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65


REPORTAJES

Una vida basada en el consumo

por Ángela Morales

Este artículo está basado en el consumo, más concretamente en un documental de un programa de rtve llamado`El escarabajo verde´ el documental en concreto se llama ''Sin compras no hay paraíso'' y nos habla de las desventajas del consumo principalmente. Lo primero es exponer las causas de las compras incontroladas, que son las siguientes: - Sobreexplotación de materias primas. - Generación sin fin de residuos. - Afectaciones psicológicas (la adicción al consumo es una enfermedad que desemboca en depresión).

En el documental se proponen opciones como el mercado de intercambio, reducción de nuestras necesidades o compras en tiendas de 2ª mano para intentar evitar o reducir de algún modo dichas desventajas. Para incitarnos a comprar existen los anuncios, cuya única finalidad es vender. En el documental visitamos a una de las agencias publicitarias españolas más reconocidas, BBDO. Allí

nos explican su aportación al consumo. En una entrevista al director de la BBDO, este defiende que la publicidad no es ni buena ni mala, según él depende del uso que le des, pero eso sí, es un elemento clave para el consumo. La publicidad no es aislada, forma parte de un modelo de sociedad, y quizás con la ayuda de esta publicidad seríamos capaces de cambiar este modelo de sociedad.

20


Es muy difícil evitar la tentación de consumir ya que el propio gobierno nos incita a ello con el fin de superar la crisis. Por ejemplo el ayuntamiento de Madrid ha gastado 500.000 euros en la renovación de la calle Serrano, y la ha convertido en un centro comercial abierto, todo ello para fomentar el consumo.

El consumo reflejado en la salud En Italia llegó hasta tal punto este tipo mental: de trastornos, que el tratamiento se inEn los últimos años el número de per- cluyó en la seguridad social. sonas con ansiedad causada a la adicción a las compras ha aumentado notablemente. La adicción a las compras tiene varias causas: –El quererse parecer al modelo que nos muestran los anuncios y no querer ser distinto a los demás. –La falta de felicidad que a veces es compensada por caprichos. Claves para evitar el consumo Toni Loreido, auto de ''Consumir menos, vivir mejor'', nos da las claves para evitar el consumo y una de las más importantes es: ''ser conscientes de las ventajas e inconvenientes. Pensar que si quiero comprar más, debo trabajar más para poder ganar más dinero''. 21


¿Qué podemos hacer para evitar la necesidad de comprar? La respuesta de Toni ante esta pregunta es la siguiente: Cuestionarnos si es una necesidad de verdad nuestra o si es de quien nos quiere vender los productos. Y como todos sabemos el consumo no se puede evitar pero si que podemos conseguir las cosas por otros medios como el mercado de intercambio, o tiendas de segunda mano. El mercado de intercambio consiste en intercambiar cosas que no volverás a usar por cosas que necesitas y sin intercambiar dinero. Ante el consumo en el País Vasco encontramos una alternativa muy bien pensada. Su nombre es Koopera y consiste en unos contenedores que se encuentran en la vía pública en los que se va depositando ropa usada y después es revendida y esto crea multitud de trabajos. También se, encarga de recuperar electrodomésticos que todavía pueden

utilizarse. Toda la ropa que llega a Koopera es revisada y si se ve que es de baja calidad o demasiado antigua se lleva a otras tiendas que se encuentran en Rumanía, Ecuador, Chile... Cada año hay más gente que dona la ropa y esto quiere decir que la gente empieza a concienciarse. Para terminar visitamos a la redacción de la revista Opcions, que es una de las pocas que trata sobre el consumo. Según Opcions el shopping y el consumo afectan a nuestra vida primada, por ejemplo el uso de móvil nos quita la vida ya que produce estrés. También opina que la crisis ecológica no sólo es un tema que afecte a los animales, sino que nos afecta a nosotros por el estilo de vida que llevamos.

