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E ch e : IM OM FR I . , P E R S A . WS NE B.S A L P S C EW S NI N H W C TE DUCT Y N E O PR UST R D IN NT S E EV

34 EIS ENGINEERING INTEGRITY MARCH 2013

JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INTEGRITY SOCIETY

papers on: • Creep

Life Estimation of Thick Tube Subjected to Elastic-Plastic-Creep Damage using Uniaxial Strain Energy Density and Multiaxiality Parameter

• Electromobility

- Challenges for Structural Durability EIS Website: www.e-i-s.org.uk


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Open Forums include: • Residual Strain - Effects & Considerations • Improvements in the Whole Testing & Predictive Process • KERS - Standard & Hybrid Systems • Past Successes & Future Challenges in Vehicle Dynamics Guest panels comprising industry experts will expand on the technical developments & take questions from the floor. Visitors If you are interested in attending please pre-register by emailing eis2012@e-i-s.org.uk or visit www.e-i-s.org.uk.


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Contents Index to Advertisements........................................................................................................................................................ 3 Editorial................................................................................................................................................................................. 5 Diary of Events...................................................................................................................................................................... 5 Technical Paper: Creep Life Estimation of Thick Tube Subjected to Elastic-Plastic-Creep Damage using Uniaxial Strain Energy Density and Multiaxiality Parameter................................................................................................. 6 Technical Paper: Electromobility – Challenges for Structural Durability.............................................................................. 14 How it Works - Observations on Modelling and Simulation in Adaptive Control.................................................................. 20 Instrumentation, Analysis & Testing Exhibition.................................................................................................................... 22 Understanding Vehicle Seating Dynamics and Ride Comfort Seminar/Exhibition.............................................................. 23 Industry News ..................................................................................................................................................................... 24 Product News ..................................................................................................................................................................... 29 News from Institution of Mechanical Engineers.................................................................................................................. 31 News from British Standards............................................................................................................................................... 32 Group News........................................................................................................................................................................ 33 Committee Members .......................................................................................................................................................... 34 Profiles of Company Members............................................................................................................................................ 36 Corporate Members............................................................................................................................................................ 38

Front Cover: Courtesy of BMW Group, Germany and DVM, Germany

INDEX TO ADVERTISEMENTS

Amber Instruments...................................................38

Kemo........................................................................13

Bruel & Kjaer..............................................Back cover

M+P International.......................................................2

Data Physics.................................... Inside front cover

Moog........................................................................40

Engineering Integrity Society......................................1

Team Corporation.....................................................39

HBM United Kingdom.......................Inside back cover

Techni Measure........................................................39

Ixthus Instrumentation......................Inside back cover

Yokogawa.................................................................39

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HONORARY EDITOR Dr Karen Perkins

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EDITORIAL POLICY Engineering Integrity contains various items of information of interest to, or directly generated by, the Engineering Integrity Society. The items of information can be approximately subdivided into three general categories: technical papers, topical discussion pieces and news items. The items labelled in the journal as technical papers are peer reviewed by a minimum of two reviewers in the normal manner of academic journals, following a standard protocol. The items of information labelled as topical discussions and the news items have been reviewed by the journal editorial staff and found to conform to the legal and professional standards of the Engineering Integrity Society.

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The principal activity of the Engineering Integrity Society, is the arrangement of conferences, seminars, exhibitions and workshops to advance the education of persons working in the field of engineering. This is achieved by providing a forum for the interchange of ideas and information on engineering practice. The Society is particularly committed to promoting projects which support professional development and attract young people into the profession.

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ISSN 1365-4101/2013

The Engineering Integrity Society (EIS) Incorporated under the Companies Act 1985. Registered No. 1959979 Registered Office: c/o Hollis & Co., 35 Wilkinson Street, Sheffield S10 2GB Charity No: 327121

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‘Engineering Integrity’ is lodged with the Agency for the Legal Deposit Libraries on behalf of the Bodleian Library Oxford University, the Cambridge University Library, National Library of Scotland, National Library of Wales and Trinity College Dublin.


Editorial Welcome to the February 2013 edition of the EIS journal. With winter still holding sway in many parts, it may be a little early to think of spring, but I detect a sense of optimism that befits the time of year. The green shoots of renewed growth are seen not only in academia, with an 8.4% increase in applications to universities for Engineering courses according to January's statistics from UCAS, but also in industry, with a remarkable 85% increase in the take up of apprenticeships over the last two years reported in the industry news section. After so many years bemoaning the lack of new blood coming into the sector, let us hope that these promising signs do not wither in the face of some late economic frost. The risks of innovation have been highlighted in the media again with the widespread coverage of the problems that Boeing is having with the lithium ion batteries on its 787 Dreamliner aircraft which have grounded the entire fleet. Boeing's woes remind us that despite all of the design and testing processes, components in a complex, high-tech system do not always perform as expected in service. With Japanese and US authorities currently investigating GS Yuasa, the battery supplier, it is not clear yet whether this is a quality control issue or a fundamental problem with the technology. While this will be crucial in determining the solution to the problem, a serious failure in the air means a failure in systems and processes on the ground. Despite all of the technological advances, there are still 'no lay-bys at 30,00 feet'. The two technical papers in this issue show the range of EIS interests and activities. On the materials properties side we have a theoretical analysis of creep, 'Creep Life Estimation of Thick Tube Subjected to Elastic-PlasticCreep Damage using Uniaxial Strain Energy Density and Multiaxiality Parameter' while from the testing side we have 'Electromobility – Challenges for Structural Durability'. This edition's 'How it works' column looks at Adaptive Control systems and contains a lot of advice on the successful application of these techniques. The groups within EIS remain very active with the Sound and Vibration Product Perception Group holding a one day seminar on vehicle seating in April and the Simulation, Test and Measurement Group holding its 30th Instrumentation Analysis and Testing Exhibition in March. In the industry news we hear of continuing progress in the area of autonomous driving. Advancing from self parking cars to those that automatically move through a traffic jam, the technology evolves, providing a perfect example of the interplay of technology, reliability/integrity and human perception/acceptance. The same section contains a report on a new award to fund collaborative research between Harper Adams University and China Agricultural University.

The theme is precision farming technologies – I hope their first project isn't how to reliably distinguish horses from cows! More seriously, the Institution of Mechanical Engineers reports that half of all food produced in the world is wasted. While staggering this figure at least raises the possibility that feeding the world's ever growing population might not require any great upheavals in food production, but infrastructure and storage facilities – technologies that we might feel more confident with. Karen Perkins Honorary Editor

Diary of Events Tuesday 12 March 2013 Instrumentation, Analysis & Testing Exhibition The Silverstone Wing Silverstone Race Track 10am - 4pm Co-sponsored by the British Society for Strain Measurement, Institution of Mechanical Engineers, BMTA and Institute of Measurement & Control. Entrance to the exhibition and open forums is free along with complimentary refreshments.

Thursday 11 April 2013 Understanding Vehicle Ride Comfort and Seating Dynamics Human Factors Research Unit, ISVR, University of Southampton This is a joint seminar from the Engineering Integrity Society (EIS) Sound & Vibration Product Perception Group and Institute of Sound and Vibration Research (ISVR). To optimise the vehicle ride comfort, account must be taken of many factors, including design of vehicle seats, occupant characteristics, posture and activities and seat dynamic properties. The dynamic response must be ‘tuned’ to minimise relevant adverse effects on comfort, health, or performance.

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ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 34, MARCH 2013 pp.6-13.

ISSN 1365-4101/2013

Technical Paper Creep Life Estimation of Thick Tube Subjected to Elastic-Plastic-Creep Damage using Uniaxial Strain Energy Density and Multiaxiality Parameter Mahmood Tahir, Kanapathipillai Sangarapillai and Chowdhury Mahiuddin, School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of New South Wales (UNSW), Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia & L&A Pressure Welding Pty Ltd, Sydney, NSW 2212, Australia Abstract Engineers are often challenged to meet the ever-increasing demands of designing and assessing lifespan of equipment operating in the creep regime. These demands range from achieving excellence in performance to satisfying stringent requirements and eventually to economic ramifications of a component failure. The present paper demonstrates the application of a previously developed creep life prediction model by authors to predict the failure time of a component made of 0.5%Cr-0.5%Mo-0.25%V low alloy steel when the material is subjected to elastic-plastic-creep damages. Elastic-creep analysis as well as elastic-plastic-creep analysis was employed to predict the creep lifetime of thickwalled cylindrical pressure vessel and a comparison was made of results to the experimental life. Creep life of the component was also calculated using the reference stress method and Robinson’s fraction rule to compare the results with new method as well as with the experimental results. This paper addresses gross creep deformation/rupture and studies the problem from the macroscopic (engineering) point of view and not from the microscopic (material science) point of view. The pressure vessel was analysed first with an open end and end traction to simulate the test condition, and then with an end cap as it was tested in the experiment. The paper shows that the proposed model can predict the elastic-plastic-creep life of the vessel with an error of less than 3%. Keywords Elastic-creep, elastic-plastic-creep, triaxiality factor, multiaxiality parameter, life prediction, pressure vessels, finite element analysis.

locations like nozzle to shell junctions. If the component is cyclically loaded and is properly designed, then after a few initial load cycles the component should shake down to an elastic-creep behaviour. However, it appears that there is little if any investigation on the effect of any initial plasticity on the subsequent stress distribution and/or life of the component. In the author’s knowledge, sufficiently accurate models that can be employed to predict the life of the components within the creep regime and subjected to additional plastic damage are scarce. The allowable stress intensities vary according to loading case and type of stress, and fundamental assumption employed in the development of these allowables is that elastic analysis method are used. The real materials, however, experience damage under plastic deformation, which is accelerated under multi-axial stress conditions. Boilers and pressure vessels failures are energy-limited rather than load-limited [2], therefore, it makes sense to have analysis acceptance criteria that are more closely related to absorbed energy than to the applied load. Recently authors [3] have developed a relatively accurate model for failure analysis and life prediction of components that are subjected to elastic-plastic-creep damages. This paper gauges the accuracy of this model and investigates the effects of any plastic deformation under multi-axial loading on the subsequent stress distributions and life of component when the component operates within the creep regime. In doing so, the model will be applied to a thick wall pressure tube subjected to uniform internal pressure and sufficiently high temperature. The paper also describes the application of other and most commonly used models to this example and a comparison of results was made. A brief description of the life assessment model developed by authors is outlined in the next section.

