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VOL. 24 NO. 5 • September 2009

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VOL. 24 NO. 5

editor’snote Security and life safety systems rely on sophisticated software, sensors and controls to protect building occupants in emergency situations. Engineered solutions ensure that alarms are triggered, backup and response systems are activated, doors open and lights turn on. On the low-tech flip side, building owners and managers are counting on soap, good manners and an appeal to reason to counter the threat of an influenza outbreak this fall and winter. Common disinfectants are really the only science-based protective measure that can be employed. The rest will depend on management skill to establish maintenance and operating priorities, gain building occupants’ cooperation and, if necessary, carry out responsibilities with a reduced workforce. Our Focus highlights these two themes of technological intervention and common sense in security, safety and risk management. It’s often the vividly horrid outcomes of rare catastrophes that spur public and private sector organizations to assess their own levels of preparedness and invest in some needed backup safety measures. Most people are typically at risk from more mundane mishaps and/or lapses of attention, however, while simple, inexpensive devices and procedures can and do prevent injuries and save lives every day. Potential calamities can cover a spectrum from loss of lives to property damage to business interruption to negative publicity. In all cases, advance planning is the first step to an effective response. Jeremy Paulus outlines three commonly used physical security standards that can provide guidance for assessing threats, identifying vulnerabilities and improving vigilance. Robert Kravitz looks at business continuity plans, with the reminder that every incident will have unique factors that will necessitate flexibility and some spontaneous decision making. Meanwhile, the case study of this spring’s extreme flood threat along Manitoba’s Red River offers a fitting example – as emergency responders, affected property owners and coordinating government agencies drew on past experience, new technology and the assurance of protective infrastructure to deal with water levels that could have created widespread havoc in earlier eras. Elsewhere, we examine the public relations nightmare that pest infestations can cause, the liability risk that escalators pose, and the human element that can undermine the effectiveness of security technology. We’ll provide still more advice about pandemic preparedness in the next issue. Congratulations to this issue’s Feature Building, Gulf Canada Square in Calgary, which recently won the national EARTH Award at BOMEX®, the Building Owners and Managers Association of Canada’s annual conference and exhibition.

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Barbara Carss barbc@mediaedge.ca

VOL. 24 NO. 5 s September 2009

September 2009

Editor-in-Chief

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Contributing Writers BOMA Calgary staff, Ron Harrison, Chuck Howard, Robert Kravitz, Jeremy Paulus, Robert Saxe, Steve Sobel, Joe Wilson Senior Designer

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TEL: (416) 512-8186 •  FAX: (416) 512-8344 Published and printed (eight times yearly as follows: Feb./ Mar., April, May, June/July, Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec/Jan.) by MediaEdge Communications Inc. 5255 Yonge St., Suite 1000, Toronto, Ontario M2N 6P4 (416) 512-8186 Fax: (416) 512-8344 e-mail: info@mediaedge.ca Subscription Rates: Canada: 1 year, $55.10; 2 years, $100.20 Single Copy Sales: Canada: $8 Elsewhere: $12 Outside Canada: US 1 year, $80.70 International $93.50 Reprints: Requests for permission to reprint any portion of this magazine should be sent to info@mediaedge.ca.

Authors: Canadian Property Management Magazine accepts unsolicited query letters and article suggestions. Manufacturers: Those wishing to have their products reviewed should contact the publisher or send information to the attention of the editor. Sworn Statement of Circulation: Available from the publisher upon written request. Although Canadian Property Management makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of the information published, we cannot be held liable for any errors or omissions, however caused. Printed in Canada

Contemplating Contingencies

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CANADA $8.00

Copyright 2009 Canada Post Canadian Publications Mail Sales Product Agreement No. 40063056 ISSN 0834-3357

PHYSICAL SECURITY STANDARDS ESCALATOR HAZARDS PEST INFESTATION PUBLIC INSURANCE ADJUSTERS DATA INTERCEPT GULF CANADA SQUARE 09287_CPM_September_09.indd 1

6 September 2009 | Canadian Property Management

9/30/09 11:20:04 AM


contents

Focus: Security, Safety & Risk Management 14 Escalator Safety: Entrapment hazards pose liability risks. 20 Physical Security Standards: Resource documents offer guidance on security considerations and applications. 23 Security Dispatch: Monitored video and audio feeds can be integrated with alarm systems to increase vigilance and reduce accidental triggers. 24 Pest Infestations: Act quickly to manage the affected area and deal with potential public relations fallout. 27 Safety Sense for Condominiums: Vigilance, regular maintenance, smart design and prudent use of technology and security personnel combine for common sense crime prevention. 28 Insurance Claim Advocacy: The role of public insurance adjusters. 32 Post-disaster Cleanup: Response plans and procedures for unexpected calamities. 36 Manitoba’s Flood Preparedness & Response: Technology provides advance warning and mitigation measures. Planning makes it work. 38 Proposed Security Legislation: Bill C-47, the Technical Assistance for Law Enforcement in the 21st Century Act.

Articles: 12 Feature Building: Gulf Canada Square, Calgary. 40 Roofing Technology: Sloped metal roof retrofits on flat surfaces.

Departments 6 Editor’s note 10 Industry Briefs 41 Advertising index 8 September 2009 | Canadian Property Management


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industrybriefs OTTAWA, REGINA, WINNIPEG DEFY DOWNTOWN OFFICE MARKET TRENDS Office vacancy rates continued to climb in most major Canadian centres in the first half of 2009. Avison Young’s midyear market overview pegged the overall office vacancy rate across 11 surveyed markets at 8.5% as of June 30, up from 6.1% one year earlier. Average rent for downtown class A space has dropped to $22 per square foot from $25 at midyear 2008. Calgary’s market appears particularly volatile when viewed from a multi-year perspective. Downtown office space posted a 7.8% vacancy rate at the end of the second quarter 2009 – up from 0.3% in early 2007. New construction and economic turmoil in the intervening years have combined for today’s numbers. After average absorption of 2.2 million square feet every year for the past five years, 941,000 square feet of space was returned to the market in the first half of 2009. With approximately 7.5 million square feet of space in 25 buildings now under construction across the city, the vacancy rate is projected to surpass 16% in 2010. About 35% of new space coming on to the market has not yet been leased. Meanwhile, sublease space currently exceeds head lease space in the downtown market for the first time in more than 10 years. Toronto’s market faces a similar influx of new space with 20 projects totaling 5.2 million square feet now under construction. Approximately 3.7 million square feet of new office space is slated for downtown, where the vacancy rate stood at 7.6% at mid-year. Across the entire Greater Toronto Area, vacancy rates jumped from 7.2% as 2008 ended to 9.6% six months later. Approximately 2.3 million square feet of space was returned to the market in first half of 2009. The office vacancy rate doubled in downtown Vancouver between June 2008 and 2009, climbing to 5% by the end of this year’s second half. Sublease space tripled in the same period, representing approximately 950,000 square feet of available space at mid-year 2009. Suburban vacancies also hit 9.1% by the end of June 2009, up from 7.2% one year earlier. Montreal’s downtown vacancy rate similarly jumped to 7.3% at mid-year 2009 from 5.2% in June 2008. Elsewhere, 10 September 2009 | Canadian Property Management

