grow for it.’

in our Zen Leaf-shops, and our products are in turn sold in over 700 external dispensaries.’


Bondy: ‘As a legal cannabis company, Verano must comply with an unprecedented level of regulation. This requires a strict set of protocols that we follow when running our business. Each state has different rules and regulations, and we work closely with all legislators to make sure we follow all laws and regulations.’


Bondy: ‘While the popularity and acceptance of cannabis is increasing every year, among both Republicans and Democrats, outdated federal government policies continue to hinder the


Find’s Mend OG, one of Curaleaf’s brands (Photo: Derrick Bergman). Soft Secrets smokes a bong in Doylestown, Pennsylvania (Photo: Ciel Bergman). The Zen Leaf shop in Lawrence, New Jersey (Photo: Verano).
State: Number of inhabitants: Number of dispensaries*: Start of sales: Massachusetts 6.9 million 400 July 2018 Maine 1.38 million 124 October 2020 New Jersey 9.26 million 29 April 2022 New York State 19.6 million 27 December 2022 Rhode Island 1.09 million 6 December 2022 Connecticut 3.62 million 23 January 2023 Maryland 6.16 million 97 July 2023 Delaware 1.01 million 0 late 2024, 2025 *: With sales of both medicinal and adult-use cannabis or adult-use cannabis only

Growing Cannabis Outdoors and Heat Stress

As we get closer to the summer months, the days will begin to get brighter and the temperatures will rise. It is during this time that cannabis plants growing outside can experience heat stress. As a result, plants can become seriously affected, causing a drop in yield as well as flower quality. In this article, I explain about heat stress, its causes, potential solutions, signs to look out for, watering advise, my top tips and more.

What causes heat stress in cannabis plants?

Cannabis plants will transpire water through their foliage, and depending on how much heat or pressure they have to transpire, this can cause stress. Heat stress can occur from hot temperatures to dry winds that cause the foliage to become fragile, dry and lose vigor.

Not only will the plants themselves show signs of stress, but the root zone and growing medium will also be experiencing issues such as hot plastic pots, dry soil, crispy roots and an imbalance in microbial life in the soil. Heat stress can be a serious issue for beginner growers if some type of solution is not created to help plants.

Temperatures exceeding 28 degrees and hot and harsh winds can be the number one culprit for cannabis plants suffering from heat stress. Unexpected heat waves can often cause a spike in daytime temperatures, which can increase by up to 10 degrees Celsius in some cases within a day.

The various signs of heat stress

If this year is your first attempt at growing outdoors, then there will be a number of things that can go wrong. Below are some of the different issues that can arise and how to identify them when they do happen.

Hot pots and a dry growing medium

This is the case when growing in black plastic pots, that receive direct sunlight all day. Hot terrace floors can also heat up pots, causing the root zone temperatures to become too high, leading to the soil drying out.

Foliage begins to curl inwards

You may not notice the leaves curling inwards at first; however, the worse the heat stress becomes,

the leaves can begin to change shape. Do as much as possible to avoid sunlight. Curling leaves are usually a sign of wind burn or the fact that the air is too dry and moving too quickly around the plants.

Leaves appear to wilt or droop down

Another more obvious sign that your plants are not happy and stressed out due to the heat is the fact that the leaves will begin to wilt or droop downwards. It will be during the later part of the day, when the sun is setting, when you will notice the plants begin to point upwards and bounce back to normal health.

Microbes and fungi struggle to survive

Not only will the beneficial bacteria and fungi not survive, but hot soil and organic cultures will become breeding grounds for bad bacteria and pathogens. It is essential to have a population of beneficial microorganisms and fungi to combat plant disease.

E.C problems will occur, affecting nutrient uptake

When your outdoor cannabis plants are too hot, they will not be able to uptake nutrients the same way, which can lead to a nutrient deficiency occurring. In a worst case scenario, the plants will display signs of nutrient toxicity, meaning that your EC levels are too high. Either way, both problems will be E.C related.

Yields and bud size will be significantly smaller

If you are looking at your plants this year and wondering why the buds are not as fat as last year, then there is a good probability that heat stress has taken its toll. Heat stress can lead to a reduced harvest yield and produce smaller-sized buds.

Resin and terpene production will be negatively affected

Combined with smaller yields, another downside to heat-stressed cannabis plants is that the quality of the buds will be below a good standard. The bud structure may be more airy, wispy and with minimal resin production, ultimately affecting the aroma, taste and effect.

What should I do with the damaged leaves?

First of all, there is nothing pretty about a cannabis plant that is experiencing heat stress, especially if the problem has become severe. There is nothing you can really do when the foliage becomes crispy, dry and lifeless, apart from carefully cutting it away and discarding it into your compost pile.

What about heat stressed buds that are mouldy and soft?

One problem that can occur due to excessive hot temperatures, high humidity levels and little fresh air, is moulding buds. You may notice your ones compact and hard nugs have become soft and feel like candy floss to touch.

Alarm bells will be ringing and it is just a matter of time until the entire plants are affected.

In the event you notice some buds have become infected, then carefully cut them away and throw the buds away. Fresh air and plenty of oxygen around the buds will allow the other mould free buds to continue flowering with no issues, however be extra vigilant during the flowering period.

A large field of outdoor plants growing above 28 degrees Celsius. A perfect example of how heat stress has caused E.C levels to spike.
With Stoney Tark

5 ways to combat heat stress outdoors


• Shading nets are easy to make, and you can customize the shape.

• You only need to use shading nets during the hottest parts of the day

• The mesh size of the net will determine how much light is allowed on the plants.


• Polytunnels are made from bamboo cane, plastic pipe and polystyrene sheet.

• An excellent way to protect plants from high U.V levels and heavy winds

• You can make your own polytunnel to the size and shape of your choosing.


• Greenhouses are solid, well-built and will last for years.

• It will protect your plants from warm winds and high U.V levels.

• Small greenhouses are not expensive and work great.