Introduction The current stress failure criteria defined in design standards across the world is based on the ultimate strength of uniaxial tensile strength test specimen rather than on the material fracture in the state of multi-axial stresses. Stress-based criteria are used in the design of pressure components at high temperature and although very popular in design standards, these methods are not accurate and even the founders of the criteria recognize the limitations of this method [1]. The stress-based criteria are based upon the concept of stress intensity, which is twice the maximum shear stress. Normally, a limited amount of plasticity is allowed at certain

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Strain Energy Density – An Elastic-Plastic-Creep Model for Life Prediction [4] The model allows the material to undergo elastic-plasticcreep deformation but it postulates that the dominant damage mechanism is creep and at the point of failure the component fails by excessive creep deformation and/ or creep rupture. This allows limited plastic deformation at the highly stressed regions, which as mentioned above has practical significance, as the plastic deformation in the properly designed components is normally restricted to the limited regions of the components. Consider a component


ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 34, MARCH 2013 pp.6-13.

that is subjected to several loads. These loads are increased in their respective magnitudes from zero to their operational levels over a relatively short period of time so that it can be assumed that at time t = 0 they instantly cause elastic deformation only in the regions where the corresponding equivalent stresses are below the yield strength and plastic deformation in the regions where the equivalent stresses are above the yield strength. Having reached their respective operational levels, the loads are taken to be constant causing creep damage/deformation until the point of failure. It is also assumed that the material temperature (T) is uniform and constant so that there is basically no fatigue damage. In the following, the superscript e refers to elastic, p refers to plastic and c refers to creep. At time t the rate of the total internal energy density (i.e., the rate of the total internal energy per unit of volume), may be expressed in terms of stress ( σij ) and strain rate ( components as:

)

(1)

where is the rate of the internal (thermal) energy in the absence of stress at a point in the material. The total internal energy density at any point can be calculated by integrating equation (1) with respect to time:

In general, the mechanical characteristics of the material are obtained from uniaxial tests (stress test, creep test etc.), which do not agree with 2-dimensional or, more often, 3-dimentional stress fields in real components. As most of the components operating at high temperature are subjected to multi-axial state of stress, a method needs to be devised for the application of uniaxial test data to multiaxial stress application. The conversion of test results, from uniaxial creep specimen to real components, gives conservative prediction of service life and life consumption due to following reasons [12]: • Multiaxiality of stress field, which has already been discussed • The creep tests run under constant load for the whole test duration. Hence, the actual stress in the specimen cross section is increasing up to the end of the test, due to necking of the specimen, which results in a shorter fracture life. This is a special effect of specimens which is not found in components. Creep damage is considerably affected by the multiaxiality of the stresses. Multiaxiality parameters, such as the following, were introduced and allow the characterization of this effect: Triaxility Factor, TF =

(2)

Note that the second term in equation (2), i.e., is the input thermal energy density and it accounts for microstructural damages in the absence of stress. It may be calculated analytically for simple cases or numerically using the finite element method (FEM) for more complex cases. Note also that at the normal operational stress levels, the microstructural damages are also indirectly accounted for by the pertinent material parameters. Therefore, one may postulate that at the normal operation where stresses are significant, then the first term (i.e., the strain energy density) in equation (2) is dominant and responsible for the damage in the material. On the other hand as the material is subjected to heat in absence of mechanical loading and constraints and therefore stresses are reduced and approach zero then would be dominant and responsible for the damage. Previous investigations [5-11] indicate that this postulation is valid. To obtain W using equation (2) then, one needs first to compute the stresses and strains as functions of time up to the rupture time. This may be obtained from uniaxial creep rupture test or from the data published in the literature. Uniaxial strain energy is required to be calculated, for simple cases this may be achieved analytically and for more complex cases a numerical method such as FEM may be employed.

Multiaxiality Paramter, h =

σ1 + σ2 + σ3

σeq

(3)

σ1 + σ2 + σ3

3σeq

(4)

where σ1 , σ2 , σ3 are three principal stresses at the location under evaluation and σeq is equivalent Von Mises stress. In determining the stress and strain fields as functions of time, the creep constitutive relationships up to the point of rupture including any tertiary region must be used, i.e., the model requires the inclusion of the creep tertiary response in the constitutive equation, which is normally obtained from the uniaxial creep tests. A simple relationship can be developed between rupture time and equivalent stress from the creep data obtained from uniaxial creep test. Any creep life prediction model can be used for calculating the uniaxial creep strain energy density but as Norton-Power law provides better agreement with experimental results [13], Norton-Power law was used for calculating uniaxial creep strain energy density. Uniaxial elastic and plastic strain energy densities can be calculated from the area under the uniaxial stress strain curve of the material at the temperature under investigation. An analytical solution of the stationary state distribution of stress in an internally pressurized homogeneous cylinder was derived by Finnie and Heller [14]. Their analysis assumes that the uniaxial creep rate

is related to stress (σ) by Norton’s law as

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ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 34, MARCH 2013 pp.6-13.

given below;

ٜ

ε = βσn (5) where values of β and n depend on composition, microstructure, temperature, etc. The creep rate and stress data can be obtained from uniaxial creep test and by curve fitting to log-log plot of creep rate and stress data the values of β and n can be determined. The summation of uniaxial elastic, plastic and creep strain energy densities will give the total uniaxial strain energy density. Uniaxial strain energy density can be converted to multi-axial strain energy density by multiplying it to a function of multiaxiality parameter. A comparison FEA creep analysis of component is conducted at required temperature and under required loading conditions and FEA multiaxial strain energy density can be determined from the analysis. A comparison of ‘calculated strain energy density using multiaxiality parameter’ and ‘FEA strain energy density’ can predict the rupture life of the component. If these two densities are plotted against each other versus time, they do intersect at a certain point and corresponding time gives the creep rupture life of the component. As the strain energy density theory states that the failure occurs when strain energy density reaches some predetermined limiting value. When calculated strain energy density becomes equal to the FEA strain energy density by analysing the required conditions, we interpret it as that the predetermined limiting value has been reached. Uniaxial creep rupture data are part of the essential ingredients of any analysis involving creep deformation and as mentioned before, they are normally obtained from the uniaxial creep tests. If no direct data are available, published generic data may be utilised, with appropriate sensitivity analyses to cover the uncertainties. Application of Model Brown [15] conducted elastic-plastic-creep testing on a closed-ended thick cylindrical vessel at 565oC and experimentally determined an average rupture time of 9,000 hours when the vessel was pressurised to give a hoop stress of 160 MPa, hoop stress was converted to uniform internal pressure of 96 MPa, which made this vessel a suitable candidate for gauging the accuracy of the proposed paradigm described before. This experimental load that was used by Brown was employed for finite element analysis (Figure 1). The vessel had an internal diameter of 20.0 mm, a wallthickness of 10.0 mm and it was 100 mm long. Because of symmetry half of the length of the vessel was modeled and its axisymmetric finite element model is shown in Figure 1. To model any through-thickness bending effect, the thickness of the vessel was modeled using quadrilateral 8-nodes elements resulting in 2,886 total numbers of

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Figure 1 – Axisymmetric finite element model of the thickwalled cylinder elements, including 20 elements in the radial direction and 124 elements in the axial direction to model the mesh as shown in Figure 1. The vessel was made of 0.5%Cr0.5%Mo-0.25%V steel and its uniaxial stress-strain curve at the operating temperature of 565°C that was used in the finite element analysis is shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2 – Uniaxial stress-strain curve of 0.5%Cr-0.5%Mo0.25%V steel at 565°C [16]

FEA creep analysis using ANSYS code [17] was performed; ANSYS code has in-built creep equations for use with the analysis and for reason described before Norton’s law equation (5) was used in the analysis. Initially an elasticcreep analysis of open end thick tube with end traction of 32 MPa as shown in Figure 3 was performed; to simulate the test condition in which closed end tube was tested. We continued with elastic-creep analysis of closed end tube and finished with elastic-plastic-creep analysis of closed end tube. Strain energy densities were determined from FEA analysis for all three cases, corresponding strain energy densities using multiaxiality parameter were also calculated and the densities were plotted versus time to obtain rupture time. Following values were used with equation, β = 1.07e-30, which is the creep stress coefficient, n = 11.87 is the Norton stress index. These values of β and n were obtained from uniaxial creep data reported graphically by Brown [15]. The uniaxial rupture data is defined by following equation obtained from uniaxial creep data reported by Brown [15].


ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 34, MARCH 2013 pp.6-13.