Edmonton recorded a 5.9% downtown vacancy rate, up from 4.5% in 2008, while vacancies in downtown Halifax grew to 5.2% from 3.9% one year earlier. Market trends are very different in Regina, which boasts a downtown vacancy rate of 2.3% – slightly lower than the 2.4% level in June 2008. Rental rates are moving upward in response to limited supply and little likelihood of new construction in the current economic climate. This trend is projected to extend into 2010. Ottawa’s downtown office market also bucks prevalent trends with the vacancy rate for Class A space at less than 3%. Suburban vacancies are considerably higher at 10.2%. Winnipeg also experienced dropping downtown vacancies, falling to 4.4% at mid year 2009 from 5.2% in 2008. NEW SURVEY GAUGES REAL ESTATE INDUSTRY CONFIDENCE QUARTERLY The Real Property Association of Canada (REALpac) has launched a quarterly survey to monitor and report real estate executives’ confidence in Canadian financial and real estate markets. “We are confident that the survey will come to be regarded as an indispensable tool and invaluable decision making resource for federal and provincial policy makers, real estate industry participants and others north and south of the border who seek a timely and relevant snapshot of current, future and overall conditions in Canadian real estate markets,” says Michael Brooks, REALpac’s Chief Executive Officer. Findings from the inaugural survey conducted in the first two weeks of July 2009 show little optimism for a quick economic recovery among the 54 leading

industry players who shared their perspectives. They collectively pegged the Canadian Real Estate Sentiment Index at 50 on a scale of 100 – a slightly higher rating than American real estate executives indicated in the comparable Real Estate Roundtable Sentiment Survey, which measures confidence in the United States market. (An index of 100 would demonstrate that all survey respondents believe market conditions are much better today than one year previously and will be much better again one year in the future.) Canadian respondents representing owners and asset managers, financial services providers, building operators and related service providers had no expectations for a market rebound this year. They reported a significant decline in asset values across several sectors including office buildings, retail shopping centres, industrial buildings, hotels, multi-family residential and seniors’ residences compared to one year earlier, albeit with higher quality buildings generally holding value better than B and C buildings. In general, too, Canadian assets have held value better than those in the United States. 31% of respondents believed Canadian real estate values to be much worse in 2009 than one year earlier whereas 59% of the participants in the US survey picked the most negative category to describe falling values in that country. Nearly two thirds of Canadian respondents said access to capital was much worse or somewhat worse in the early months of 2009 than in the comparable period in 2008, although a somewhat comparable number suggest financing will be much or somewhat


industrybriefs more forthcoming in another year. Even so, they predict a slow recovery. “Real estate investors and developers make decisions today based on sentiment about tomorrow so this survey is an important current and leading indicator for our industry,” Brooks observes. The survey is conducted jointly with FLP Advisory Group, which provides advisory services to the real estate and related industries. For more information, see REALpac’s web site at www.realpac.ca. INVESTMENT CONSORTIUM TARGETS UNDER-PERFORMING PROPERTIES Brookfield Asset Management Inc. is leading a new consortium of investors focused on distressed and underperforming properties. The US $4 billion fund will target properties primed for restructuring, with an emphasis on undervalued real estate companies or portfolios in which value can be created. “We believe that the current distressed economic environment and the dislocation both in real estate values and financing availability creates a compelling opportunity to pursue transactions on a global basis where we can utilize our restructuring and operating capabilities,”

says Cyrus Madon, Brookfield’s Senior Managing Partner, Restructuring. In addition to Brookfield, the consortium members include a number of institutional real estate investors, which have each allocated $US $300 million to $1 billion, and bring investing expertise in a range of geographic locales and property types.

Announcements: WESGROUP PROPERTIES Mike Bishop has assumed the role of Vice President, Asset Management w i t h We s g r o u p Properties to oversee the operating and financial performance of the Vancouver-based company’s portfolio of retail, commercial, industrial, residential and health care properties. He has more than 20 years of experience in the real estate industry in all aspects of tenant services, building operations and

financial management, most recently as Director of Asset Management with Westbank Projects Corporation. Mike currently serves as President of the Building Owners and Managers Association (BOMA) of British Columbia and has been a BOMA BC board member for eight years. PRIMARIS RETAIL REIT John R. Morrison has assumed the role of President and Chief Executive Officer of Primaris Retail REIT. He has been actively involved with the REIT since it was launched in 2003, contributing to the operating results of 9.3 million square feet of its portfolio of assets. John has nearly 30 years of experience in commercial real estate, primarily in the shopping centre sector, and has previously served as President, Real Estate Management with Oxford Properties. He has also held executive positions with OMERS Realty Corporation and Campeau Corporation. He is a voting trustee of the International Council of Shopping Centers and Vice Chair of the Urban Land Institute Toronto District Council. zz

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featurebuilding

Sustainability T

EARTH Award Supports Continuous Improvement at Gulf Canada Squa By BOMA Calgary Staff

Photos courtesy of Gulf Canada Square

12 September 2009 | Canadian Property Management

Calgary’s Gulf Canada Square attained an unprecedented nearperfect 96% score as it earned the 2009 EARTH Award from the Building Owners and Managers Association (BOMA) of Calgary earlier this year. This recognizes vision and a long-term view of continued sustainability – an approach that the property managers have emphasized throughout a three-year program to improve building systems and practices. “We have never been afraid to push ourselves to excel,” says Laura Newcombe, GWL Realty Advisors’ Property Manager at Gulf Canada Square (GCS). She and other team members at Gulf Canada Square (GCS), including Property Manager Noreen Music and Operations Manager Glen Wardale, delivered an EARTH Award entry that complied with almost all industry-identified best practices for the commercial real estate sector – ascertained by a panel of industry peers who evaluated performance in Workplace Hazardous Materials Information Systems (WHMIS), Environmental Management, Emergency Response Plans/Preparedness, Solid Non-Hazardous Waste Management, Water and Energy Conservation, Indoor Air Quality, Green Purchasing, Tenant Communication and Employee Health and Safety. “Every building is unique and property managers need to find innovative ways to enhance green real estate practices and reduce costs,” Wardale advises. At GCS, the management team introduced sustainable landscaping using native Alberta plantings with reasonable drought tolerance, which reduces the need for irrigation. Rainwater is collected to supply planters in the seventh floor Atrium and any excess water is stored for future use. Introduction of daytime cleaning has saved 400,000 kilowatt-hours of electricity annually by enabling earlier shutoff of lighting. Windgenerated, green electricity powers GCS’s


featurebuilding

Trendsetter

are The Gulf Canada Square team: Laura Newcombe, Noreen Music, Dave Collins, John Kennedy, Ray McPhee and Glen Wardale.

administrative offices, and some tenants are also adopting the practice. Other innovations are still in their infancy, but show potential for promising results. Management staff sees the EARTH Award as positive reinforcement, demonstrating that small changes can have a big impact on operations. “It’s not always easy being the forerunner,” Newcombe reflects. “It is reaffirming to see a measurable impact in reduced energy consumption and better air quality.” A DYNAMIC LEARNING PROCESS The award’s rigorous standards, which eliminate companies that fail to demonstrate measurable environmental improvements, provide credibility for tenants and in the wider marketplace. The submission process itself became a learning experience and exercise in identifying still more areas for action, while also allowing the management team to work collaboratively and draw on all personnel’s knowledge and expertise. “We a s s e m b l e d a t e a m a n d empowered each individual to be responsible for specific sections,” Wardale recounts. “Because the submission process is a team effort, it was important to recognize each team

member’s day-to-day challenges when setting deadlines.” Both tenant participation and corporate support from GWL Realty Advisors are keys to success. “GWL Realty Advisors and their clients have focused on environmental initiatives for years,” Newcombe notes. “And we consider our tenants to be our partners. Without the participation of our tenants, the programs we implement would not succeed. We can say it’s happening, but it’s the tenants who make it happen.” Ultimately, a committed effort of tenants and employees drives initiatives forward. “It is a comprehensive process,” Wardale asserts. “At every opportunity we would look at the information assembled, see how it can be improved, add data, add backup, add our methods and the logic employed. Each time we go through a submission such as the EARTH Award or the Certificate of Recognition (COR), the information created and assembled becomes part of a continuous improvement process.” The result is a living document that can be adapted and amended to fit changing and sometimes overlapping performance targets, regulatory requirements and compliance deadlines. Having been through – and excelled at – the process, the GCS team

recommends that other prospective participants begin with a review of the EARTH Award criteria and a gap analysis to determine where improvements are needed. They suggest that all property management companies could benefit from participating in the EARTH Award and the BOMA BESt building performance assessment and benchmarking program. Having a long-term environmental vision for a building and its systems, and working every day to achieve that vision can ultimately affect the bottom line, as well as help to engage employees and increase tenant satisfaction. The bar can only rise higher as more companies get involved and have to stretch further to win the award. Having recently captured the national EARTH Award at BOMEX®, BOMA Canada’s national conference and exhibition, the Gulf Canada Square team now looks forward to the next step in the process – the BOMA International Office Building of theYear (TOBY) Awards, to be announced in Philadelphia in June 2010. zz For more information about BOMA Calgary, see the web site at www.boma.ca. For more information about the BOMA BESt program, see the web site at www.bomabest.com Canadian Property Management | September 2009 13