Moving the plants to a shaded area during the 12-4pm will be beneficial.

• Plants will be much cooler and can grow without being too hot.

• Pots will remain cool during the hottest parts of the day.


Covering your plants from the wind using sheets or netting works well. Growers in mountainous areas will experience harsh and dry winds.

• Windbreakers can help prevent wind burn and dry out the foliage.

So, when is the best time to water my outdoors cannabis plants?

Naturally we may assume that the hotter it is in the day, then the better the timing to water. This is actually the opposite and will cause cannabis plants to transpire the available water and nutrients much faster than if the temperatures were cooler. I have seen many growers spraying their outdoor plants with cold hose water, which often ends up in the plants becoming burnt during the hottest days of summer.

So, when is the right time to water, and exactly how much water should you give them? Is the best tap water, from the hose, bottled water or reverse osmosis? This will be down to what is most practical, cost effective and convenient for you as a grower.

• Water the soil when the temperatures are the coolest in the morning and evening.

• Foliar spraying your outdoor plants has many benefits and helps plants retain water.

• Avoid using cold water as this can shock the roots of the plants.

• Make a light foliar spray solution and avoid any large sized particles.

• Soft water will be better to use than hard water if you have the choice.

• Reverse osmosis water is a great way to lower the E.C level of hard water.

5 top tips for protecting your plants this summer


White pots outdoors is a brilliant way to ensure your growing medium and root zone will remain cool, even when the sun is shining on the pots. White felt pots will be your best bet to allow air to pass through the pots, keeping an optimal temperature for the roots and soil food web. Black pots will absorb the sun and cause large sized containers to become very warm.


Terraces and patio floors can become really hot during summer, which means that any plant pots on them will also experience the heat. One of the easiest ways to solve this problem is to raise your plant pots off the floor, and let them sit on a wooden pallet or brick tiles. Wooden pallets are perfect for mounting plant pots on top off and will stay cool no matter what.


Shaded areas in the garden are ideal for seedlings, and letting cannabis plants grow during the vegetative stage, without becoming too stressed. Even though it may sound counterproductive to keep the plants in the shade when it’s prime sunshine, your plants will thank you for it when it comes to harvest time. Seedlings and immature plants will prefer the shade, especially if they have not established a prolific root zone as yet.


One of the best ways to keep plants happy and healthy over the hot summer months, is to build a cage that is covered with shaded net. I personally use them to keep seedlings and clones inside, and they are also wonderful for small breeding projects and keeping your garden private from close by neighbors. You can make you cage from bamboo and net setting you back 10-20 euros for all the materials.


If you find that your pots are taking a beating from the sun, and the soil has become dry and dusty, then you can always add some fresh compost, worm castings and coco coir. When applied as a top dress / mulch layer, the water around the root zone will retain for longer as well as the soil food web increasing in carbon organic inputs. Inoculating with beneficial bacteria, mycorrhizal fungi and Trichoderma are excellent ways to help your plants survive the most challenging of days.

My conclusion

At the end of the day, there is only so much we can do about hot temperatures and unexpected heat waves, however there are plenty of preventatives you can put in place, in the event that temperatures dramatically increase.

Watering your plants when around the same time as sunrise and sunset each day, will produce the best results and also allow your plants to access nutrients with no issues.

Good luck growing some amazing plants outdoors in 2024, and do your best to protect them from those harsh winds and brutally hot summer days!

This auto flowering strain needs watering after suffering from heat stress.




In the thrilling world of Cannabis, innovation and the constant search for perfection are key drivers of the renowned seed bank’s breeders, which always encourage them to push their creativity to new limits. This time we dive into the fascinating universe of a new 6th-generation autoflowering strain released by Sweet Seeds®, a genetic jewel born from the wisdom of hybridisation experts who carried out a meticulous selection of strains. The name says it all, Jealousy Z XL Auto® (SWS108), an ideal choice for your crops in 2024.

This new strain is born from the fusion between Jealousy, an iconic Californian strain, and Sweet Mandarine Zkittlez XL Auto® (SWS102), a great plant much acclaimed by cannabis enthusiasts worldwide. The result is a special auto variant combining the intense aromas and flavours of the best Diesel genetics with appealing fruity notes.

Let’s see what surprises this magnificent strain from Sweet Seeds® has in store for us.


Growers and collectors of genetics are always looking for specific aromas and flavours in each new strain grown. As far as I am concerned, I tend to be attracted by original aromas that make the uniqueness of a plant. This is why, my dear friends, as growers of this

beloved plant we can shamelessly compare ourselves to haute-cuisine chefs or sommeliers, or even oenologists.

With this new strain from Sweet Seeds®, a sensory journey starts soon after flowering, when the plant releases its outstanding deep aroma and distinct fruity character. As flowering progresses, its rich terpene profile reveals spicy and sour-sweet notes that unmistakably call to mind the Sour Diesel plant. This olfactory treat is a clear invitation to explore the plant’s charms. But the aromatic symphony does not stop there; orange notes dance through the composition against a woody and earthy background.

This auto strain is well-balanced and displays its majesty from the earliest stages of growth. Strong stems and sturdy branches support magnificent buds. As a sign of its prime


18 Cultivation Jaypp

genetics, these buds take on purple hues in some individuals and a dense layer of aromatic trichomes tops up this performance at the end of flowering.


The cannabis journey offered by Jealousy Z XL Auto® is not limited to the senses. Its THC content, ranging from 20% to 25%, ensures a potent and balanced effect. The perfect combination of physical relaxation, happiness and stimulation of concentration and creativity makes this 6th generation autoflowering strain an all-round experience.

A perfect genetic combination – with 56.3% indica genetics, 43.3% sativa and a hint of ruderalis (0.4%) – makes this strain potent and fit for the needs of both experienced and inexperienced growers. With a size of 50 to 130 centime-

at a party or perhaps watching the sunrise with your most beloved person or pet.