Figure 3 – Dimensions, loading and finite element model of open end vessel

σ = -48.78751 log10tr+ 349.09

(6)

Figure 5 – Von Mises equivalent stress versus radial distance at various time points computed using an elastic-creep analysis

where tr is uniaxial time-to-rupture and stress σ is in MPa. Results Figures 4 & 5 show respectively the distributions of the hoop and von Mises equivalent stresses computed using an elastic-creep analysis. As might be expected, Figures 4 & 5 demonstrate the redistribution of initial elastic stresses due to creep. For comparison, Figures 6 & 7 show respectively the distributions of the hoop and von Mises equivalent stresses computed using an elastic-plastic-creep analysis. Here, the initial elastic stresses are redistributed by the initial plastic deformation. As a consequence, there is no significant stress redistribution due to the follow-up creep deformation and the variations of stresses with time is minimised. Figures 4 & 5 depict skeleton stresses as well.

Figure 6 – Hoop stress versus radial distance at various time points computed using an elastic-plastic-creep analysis Referring to figures 6 & 7, it is apparent that no skeleton stress could accurately be defined for the elastic-plastic-creep. Figures 6 & 7 show that while hoop stress at the inner surface was lower than the hoop stress at the outer surface, the reverse was true for the von Mises equivalent stress. This was due to high negative radial stress at the inner surface and zero radial stress at the outer surface that would affect the von Mises stress distribution.

Figure 4 – Hoop stress versus radial distance at various time points computed using an elastic-creep analysis

Figures 8 & 9 shows the distribution of the hoop and von Mises equivalent stresses computed using an elastic-creep analysis for open ended

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ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 34, MARCH 2013 pp.6-13.

variation from 0 to 10,000 hrs. Uniaxial strain energy density is higher when compared to FEA (multi-axial) strain energy density which confirms the concept of ASME strain-based criteria where strain at failure for general state of stress is determined by dividing the uniaxial tension failure by triaxiality factor [2]. By multiplying the uniaxial strain energy density to a function of multiaxiality parameter h the multiaixal strain energy density was obtained and plotted against time in Figures 10 & 11.

Figure 7 – Von Mises equivalent stress versus radial distance at various time points computed using an elastic-plastic-creep analysis

Using the elastic-creep case, the life of the vessel predicted is 9250 hrs against 9000 hrs from experimental testing. The elastic-plasticcreep case predicts a creep life 9070 hrs in comparison to 9000 hrs from experimental testing. The results show that strain energy

vessel as shown in Figure 3. Figures 8 & 9 show the redistribution of initial elastic stresses due to creep which are very similar to that for closed end vessel shown in Figures 4 & 5. The comparison of elastic stresses for closed end and open end vessels illustrates that the closed end vessel can be analyzed using open end model with an end traction as shown in Figure 3. The comparison for calculated strain energy density and FEA strain energy density is given in figures 10 & 11 for elastic-creep and elastic-plastic-creep case respectively. Figures show the multiaxiality parameter h, uniaxial and multiaxial strain energy densities plotted against time. Figures and their corresponding exploded views show that the triaxiality parameter h has minimal Figure 9 – Open End Vessel Von Mises equivalent stress versus radial distance at various time points computed using an elastic-creep analysis

density method employing stress multiaxiality parameter h is quite accurate for both elasticcreep and elastic-plastic creep cases. The relationship developed to convert uniaxial strain energy density to multiaxial strain energy density is a function of multiaxiality parameter h and is quite similar for both cases; the life predicted is quite accurate. A further research on this method and/or applying the method to other cases will validate the trueness of these relationships; further research will help in formulating a general relationship for life prediction using this method. Figure 8 – Open End Vessel Hoop stress versus radial distance at various time points computed using an elastic-creep analysis

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Table 1 also includes the predicted lives of the vessel using the reference stress method, and


ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 34, MARCH 2013 pp.6-13.

Robinson time fraction rule as well as the experimental life for comparison. The data in Table 1 shows the accuracy of results from current method as compared to some of the existing models. Also, while the proposed model can be used both with elastic-creep as well as elastic-plastic-creep cases, it accurately predicted the life of the vessel; the other methods were non-conservative for this application. This might be expected as strictly, the reference stress method and Robinson time fraction rule are applicable to elasticcreep damages and not elastic-plastic-creep damages. Also, as Wilshire and Scharning [18] have pointed out, creep lives are governed by accumulation of strains and therefore the methods that take into account stress values only might not result in valid predictions. Figure 10a – Comparison of multiaxiality parameter h, uniaxial and multi-axial strain energy density for elastic-creep analysis with intersection point

A comparison of elastic-creep and elastic-plastic-creep strain energy values shown in figures 10 & 11 reveals that the multiaxiality parameter h does not vary much with time in both cases, multiaxiality parameter h is a ratio of mean stress to Von Mises stress and that ratio seems to remain same with time under loading. FEA strain energy density in elastic-creep case at ‘time = 0 hrs’ is less than the elastic-plastic-creep case which shows that FEA strain energy is increased by a value which could be termed as plastic strain energy density.

Figure 10b – Exploded View of Intersection Point between Uniaxial & Multiaxial Strain Energy Density for elastic-creep analysis

Figure 11b – Exploded View of Intersection Point between Uniaxial & Multiaxial Strain Energy Density for elastic-plasticcreep analysis

Figure 11a – Comparison of multiaxiality parameter h, uniaxial and multi-axial strain energy density for elastic-plastic-creep analysis with intersection point

Uniaxial strain energy density for elastic-creep case is higher than for elastic-plastic-creep case, the difference is due to the von Mises stress which is higher for elastic-creep case, see Figures 5 & 7. Multi-axial strain energy density for elastic-creep case starts from a higher value compared to elastic-plastic-creep case due to higher von Mises stress for elastic-creep case but they tend to flat out and are quite similar for most of the time, slightly higher for elastic-plasticcreep case due to plastic strain energy density. Intersection point of multi-axial and FEA strain energy densities show that the corresponding rupture time for both cases is similar and quite close to experimental life which validates the merit of proposed creep life prediction model.

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ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 34, MARCH 2013 pp.6-13.

Table 1 – Comparison of the life of the vessel using various models Stress

Life Predicted

(MPa)

(hours)

--

9000

--

--

9250

-2.8

--

9070

-0.8

Reference Stress

120

49621

-451

Robinson Rule

σvon Mises

26866

-199

Elastic-Plastic-Creep

σhoop

30953

-244

Method

Experimental

Proposed Model Elastic-Creep Proposed Model

Error (%)

Elastic-Plastic–Creep

Note: A negative error indicates non-conservative life prediction

Final Remarks The paper investigates the accuracy of the ‘strain energy density using multiaxiality parameter h’ model proposed by the authors by applying it to a thick-walled pressure vessel. In principle, the proposed model takes into account the contributions from all stress and strain components and as such should be more accurate than those models that are based on stresses alone or strains alone. Also, noting that stresses and strains are tensor quantities, those methods that are based on stresses or strains alone may not lead to pragmatic and sufficiently accurate models for life prediction when the material is subjected to elastic-plasticcreep deformation. On the other hand, the internal (strain) energy density is a scalar quantity and simple to compute and apply. The thick-walled vessel example described in this paper supports the above-mentioned statements.

the Packaging & Transportation Materials, London, UK.

of

Radioactive

[3] Mahmood T., Kanapathipillai S., Chowdhury M., A Model for Creep Life prediction of Thin Tube using Strain Energy Density as a function of Stress Triaxiality under Quasi-Static Loading employing Elastic-Creep & Elastic-Plastic-Creep deformation, World Journal of Engineering (Under Review). [4] Mahmood T., Jelwan J., Zarrabi K., 2011, Comparison of various life prediction models under quasi-static loading and non-linear material behaviour, International Journal of Reliability and Safety of Engineering Systems and Structures, Part D, IJRSESS, 1(1) 2011, pp. 43-51, ISSN 1916-5374.

References [1] Cooper W.E., 1981, Rationale for a Standard on the Requalification of Nuclear Class 1 Pressure Boundary Components, Electric Power Research Institute, Report NP-1921. [2] Bjorkman G.S., Ammerman D., Snow S., Morton D.K., 2010, Strain-Based Acceptance Criteria for Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation Containments, Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on

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[5] Ng L., Zarrabi K., 2005, A Multiaxial Creep Damage Hypothesis and its Application to Predict Life of 2.25%Cr1%Mo (Bridgman) Notched Bars, Proceedings of the ICMEM, Int. Conf. Mech. Eng. and Mechanics, Nanjing, China, pp. 127-130, published by Science Press USA, ISBN: 1-933100-14-1. [6] Ng L., Zarrabi K., 2005, Creep Life Prediction of 0.5%Cr-0.25%V Thick Walled Cylinder using New Multiaxial Approach, Proceedings of the IMECE, CD-


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ROM, ASME, Int. Mech. Cong. and Expo., Orlando, Florida, USA. [7] Zarrabi K., Ng L., 2006, A Novel and Simple Approach for Predicting Creep Life Based on Tertiary Creep Behaviour, ASME Journal of Pressure Vessels Technology 2008, Vol. 130 / 041201-1 to 041201-10. [8] Ng L., Zarrabi K., 2006, A Creep Damage Model for Predicting Failure on Multi-Material-cross-weld components, Proceedings of the Structural Integrity & Failure Conference, CD-ROM, Sydney, Australia, 2729 September 2006, ISBN: 1 876855 26 6. [9] Zarrabi K., Ng L., 2006, On Integrity Assessment of Axisymmetric Components Operating Within Creep Regime, The Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 19, No.4, pp. 492-495, Dec 2006, published by: American Society of Mechanical Engineers, ISSN 1000-9345. [10] Zarrabi K., Ng L., 2006, Energy-Based Paradigm for Predicting Creep Damage/Life of Axisymmetric components, International Journal of Science and Technology – Scientia Iranica – Transactions on: Mechanical and Civil Engineering, Vol. 14, No. 5, pp. 450-457, Oct 2007.