planning&development

Stepped Safety


Up Concerns

security/safety/risk management

Casual Public Underestimates Hazards of Moving Machinery By Barbara Carss An aging population, footwear trends and basic human nature underlie safety concerns for escalator passengers and create liability risks for building owners and managers who are responsible for maintaining potentially dangerous machinery in typically high-traffic areas. Regulators, safety advocates and escalator manufacturers/service providers are now pondering equipment safeguards or regulatory changes that could reduce the likelihood of entrapment. Finding effective strategies to influence passenger behaviour is a more elusive goal, however. “It’s interesting that people will stand in line patiently at the coffee shop for several minutes, but they won’t just stand still and ride the escalator for 20 to 40 seconds,” reflects Ian Wisdom, the Canadian Health, Safety and Risk Manager for Schindler Elevator Corporation. “It’s a mindset.” L i c e n s e d e l eva t o r s o u t n u m b e r escalators by approximately 20 to 1 across Ontario, yet the provincial agency that oversees regulatory compliance routinely investigates more than twice as many escalator-related incidents every year. “That really illustrates the magnitude of the issue,” says Roland Hadaller, Director of Elevating and Amusement Devices Safety Programs with Ontario’s Technical Standards & Safety Authority (TSSA). Escalators are ubiquitous in public facilities and fundamental to managing large volumes of pedestrians and/or dispersing sudden influxes of people, but

their very prevalence may contribute to users’ inattentiveness. The changing level of the steps, missed footing or accidental jostling can make users lose their balance and, despite posted warnings, many passengers do not hold the handrail. “An escalator is a high-traffic device. Probably the number of incidents compared to the number of users is very, very low, but the fact remains that it is a potential liability,” says Cliff Ayling, a Principal with ACSI-Elevator Consulting and a member of a task force the TSSA h a s s t r u c k t o s t u d y a n d m a ke recommendations on escalator entrapment. “In Ontario, the TSSA is concerned with a trend of entrapment or people getting their feet caught when they are wearing a particular type of shoe.” ENTRAPMENT FACTORS Soft rubber or gel-like shoes are malleable and can be pulled into seemingly small gaps. Maintenance technicians with Schindler were recently surprised to find such a shoe embedded in the mechanism of an escalator at a Toronto area shopping centre, but almost anything could be a potential entrapment hazard. The TSSA’s task force is examining historical data of

entrapment incidents and looking for patterns and possible solutions. The gap between the steps and the side panels (known as the skirt) of the escalator’s stationary frame is the most common area where footwear, garments and/or items passengers carry could become caught. Areas where passengers mount or dismount (known as the comb) can also be hazardous. Broken teeth in the comb interlaced with grooves on the tops of the steps create extra spaces where something could become caught between the step and the covering plate at the step-on/step-off point. Escalator owners, designers and maintenance contractors all have a role to play in guarding against such hazards. The Canadian Standards Association’s CSA B44 safety standards for elevators and escalators are incorporated into all provincial safety regulations. In Ontario, operators must perform daily start-up inspections before escalators are turned on. If two or more adjacent teeth are missing, the device must be taken out of service. However, as a best practice, maintenance contractors should be called to repair the escalator if even one tooth is missing.

“Probably the number of incidents compared to the number of users is very, very low.” Canadian Property Management | September 2009 15


security/safety/risk management

“One of the things we’re finding when we’re investigating incidents is that the frictionreducing agent isn’t being applied on a regular basis, and that’s a deficiency that is pretty easy to correct.” Other safety requirements depend on the age of the escalator. Newer models in buildings constructed or renovated in compliance with building codes after the mid 1980s would have a mandated permanent anti-friction coating adhered to the side panels. Owners of older equipment that predates this requirement must ensure that a friction-reducing agent is freshly applied every month. This isn’t considered a labour-intensive task since silicone-based, anti-friction substances can typically be applied in 10 to 15 minutes on escalators of a standard height. Rather, the monthly requirement is more often overlooked due to poor communication between equipment owners and service contractors. Many service contracts stipulate that the contractors will not take on the responsibility – often because they have

concerns about accountability if cleaning staff subsequently remove the anti-friction substance. Meanwhile, owners/managers who haven’t looked closely at the contract may assume that the application is an element of regular maintenance. The TSSA stipulates that all maintenance work must be documented in the escalator’s log book so it should be easy for owners, as well as inspectors, to monitor if the anti-friction substance has been applied on schedule. “We want to make sure that owners know that this has to be done,” Hadaller stresses. “One of the things we’re finding when we’re investigating incidents is that the friction-reducing agent isn’t being applied on a regular basis, and that’s a deficiency that is pretty easy to correct.” Retrofits are more cost prohibitive so owners typically don’t replace an escalator’s skirt panels unless they are

THREAT OF INJURY OUTWEIGHS FLU FEARS

Vigilant housekeeping is a low-tech exercise that can promote safety and prevent costly repairs. Escalators steps should be checked regularly for debris that could tempt passengers and/or fall into the machinery’s mechanisms. “We want to avoid anything like coins or other items that are a magnet for a kid to try to pick them up,” says Roland Hadaller, Director of Elevating and Amusement Devices Safety Programs with Ontario’s Technical Standards & Safety Authority (TSSA). More problematically, safety advocates are battling passengers’ trepidation about holding the escalator handrail as concerns increase about outbreaks of influenza. Providing the public with more assurance and information can help. “Hand sanitizers should be at the entrance of the building and at strategic locations throughout public areas such as the top and bottom of escalators. There should be signage, perhaps attached to those hand sanitizers, to indicate how often surfaces like escalator handrails are cleaned,” suggests Bill Garland, a consultant to the cleaning and facilities management industries. The public should also be reminded of the hierarchy of risks. “It is much safer to hold the handrail and wash your hands afterward than to risk injuries by not holding the handrail,” asserts Cliff Ayling, a Principal with ACSI-Elevator Consulting.

16 September 2009 | Canadian Property Management

rebuilding it entirely and that’s a rare event given the equipment’s lifespan, which can be several decades. Some owners of older equipment are instead opting to add brushes to the skirts – a feature that is standard in newer escalators. “The logic behind that is that when somebody’s foot gets too near to the edge of the step they will contact the brush and pull it back,” Ayling explains. “A lot of owners have installed those and I believe there is merit in it.” BAD HABITS, CARELESS BEHAVIOUR Regardless, overt reinforcement should go hand-in-hand with subliminal triggers. “Posting of rules and cautionary signage would definitely be part of your due diligence and is required by regulations,” Wisdom says. This should include a prohibition of strollers, mobility assistance devices like walkers and other types of carts. Boxes and other freight are similarly dangerous for people who are carrying them and for anyone who would be in the path of a falling object. The aging population is causing increasing safety concerns in general. People with impaired mobility or slower reflex responses need more time to step on and off the moving equipment and are more at risk of losing their balance, particularly as they navigate rising steps. “A person holding a walker tends to get pushed backward or fall forward,” Wisdom cautions. Pedestrians with walkers or pushing strollers should use elevators instead. Many potentially dangerous practices are simply habits that safety advocates


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security/safety/risk management ENERGY CONSERVATION SECONDARY

Variable-speed escalators, which operate at slower speeds when empty, can be found in BOMA BESt certified facilities like Calgary’s TELUS Convention Centre and LEED compliant developments like the new Winnipeg International Airport, but the current edition of the Elevator Safety Code prohibits varying the speed of escalators and moving walks. “The Code was previously silent on that,” notes Roland Hadaller, Director of Elevating and Amusement Devices Safety Programs with Ontario’s Technical Standards & Safety Authority (TSSA). Regulators have since decreed that the technology could present a possible safety hazard to passengers if the speed increased as they stepped onto the escalator. Variable-speed escalators are considered best suited to venues that experience intermittent influxes of traffic, and developers and building owners could still potentially secure a Code variance to allow variable-speed escalators in site-specific cases. “We recognize that energy conservation is a good thing,” Hadaller says. “The technology has been widely used in Europe for many, many years,” observes Cliff Ayling, a Principal with ACSI-Elevator Consulting. “It makes a lot of sense particularly in applications of mass transit – something like a GO train station, for example – where commuters travel through at particular hours and essentially the escalators are running empty for the rest of the day. That would be a potential instance where a lot of energy could be saved.”

are now attempting to alter. Passengers aren’t alone in bad habits, though. “It’s also important to not use a nonoperational escalator as a stairway,” Wisdom adds. “That’s something that a lot of buildings still do, but escalators should be barricaded when they’re not in service.” An actual safety incident or injury must be reported to the applicable regulatory authorities for the province.