This versatile strain tends to whet appetite and you should not forget to have some munchies ready, e.g. a fruit, when its effects start to wear off.


For those looking for plentiful crops, Jealousy Z XL Auto® is an outstanding choice as both a low-maintenance and high-yielding strain. You will only need to prune it lightly and the few leaves you remove can be ideally used for high quality extracts or, perhaps, for making a cannabis butter to enhance the flavour and fragrance of your meals.

Indoors, yield can range between 450 and 650 g per square metre in optimal conditions. In SOG crops, it is essential to use a powerful air

tres, this new autoflowering strain from Sweet Seeds® is also suitable for all environments and growing spaces.

Its unquestioned charm lies in its spectacular appearance as well as its effects: relaxation merges with joy, leading to an uplifting and creative experience. These effects may be intense right after consumption, but then fade to make way to a much kinder and more pleasant feeling. Try it in a sunny afternoon, while taking a walk in the woods, or in a meeting with friends,


grams per plant, and grow to heights over a metre with little effort. This plant is perfect to start the season as it is very resistant to climate changes. Best of all, in both cases, you will harvest in a record time of only 8 weeks from germination.

extractor due to the density of buds and its large size. Low-stress training (LST) and light pruning of the plant will help focus its energy in the main flowers.

This plant is particularly fit for soil crops, which greatly enhance its fruity aromas. However other highly recommended growing methods will enhance all its qualities, such as the use of a coco coir substrate, hydroponics, recirculating deep water culture (RDWC), etc. Outdoors, the plants yield between 50 and 200

To sum up, Jealousy Z XL Auto® is no ordinary strain; it is the result of the dedication and vision of breeders attempting to achieve perfection in their indefatigable work. Its genetic origin, intoxicating aromas, captivating effects and outstanding yields place it at the top of cannabis evolution.

With its extraordinary qualities, this strain is the result of a creative use of art and science in cannabis cultivation, driving consumers’ pleasure to new limits. I invite you to visit the

Sweet Seeds® website for this and other cannabis wonders.

Sweet harvests!



With Stoney Tark


Growing top-shelf cannabis is easier said than done, and it can even take years before you start growing some high-grade grade. As a beginner grower, having an awareness of the different elements of the indoor grow room equation will give you an advantage when preparing in advance. In this article, I highlight the different ways to help fine-tune your indoor growing game and to allow you to hit the road running.

1) The right lighting

When I say the right lighting, this does necessarily mean to have the highest powered and newest technology running in your grow room. If anything, it just means to work with high intensity light such as high pressure sodium, metal halide and high quality LED lights. Avoid CFL and low powered cheap made LED lights, and if you can use 600w of power or more for the best results.

CFL grow lights are great for seedling and clones, but not for flower production.

• 400w high pressure sodium lights will not be intense enough to grow top quality.

• High-end LEDs can produce some amazing buds and keep growing rooms cooler.

• Avoid cheap LED manufacturers and also do your research about P.A.R and PPFD.

2) Consistent temperatures

Cannabis plants love it when the temperatures are as close to 24 degrees as possible. When the lights are off each day, there should be a drop of around 4-6 degrees Celsius, meaning your lights off temperature will be 18–20 degrees. Over the years, one thing I have learned

is that cannabis prefers consistency, and that is certainly the case with temperature. Cold grow rooms and heat stress will both negatively impact plant growth and bud quality.

• Cannabis plants below 16 degrees Celsius will begin to grow slowly and wilt.

• Adding a heater inside cold grow rooms can quickly solve low temperature issues.

• Temperature controllers can connect to fans, heaters, humidifiers and dehumidifiers.

• Unless you are using CO2, then there is no reason to exceed 24 degrees Celsius.

3) Humidity levels

When the goal is to grow fist-sized buds that are dense and carry some weight, you will

always run the risk of encouraging mold. High humidity levels are the number one culprit for mold, and when combined with high temperatures, it can take a short amount of time before the buds become affected. The best way to control your humidity is with either a humidifier to add moisture into the grow room, or to use a dehumidifier to remove moisture.

• Humidity levels can be most difficult to control during the hottest parts of the year.

• A small humidifier and fan can easily fix humidity related issues in dry rooms.

• Dehumidifiers work great when it is winter time and the weather is cold and wet.

4) Fresh air currents

How much fresh air there is moving around

the plants and grow space is essential, to plant health, growth and flower production. The grow room should have a fresh and slightly warm feeling, with cold air blowing around while the hot air from the lights is being sucked out using the carbon filter and extractor. One of my favourite ways to provide lots of fresh air is to use oscillating fans situated at different heights from each other while turning at different times.

• Placing oscillating fans on the floor, middle of the tent and top parts is highly effective.

• You can use two or three smaller sized oscillating fans rather than one large sized one.

• Carbon dioxide present in the air will be quickly absorbed with the plant leaves.

• Fresh, cool air is essential during the final stages of flowering, to prevent pathogens.

This grower uses LEDs to keep the grow room warm.

• Carbon filters can become affected and not work properly if the extraction is not good.

7) E.C, pH and nutrient solution

It is very important to make sure that the pH and E.C levels of the nutrients are within the sweet zone, depending on if growing with organic or hydroponic methods. Using a digital E.C and pH pen every time you make a nutrient solution will allow you to provide a well-balanced diet without the concern of under- or over-feeding your crop, ensuring optimal nutrient availability and health.

• Using a digital pen is the easiest, fastest and most practical way to record the data.

• Organic cannabis requires a pH level of 5.5–7,0, and hydro requires 5.5–6.5.

• Plants will low E.C levels will show signs of nutrient deficiency and need more food.

8) What about carbon dioxide?

weeks can accelerate the flushing stage.

• Your plants will produce a multitude of colours from yellow, purple, pink and red.

11) How do you dry your plants?