[18] Wilshire B., Scharning P.J., 2008, Extrapolation of creep life data for 1Cr-0.5Mo steel, International Journal of Pressure Vessel and Piping 2008;85:739-743. [19] Norton, F.H., 1929, “The Creep of Steel at High Temperatures, McGraw-Hill, London. [20] Davis E.A., Connelly F.M., 1959, Stress and Plastic Deformation in Rotating Cylinders of Strain-Hardening Materials, Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Applied Mechanics, pp. 25-30, March 1959. [21] Manjoine M.J., 1983, Damage and Failure at Elevated Temperature, Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, pp. 58-62, February 1983.

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[11] Ng L., Zarrabi K., 2008, On Creep Failure of Notched Bars, Elsevier: Engineering Failure Analysis, Vol. 15, pp. 774-786, 2008. [12] Seliger P., Gampe U., 2002, Life Assessment of Creep Exposed Components, New Challenges for Condition Monitoring of 9Cr Steels, Operation Maintenance and Materials Issues – OMMI, Vol. 1, Issue 2, Aug 2002. [13] Tahami F.K., Daei-Sorkhabi A.H., Biglari F.R., 2010, Creep Constitutive Equations for Cold-Drawn 304L Stainless Steel, Materials Science & Engineering A, Vol. 527(18), pp. 4993-4999. [14] Finnie C.W., Heller A., 1959, Creep of Engineering Materials, McGraw-Hill, London. [15] Brown R.J., Creep rupture testing of tubular model. Published in: Techniques for multiaxial creep testing, Gooch DJ, How IM, 311-332, London, Elsevier Applied Science, 1985. Assessment Procedure for the High Temperature [16] Response of Structures, R5. Berkeley Technology Centre, Nuclear Electric plc., July 1995 (Issue 2). [17] ANSYS Release 13, ANSYS, Inc., USA, May 2010.

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ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 34, MARCH 2013 pp.14-19.

ISSN 1365-4101/2013

Technical Paper Electromobility – Challenges for Structural Durability D. Martin1, A. Hiebl1, L. Krueger2 BMW Group, D-80788 Munich, Germany, 2DVM, D-12205 Berlin, Germany

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Abstract In this lecture [4] the challenges of testing the structural durability of electric vehicles are highlighted. The requirements and in particular differences in those for electric vehicles and cars with internal-combustion engines are compared and illustrated. Current experiences with the MINI-E and actual BMW hybrid cars are shown. Furthermore, testing concepts for specific electromobility components and their structural integration into the vehicle are explained. Finally an insight into possible future hybrid cars is presented. Keywords Electromobility, multiaxial fatigue, structural durability Introduction The BMW Group is the leading car manufacturer with respect to ecological and social sustainability. This is reflected in the results of the Dow Jones Sustainability Index, where BMW has been named as leader in the automotive industry for the 6th year in sequence. The BMW EfficientDynamics program is the background for this success. Some aspects in this program are enhancements in the construction of the engine and ancillary parts, a new energy management system (such as engine-start-stop), lightweight construction of the car body and the optimized aerodynamics of the vehicle shape. Last but not least, attention has to be paid in future to the kind of energy which the vehicle uses. Recently, the BMW Group demonstrated its competence in the field of alternative energies with the 7series hydrogen vehicle and the electric MINI E (Fig. 1 left). Both vehicles have already been produced in a limited-run production. In this publication, we will focus on battery electric vehicles (BEV) as well as the Active Hybrid 7 and Active Hybrid X6 vehicles which were produced in series manufacturing. In the near future another battery electric vehicle will be produced in a small series: the ActiveE on the basis of the BMW 1series (Fig. 1 right).

Looking ahead, the next vehicles will be the mega city vehicle (MCV) BMW i3 which will be produced in greater volumes, and the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle BMW i8 which combines sports car performance with unbeatable fuel efficiency and improved range for longer journeys. Requirements for Battery Electric Vehicles The realization of lightweight structures in the car body and other components is of particular importance in battery electric vehicles due to the weight of the lithium ion battery. Nevertheless, the structural durability has to be maintained in BEV for operating loads, special events (e.g. pot holes) and for misuse in the same way as for conventional vehicles. So the demands made upon electric mobility, especially on battery electric vehicles, had to be derived from the standard validation process. Conventional vehicles are configured for approximately 300,000 km customer usage by the 1%-customer, 99% of the customers will reach a higher mileage. Battery electric vehicles display another characteristic while in use by the customer due to the limited energy storage compared to conventional vehicles. Whereas conventional larger and middle-sized vehicles are mostly used for long distances, BEV as well as small vehicles will be primarily used for shorter distances in cities. A large-scale test with external customers has shown, that users of MINI E cars are mainly 35 years and older, male, highly educated and show an affinity to new technologies as well as displaying interest in ecologic issues. They would often use the MINI E for daily commuting, where the range offered suits daily mobility needs. Table 1 shows the vehicle user behaviour for different vehicles of the BMW group, evaluated from a group of 80 users [1]. Fig. 2 shows the classification of the daily driven distance for different vehicles. The BMW 116i, MINI Cooper and MINI E used in Berlin display a very similar usage behavior. They all were used for a distance of approximately 40 km per day. In comparison a BMW 530dA is used for longer daily distances, on average 103 km/day. The requirements for structural strength had been adapted to the usage behaviour for small as well as electric vehicles [1]. Figure 3 shows the classification of the single trip length for different cars: BMW 1series and MINI Cooper with internal combustion engine as well as MINI E in Berlin. It is shown, that there is only a small difference in usage behaviour [1].

Fig. 1: MINI E (left) and ActiveE on the basis of the BMW 1series (right). This paper has been previously published in the“Materialwissenschaft and Werkstofftechnik Journal” and is printed with the permission of Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Boschstr. 12, 69469 Weinheim, Germany who hold the copyright.

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Table1: Vehicle User Behaviour (overview samples data collection cars) [1].

During the design of components, particularly those relevant to safety, many diverse parameters influencing the service life of a battery electrical vehicle must be taken into account (Fig. 4). The most important parameters influencing the service life of a vehicle are:

Fig. 2: Daily driving behaviour for different cars: BMW 1series and MINI Cooper with internal combustion engine as well as MINI E in Berlin. Further: BMW 5series diesel [1].

- The design of components in terms of their geometry and shape: radii, stiffness, resistance to bending, torsion, etc. - Surfaces formed in the production process influencing notch factors. - The materials with their specific material properties (tensile and compression strength, flexural stiffness, etc). - Loading encountered during service conditions (service, special event and misuse loads) - Usage behaviour by the customer, e.g. charging / discharging cycles. Technological and geometric factors. - Environmental conditions: varying service temperature - range and corrosive facilitators. - Characteristic and residual stress generated during the production process, for example during welding or deep-drawing. As shown above many parameters influence the life cycle of battery electric and hybrid vehicles. This paper specifically addresses different aspects of component structural durability testing of in such vehicles. Testing and Experimental Results New Testing Procedure

Fig. 3: Single trip length for different cars: BMW 1series and MINI Cooper with internal combustion engine as well as MINI E in Berlin [1]

Components such as the electronic control unit for the electric motor (EME) which are mounted directly to the engine are normally tested with a standard sine sweep from 80 Hz to 2,000 Hz, according to the excitation of the internal combustion engine. The EME has different parts for which the structural durability has to be validated. Each part has a specific resonant frequency. Therefore the whole test frequency range mentioned above has to be examined.

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ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 34, MARCH 2013 pp.14-19.

Fig. 4: Parameters influencing the life of components in the battery electrical vehicle Each frequency has to be considered over a period of 106 load cycles respectively to ensure the structural strength of each part in the EME. By using a logarithmic sweep at a rate of one octave per minute, a total testing time of approximately 84 hours in each spatial axis is necessary for 106 load cycles over the spectrum of 80 Hz to 2,000 Hz. A significant reduction of the test time can be achieved by applying the multi-sine test method, where the whole frequency bandwidth is subdivided into several identical intervals corresponding to the testing time (see fig. 5) [2].

Fig. 6: The test spectra will be started and stopped simultaneously [2]. interval sweeps is inversely proportional to the test time. In the case of the shown example, it is shown that by using four sine excitations it is possible to reduce the test time by 75% to 21 hours for each spatial axis [2]. Fig. 7 displays the excitation and the elongation versus time for the test item fitted with a strain gauge, which is shown in the picture [2]. In the upper part of the diagram the situation for single sine is displayed. Over the whole sweep of about 437 sec from 10 Hz to 1,250 Hz, a constant excitation of 1g (9.81 msec-2) is applied to the test specimen. During the sweep characteristic resonances are activated, and are shown in the diagram elongation vs. time.

Fig. 5: The whole bandwidth is subdivided into four identical intervals [2].