MAKING  YOUR WORLD SECURE

In Ontario, TSSA inspectors will investigate and determine the cause of the incident – a requirement that Hadaller maintains ultimately protects property owners and managers because it creates a documented trail of evidence. “We would write up an order if there is an equipment-related reason, but sometimes incidents are just misadventure,” he says. zz

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security/safety/risk management

Threats from

Varied Sources

Physical Security Guidelines Help Identify and Fill Gaps By Jeremy Paulus

Physical security helps protect the users, assets and information in a building. Threats need to be understood and gaps need to be identified where existing mitigation and prevention strategies are not adequate. Common threats to a building include intentional behaviours by individuals (i.e. crime or terrorism) and natural hazards. Some recent Canadian examples include an intrusion and deliberately set fire at a secure American military procurement agency office in Ottawa that resulted in $4 million in damage, and a criminal conviction in May 2009 relating to plans for detonating explosives in buildings in downtown Toronto. Statistics Canada tracks more common criminal activities – amounting to nearly 75,000 break-and-enters at business premises across Canada in 2006 – while the Insurance Council of Canada reports a more than doubling value of property claims over 20 years from approximately $1 billion in 1986 to more than $2.1 billion in 2006. Several standards are available from industry associations and governments to support facility and asset managers in the development of a physical security program. Three prevalent 20 September 2009 | Canadian Property Management

Highlights of ASIS International - Facilities Physical Security Measures Guideline (Draft)

• Natural or Physical Barriers. Used to discourage unauthorized access. Can include fences, planters/bollards, barriers/barricades, premises openings or locks. • Site Hardening. Consider protecting HVAC systems, redundant emergency power systems, utilities and telecommunication protection. • Physical Entry/Access Control. Comprehensive and integrated access control system to permit authorized and detect/prevent unauthorized contraband or removal of assets. Strategies include barriers, electronic access control, personnel access control, locks, contraband detection, vehicle access control and procedures/controls. • Security Lighting. Used to deter unwanted activities and improve visibility and surveillance. Applications include standby, glare projection and portable lighting. • Intrusion Detection Systems. Alarm systems to deter, detect and respond to intrusions. Integrating this system with other systems can delay activity as well, and needs to operate in harmony with other systems. Examples include position detection devices, motion/sound detectors and vibration/heat/impact sensors. • Closed-Circuit Television. Video surveillance to detect unwanted activity, collect images for investigations and assist in detection alarm analysis. Systems include the camera, transmission medium, monitor, recording and control equipment. Various styles are available to choose from. • Security Personnel. Physical security measures are typically implemented and operationalized by security teams. Security Managers and Officers used for screening employees/visitor, access control, monitoring systems, responding to events and documenting incidents. Training and testing on appropriate skills is important. • Security Policies and Procedures. Policies providing the strategic security objectives and responsibilities and expectations for the organization. Procedures are needed to provide detailed instructions on how to carry out the policies. Both formal documents should include details on relating to people, property and information. For more information, see the web site at http://www.asisonline.org/guidelines/ASIS_GDL_ FPSM-2009_Item_1854.pdf


security/safety/risk management

resources include the National Fire Protection (NFPA), ASIS International and Highlights of NFPA 730 - Guide for Premises Security • Security Vulnerability Assessment. Process is provided to assist in determining status of an the Government of Canada. organization’s threat exposure, existing security features and preparedness level in order to The NFPA 730 Guide for Premises Security strengthen security layers of protection. generally offers guidance on reducing security • Exterior Security Devices and Systems. Exterior security helps to provide perimeter vulnerabilities to life and property. It covers protection to a facility. This includes natural and human-made physical barriers, protective construction, protection, occupancy features, lighting, ironwork, glazing materials, passive barriers and electronic security devices. practices and building systems and services for • Physical Security Devices. Description and usage guidance is provided for common devices such as builder’s hardware, locks, doors, windows, vaults and strong rooms. new and existing buildings. ASIS International’s draft Facilities Physical • Interior Security Systems. Access control within a building is necessary to protect confidential information, prevent damage, prevent building operations impacts and for safety Security Measures Guideline covers physical of occupants. Guidance is provided on how to designate areas as controlled or restricted. security measures that can minimize security Description and planning guidance is provided for intrusion detection systems. risks to a facility. It stresses the importance of • Security Personnel. Security services can be an effective component of a security program. beginning with a risk assessment before Guidance is provided on determining the need and the role they can plan. selecting and implementing appropriate • Security Planning. An effective asset protection program should include an implemented security measures. security plan. Guidance is provided on steps and elements of a security plan. TBCS - Operating Security Standard on • Specific Facilities. Guidance is provided on addressing specific classifications of facilities Physical Security is the baseline standard for including: educational, health care, family dwellings, lodging, apartments, restaurants, shopping centres, retail, office, industrial and parking facilities. physical security requirements to counter common threats and safeguard Government of • Special events. Guidance is provided on dealing with particular events where the potential for large crowds exists and there is need to avoid panic situations. Recommendation for a Canada employees, assets and service delivery. security committee to focus on specific needs such as arranging for access control or Safeguards based on a threat risk assessment ejection issues. include building security, building systems and For more information, see the web site at http://www.nfpa.org/catalog/product. life safety mitigation approaches. asp?pid=73006 A comprehensive approach that conceptualizes physical security in all its phases — prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery — would likely draw Highlights of TBCS - Operating Security Standard on Physical from all three sources. Not all buildings are Security susceptible to criminal activity or natural • Common Threats. All government departments face threats from: work-related violence, unauthorized disclosure of protected information, unavailability of assets and monetary/ hazards. Facility managers need to appreciate heritage losses and loss if integrity existing building threats, gaps and initiate • Physical Security Approach. Facility design and management can contribute to reduced risk strategies to better protect the building and its of violence to employees, deter unauthorized access and heighten an effective response. users. The industry and government standards Physical security strategies need to include protection, detection, response and recovery. provide guidance on what could to be included • Hierarchy of Zones. Safeguarding government’s assets is based on a zone system: public, reception, operations, security and high security. in a security program. A physical security program needs to have a • Security in the Selection and Design of Facilities. Government of Canada’s Security Policy requires departments to ensure that security is fully integrated in the planning, selecting, governance system and an engagement designing and modifying their facilities. Multi-disciplinary teams should determine appropriate strategy with stakeholders, including the security criteria for each project. building owner, tenants, security staff and • Perimeter Security Considerations for Site Selection. Specific areas are provided: easement facility management team. Mitigation and impacts to access control, CPTED supported for site perimeter/building location/topography, safeguarding strategies should consider the emergency service response consideration, adjacent occupant, site illumination, proper building/property, building systems, exterior signage, landscape design and parking considerations. operational procedures for landlord/tenant and • Entry and Interior Security. Access control for pedestrians, service and shipping needs to be use of dynamic security services. considered in addition to location and planning of circulation routes, elevators, washrooms and telecommunications wiring. Access badges, identification cards, electronic access A building committee focusing on a threat control/closed circuit video equipment assist security guards in this work. risk assessment and safeguarding strategies must also consider other building priorities that • Facility Management. Specific guidance is provided on unique facility issues including: lease/ occupancy agreements, cleaning/maintenance services, interior signs, key/lock hardware are equally as important. This may include and renovation work. Suggested that in multi-tenant facilities, a security committee be accessibility or sustainability requirements. zz Jeremy Paulus is Safety and Emergency Preparedness Specialist with Ontario Realty Corporation. He can be reached at jeremy.paulus@ontariorealty.ca.