I have found over the years that how you dry your plants out makes a massive difference to whether the flower is coffee shop material or if it comes out airy, light weight, and crispy dry. A dry room should have plenty of space inside and be temperature controlled, so the plants are able to slowly dry in an environment that is 15 degrees Celsius and 50% relative humidity. There is absolutely no point in growing high-grade buds using the best genetics only to speed-dry them, causing the flowers to not taste, smell or burn well.

• There should not be a fan blowing directly at the hanging plants, as this will speed dry.

• Drying can take between 10 and 14 days, and the buds will make a clear, audible snap sound.

5) Healthy white roots

We may only see what is going on about soil level, but once you take a look inside, you will find this is where all the magic happens. One of the main causes of stunted plant growth or a disappointing flower harvest is due to the health and quality of the roots. The easiest way to check is to turn the pot upside down, and allow the roots to become exposed. If the roots are shiny white, fury and have a fish bone structure then you have nothing to worry about, however be aware that brown and yellow roots are a sign of pathogens.

• Microbes and fungi can significantly increase root mass, enhancing nutrient availability.

• Enzymes will wash the roots and make sure any organic matter is broken down.

• Brown roots can be treated with hydrogen peroxide and inoculated with microbes.

6) Extraction on point

Your extractor is responsible for pulling air through the grow space to do so, at a rate where stagnant air is removed and there is a constant cycle of fresh air. It does not matter if you have converted a bedroom cupboard or are working with a 2-meter by 2 meter tent, the extraction is one the keys to success. When your grow room is consistent, exchanging fresh air from an outside source, the temperature and humidity levels will be far easier to manage, and the overall bud quality will be top-notch.

• Extractors can begin to lose power and reduce in efficacy after a year’s worth of grows.

• Grow rooms with little air being exhausted will cause temperatures and humidity to build.

Supplementing indoor grow rooms with carbon dioxide has proven to be a highly effective way to increase bud size and final yields. Indoors, it is possible to provide carbon dioxide levels between 1000-1500 ppm during the growing and flowering period. Be careful as hot grow room combined with high moisture levels will encourage mold and powdery mildew to infect the plants.

• Outside, carbon dioxide levels are closer to 400 ppm, and indoors can be much higher.

• Cannabis plants can rapidly use CO2, resulting in superior yields.

• CO2 should only be used 60 minutes after the lights have been turned on.

9) Organic compost tea

If you are a fan of growing cannabis using soil and organic amendments and inputs, then why not consider making organic compost tea? Basically, organic teas are made by brewing an organic substrate (such as compost, worm castings or bat guano) in water with an air stone and pump. After 24 hours in the water, the microbe and bacteria count will be in the billions, making the compost tea not only rich in organic nutrients, but also inoculated to supercharge the soil.

• There are different teas that can be used during the grow and flower stage.

• Organic compost teas are an excellent way to regenerate and inoculate old soil.

• Terpenes and taste will be enhanced when plants are given compost teas.

10) Flushing period

The two main reasons why there is a need to flush cannabis plants are to wash away any undissolved nutrients that reside in the growing substrate, and the other is to encourage the plant to use up any internal reserve nutrients. In my opinion, when performed correctly over a 14-day cycle using only plain water or an enzyme solution, flushing can significantly enhance the flavour and smoking experience.

• Using enzymes and water for the final 2

flawless look, but you can also collect the trimmed leaves for dry sift or water hash. Try not to rush the trimming stage once harvested, and the extra time and effort you put in now will go much further down the line.

Small and sharp scissors will produce the best-looking buds and the cleanest finish. Buds that are wispy or not worth trimming should be discarded in the trim pile.

13) Curing the buds in jars

You have officially reached the end of your harvest, and now the buds are fully dry, and trimmed to magazine quality, you can now put them in curing jars and label them. I have met smokers and growers over the years who believe cured buds are superior and only get better with time, while others are not fans of older stored flowers and prefer a fresher batch of dried buds that has not been cured. As far as storing them goes, curing your buds will certainly preserve them far better than a

12) The trim


The way the flowers are trimmed can be all it takes to make your flowers either look incredible with bag appeal through the roof, or the flowers can look scruffy, leafy and not up to standard compared to everyone else’s nugs. Trimming your buds should be a pride-filled experience, and carefully cutting away every little leaf possible will not only give your buds a

plastic bag, and it will allow you to systematically remove the buds for 10 minutes per day to cure them.

• Label the jars with the name and date the flowers went inside the jars as a reference.

• Fill the jars 75% full of buds, allowing plenty of space and air. Never fill the jars too high.

• Keep your jars or tubs out of sunlight and somewhere dark and cool.

Keep your jars or tubs out of sunlight and somewhere dark and cool. An example of a plant suffering from nutrient issues.

Grow with Mr. José


Organic or Mineral Fertilization?

When the discussion about fertilizing cannabis starts, growers split into two groups. Some argue that organic cultivation is the only correct and natural way, which additionally leads to better taste. The other group highlights richer harvests and the easier usage of mineral fertilizers. Let’s explore the advantages and disadvantages of both types of plant nutrition.

Many people claim that organic cultivation is natural and that fertilizing plants with mineral fertilizers is dealing with unhealthy chemicals. However, it’s important to realize that minerals are also naturally occurring inorganic chemical compounds. The first plants that appeared on Earth were reliant solely on mineral nutrition because organic matter was not yet available. Simplified, it can be said that only when the first plant died could the first organic fertilizer be created.

Advocates of mineral fertilizers can thus score a point. The oldest method of plant nutrition is mineral fertilization! But no, we won’t be scoring today. I really do not want this article to give the impression that I am choosing the better and more natural method of plant nutrition. However, I do want to help demolish some myths that are deeply rooted among growers. And to free the mineral method of nutrition from the label of being harmful and damaging to the environment is a good start.


It might seem like I am advocating for mineral fertilizers, but that is not the case. I alternate between both types of fertilizers depending

on my cultivation goals, which I will discuss later. For now, I want to focus on how plants absorb nutrients. In the vast majority of cases, plants absorb nutrients in mineral form. Even if you fertilize your plants with organic fertilizers, a process called mineralization must occur.