In this diagram the acceleration is shown in relation to the frequency. The frequency is subdivided into four intervals with equal testing times (1st: 80 Hz .. 179 Hz, 2nd: 179 Hz .. 400 Hz, 3rd: 400 Hz .. 894 Hz and 4th: 894 Hz .. 2,000 Hz). These four test spectra will be started and stopped simultaneously (see fig. 6). The four sine sweeps are increased in frequency until the upper value is reached. Upon completion the sine sweep will be reduced to its starting value. This procedure will be repeated, as in the case of a single sweep, until 106 load cycles are reached for each frequency. The number of

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In the lower part of fig. 7 the same situation is displayed in the case of a three-tone multi sine (1st: 10 Hz .. 50 Hz, 2nd: 50 Hz .. 250 Hz and 3rd: 250 Hz .. 1,250 Hz). For each of these three frequency ranges a constant excitation of 1g is applied to the test specimen, creating a sum of 3g. The characteristic resonances which are shown in the diagram for single sine were identified again, in this case three times. During the testing time of 437 sec, the frequency range could be passed three times. The diagram furthermore displays that the excitation outside of the resonance frequencies have no influence on the resonance behaviour of the test specimen [2]. Structural Strength of Components One of the new components found in electric vehicles is the electronic control unit for the electric motor (EME). In the BMW 7series ActiveHybrid vehicle the EME is mounted directly to the internal combustion engine (Fig. 8). Therefore the dimensioning of the EME and the connection to the engine has to consider the affecting loads, such as temperature, humidity and vibration.


ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 34, MARCH 2013 pp.14-19.

Fig. 7: Difference between single and multi sine testing. In this case a 3-sine testing is displayed [2].

Fig. 8: Position of the EME in the BMW 7series ActiveHybrid vehicle For testing the structural durability, the EME is mounted onto a fixture in a climatic chamber on an electro-dynamical vibration system (shaker), shown in Fig. 9.

Fig. 10: HV-storage battery of the MINI E. In Fig. 10 the HV-storage battery (supplier: AC propulsion, Inc.) of the MINI E is shown. The MINI E employs a lithiumion battery with an overall capacity of 35 kilowatt-hours (130 MJ). The battery has a weight of approximately 260 kg and replaces the back seats and a part of the boot, leaving a luggage capacity of approximately 60 l. The storage battery is comprised of 48 modules with a total of 5,088 individual lithium-ion-cells. Driving power in the MINI E comes from an asynchronous electric motor that is mounted in the former engine bay which delivers 150 kW and 220 Nm of torque. Drive is sent to the front wheels and the top speed is electronically limited to 150 km/h. Approximately 600 vehicles were delivered to external customers in Germany, Great Britain and the United States [3]. For testing the structural durability of the HV-storage battery, it was mounted on an electro-dynamical shaker in a climatic chamber which was also fitted with an inert gas system in case of fire. The HV storage battery was tested with consideration to operating loads as well as special events. The operating loads were derived from acceleration measurements taken in a MINI on the B-post. In fig. 11 the PSD over a frequency range of 5 Hz to 200 Hz is shown.

Fig. 9: BMW 7series EME mounted on an electrodynamical vibration table

The temperature is alternated between -25째C and +80째C representing the temperatures measured in the vehicle. The loads used for the electro-dynamical vibration table correspond with the accelerations measured during engine tests. The relevant frequency range is between 80 Hz and 2,000 Hz. The new testing procedure mentioned above was applied, in this case a four tone-sine test.

The special events, according to DIN EN 60068-2-27, include driving the vehicle over speed bumps as well as the transport test and some misuse cases. During these tests the HV storage battery was exposed to accelerations of approximately 50 g over 6 msec in each spatial axis. Integration of Components into Battery Electric Vehicles Furthermore testing of the structural durability of the connection of the HV-storage battery to the car body was conducted on a multi axis vibration table which is shown in Fig. 12.

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The multi axis vibration table was driven in a frequency range between 2 and 50 Hz. The requirements had been adjusted to suit the customer profile, which are expected for a completely electrified vehicle. Under optimal conditions the MINI E can reach a maximum range of 200 km until the next stop at an electric charging station is required. Due to the limited range currently offered by battery operated vehicles, a higher percentage of city usage is anticipated. Therefore an increased number of town road cycles were implemented into the validation program. The Active E has a different car body structure compared to the 1 series with an internal combustion engine caused by the position of the HV storage battery. Therefore testing of the structural durability of the car body was necessary. Fig. 11: Test spectra for HV components on a electrodynamic shaker.

Fig. 12: Structural durability testing of the HV-storage battery connection to the car body on a multi axis vibration table.

The testing conditions were also derived from the acceleration measurements taken in a MINI. The MINI was driven with different surface conditions (freeway, highway, roads in town, e.g. cobble stone pavement as well as country roads). Fig. 13 displays the acceleration values over time, which is measured during driving.

In 1979 BMW began testing the structural durability of the car body employing a multi axis car body testing rig which facilitates a complete vehicle. Within BMW, this system is known as MEKKA (German: Mehrkomponenten-KarosseriePrüfstand). The system has been continuously advanced up to its current state and is shown in fig. 14 (upper pictures). This system has four hydraulic cylinders per wheel to apply vertical, side and longitudinal forces. The last one is split into accelerating force which is applied in the middle of the wheel and the braking force which affects in the contact point of the wheel to the road. Two further hydraulic cylinders fix the vehicle at the sills beneath the doors in the horizontal plane; therefore accelerating, braking or cornering can be simulated without any limitations. Another hydraulic system simulates the powertrain (fig. 14 lower picture). Using these 19 hydraulic systems (20 in vehicles with 4-wheel drive) the forces in every chassis component can be readjusted corresponding to the measured signals from the testing ground. The upper pictures in fig. 14 display the Active E on one of these facilities for testing the structural durability of the vehicle structure. During testing the electric engine of the Active E was replaced by a hydraulic engine which is shown in the lower picture of fig. 14. The testing of electronic components and their integration is also an important new field with regard to the structural durability, as seen on the shown examples. Future Hybrid Cars

Fig. 13: Measurement of the acceleration at the B-pillar in a MINI versus time (only one of the test roads is shown here)

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The field testing of the MINI E is part of BMW’s “Project i”, which will be followed in mid 2011 by the BMW Active E allelectric vehicle which can accommodate four adults including luggage. The Active E is based on the BMW 1 Series Coupe and will be built based on the lessons learned from the MINI E field testing. The next but one phase of “Project i” is the development of the Mega City Vehicle (MCV) urban electric car BMW i3 and the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle BMW i8 (fig. 15).


ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 34, MARCH 2013 pp.14-19.

References [ 1 ]

[ 2 ]

Fig. 14: Structural durability testing of the Active E car body. Upper pictures: Active E on one of the test facilities for structural durability. Lower picture: During testing the electric engine is replaced by a hydraulic engine.

Becker, Th. (BMW Group) Lecture “Innovative Transport Solutions - The Reality of Electric Driving.” Kopenhagen, Dec. 2009.

Greim, G. (BMW Group) Lecture “Neue Prüfanforderungen und Methoden für die Vibrationsprüfung von PKW-Anbauteilen.“ Ulm, Jan. 2010.

[ 3 ]

www.bmw-i.com, Febr. 2011.

[ 4 ] Martin, D., Hiebl, A., Krueger, L. (BMW Group) Electromobility – Challenges for structural durability Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik, Volume 42, Issue 10, pages 958-963, October 2011 Copyright Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Reproduced with Permission. Corresponding author: dieter.martin@bmw.de, alois.hiebl@ bmw.de, l.krueger@dvm-berlin.de

Fig. 15: The MINI E and the BMW ActiveE are the enabler for the upcoming BMW i3 and i8 [3].

Summary and Conclusions In this paper the differences in the requirements for battery electric vehicles relative to conventional vehicles are illustrated. Furthermore the parameters which influence the structural durability of components in battery electric vehicles are listed. A new testing procedure for components with oscillating loads has been presented. The challenges for testing the structural durability of battery electric components as well as the integration of these components into active hybrid and battery electric vehicles are shown. The examples in this paper demonstrate the importance of the new field of electro-mobility with regard to structural durability.

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How it Works - Observations on Modelling and Simulation in Adaptive Control Introduction Adaptive Control software is available from controller manufacturers to enable loadings to be applied remote from the hydraulic actuator to overcome interaction between actuators, or compensate for mass etc. The purpose of this article is to discuss some basic considerations frequently overlooked when using Adaptive Control systems. These Adaptive control systems do not run in real time. A model of the system is made off line and a command waveform produced which is used to run the system in real time. Changes that occur when the test is running from this fixed drive signal will result in changes in the test. Adaptive control makes a computer model of the relationship between the point of input and the location at which the desired waveform is required. This can be single or multi channel. This type of control is used to overcome the interaction between channels and the effect of mass and rig kinematics that occur in single and multi channel configurations. After making the model the system learns what waveform to input to achieve the desired feedback. It is often forgotten that the feedback is the test loading not the command waveform. Basic Considerations When creating the model it requires there to be a repeatable mathematical relationship between the inputs and outputs. Assemblies under test that have work or velocity sensitive elements tend not to have repeatable characteristics. Elastomers typically change their stiffness and damping with work done and temperature change. Vehicle damper characteristics change with the amount of work they are asked to do. When simulating service conditions from road load data, loads generated by vehicle inertia need special consideration. The specimen or vehicle in the test rig does not usually have the inertia of the moving vehicle when the original data was recorded. In some cases the vehicle is restrained or operated on by a separate system to replicate the inertia effects. Prior to applying the adaptive system checks need to be made to ensure the rig equipment is capable of achieving the required performance. This applies not only to velocity, and hence oil flow, but to the dynamic force at the required velocity and the mass to be accelerated. The forces and velocities to be achieved on the test should be adequately within the rig capability to ensure repeatability. Operation at the limit of rig performance leads to changes during operation. When the required command waveform has been created and applied to the rig the drive signals are fixed so any change that occurs will affect the loading of the test. About the Model The attached diagrams illustrate the basic modelling process. Adaptive modelling systems are usually described as being Frequency Domain or Time Domain. In the Frequency Domain the mathematical descriptions of the waveforms and