established to coordinate requirements and safeguards. • Storage/Transport/Destruction of Valuable Assets. Guidance is provided on how to protect, move and destroy sensitive information or equipment. For more information, see the web site at http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/pol/doc-eng.aspx?id=12329

Canadian Property Management | September 2009 21


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security/safety/risk management

Preventing Crimes in Progress Live Audio and Video Feeds Hasten Response Times By Joe Wilson

Issues of crime, vandalism and safety are certainly not new battles for commercial and residential property managers. Anticipating, protecting against and reacting to criminal activity are daunting and ongoing tasks. Perpetrators often have a keen understanding of standard security systems and can evade alarms to infiltrate property where least expected. In recessionary times, too, the frequency and nature of criminal activity tends to change – and not for the better. Traditional methods of property protection may have some shortcomings, but new security technology has emerged that can provide cost-effective protection for residential and commercial spaces. Residential property offers potentially

unlocked doors, un-alarmed suites and valuables ranging from small and easy to steal, to large and worth the effort. Commercial spaces can house a range of products that are generally known to be kept in stock and left unattended at night. Meanwhile, buildings can be regular targets for vandals, who deface buildings’ appearance. Conventional CCTV systems to record activity around a property aren’t necessarily preventative measures since they only allow viewers to see the criminal event after the fact. Installed access control with door contacts to detect unauthorized access or break-ins can dispatch guards to check on the access control/door contact alarm, but often they arrive after the crime has

occurred and the perpetrators have left the scene. Verified-only-dispatch is a security technology that can capture an incident as it takes place through video and audio monitored by a security team. Monitored video is integrated with door contacts and access control. When an alarm is triggered, video is immediately sent to the security team, which verifies the alarm. If vandalism/theft is in progress the police are dispatched, typically responding in an average of 3.5 minutes. The technology allows for all video and audio of crimes in progress to be fed live into the local police dispatch centre, allowing law enforcement to witness all action and advise officers on duty in their approach. In addition to hastening response times, the technology supports health and safety because it enables officers to understand what they are up against before approaching a crime. In cases where alarms have been triggered accidentally, a video clip of the event is sent to the property manager so he or she can speak to the individuals in an effort to avoid future false alarms. For example, false alarms may occur if a janitor has the door propped open while mopping the floor or taking the garbage out, or a tenant has the door propped open while carrying materials in and out of the building. Verified-only-dispatch systems can be compatible with existing fire monitoring, process monitoring and tenant intrusion systems, keeping things simple and reliable for property managers. Approximately 4% of all criminal perpetrators participate in 95% of criminal activity. Effective security systems that will result in immediate police response can be a deterrent, particularly as the presence of the technology becomes known. zz Joe Wilson is with Sonitrol Security, a supplier of verified-only-dispatch security systems. For more see the web site at www.sonitrol-canada.com. Canadian Property Management | September 2009 23


security/safety/risk management

Infiltration Action Plan Acknowledge, Confine and Eradicate Pest Infestation By Ron Harrison

24 September 2009 | Canadian Property Management

communication, media scrutiny and stringent health codes, a pest infestation can bring a great deal of undesirable attention to a facility or business. Plus, with more facilities staying open 24-hours a day, a pest crisis can arise day or night. Photo courtesy of Orkin

Not every pest sighting within a facility constitutes an emergency. However, a bed bug infestation in a hospital or hotel, or rodents in a grocery store calls for immediate action. A pest crisis is a pest situation that must be dealt with immediately because of potential health risks, endangered reputation, costly damages to goods or property or simply because a pest can breed and multiply quickly. Pests can invade even the cleanest facilities with the most rigorous prevention plans so there is always the chance such a problem may occur. In an era of increased channels of

CONTROL SCENE, IMPLEMENT SOLUTIONS Quick action can mean the difference between a manageable pest issue and a full-blown infestation. The first step is to confine the issue. If an influx of pests has been spotted in one area of a building, restrict access to that area, if possible, to keep the problem are removed and the area is thoroughly from spreading. Move any employees or cleaned. tenants to another space until the pests Attempt to determine how widespread the problem has become by looking for signs of pest presence in surrounding areas. Assess what measures can be implemented immediately to stop the infestation from spreading – whether that means cleaning up a spill that is attracting ants or moving a dumpster away from the building and closing the lid tightly to keep rodents away. Inspect any products in the area for signs of infestation – such as damaged product, droppings, gnaw marks, or live or dead pests – to determine if the materials must be discarded. Any contaminated products should be secured in water-soluble bags and immediately disposed of. Home remedies such as aerosol sprays can actually intensify the problem by spreading it to another area of the building. A licensed pest control provider – either w i t h i n t h e c o m p a ny o r a n o u t s i d e professional – should be called on scene quickly as possible to identify the pest in question, assess the source of the problem and initiate the best treatment plan. Pests need to satisfy three basic needs: food, water and shelter – all of which can be found inside properties like hospitals, warehouses, apartments or office buildings. Infiltrations into hospitals require immediate action and treatment. Vulnerable patients that run the risk of contracting disease from a pest should be kept away and/or removed from infested areas.


security/safety/risk management

Where you see energy challenges, we see savings. In contrast, an immediate response may not be necessary in facilities that do not have 24-hour traffic. Nevertheless, most reputable pest management companies provide 24-hour response services so it is best to call as soon as possible. TRANSPARENCY ENGENDERS TRUST Communications is imperative when responding to a pest management crisis. Generally there are three audiences that must be educated. • Internal. Start by educating employees and/ or tenants. Make sure all building occupants, even those not directly affected, understand the steps taken to treat the problem. If approached by the media, this audience can influence how the news is presented externally so make sure everyone is clearly educated on the situation and how it is being handled. • External. Take proactive steps to communicate to customers and vendors before rumours spread. Consumers tend to respond more positively to companies that practice open and honest communications versus trying to cover up problems. • Media. A prepared media statement may be needed, depending on the facility. It is usually a good idea if the infestation occurs in a public establishment like a hospital or grocery store. News can travel quickly through channels such as text messages, camera phones, e-mail and social networking sites. Rapid deployment of an official message can reduce reputation damaging word-of-mouth communication, and set the facts straight for the media.

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Do not be embarrassed to admit a problem. The best crisis management practice is to acknowledge the issue and immediately seek assistance from a pest management professional. This will also hasten and simplify eradication. zz Ron Harrison, Entomologist, Ph.D., is Director of Technical Services for Orkin, Inc. and an acknowledged leader in the field of pest management. For more information, see the web site at www.orkincanada.com. Canadian Property Management | September 2009 25


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security/safety/risk management

Vigilance Is Best Safeguard Carelessness Undermines Technology’s Effectiveness By Robert Saxe