For example, when you fertilize plants with cow manure, they cannot immediately extract nutrients from it. Only after mixing with the soil and coming into contact with soil microorganisms does the process begin, where organic matter is converted into mineral elements.

Soil microorganisms break down the manure into phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium, and other essential nutrients that plants can absorb through their roots. The same process must occur after the application of most common organic fertilizers. The rate of mineralization depends on factors including temperature, acidity, or the oxygen content in the soil.

You might ask, why should we then provide organic fertilizers to plants when they ultimately need mineral nutrition? There are several reasons. Although I mentioned mineral nutrition as the primary source of nutrients initially, in the wild, organic cultivation is a completely natural process today.

It improves, for example, soil structure, and organic fertilizers have a long-lasting effect because mineralization occurs gradually. Organic matter in the soil does not cause problems like an excessive content of minerals, which can lead to worse living conditions for beneficial microorganisms and cause various difficulties for plants.


People who understand organic cultivation often repeat that with this method, you are not feeding the plants but the microorganisms responsible for mineralization. At the same time, you must create ideal living conditions for them. Therefore, it might be useful to know which microorganisms are involved in mineralization. Key players in this process are various types of bacteria.

Some of these are capable of decomposing organic compounds, such as organic acids and carbohydrates, and converting them into inorganic compounds, such as nitrates,

ammonium ions, and phosphates, which are then available to the plants. Another important participant in the principle of organic nutrition are mycorrhizal fungi. The natural symbiotic relationship between the roots of higher plants, including cannabis, and soil fungi is referred to as mycorrhizal symbiosis. The fibers of mycorrhizal fungi, known as hyphae, reside on the roots of plants and grow into the surrounding soil, forming an extensive network that ensures the plant’s contact with a much wider soil environment.

Plants can then be better supplied with phosphorus, nitrogen, microelements, and water. This naturally reflects positively on the overall growth, number of flowers, health

of supplementary lighting at a wavelength of 420 nm did not yield any positive
When microorganisms are active, you can achieve a rich harvest with organic fertilizers. This is Auto Blackberry Kush CBD from Dutch Passion.

status, or quality of the production itself. Mycorrhizal fungi do not help the plant for free. In return, they receive sugars needed for their growth from the plant. Mycorrhizal fungi consume up to 20% of the carbon fixed by the plant during photosynthesis. However, you do not have to worry that the plant would miss this carbon. This trade is beneficial for both sides.

Another important component in the process of organic nutrition is saprophytic fungi, such as Trichoderma, which is well known among cannabis growers. Saprophytic fungi are capable of decomposing organic matter, stimulating plant growth, but primarily protecting the plant against fungal pathogens, thus having a biofungicidal effect. Unlike mycorrhizal fungi, saprophytic fungi do not colonize the root. This is an important difference between mycorrhizal and saprophytic fungi.

I could also mention actinomycetes, which are microorganisms that have properties of both bacteria and fungi. Actinomycetes have the ability to decompose organic compounds and produce enzymes that help in the process of mineralization.


When you know that microorganisms are crucial for organic cultivation, you should ask whether there is a sufficient amount of them in the growing medium. When cultivating in

well-fertilized and maintained beds, there is a high likelihood that the soil contains the necessary microorganisms. When growing in pots, it depends on the type of substrate used. Microorganisms generally thrive better in earthy substrates. A common addition to substrates is coconut coir, which is harmless and beneficial. However, some microorganisms do not fare well in pure coconut coir or substrates that contain a majority of it.

You can obtain microorganisms directly from certain organic fertilizers. Generally, microorganisms survive longer in granular or solid fertilizers. Thus, if you have solid or granular fertilizers, the microorganisms in them can last quite a long time. However, you must activate them somehow, usually by mixing them in water or adding them to moist growing media. In liquid fertilizers, beneficial microorganisms are immediately active.

Another way to introduce microorganisms into the growing medium is through inoculation. The market offers a fairly wide range of products containing the necessary mycorrhizal and saprophytic fungi and bacteria. These preparations are applied directly to the soil. It is best to apply mycorrhizal fungi directly to the roots when planting seedlings or to an area where the roots will come into contact with them as quickly as possible.

By applying them to the correct place, a necessary colony of mycorrhizal fungi can form very quickly and evenly, as they can develop concurrently with the root system.

It is advisable to mix saprophytic fungi directly with the substrate to ensure their presence is as uniform as possible throughout. Nutrients will then be decomposed by these fungi throughout the volume of the growing medium, making a larger amount of nutrients available to the plants.


Mineral nutrition is a very fast, precise, and effective way to provide plants with the nutrients they need. With the help of an EC meter, you can relatively easily determine the concentration of mineral nutrients in the root zone.

It is worth noting that the EC meter only shows the amount of mineral nutrients. Organic matter is not conductive, so in organic cultivation, it is not as easy to determine how many nutrients are available in the soil. The EC meter measures only that portion of nutrients that has already undergone the process of mineralization.

I always use organic fertilizers when I grow outdoors and in cases where I am less concerned about yield and standardization of the cultivation process. I always count on having to fine-tune the cultivation procedure with each organic fertilizer first. It requires a bit more work, and I must carefully monitor any signs of nutrient deficiency or excess. Remember, if you are addressing a nutrient

deficiency with organic fertilizers, the effect of your intervention may not be apparent until perhaps a week later, as the repeatedly mentioned process of mineralization must first take place.

I work with mineral fertilizers when I want precise control over nutrition and my goal is to reliably achieve a rich harvest. I use them almost exclusively for indoor cultivation.

They allow me to respond quickly to the needs of the plants. Do not hesitate to use mineral fertilizers as a supplement to your organic fertilizers, especially when there is an acute need to address a deficiency in specific nutritional components, such as calcium or magnesium. You can also use them at the start of cultivation so that the plants have enough nutrients before the organic fertilizers decompose in the soil.