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the relationship across inputs and outputs are defined by their frequency content. In the Time Domain the descriptions are based on the rate of change of the parameter against time. The concern regarding Frequency Domain was that as the signal content got nearer to DC the frequency content reduced and the description became inadequate. DC or static signals have no description in the frequency domain. Resonances that occur in both types of domain confuse the model because it gets a lot of different responses from the same input. Resonances in either the rig or the specimen should be avoided. In some cases the resonant signals are omitted from the modelling process. This does not mean they don't occur it is just that they are ignored. The gain of the hydraulic control system can help the modelling by being set lower when possible. The adaptive process does not like nervous or neurotic systems. To make the model the system is driven by a random signal with the bandwidth of the desired signal. For safety reasons, and when testing valuable components, the initial drive signal is of reduced amplitude. Time domain models use this random signal to make (SIMO) Single Input Multi Output models at each drive location. This provides the information on how each channel affects and is affected by the others. These are then combined to produce a MIMO model (Multi Input Multi Output Model). Frequency Domain uses a matrix of transfer functions to create the model. Having created this mathematical model the software then reverses the model and derives a drive signal by finding what input was required to result in this output. The model is then run using this initial estimated drive signal and its output compared to the desired signal. An iterative process is then operated which compares the difference between these signals and uses the errors to modify the intended drive signal. This process allows an adjustable proportion, say 20%, of the shown difference to be used at each iteration so that the convergence, or otherwise, of the two signals can be monitored. This iterative process is monitored to find a stable and acceptable result. Running the Test From when the test starts any changes that occur will affect the loads applied and can increase to the point when it is required to bring the test back into operating limits. Monitoring of control and specimen parameters must be applied to maintain test performance. The application of trend monitoring shows rates and degrees of change which allows action to be taken before set values are exceeded. It is important to apply monitoring in such a way that changes in rig equipment can be differentiated from changes in specimen assembly. Virtually all servo hydraulic systems operate with a 10 volt ceiling on command and feedback On many adaptive systems improved performance can be achieved by allowing the drive signal to exceed this 10 volt limit. Voltages up to 15 or 20 volts, if achievable, are generally non-damaging to the servo valves and can improve performance.


Information about the Test

Simple Rules

It is often of benefit when a test loading is defined to show the anticipated deflections as well as the loads. From these deflections the oil flow and velocity and frequency performance required can be found. Suggested modifications to the desired waveforms which would allow a reliable, repeatable, rig operating economically within its capable performance should be proposed. Often the test duration or life expectancy is stated as a minimum number of repeats of the test loading sequence. The test report shows what was achieved in these terms but frequently does not give details of actual loads and distributions, including reaction points, that were generated in this test result. A strain distribution across the specimen at the start of the test and the change in this distribution during the test, and especially prior to any failure, would be of considerable value. This shows the actual loads that produced the result and does not rely on the assumption that what was asked for caused the outcome. Loads and deflections at the fixing locations should be provided.

• Make sure the rig equipment such as servo valves and actuators are in good condition for the duration of the proposed test. • Do make sure that the variable is the specimen not the rig. • Make sure the performance required can be reliably achieved. • Do confirm that the peak velocities and loads achieved are in line with those requested. • Reducing the slope of the peaks and speeding up the small amplitudes has the potential to more than halve the power requirement. • Avoid low stiffness in the rig and its reaction points. • Ensure the maximum amount of data is monitored and recorded during the test. • Carry out as many tests as practical to ensure that each specimen is the same. • Beware of results from prototype production specimens.

Figure 1

Figure 4

Figure 2

Figure 5

Figure 3

Figure 6

Diagrams – courtesy of CaTs3 Limited

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Instrumentation, Analysis & Testing Exhibition

T

he 2013 Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing Exhibition will be held at Silverstone in the prestigious exhibition and conference centre – the Silverstone Wing. The building also houses the racing car pits and garages underneath the exhibition hall and there is regular action on the race track which can be viewed from the gallery next to the exhibition hall. The EIS exhibition continues to grow each year and there will be open forums held throughout the day: Room 1:

11.00 ‘Improvements in the Whole Testing and Predictive Process’ Chair – Norman Thornton (Engineering Consultant) Panel - Andrew Blows (Jaguar Landrover), Andrew Halfpenny (HBM nCode), Angelo Fanourakis (GKN Autostructures), John McCarthy (Maps Technology), Geoff Rowlands (MIRA), Simon Quinn (University of Southampton & Chairman of BSSM)

14.00 ‘Residual Strain – Effects and Considerations’ Chair - Norman Thornton (Engineering Consultant) Panel - Andrew Blows(Jaguar Landrover), Andrew Halfpenny (HBM nCode), Angelo Fanourakis (GKN Autostructures), John McCarthy (Maps Technology), Geoff Rowlands (MIRA), Simon Quinn (University of Southampton & Chairman of BSSM), Feargal Brennan (Cranfield University)

Room 2: 11.30 'KERS - Standard and Hybrid Systems’ Chair – Bernard Steeples (Engineering Consultant) Panel TBC 14.30 ‘Past Successes and Future Challenges in Vehicle Dynamics’ Chair – Bernard Steeples (Engineering Consultant) Panel - Professor Damian Harty (Coventry University) Guest panels comprising industry experts will expand on the technical developments & take questions from the floor. The exhibitors have the opportunity to show and discuss their products, services and other materials to engineers from the aerospace, automotive, motor-sport, rail, industrial, off-highway, power generation & medical industries. Visitors will find it to be a great way to see the latest technological developments. The following companies will be exhibiting: AC Soft Adept Science Bay Systems Bruel and Kjaer British Society for Strain Measurement Data Physics UK Datron Technology DATS Dewetron ETLG GE Sensing HBM United Kingdom IDT UK IMechE Influx Institute of Measurement and Control Instron

Instrumentation Direct Interface Force Measurements Kemo Kistler LMS UK M + P International UK MAHR UK PLC Meggitt SA Michell Instruments MOOG Mueller BBM National Instruments PCB Piezontronics Phoenix Calibration and Services Photosonics Photron Polytec Ltd Race Logic

Society for Environmental Engineers Sensorland Sensors UK Servotest Test Systems Smart Fibres Solartron Metrology Stack Strainsense Techni Measure Tiab Torque Meters Transmission Dynamics Variohm Vishay PG Yokogawa Zwick Roell

For more information, or to pre-register, please contact the EIS Secretariat (Sara Atkin): eis2012@e-i-s.or.g.uk telephone: 01572 811315.

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Seminar and exhibition Engineering Integrity Society/Institute of Sound and Vibration Research Joint Seminar and Exhibition www.e-i-s.org.uk

Understanding Vehicle Seating Dynamics and Ride Comfort Thurs, 11 April 2013 Human Factors Research Unit Institute of Sound & Vibration Research University of Southampton Co-sponsored by

To design and optimise a vehicle seat, many factors must be taken into account, including occupant characteristics, posture and activities, and seat dynamic properties. The dynamic response must be ‘tuned’ to minimise relevant adverse effects on comfort, health, or performance. This one-day event at the Human Factors Research Unit (HFRU), involves presentations and demonstrations concerned with optimising seating dynamics and ride 8.30-9.20

Registration & Coffee

9.20-9.30

Opening Address – Prof Mike Griffin, ISVR

9.30-10.00 The transmission of fore-and-aft and vertical vibration to various locations on a car seat Xiaolu Zhang, ISVR 10.00-10.30 Modelling of seating dynamics for predicting seat transmissibility - Yi Qiu, ISVR 10.30-11.00 Tea/ Coffee in Exhibition Area 11.00-11.30 Ride comfort considerations in a world rally car – Damian Harty, Coventry University 11.30-12.00 Driver sensitivity to modal parameters associated with road-induced vehicle secondary ride (shake) – Dave Fish, JoTech 12.00-13.00 Lunch/ Exhibition

comfort, with a tour of the HFRU’s wide range of humanrated test facilities, including a unique motion simulator for high fidelity reproduction of 6-axis motions. The event provides an opportunity for those involved in the fields of vibration, transport or seating to present their research and to meet with those from industry and academia working to improve the performance of seats for road, rail, sea and air transport. 13.00-14.30 Tour of ISVR HFRU laboratories and demonstrations 14.30-15.00 Dynamic comfort : a new position in the design process - Romain Barbeau and Silke Hauke, Faurecia GmbH 15.00-15.30 Use of the Full Vehicle NHV Simulator for tuning secondary ride comfort characteristics – Frank Syred, Sound and Vibration Technology 15.30-16.00 Tea/ Coffee break in Exhibition area 16.00-16.30 Ride comfort optimisation using multibody simulation – Andrew McQueen, LMS UK 16.30-17.00 Vibration comfort with reclined seating Henrietta Howarth, ISVR 17.00 Close

Reservations: EIS Member Non Member Delegate £100+VAT £140+VAT Students £25+VAT £25+VAT Leaflet Insert in delegate pack £35+VAT £50+VAT Sponsorship of Event £250+VAT £250+VAT Reservation form: www.e-i-s.org.uk Telephone: +44(0)1572 811315, Email: eis2012@e-i-s.org.uk

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Industry news Welcome to the Industry News section of the journal. Thank you to everyone for their submissions. The nominal limit for entry is 200 words, which should be sent to eis@amberinstruments.com or posted to EIS, c/o Amber Instruments Ltd, Dunston House, Dunston Road, Chesterfield, S41 9QD. We would appreciate you not sending entries by fax. Paul Armstrong Johnson Controls' technology management recognized by Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology / Automotive supplier participated in Europe-wide benchmarking project (BILD) Johnson Controls, the global leader in automotive seating and seating components, has been named one of five winners of the "Successful Practices in Technology Management 2012" consortium benchmarking in technology management conducted by the Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology (IPT) in Aachen, Germany. A total of 160 companies from across Europe took part in the project, which was led by the IPT for the fourth time. "We are absolutely delighted to have been recognized by the Fraunhofer IPT. Being named one of the best companies in Europe for technology management is both an endorsement and incentive," said Dr. Andreas Eppinger, group vice president of Technology Management for Johnson Controls Automotive Seating.