Caution and vigilance are fundamental to creating a secure environment for condominium dwellers. The first line of defence is the front gate; the building entrance is the second and the final line is the entrances to personal suites. They should all be treated like the entrance to a single-family dwelling. Few homeowners would hold the door open for strangers and allow them to wait in their living rooms or bedrooms for other family members who aren’t home at the time. Condo residents should be urged to think the same way and avoid letting strangers into the lobby of their buildings. Common sense should be supplemented with proper security measures to deter

unwanted activity and opportunities for crime throughout the property, and this also requires resident vigilance. Typically, residents are responsible for the security of their own suites. Buildings that have individual suite alarm systems may offer a monitoring service, but that service does not necessarily take responsibility for ensuring that each individual alarm system is operational or even turned on. Residents are also responsible for ensuring that the doors and windows of the suite are properly locked. New owners or tenants should ensure that door locks have been replaced before they move in. The suite’s front door should be fitted with a one-inch deadbolt lock and a peephole that provides a 180-degree view. Suites with sliding doors and windows, especially those on the lower floors, should have supplemental locking devices. Thieves have been known to scale the building in order to gain access to upper balconies so suites on the ground floor should have motion sensors installed on patio lights. The broken window theory holds, quite simply, that one broken window l e a d s t o a n o t h e r. C o n s i s t e n t maintenance and upkeep of the building and property can help to instill a level of pride among residents, whereas poorly kept properties can indicate apathy and attract unwanted activity. Many police departments endorse the theory of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED). It encompasses ways to make buildings building less attractive to the criminals – a concept known as target hardening – so they will go elsewhere. Trees and shrubs should be trimmed to improve sightlines and allow occupants to see what’s going on around the property. Windows and mirrors can also improve sightlines and eliminate possible hiding spots. The grounds, garage and all other common areas should be well lit and maintained. Neglected stairwells, for

example, can become a convenient location for unwanted activity. Security officers can be a strong deterrent to criminal activity. It is always important, however, for the board of directors and residents to communicate to the security company any requirements specific to their unique needs. Typically, the security of the individual suites is the responsibility of the individual homeowners, while contracted security services oversee common areas and shared facilities. Many buildings have replaced the common access key with a card (or FOB) and a remote clicker for the garage. This should be supported with monitored access control systems at all entries and exits, with the database kept up to date in order to provide effective security. The evolution from analogue to digital cameras and recorders represents one of the most significant improvements in camera surveillance. When designed and installed properly, the technology allows condominium CCTV systems to capture facial recognition and/or license plate identification, which is important in identifying and prosecuting intruders. Building managers should also make it known the technology is in place. A sign advising of 24-hour surveillance can be almost equally effective in discouraging unwanted activity as the actual cameras. A comprehensive and effective security plan will review and assess e nv i r o n m e n t a l d e s i g n , p r o p e r t y maintenance technology, camera surveillance, and security personnel on an ongoing basis. This should be backed up with vigilance, communication and common sense. zz Robert Saxe is a security consultant and President of IBC, Intelligent Building Concepts Inc., a firm providing independent security assessments for residential condominiums in the Greater Toronto Area. For more information, see the web site at www.intelligentbuilding.net Canadian Property Management | September 2009 27


security/safety/risk management

Adjusting the Balance of Power Advocates for Policyholders Negotiate Crisis Response By Steve Sobel

Unexpected disasters can come in many forms including floods, wind damage, fire and vandalism. When damage is extensive, the reflex reaction is to pick up the phone and call the insurance company, but filing an insurance claim and negotiating with an insurance company can be a difficult and sometimes overwhelming task, especially when there are immediate repairs to be made and owners to placate. When it comes to settling an insurance claim, the odds are often stacked in favour of the insurance company. Lack of insurance-specific knowledge is likely the norm for condominium managers trying navigate fine print on a policy or submit a claim, which may result in claimants missing out on hundreds, thousands or even millions of dollars that they have every right to collect. 28 September 2009 | Canadian Property Management

A public insurance adjuster could provide important advice and backup. In contrast to staff adjusters, who work for insurance companies, or independent adjusters, who work on behalf of insurance companies, public adjusters are employed by policyholders. For remuneration, most public adjusters charge a percentage of the settlement on a sliding scale – i.e. 10% on the first $100,000, 8% on the next and so on. A public adjuster's roles include: • Evaluating insurance policies to determine what damage is covered • Making recommendations for policy improvement in the case of future losses • Detailing and substantiating damage to buildings and contents • Determining values for settling damages

• Negotiating a settlement with insurance companies on behalf of the insured To help protect themselves and their clients better, property managers should consider the adequacy of coverage. Notably, condominium buildings are often insured only for replacement cost at present-day prices. This value does not take into account any remodeling or upgrades such as lobby renovations, new flooring, window retrofits, landscaping, paving etc. Similarly, individual unit owners may have invested in upgrades that were not part of their units at the time of purchase. The gap between actual insurance coverage and value after upgrades on the unit holder’s policy can be substantial so owners can be left frustrated at the


security/safety/risk management

s h o r t fa l l w h e n a c l a i m i s m a d e . Condominium boards should review their policies regularly and perform mandatory reviews of individual unit owners’ policies to ensure that they are up-to-date, and account for upgrades and renovations. The condominium ownership then effectively guards against the potential of a major financial hit in the event that they have to pick up some of the repair and/or demolition costs. Disputes between insurance companies when there is ambiguity regarding who is responsible for the claim can lead to a prolonged standoff between companies representing the condominium manager and the unit owner. This delays repairs and rehabilitation and frustrates all parties. Mediation – perhaps conducted by a public insurance adjuster familiar with the finer points of such disputes – may help assign responsibility for the claim and hasten a resolution. Public insurance adjustors may also play an important role in managing the claims response following a catastrophic event. Shortly after an insurance company receives notice of a loss, a staff or independent adjuster representing the insurance company’s interests will visit the policyholder to gather facts about how the loss occurred, its magnitude and the possibility of subrogation – meaning that wrongdoers may be sued to recover some of the cost of damages. It’s somewhat analogous to Revenue Canada assisting taxpayers with their returns. Policyholders’ answers can result in a lower claim amount. A public adjuster could help close policyholders’ knowledge gap around coverage assessment, documentation, presentation and negotiation of claims. They can advise when to employ subject matter experts like architects, engineers and accountants in order to provide sufficient back-up evidence. zz Steve Sobel CIP, RPA, CFEI, ORMP is a Torontobased public insurance adjuster and former President of the Ontario Insurance Adjusters Association. For more information, see the web site at www.sobeladjusting.com.

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32 April 2009 | Canadian Property Management


security/safety/risk management

Incident Aftermath Combination of Generic and Specified Cleanup Measures Required By Robert Kravitz Every building calamity is unique, but property managers should have a business continuity plan or emergency preparedness program in place to deal with emergency situations. This will likely require collaboration and input from building managers, tenants, consultants, and government officials such as police and fire departments. Even so, response measures are often determined and implemented on the job as a situation unfolds. For example, a steam pipe explosion caused major damage at a multi-use (apartments, offices, and retail stores) building in New York City about 20 years ago, including three deaths and more than 20 injuries. After the major debris had been cleared and the building declared safe to re-enter, managers began working with occupants, providing tools for sweeping and cleaning up their areas of the facility and helping them to determine what could be saved or salvaged. Management initially expected that the building would return to normal use after a few weeks of repairs and construction – until it was discovered that the exploding pipe contained asbestos. Ultimately, it took several weeks just to evaluate the health of building users and others called to the emergency, as well as the extent of asbestos damage to the building. It took nearly a year to thoroughly clean the building, including

To plan for an emergency, the City of Ottawa suggests facility managers be prepared to answer questions such as these: • What is the most likely threat to the facility? • What is the chain of command in the event of an emergency? • How will building occupants be notified of the emergency, and what steps should they take? • Is there some sort of emergency information line in place so that building staff and occupants can get facility status reports? • Has staff been trained to deal with the most likely emergencies? • Have building emergency systems been tested to ensure they can withstand the most likely threats and are operational?

“Many times, all managers can do is expect the unexpected and deal with the situation as it unfolds.”

Canadian Property Management | September 2009 33


security/safety/risk management completely decontaminating the facility, replacing blown-out windows, cleaning and repairing the water tower and reconstructing damaged areas. “No one really could have prepared for such an incident,” says Randy Loewen, a distributor of Tornado professional cleaning products based in Toronto. “Many times, all managers can do is expect the unexpected and deal with the situation as it unfolds.”

In the aftermath of a disaster, property owners and managers should take the following precautions: • Never assume that water-damaged structures or grounds are stable. Buildings that have been submerged or have withstood rushing floodwater may have suffered structural damage and could be dangerous. • Assume all stairs, floors and roofs are unsafe until they are professionally inspected. • Leave immediately if shifting or unusual noises signal a possible collapse. • Have professionals/licensed contractors inspect the facility before repairs begin and again after they are completed. • Use a camera or camcorder to thoroughly record any damage done to a home before any repairs are made. • If water has been present anywhere near electrical circuits and electrical equipment, turn off the power at the main breaker or fuse on the service panel. • Never enter flooded areas or touch electrical equipment if the ground is wet, unless certain that the power is off.