When using mineral fertilizers, be careful not to over-fertilize the plants. Once salts begin to accumulate in the soil, the plant can neither absorb water nor nutrients.

Additionally, all microorganisms will have poorer living conditions. And that is something you do not want, because even with mineral fertilization, some strains, such as Trichoderma, can be very helpful.

I wish you good luck in your cultivation, whether mineral or organic. And don’t forget –the best fertilizer is the gardener’s shadow.

The best fertilizer is the gardener’s shadow : ).


Each and every element, light, air, water, nutrients and substrate must be functioning at 100 percent efficiency. If one element does not perform at 100 percent, all suffer. For example, if air is working at 80 percent, ALL elements suffer and cannot break the 80 percent barrier.


Small garden rooms can be located in an easy-to-access sunroom or windowsill if growing seedlings or clones will move outdoors. Larger garden rooms are typically sited in an out-of-the-way space with little or no traffic. A corner of the basement or a spare bedroom that are not frequented by children, pets and other people, is perfect. Enclosed rooms are easiest to control. The room will need an entrance and exit for ventilation and electric service. A water source and floor drain will add much convenience and lower setup expenses. A door that locks will keep out unwanted people and pests.

Post-harvest drying and processing rooms need electric service and ventilation capabilities.

Grow closets/tents are almost impossible to find in Germany after cannabis cultivation was legalized 1 April 2024. Growers purchased all the grow tents in the country in the first week of April once cannabis was legal. If you live in Germany and want to purchase

Grow tents or closets are a great value for many indoor and outdoor home gardeners. Grow closets are relatively inexpensive and they can be shipped directly to your home. They are freestanding and can be set up in any room in or near the house. When you figure the cost of grow room construction in your home and the cost of a grow closet, the closet usually more economical. You will still need electricity, openings in the room for ventilation in and out. A water source will also save you time and energy. BASICS OF INDOOR GARDENING Light 20% Photoperiod Intensity Color spectrum Air 20% Temperature Humidity CO2 content Water 20% pH EC Oxygen content Temperature Nutrients 20% Composition Purity Substrate 20% Structure Moisture content Air content Windowsills and sunrooms are excellent spaces to start plants that will be moved outdoors. Plants must receive 5 hours of direct sunlight to grow well. A small sunny space is all you need to set small plants so that they can grow big enough to move outdoors.
Remember these five (05) essential variables with the acronym “LAWNS” – Light, Air, Water, Nutrients, Substrate. You must control each of these essentials to harvest a heavy cannabis crop.

a grow tent you must order it from another country or put your name on a waiting list at your local grow store. If you want to start growing today, you will have to construct your own grow room. The good news is that you can find FREE instructions in 11 languages on building your own grow room, big or small in the Cannabis Encyclopedia, https://

Main floor grow rooms are usually plumbed for heating with hot air vents. Some homes may have central air conditioning.

A window in the room provides ready-made opening for air ventilation. Locate main floor grow rooms next to a bathroom, laundry room or kitchen so water source is readily accessible. Always site in the coolest room in home to minimize temperature fluctuations.

Outbuildings, including garages, workshops and barns, not attached to homes may need to be insulated to keep the temperature

containers make great grow rooms and drying rooms. Steel containers are less expensive, but they get hot in direct sunlight and very cold when outdoor temperatures freeze. Burying the container will keep temperatures more consistent but add expense of burying. Aluminum conex containers were used to move perishables and are insulated. Temperatures are easier and less expensive to regulate in an aluminum conex. Both aluminum and steel containers have wooden floors. You can drill holes in the sides and floor to fasten shelves and partitions. Inspect containers before purchasing for holes. Conex containers are easy to sell too.

Basements are my favorite location for a garden room. Temperatures are easy to keep constant in an underground, earth and concrete insulated grow room. Usually equipped with water supply and drainage. In hot climates, a subterranean room may be the only place you are able to grow. The basement must be clean and dry. Dank humidity-laden basements require extra ventilation to expel moist air. Patch all cracks in walls and floor. Paint walls with a waterproof paint so that moisture does not bleed through walls. Premium paints are epoxy-based and manufactured with a fungus inhibitor. A quick internet search for “anti-damp paint” will turn up many options.

constant. The room will need openings for ventilation, a water source and water draining capabilities. Electrical service is essential. A water source will lower the workload. You can grow plants on a trailer and move it out into the sunshine during the day. This is an excellent way to harden-off clones and seedlings that will move outdoors.

Used mobile homes are insulated and inexpensive. They already have electrical service, heating and cooling ducting, and plumbing. Moving an old mobile home requires a Highway Department permit. Contract a professional moving company about moving details. They get the permit, park it where you want, are insured and possess the required truck and special tools for the job. Older models may not comply with local electricity standards. You can gut the inside and assemble grow rooms.

Attic garden rooms are a last resort if no other space is available. Typically, attic rooms are difficult to access and have no piped in water supply or drainage. Attics are usually hot during the summer when sunlight hits the roof and cold during the winter, especially when snow accumulates outside. If you have something to hide, grow in the attic.

This article is supported by the Cannabis Encyclopedia, ¡¡FREE!! in Eleven (11) lanuages – Czech, Dutch, English, French, Italian, Japanese, German, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, and Ukranian at,


Award-Winning cannabis cultivation author Jorge Cervantes teams up with Seedsman for a FREE, comprehensive digital book on home growing.

100-page digital book

270+ color images

Interactive – Searchable

Comprehensive guide to cannabis cultivation


Beginner and advanced growers

Easy-to-follow cultivation examples

8 chapters of cultivation wisdom

Dedicated to increasing cannabis yields

Discover the magic of cannabis!