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developers in the innovation process. Johnson Controls impressed the jury with early recognition of new technologies, which was considered advanced compared to the other participating companies. The consortium also recognized Johnson Controls' support for technology management through IT tools as well as its excellent performance in all other categories. Apprentice Generation'

Battle

For

'Lost

Apprenticeship starts in engineering and advanced manufacturing have increased by more than 85% in the past two years, new figures reveal. Every area of England, has seen a significant rise in new apprentices in the past two years with the West Midlands (227%), East Midlands(174%), North East (133%) and Yorkshire & Humber (109%) leading the way. The latest figures released by Semta, the sector skills council for science, engineering and advanced manufacturing, show most of the new starts have been at intermediate level (142%), with a smaller rise (23%) in the number of advanced and higher level apprentices.

The IPT joined a consortium of renowned partners to analyze technology management in a multistage process at 160 companies that volunteered for the nine-month benchmarking project.

Today (29th Jan) the National Apprenticeship Service (NAS) and Semta will update skills minister Matthew Hancock at the House of Lords on their Apprenticeship Ambition partnership agreement to double the number of Advanced and Higher Level Apprenticeships for the advanced manufacturing and engineering sector by 2015/16.

It evaluated the organizational structure of technology management, strategic technology planning, early recognition of new technologies, industry-spanning innovations using developments from other industries and open innovation approaches that involve external

Semta chief executive Sarah Sillars said while the figures showed the ambition was on track there was no room for complacency. She fears there will be a lost generation and missed opportunities for British business if the momentum is not maintained.

Sillars said: "These figures are extremely encouraging. To have 31,070 new starters in the sector in 2011/12, compared to 22,300 in 2010/11, and 16,760 in 2009/10 shows how much excellent work has been going on to meet the skills challenge by both organisations. Bosch accelerates development of autonomous driving • Development of fully autonomous vehicles is well underway. • 1 in 3 UK motorists would already consider buying an autonomous car. • Bosch can supply all the required components for autonomous vehicles. Bosch already provides highperformance assistance systems, including Adaptive Cruise Control and Predictive Emergency Braking System, to help drivers reach their destinations safely and more comfortably. Its technologies can also alert drivers to traffic jams and redirect them, as well as manoeuvre vehicles into the tightest of parking spaces. In the near future, Bosch’s systems will extend to a traffic jam assistant, which will brake, accelerate, and steer vehicles autonomously at speeds between 0 and 30 miles per hour. Last year, Bosch surveyed UK motorists about their attitudes towards autonomous driving, finding that nearly one in three drivers would already consider buying a vehicle that could be driven autonomously. More than a quarter of drivers – and more than half of young drivers – said they would enjoy an autonomous car as much as driving themselves. “The traffic jam assistant helps drivers arrive more relaxed at their destination, even in dense traffic,” said Gerhard Steiger, president of the Bosch Chassis Systems Control division. No doubt many UK motorists who thought an autonomous car would be as enjoyable as driving themselves were imagining


a vehicle that could relieve the stress of the daily commute. The first generation of the traffic jam assistant is expected to enter series production in 2014. In the following years, the feature will be enhanced to cover ever-faster speeds and more complex driving situations. Eventually, the traffic jam assistant will make fully autonomous driving a reality. Cox Powertrain and Ricardo announce MoD development contract for advanced engine concept The UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) has confirmed its order for the next prototype stage of development of a revolutionary high performance, lightweight diesel engine intended for marine outboard applications on the fast, rigid inflatable boats used by the Royal Navy. The Cox Powertrain engine concept – with many patents pending – is based on a supercharged, two-stroke diesel opposed piston architecture with Scotch Yoke crankshaft and a central injector position. This engine topology promises a power to weight ratio comparable with high performance gasoline engines, whilst delivering diesel fuel consumption and a package volume around half that of a state-of-the-art diesel engine. The engine is being developed towards the demanding operating conditions of a military application in which extreme diesel performance, light weight and small package size are critical to mission performance, and must be delivered alongside robustness and high reliability of operation. Cox Powertrain re-located to secure premises at the Ricardo Shoreham Technical Centre site in 2011 and with Ricardo support, has now successfully completed the detailed design phase. This has included an intensive computer aided engineering (CAE) programme using both commercial and proprietary Ricardo software

tools, in order to optimize and validate the design to an extremely high level prior to prototype manufacture. Having concluded the design phase the new MoD contract announced today will support Cox Powertrain and Ricardo as they pursue preparation and further development of the engine in prototype form. It is anticipated that the first fire of the engine will be carried out at Ricardo in February of this year, marking the start of the prototype development phase.

Contacts: Global Automotive Management Council, 5305 Plymouth Rd, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105, USA. http://www.gamcinc.org/ Email: info@gamcinc.org Phone: 00 1 734 997 9249, Fax: 00 1 734 997 9443.

Engine Transmission Troy (Global Powertrain Congress) MSU Management Education Center, Troy, Michigan, USA, October 29-30, 2013, www.gpc-icpem.org

The ‘Higher Education Research Partnership for PhD Studies’ programme forms part of UK-China Partners in Education (UKCPIE), a new framework for educational cooperation between the two countries.

Reserve Sponsorship/Exhibits. Powertrain Exhibits: An Integrated Program for Engineers, Managers, Executives, Technologists & Business Development.

It is funded by the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) and the Chinese Ministry of Education, and is sponsoring 28 new partnerships, of which Harper Adams is one.

Technical Program Topics: Innovations – Future Powertrain Concepts Advanced Engine Design & Performance Advanced Transmission Design & Performance Alternate Propulsions Systems & Emissions Engine Mechanics & Subsystems New Materials Applications in Powertrain Powertrain Packaging & Integrations BEV/EV/HEV/MHEV Design & Integration Issues Fuel Efficiency and Sustainability Manufacturing Laser Material Processing in Powertrain Systems

The purpose of the programme is to increase the number of higher education partnerships between the UK and China, in emerging academic areas of interest, as well as traditional areas such as science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), and business and finance.

Authors: Please submit a title, an abstract (about 150-word), Bio & Photo. These items will be used for email PR & program announcements. Dates & Deadlines: Abstracts Due: March 7, 2013 Paper Deadline: June 13, 2013 Presentation Deadline: August 22, 2013

HARPER Adams University has been awarded £36,000 to fund collaborative research activities with the leading agricultural university in China

Director of International Policy, Professor Brian Revell, said: “The partnership will link the research of both the Engineering Departments of Harper Adams and China Agricultural University, focusing on developments in precision agriculture. Both universities are researching precision farming technologies and intend to create a joint research programme that will develop groundbased robots and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The research will develop the protocols and controls required to operate a mixed fleet of robot agricultural vehicles that will be capable of a diverse range of farming tasks anywhere in the world.

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Industry news Examples of application include locating and rounding livestock in remote areas, precision application of fertilizer and the integration of Controlled Traffic Farming.” More teams than ever line up to compete in Formula Student 2013 149 teams from 34 different countries pass primary selection for world's largest student motorsport event. The Institution of Mechanical Engineers has announced the preliminary line-up for Formula Student 2013, with more teams than ever selected to take part. Of the 149 teams selected, 54 are from UK Universities and there are more Indian teams than ever (11). A Formula Student first for 2013 is the first ever team from Oman – as well as teams from as far afield as Australia, Nigeria, Ukraine, Pakistan and Turkey. Formula Student 2012 winners Chalmers University of Technology from Sweden, as well as the top UK car last year, Oxford Brookes (who came seventh) are also returning to compete in July. Jon Hilton, Chairman of Formula Student said: 'Formula Student, which will take place at Silverstone on 4-7 July, is the world’s largest student motorsport event.' Run by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, it challenges student engineers to design, build and race a single seat racing car in one year. The cars are then judged on their speed, acceleration, handling and endurance in a series of time-trial races, while the teams are tested on their design, costing and business presentation skills. Formula Student Partners for 2013 include Jaguar Land Rover, National Instruments and SAE International. Shell is also a Partner and the official fuel supplier for the event while Robert Bosch UK is a Gold Sponsor.