RESPONSE PLANS As a basic starting point, this should include disaster and first aid kits located throughout a facility, typically one per floor. Information packets for building users should detail different types of emergencies, such as: • Civil disturbance or any incident that disrupts a facility • Elevator emergency • Power failure • Severe weather • Workplace violence • Fire • Explosion or threats of explosion • Bomb threat

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34 September 2009 | Canadian Property Management

Emergency preparedness plans include such things as: • Chain of command identifying who will play what role after the disaster, with roles determined before a problem occurs • Contact information for emergency personnel (fire, police, ambulance, etc.) • Information on determining if there are injuries or fatalities • Instructions for evacuating the building • Information on assessing damage to the facility An emergency preparedness plan should a l s o c o n s i d e r bu i l d i n g o c c u p a n t s ’ requirements in the days following an emergency incident. How is mail service handled if the facility is down for several days or even months? Is there a system in place to notify building occupants when they can return to the facility after the emergency? What if alternate work space is necessary? Where and how will this be handled? RESTORATION The next step in the business continuity program is getting the facility back in usable condition as quickly as possible. First, every effort must be made to ensure that the facility is safe to re-enter and, if so, to move ahead with restoration.


security/safety/risk management A list should be readily available of vendors such as general contractors, plumbers, electricians, locksmiths, cleaning and carpet cleaning professionals, and scores of others who can be called on to help deal with the restoration. “Managers cannot depend on computers or electricity to work after an emergency so the list should be printed and posted in different areas of the facility,” Loewen advises. “There can be an entire host of problems after a disaster from malfunctioning elevators and HVAC systems that no longer operate to flood and water damage,” he adds. “In fact, water damage is one of the most common problems after a building disaster.” A fairly common emergency in winter months happens when temperatures drop below freezing for several days and other factors – such as doors left open – cause the standpipe to freeze and break. Situations that cause sprinklers to deploy and/or water to extinguish flames can also cause considerable water damage. Water damage to carpets and floors will be obvious. Cleanup crews will likely start with a wet/vac system to extract moisture from floor surfaces – and it is critical that it contain a HEPA filter to protect indoor air

quality and the health of cleaning personnel. Additionally, a system with tip-and-pour capabilities allows the machine to be readily emptied, improving worker productivity. If water damage is minimal or if cleanup can begin with 48 hours, water can also be extracted from carpets. However, restoration experts generally advise that carpet/upholstery should be removed from the facility if they are waterlogged for more than 48 hours because mould and mildew may develop. In most multi-storey facilities, a portable extractor will be necessary. The machine should have 400 psi (pounds per square inch) of moisture recovery for heavy soil removal.

Some portables now use so-called perfect heat technology, which heats cleaning solution up to 100° C (212° F) by taking advantage of the heat generated by the machine’s vacuum motors. They do not require a separate electrical outlet to heat the solution, a plus when power may be limited after an emergency. Air movers at various locations throughout the facility can speed drying significantly. Equipment with multiplespeed settings can be positioned sideways, above the carpet, or even stacked for greater air movement and faster drying. Numerous other operational issues will likely arise after an emergency, and even with the best of planning, unexpected challenges can come up due to the uniqueness of a situation. “Possibly the best advice I can offer is to try and remain calm under all the pressure,” Loewen says. “Even the best of plans and emergency strategies can prove ineffective without rational minds in charge.” zz Robert Kravitz has authored two books on the professional cleaning industry and is a frequent writer on cleaning and health care issues.

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Canadian Property Management | September 2009 35


Rising Waters, Lower Risk Forecasting, Infrastructure & Ice-Breaking Innovation Help Manitoba Respond

The 2009 Red River spring flood was the second highest in much of the Manitoba portion of the river since the start of official record keeping in 1912. The unregulated crest of 9.9 metres (32.5 feet) at James Avenue in Winnipeg was exceeded only by the floods of 1997, 1776, 1826 and 1852. The high runoff and peak flow were mainly caused by record high soil moisture at freeze-up in 2008. A heavy rainstorm in the first week of November 2008 was a very significant factor. This heavy soil moisture was followed by above-average snowpack in the United States portion of the watershed. An early melt between March 20 and 23 melted most of the snow in the United States portion, followed by two weeks of sub-zero temperatures that delayed runoff in the Manitoba portion. The 2009 flooding in the Red River watershed was made significantly worse by 36 September 2009 | Canadian Property Management

unusual ice conditions that caused blockages in the drainage system and raised river levels beyond what would have occurred under normal conditions. River ice was generally of average thickness, based on an early March survey, but was unusually strong due to a cold winter and two-week cold spell from late March to early April that kept river ice from deteriorating before spring runoff. Ice jams developed on the Red River when high flows resulting from the March snow melt in the United States portion encountered strong, solid ice in the Manitoba portion. Ice was particularly stubborn in moving out of the Winnipeg area. Since floodway operations began in 1960, ice had always moved before levels at James Avenue in Winnipeg exceeded 5.6 metres (18.5 feet). In 2009, ice did not move until the level at James Avenue had reached 6.1 metres (20 feet) on April 11. Operation of the Red River floodway was difficult because ice at

the floodway inlet did not move freely until April 10 – several days after levels in the city had exceeded flood stage. A limited operation of the floodway began on April 8 despite the presence of ice at the inlet. This operation posed a risk of ice going into the floodway channel and forming an ice jam; however, it was necessary because of excessive river levels in southern parts of the city. Ten tracked excavators with extended reaches were used to remove ice and help move it between the St. Mary’s Road bridge and the floodway inlet. PLANNING & TECHNOLOGY Preparation for a possible flood began early in 2009 with a special assessment by the Hydrologic Forecast Centre in mid-January, followed by spring flood outlooks issued in February and March. The flood outlooks were widely distributed via e-mail and various government web sites.


security/safety/risk management Attendees at a flood workshop organized by the provincial Emergency Measures Organization (EMO) and Manitoba Water Stewardship were advised that the spring flood potential was high due to record high soil moisture conditions. Municipal, town and city officials, emergency coordinators and provincial senior staff then reviewed emergency plans and procedures and ensured that staff and equipment would be available in a flood emergency. Utilities, private industry and individual landowners also reviewed their vulnerabilities and made plans for relocation of flood-prone property, including animals where this was possible. Ice-breaking machinery known as Amphibexes began ice cutting in early March in an effort to minimize the risk of ice jams along the Red River. Most of this work was concentrated in the area near the City of Selkirk where record ice jams occurred in 2007. Other innovative activities implemented during the 2009 flood included ice cutting, use of long-reach backhoes to move river ice, use of flood tubes and aquadams for dikes, use of steamers for ice removal, use of LiDAR data for determining property elevations and use of satellite river ice tracking. Protective infrastructure and methods of flood warning and flood fighting have vastly improved from the 1950s era and significantly improved even since the 1997 flood. The construction of major flood controls such as the Red River Floodway, Portage Diversion and Shellmouth Reservoir, ring dikes around towns and villages, and extensive flood proofing of individual homes and farms in the Red River Valley have vastly reduced flood damage. Since the 1997 flood, 95% of individual homes and farms were protected via raising, diking and construction of additional ring dikes around towns and villages. More sophisticated advance warning also supportspreparedness.Improved probability forecasting for the United States portion (by the US National Weather Service) is very beneficial to Manitoba. Improved flood routing and availability of LiDAR land elevation data in Manitoba is also helpful. Improvements in the river level and flow network and availability of airborne and satellite snow-survey data are an asset to flood warning. Improved communication via e-mail, web sites, cell phones, Blackberries etc. has led to faster coordinated responses to