Chief Scientific Officer, Dr. Gary Yates

Stefan Meyer

Table of Contents

• Cannabis Botany

• Life Cycle of Cannabis

• Cannabis Seeds & Seedlings

• Plan Your Garden

• Grow Room Setup

• Twelve-week Garden

• Harvest, Manicuring, Drying, Curing & Storage

• Diseases, Pests & Problems


Author Marijuana Horticulture.

Legendary Jorge Cervantes, published in eight languages sold over a million copies worldwide.

DOWNLOAD TODAY! WE GROW CANNABIS /JoCerv @jorgecervantesmj @JorgeCervantes Jorge Cervantes Jorge Cervantes @jorgecervantesmj

Cannabis and media

The Death of Bruce Lee

To many of our readers of a certain age Bruce Lee is simply a legend. The world-famous Chinese martial arts actor of the seventees died of brain swelling in July 1973, at the age of just 32. The whole world was in deep shock. How could such a magnificent athlete die so sudden and so young?

It was rumored that the cause of his death was swelling of the brain, caused by eating hashish. After all, Lee had regularly used edible hashish to focus his attention and to treat anxiety and sleep disorders. Nevertheless, anyone who knows a little about cannabis will find it difficult to believe this theory, since there is no lethal dose for hemp resin - even if it is eaten. A study from 2022 now revealed findings that are significantly more credible than the previous

assumption that Bruce Lee succumbed to the consequences of his hashish consumption.

But one thing at a time. Bruce Lee should at least be known to the older generation among us. Even if you haven’t seen any of his films, you at least know the name of an exceptional talent, not only when it comes to film and entertainment, but especially when it comes to the Asian martial arts of Kung Fu and karate. The name Bruce Lee is basically almost synonymous with the sport of Kung Fu. Bruce Lee was also the founder of the self-defense concept Jeet Kune Do, which is still taught worldwide today. The films “Big Boss” and “Fist of Fury” helped him achieve international film fame. Unfortunately Bruce Lee was never able to celebrate his greatest success movie, the legendary “Enter the Dragon”, a Hollywood/Hong Kong co-production. Six days before the movie’s Hong Kong release, tragedy struck and Bruce Lee was dead.

Briefly summarized, Bruce Lee died after taking a drug called Equagesic, a mixture of the sedative and anti-anxiety drug meprobamate and the painkiller aspirin. Lee took these to combat headaches and physical weakness. Meprobamate is a substance from the chemical class of urethanes with an enormous potential for addiction. The drug has long since been withdrawn from the general drug market in many western countries as well as in the USA; in Germany for example it is even subject to the Narcotics Act. So shortly after Lee took this drug, he laid down on his bed and died. All resuscitation attempts were unsuccessful. Doctors initially assumed that it was an allergic reaction to the meprobamate or aspirin, or a combination of both. It was responsible for a massive brain swelling due to edema and that killed Bruce Lee.

The film star’s autopsy ultimately revealed that Bruce Lee had hashish residue in his stomach and intestines, which was then also considered a possible cause of cerebral edema and death. The fact that Lee often shared his passion for edible hashish was then gratefully linked to his death. Of course the political and ideological propaganda against cannabis was in play here as well. But the theory is not plausible on any level.

An investigation by a group of doctors from the Autonomous University in Madrid, Spain, from 2022 looked in detail at the process and the real cause of the movie star’s sudden death. The researchers first summarized all known facts. Shortly before and on the day of his death,

Cerebral edema caused by hashish?

Bruce Lee was already suffering from high fever, weakness, vomiting, loss of consciousness and other symptoms, which clearly indicate a heat stroke. It is believed that this collapse could have been caused by, for example, overheating. Overheating may also have been the cause of the headaches Lee complained of on the day of his death. As the researchers conclude, it could be entirely possible that Bruce Lee died of hyperhydration, ultimately because he drank too much - in connection with overheating, presumably to cool himself down. However, the researchers state that Lee’s lifestyle could have ultimately led to kidney failure too. It was noticeable that Bruce Lee had lost considerable weight in the two months before his death, which was initially attributed to his intensive work. However, contemporary witnesses reported that he ate very little for a long time. Instead of eating - compared to others –he drank excessively, primarily alcoholic drinks and juices, which almost inevitably resulted in a sodium deficiency and an impairment of the kidneys. This made it increasingly difficult for Bruce Lee’s body to balance its water balance in a healthy way.

The study ultimately concludes hypothetically that even though Lee had not acutely consumed a large amount of water at the time of his death, his kidneys had difficulty processing even normal amounts of fluid. So the posthumous diagnosis was kidney failure and not drug use.

This finding, although of course it has to remain on the speculative level, is a shame for all cannabis opponents. But let’s be honest: Even without the new study, we all knew that no one in this world has ever had to lose their life due to the consequences of cannabs consumption. Certainly not Bruce Lee.



Autumn Brands Dutch-Style Flower Farming

Autumn Brands provides hundreds of dispensaries in California with a variety of pesticide-free cannabis flowers and prerolls grown using a unique integrated pest management program and the wisdom of six generations of Dutch-style cut-flower farming.

“We don’t spray anything, not even organic pesticides,” says Hans Brand, who oversees the greenhouses with his son Johnny. The goal at the garden is to meet market demand while also being sustainable, contaminant free, and cost efficient. To control pests, for the last three years the farm has relied on a sparkling clean facility and local beneficial insects that have moved in and made the greenhouses their breeding grounds.

As no-spray cannabis farmers, they search for and develop resistant varieties that thrive in the “sun grown indoor” climate provided in their greenhouses in Carpinteria, California. Year-round high temperatures in this coastal southwestern town range between 70–88°F (21–31°C), with 280 days of sunshine annually and 60–65% relative humidity.

Once Johnny determines that a variety is not hypersensitive to the humid climate, he tests 10 plants, observing each one’s unique growth patterns through three distinct stages. First, he observes how quickly and easily cuttings grow roots. Next, he observes how fast they grow and mature. Finally, he looks for plants that swell quickly and finish with strong and dense trichomes.