22


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Árboles de nuestro Instituto

ECOLOGÍA

Higuera Nombre científico: Ficus carica LINNEO Nombre común: Higuera, brevera, cabrahiguera

Descripción Árbol o arbolillo caducifolio de mediano tamaño, de unos 4 a 8 m de altura. Su tronco a menudo retorcido y muy variable en su forma. La corteza es lisa, de color ceniciento y al herirla deja salir un látex irritante. Sus ramas son largas y horizontales que dan origen a una copa muy abierta e irregular. Estas ramas presentan numerosas cicatrices que dejan las hojas al caer. Las hojas son alternas, grandes, con el limbo palmeado tri ó pentalobulado, margen aserrado y con un largo peciolo. Su haz es de color verde oscuro, áspero y algo pubescente. Su envés es también verde pero más claro. Las flores son unisexuales, muy pequeñas y de color blanco. Son plantas monoicas y, por tanto, las flores masculinas y femeninas aparecen en el mismo árbol. Tanto las flores masculinas como femeninas se localizan en el interior de unos receptáculos globosos y carnosos. Este receptáculo tiene forma de pera y lleva un pequeño poro apical. Los frutos verdaderos de la higuera se encuentran en el interior de los receptáculos maduros, que son lo que conocemos con el nombre común de higos. Estos en realidad son infrutescencias comestibles llamadas también siconos. Los higos son de color azul muy oscuro casi negro. Los diminutos granitos que aparecen en su interior son los verdaderos frutos.

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Floración y fructificación Las higueras florecen en primavera y los higos maduran a finales del verano. Ahora bien si los inviernos son suaves algunas higueras pueden producir una segunda generación de frutos, las brevas, que se forman por autofecundación de las flores que no habían sido polinizadas en primavera, permaneciendo el invierno en el árbol y madurando a finales de primavera. Según otros autores, también cuando las condiciones ambientales son las adecuadas, consideran que se producen dos floraciones y dos fructificaciones una en primavera que da lugar a las brevas y otra a finales de verano que producen los higos.

Hábitat y distribución Árbol rústico, indiferente al tipo de suelo, aunque prefiere los fértiles, ligeros y algo húmedos. Requiere un clima seco y caluroso. Su área natural de distribución es la región mediterránea y Asia suroccidental. En la Península Ibérica, la higuera loca o silvestre (var. caprificus) se extiende principalmente por el centro y el sur.

Usos y curiosidades La higuera no es un árbol que se pueda observar habitualmente como ornamental en parques y jardines. Es principalmente un árbol cultivado por sus higos comestibles. En las higueras silvestres y en algunas variedades cultivadas la fecundación tiene lugar gracias a la intervención de un pequeño insecto himenóptero, Blastophaga grossorum, sus hembras aladas visitan las flores femeninas y llevan el polen de las flores masculinas. Estas ponen los huevos en las flores estériles de las higueras silvestres (cabrahigueras) y allí nacen primero los machos ápteros (sin alas) que fecundan a las hembras antes de eclosionar. Para eliminar los huevecillos de este insecto presentes en algunos higos, estos se tratan con agua caliente. Los griegos utilizaban ristras colgadas de cabrahigos con el fin de que Blastophaga grossorum tomase el polen de las flores y realizaran la polinización, a este proceso se le denomina caprificación. Los higos son muy ricos en azúcares y vitaminas (A, B1, C), se pueden comer tanto frescos como secos y son muy empleados en pastelería, confitería y conservas. Con ellos también se puede elaborar alcohol y vinos dulces. Los higos tienen propiedades ligeramente laxantes y han sido utilizados en medicina popular para las quemaduras y el tratamiento de infecciones de la piel, además son muy buenos en cocimiento para la tos. El látex lechoso de las higueras se ha empleado para quitar las verrugas y como contiene un gran número de enzimas proteolíticas sirven para cuajar la leche. Su madera es de mala calidad y por ello tiene poca utilidad. El nombre genérico de “Ficus” era el nombre que los romanos daban a las higueras, que a su vez parece deriva del griego “sycon”. Su denominación específica “carica” se debe a la región de Caria, en Asia Menor, de donde procedían los mejores higos que eran consumidos en la Roma Imperial.

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Revista Ecoaula nº 18 verano 2013  

Revista de divulgación e información medioambiental

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