Protective infrastructure and methods of flood warning and flood fighting have vastly improved from the 1950s era and significantly improved even since the 1997 flood. planning and flooding issues. Improved command structures, a more specialized and knowledgeable workforce and a greater dedication by government to provide resources for a solution of flooding problems have all led to improved flood fighting and damage reduction. LEARNING FROM THE PAST AND FOR THE FUTURE Because of flood-proofing strategies implemented after the 1997 flood, all communities in the Red River Valley south of Winnipeg were well prepared to deal with anticipated water levels. Before the flood, all of the potentially affected municipalities prepared using their emergency plans. This included coordinating the first responders under their authority. Municipal emergency plans had been prepared, reviewed by EMO, and tested, and ongoing training was provided to local officials and responders by EMO. The 2009 experience has been particularly valuable in the areas of flood forecasting, operation of flood control structures, managing river ice and overland flooding with river ice. The following work is underway to help in the management of future floods. • Design work and benefit-cost analysis will begin shortly on improvements to the floodway inlet to allow greater flow into the floodway channel. This is expected to reduce river levels in Winnipeg during floods of lesser magnitude than that of 1997 (such as those of 2009 and 2006) and reduce flooding south of the floodway inlet in major floods. • Ice mitigation methodologies will be further reviewed in light of the 2009 experience. Acquisition of additional ice mitigation equipment, including

additional ice cutters is proposed and the need for an additional Amphibex will be assessed. Improvements in training, facilities and equipment will be advanced to enhance the capacity to assist municipalities and further improve the effectiveness of flood emergency management. The floodway operation rules will undergo a public review as required under the terms of the floodway expansion project’s Environment Act licence. The review will be completed by July 2010 and will provide an opportunity for public input on how the rules can be improved. Improvements are planned to the floodway operations computer model to account for the influence of ice cover based on the 2009 experience and to real-time monitoring of the Red River flows in the area of the floodway inlet control structure and on local streams that will enable more precise floodway operations. Improvements in flood forecasting tools and procedures are also planned including improvements in hydrometric and climatological data networks. The Designated Flood Area regulation ( u n d e r t h e Wa t e r R e s o u rc e s Administration Act) will be extended to points from Winnipeg to beyond Breezy Point in order to regulate and appropriately limit development in areas that are below the highest recorded flood level plus one foot. zz

The preceding is an excerpt from the Province of Manitoba’s Report on the Spring Flood of 2009 in Southern Manitoba. The complete text and associated reports can be found at www.manitoba.ca/waterstewardship. Canadian Property Management | September 2009 37


security/safety/risk management

Legislation Mandates Telecommunications Intercept Capability User Information to be Obtained without Court Orders By Barbara Carss R e a l e s tat e o w n e r s w h o provide telecommunications services to tenants and/or other building users will be largely exempt from some potentially costly elements of proposed new federal legislation. Bill C-47, the Te c h n i c a l A s s i s t a n c e f o r L a w Enforcement in the 21st Century Act, directs telecommunications companies and internet service providers (ISPs) to have capacity in their systems to enable authorized law enforcement bodies to intercept data, but companies a n d o rg a n i z a t i o n s t h a t p r o v i d e networks as an ancillary business activity within their facilities will not have to comply with that requirement. Nevertheless, building owners could see some operating cost increases since telecommunications companies and ISPs are likely to have new compliance costs that may be passed through to all customers. As proposed, companies required to comply with the new rules will have to cover the costs for intercept capability in new equipment and software, but some federal compensation will be available to fund necessary retrofits to existing networks. Law enforcement agencies already have the judicial flexibility, via court orders, to gain access to traditional channels of information, but technological advancements have increasingly hindered their ability to capture data that is flowing through telecommunications networks. Proponents of the new legislation maintain that it closes a telecommunications infrastructure gap. “Evolving communications technologies like the Internet, cell phones and PDAs (personal digital assistants) clearly benefit Canadians in their day-to-day lives. Unfortunately, these technologies have also 38 September 2009 | Canadian Property Management

provided new ways of committing crimes such as distributing child pornography,” Rob Nicholson, the Minister of Justice and Attorney General of Canada, said when the legislation was introduced in June 2009. Meanwhile, privacy advocates have voiced concerns about the other major element of the legislation, which would dispatch with the requirement for a court order when designated law enforcement officials seek information about subscribers to telecommunications services. All telecommunications service providers, including landlord-operated networks within a building, would be compelled to hand over information about the service users upon request from police officers and employees of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) or the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS).

This includes: information about the services transmitted to subscribers; names, addresses and telephone numbers of telecommunications providers and subscribers; and other prescribed information about service providers’ telecommunications facilities. “It is really an exception to the privacy rule right now, and law enforcement will be able to require that without a court order,” says David Young, Co-Chair of the Privacy Law Group with Lang Michener LLP. Te l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s e r v i c e providers won’t be required to gather this information, however. They would only have to provide it if they have it. This should avoid some potential compliance challenges for owners/ managers offering wireless access within a facility. zz


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Upgrade Avoids Tear Downs Metal Retrofit Applicable for Flat or Sloped Roofs By Chuck Howard Replacement and repair accounts for approximately 75% of all roofing work. Retrofitting flat roofs to add a slope can be an economically sound investment that reduces energy and maintenance costs – a solution in sync with trying economic times. In most cases, a sloped metal roof can be installed without having to remove the existing flat roof. Most metal roof warranties can be satisfied with a slope no greater than one-quarter inch per foot, which can be achieved by installing light gauge steel columns in varying lengths. After the columns are installed, steel purlins are positioned between each of the columns and the necessary bracing is installed. A metal standing seam roof panel system is then placed on top of this subframing system. Upon completion, a new metal structure will be sitting atop the original roof. If properly maintained, the metal roof’s exterior surface should last at least 30 to 50 years and reflect up to approximately 80% of the solar energy that would normally penetrate the building. Insulation in the newly created cavity can further increase the building’s ability to conserve energy. Adding a sloped metal roof system over an existing roof is generally more costefficient than total roof replacement with a built-up roofing (BUR) or modified bitumen roofing system, particularly since building codes also frequently require tapered insulation to achieve a certain level of roof slope. There are also fewer castoff roof materials to be sent to landfill, while metal framing systems, roof panels and trim are manufactured from recycled materials and are themselves more than 80% recyclable. Once in place, sloped metal roofs can be retrofitted without the expense and hassle of removing the original roof. A light gauge structural member can span over the original roof’s ribs or corrugation, directly over the building’s framing system. It is attached to the roof purlins through the bottom flange of the structural member and the existing roof sheet. A new standing 40 September 2009 | Canadian Property Management

Photo courtesy of The Metal Initiative

seam metal roof is then attached to the new member. The cavity between the old and new roofs can be used to add insulation, reducing capital costs and accelerating the payback on the investment. Re-roofing might be required over an existing sloped system to meet code requirements for wind uplift. Five-foot purlin spacing on pre-engineered buildings may not comply with edge and corner conditions in order to meet current building code standards for design loads, or panel clips may not be positioned properly to satisfy uplift loads and panel capacities. Placement of new structural members can correct these deficiencies without the need to remove the existing roof. Roofing consultants and contractors should be familiar with light gauge framing and metal roof structural components and testing. A newly created cavity between an old and new metal roof surface can provide natural convective cooling, known as Above Sheathing Ventilation (ASV). Energy efficiency of the new roof assembly is improved through this continuous air

gap from the eave to a ridge, which allows for venting of warmer air. Some tests have demonstrated that such natural ventilation can reduce heat flow into the building by up to 30%. Solar thermal heat recovery works on a similar principle and can also be installed in sync with a metal-over-sloped-roof retrofit. In this scenario, air heating and ventilation collectors are integrated into a photovoltaic system – a source of electricity and revenue that Ontario’s proposed feed-in tariff prices at up to 80.2 cents per kilowatt-hour (kWh). Alternatively, solar water heating can be integrated into a metal-over-sloped-roof retrofit to help to serve the hot water requirements of the building. Natural Resources Canada provides incentives for such installations (see Canadian Property Management, March 2009.) zz Chuck Howard is a professional engineer and roofing consultant to The Metal Initiative, the educational arm of the metal roofing and wall industry in North America. For more information see the web site at www.themetalinitiative.com.


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Canadian Property Management - VOL. 24 NO. 5 • September 2009