The full process takes around six months, and Johnny is constantly searching for new varieties to test and grow. The family has grown in the same greenhouses for more than 27 years, using techniques and knowledge accumulated by his father and grandfather that were passed down to him.

“Growing quality flowers is more than the right [genetics], plants, and technology. It’s a feeling for the flowers. You can’t get it from a book or from a school. It’s in your fingers . . . it’s in your blood,” says Hans.

The Brand family began farming flowers in Holland more than a century ago, and today Johnny carries on the family’s flower-growing tradition as a sixth-generation flower farmer, although he is the first to specialize in cannabis. Johnny grew up in his father’s greenhouses when they were still producing tulips and gerber daisies.

Like other cut-flower farmers in the region, the Brands’ business started declining in the late 1990s after Congress enacted the Andean Trade Preference Act (ATPA), which encouraged South American countries like

Colombia, Peru, and Ecuador to transition coca production to cut flowers. California flower farmers couldn’t compete, and a steady decline in the business continued through the early 2000s, with nearly half the state’s cut-flower farmers out of business by 2012. That’s when the region’s farmers increasingly started to look to producing another kind of flower.

The Brand family began that transition in 2015 under California’s medical cannabis law. At first, Hans was not a cannabis proponent and was skeptical when a

cannabis grower asked to rent space in one of his greenhouses.

It didn’t take long for Hans to recognize the financial opportunity in growing cannabis flowers, and so in partnership with Johnny, daughter Hanna, and partner Autumn Shelton, who had worked with the farm when it was still producing flowers, Autumn Brands was born.

The greenhouses deliver a steady stream of pre-rolled joints and flowers to popular dispensaries in Los Angeles, San Francisco, and other parts of the state where adult-use


retail sales are legal. In order to maintain the quality and product integrity, the garden was designed with the same efficiency as when it produced cut flowers.

“We have developed our systems to be lean and mean. I used to battle over pennies in the flower business, and I am taking the same approach in this business. We don’t throw around hundred dollar bills. We try to be frugal and smart and to keep the overhead low at all times,” Hans says.

Each greenhouse produces six harvests a year of a dozen “mainstay” varieties, including Chocolate Hashberry, Dream Walker, GG #4, Orange Crush, OG Kush, Purple Punch, Shark Shock, Sour Diesel, and Strawberry Banana. The Brands often experiment with other varieties as well, including CBD cultivars such as Blue Dream CBD.

Plants are started as clones and grown hydroponically using a coco coir medium. They are constantly watered through a closed loop system that irrigates 12 times a day with nutrient-adjusted water that is looped and blended with fresh water for the next watering.

Once plants have rooted, they are placed on rolling trays for efficiency. Each tray contains 128 plants that move together on the rollers as needed throughout the greenhouse. Two layers of trellising are placed to support the

plants, once in vegetative and the second time as the plants enter flowering and the buds become heavy.

Autumn Brands does not use supplemental lighting, since it’s so sunny year-round. The greenhouses’ climate is controlled using software, but generally the overnight low in the rooms is 59°F (15°C) and daytime highs are between 80–86°F (27–30°C). Occasionally in the winter, heating is used to keep the rooms from freezing, but the biggest concern is humidity control.

Humidity is maintained in the low 80s at night using climate controllers that measure and adjust the climate based on the current dew point, relative humidity, humidity deficit, temperature, and available light.

Plants are harvested by hand and dried in a large temperature- and humidity-controlled cooler. After drying, the harvest team begins the bucking and trimming process, removing flowers from their stems by hand with extreme care.

Next, plants enter the two-week curing phase, in which they are kept at a low temperature and medium humidity level to help preserve their unique potency and ensure a smooth, flavorful toke.

Then, they are placed in eco-friendly glass jars or rolled into joints.


Soft Secrets is published by Discover Publisher BV

Galvaniweg 11, 5482 TN Schijndel, Netherlands

Telephone: +31(0)73 5498112



Editor: Cliff Cremer

Contributors: Stoney Tark Jorge Cervantes, Ed Rosenthal, Mr. José, Green Born Identity (G.B.I.), TricomaTeam, Tommy L. Gomez, Fabrizio Dentini, Olivier F. and others.

Photography: iStock, Unsplash

Editorial adress:




A word from the publisher:

Soft Secrets is a bi-monthly free magazine which is published in The Netherlands (called Highlife), Germany, France, Italy, Spain, UK, Poland, Czech Republic and Chile. World wide there is a process going on of rela-

tive liberalisation towards the use of cannabis, be it for medicinal or recreational purposes. Several countries legalised cannabis as a way of separating soft and hard drugs, as it has proven to do in Holland. Other countries legalised the use of medicinal cannabis, including the right to grow cannabis plants for one’s own use. The publisher wants to highlight the process of normalisation of cannabis use. This assumes that the publisher does not necessarily agree with everything that appears in articles and advertisements. The publisher therefore distances himself explicitly from published statements or images that might give the impression that an endorsement is being made for the use and/or production of cannabis.

Nothing from this publication may be copied or reproduced in any format without prior permission from the publisher and other copyright holders. The publisher is not responsible for the content and/or point of view of advertisements. The editor takes no responsibility for unsollicited submissions.

The publisher has endeavored to reach all copyright holders of photos and/or images. Those who still believe they are entitled to these rights may contact the publisher.

Next issue out

Colofon Subscribe to our newsletter Scan the QR-code: Index of ads Seedstockers 1 Barney’s Souvenirs 1 RQS 1 The Hemp Shop 1 Barney’s Souvenirs 2 RQS 3 Tree of Life 7 Name Page Green Mystic 7 Atami 11 Amsterdam Seed Center 17 Cervantes 26 Mary Jane Berlin 31 Sweet Seeds 32
August 2 2024

Turn static files into dynamic content formats.

Create a flipbook
Issuu converts static files into: digital portfolios, online yearbooks, online catalogs, digital photo albums and more. Sign up and create your flipbook.