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AMRC creates new industrial icon for Sheffield The University of Sheffield’s Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre (AMRC) has completed production of a 2 metre model of a proposed land mark sculpture for the Sheffield city region. The Man of Steel is the work of sculptor Steve Mehdi, and was originally created as a 30cm bronze figure. It is designed to pay tribute to South Yorkshire's long history of steel and coal industries, while also reflecting the region's 21st century strengths in advanced manufacturing and metals technology. "Man of Steel was inspired by the men and women I worked with in engineering in Sheffield, and the generations of people who worked in steel and coal across the region," says Mehdi. "The inspiration for a landmark version of the sculpture came from local people who first saw the sculpture in an exhibition of my work and said 'This could be our Angel of the North'." The proposed 38 metre sculpture will feature a 20 metre stainless steel figure sitting on an 18 metre coal-black column. This future landmark will overlook the M1 motorway from a former landfill site a few miles north of the AMRC campus on the Advanced Manufacturing Park. The Man of Steel will also play an important role in promoting education in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). "Education experts across the region are working with the Man of Steel project team to develop curriculum material across all key stages," Mehdi says. "The AMRC Man of Steel will appear at various exhibitions throughout the year, promoting our industrial heritage, the new technologies and STEM education for the future.” SKF commences civil action over counterfeit bearings SKF,

the

knowledge

engineering

company, has summoned Bearing International Holland to court for having sold SKF counterfeit products. The court action represents the latest in a series of moves by SKF to crack down on the sale of illegal merchandise in an effort to cut off the circulation of the counterfeit trade. In November 2011, customs authorities in China seized counterfeit SKF bearings on their way to Bearing International Holland. Later, during a raid on a non-authorised distributor in Austria in June 2012, the authorities seized counterfeit SKF bearings that were bought from Bearing International Holland. At this point, SKF commenced a civil action against Bearing International Holland for infringing its intellectual property rights. In July 2012, during a raid on Bearing International Holland, additional SKF counterfeit bearings were found. Immediately after the raid, SKF contacted Bearing International Holland, offering to dismiss the case under certain conditions. These conditions included an undertaking from Bearing International Holland to inform their customers that they may have taken delivery of counterfeit goods, and to compensate SKF for legal fees incurred in following up the case. Initially, Bearing International Holland expressed interest in cooperating, but despite several approaches by SKF this did not lead to any satisfactory agreement, resulting in the current court action. Customers who suspect that they may have taken delivery of counterfeit SKF products are advised to contact SKF to verify their authenticity by sending photographs and a copy of the invoice to genuine@skf.com. Nominations open for awards to celebrate world’s top engineers Prestige Awards 2013 - The Institution of Mechanical Engineers is today calling for nominations for inspiring individuals or groups working in engineering.


Nominations for the three Prestige Awards for 2013 are open until March 31and winners will be presented with their awards at the Institution’s annual Vision Awards in the autumn. This year’s awards are: The James Clayton Prize, worth up to £10,000, which is to be awarded to one or several members of the Institution who have made a significant achievement to modern engineering science in recent years. The achievement could be demonstrated through a paper on a modern engineering subject, originality in engineering design or service to engineering. Award for Risk Reduction in Mechanical Engineering, worth £1,000, is open to Institution members and non-members and recognises any engineer who has contributed to the understanding or reduction of risk in any area of mechanical engineering. Institution of Mechanical Engineers’ Equality and Diversity Award, worth £1,000, recognises the work that one or more members of the Institution have undertaken to benefit those from minority or underrepresented groups. This could include technologies to overcome physical disabilities, or simply making engineering an attractive career for people who are underrepresented in the profession. For further information or to nominate a candidate please go to our website: http://www.imeche.org/prestigeawards The British Science Association has announced that it will be working with EEF, the manufacturers’ organisation, who will be a new sponsor of the first ever Manufacturing Prize to feature in their National Science + Engineering Competition. The Competition is open to all 11-18 year olds living in the UK and in full-time education. The EEF Manufacturing Prize will be awarded to the entrant

with the most innovative and inspiring project relating to manufacturing. Out of entrants to the Competition, 228 finalists have now been selected. These young scientists and engineers will exhibit their projects at the national finals of the Competition, which will be held at The Big Bang Fair, at the London ExCeL Centre, from 14 – 17 March, 2013. The UK is the world’s ninth largest manufacturing nation, and manufacturing is responsible for half of UK exports. EEF plays an important role in helping manufacturing businesses evolve, innovate and compete, and encouraging talented young people to explore the subject, is a huge part of this. The lucky winner and three guests will win a day’s experience prize at Williams F1’s state-of-the-art technology campus in the heart of Oxfordshire’s Horsepower Valley, witnessing firsthand the facilities and processes used to make each year’s racing cars. Guests will also get the chance to visit the historic Williams Grand Prix Collection, housing over 40 of Williams’ most historic racing cars. 2012 Zwick Science Award and Paul Roell Medal The development and use of new materials and technologies has always played an essential role in the progression of engineering. A substantial part of this development takes place in universities and Zwick’s aim is to honour these achievements by recognising the work of bright, young engineers. Applicants from all over the world were invited to submit a recent scientific publication where the innovative use of mechanical testing equipment played a major role. Special consideration was given to applications where some or all of the equipment was designed and produced as part of a thesis. A panel of judges from internationally

renowned universities and chaired by Robert Strehle, Industry Manager for Academia at Zwick have made their decision and the winners will be announced at the Zwick Academia Day held in conjunction with the University of Manchester on 17 April 2013 with the event entitled Materials in Challenging Environments. This annual event offers an opportunity to hear more about the latest research findings associated with materials performance in harsh conditions. There will also be the chance to hear presentations from the award winners. With a top prize of €5000 the applicants will be eagerly awaiting the results. For more information, please see www. zwick.co.uk/en/news/zwick-academiaday-2013 2013 Zwick International Forum for Materials Testing Zwick Roell will be holding a testXpo event in Ulm, Germany from 14-17 October 2013. The event will provide a showcase for all types and aspects of material testing products and services, together with helpful advice on the selection of optimum solutions to satisfy testing criteria. This provides an ideal opportunity to see new innovative products, the latest testing methods and applications, plus the ability to discuss particular test applications with testing specialists. There will be over 30 exhibitors present, offering a variety of associated products, ranging from test sample preparation to high temperature testing equipment. In addition, there will be a series of associated technical presentations, covering various aspects of materials and component testing. For more about the event please visit www. zwick.co.uk/en/news/testxpo British Measurement and Testing Association (BMTA) The EIS is co-sponsoring this event on 'Measurement in Advanced Manufacturing: Lessons from the Automotive and Aerospace Industries.'

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Industry news 19 March 2013 - Manufacturing Technology Centre (MTC), Coventry. For more information: http://www.e-i-s.org.uk/events/

Institution of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE) The EIS is co-sponsoring 'Quicker, Cheaper, Better – is collaboration the answer?' on 16 April 2013 – London. For more information: http://events.imeche.org/EventView. aspx?EventID=1818

6th Chaotic Modeling and Simulation International Conference (CHAOS2013) The forthcoming International Conference (CHAOS2013) on Chaotic Modeling, Simulation and Applications will take place in Yeditepe University, Istanbul Turkey (11-14 June 2013) (http://www.cmsim.org). The general topics and the special sessions proposed for the Conference include but are not limited to: Chaos and Nonlinear Dynamics, Stochastic Chaos, Chemical Chaos, Data Analysis and Chaos, Hydrodynamics, Turbulence and Plasmas, Optics and Chaos, Chaotic Oscillations and Circuits, Chaos in Climate Dynamics, Geophysical Flows, Biology and Chaos, Neurophysiology and Chaos, Hamiltonian Systems, Chaos in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Chaos and Solitons, Micro- and NanoElectro-Mechanical Systems, Neural Networks and Chaos, Ecology and Economy. The publications of the conference include: 1. The Book of Abstracts in Electronic and in Paper form. 2. Electronic Proceedings in CD and on the web in a permanent

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website. 3. Publication in the Journal of “Chaotic Modeling and Simulation”, ISSN 2241-0503. Please see and download the Papers of 2011 and 2012 Issues at: http://www.cmsim. eu/journal_issues.html For more information and Abstract/ Paper submission and Special Session Proposals please visit the conference website at: http://www.cmsim.org or send email to the Conference Secretariat at: secretariat@cmsim.org

mechanics. Set against one of the most vibrant and beautiful cities in the world, the conference will combine the modern facilities of the Cardiff School of Engineering with the traditional surroundings of the Viriamu Jones Gallery and one of Europe's finest art collections at the National Museum Cardiff where your conference dinner will be served. Extended (2 page) Abstracts are now invited for submission and will be available online via the BSSM website after the conference.

BSSM and European Society for Experimental Mechanics 16th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics (Icem 16)

Submission closes on 18 March 2013.

This event, which is co-sponsored by the EIS will be held on 7-11 July 2014, Cambridge.

Further information at www.bssm.org/ conf2013

The 16th in a series of conferences, starting in Delft in 1959, this is the premier event to showcase novel and innovative research in Experimental Mechanics.

High Speed Imaging for Dynamic Testing of Materials and Structures 18-20 November 2013

The conference brings together internationally leading researchers across a wide range of disciplines in both academia and industry to interchange ideas and discuss new research.

BSSM’s 9th International Conference on Advances in Experimental Mechanics The EIS is co-sponsoring this event. Abstract submission is now open for the BSSM's 9th International Conference on Advances in Experimental Mechanics. The conference will take place between 3-5 September 2013 at the Cardiff School of Engineering, University of Cardiff. The conference will offer industry and academia the opportunity to discuss advances in experimental

Submit an abstract at www.bssm.org/ abstract2013

The Applied Physics and Technology Division of the Institute of Physics and the European Association for the Promotion of Research into the Dynamic Behaviour of Materials and its Applications (DYMAT) are organising the 21st DYMAT Technical Meeting. This three day conference will be held at the Institute of Physics in London and is intended to bring together some of the world leading figures in this field to exchange scientific information on this very timely and exciting topic. The meeting also provides an exhibition showcase for the main companies marketing high speed cameras.


Product news New preamplifier gets closer to hot sources Brüel & Kjær has launched the world’s first preamplifier and preamplifier/ microphone combinations able to withstand temperatures up to 125ºC (257ºF). High-temperature CCLD Microphone Preamplifier Type 1706 enables engineers to make acoustical measurements nearer to the source of noises on hot devices. This simplifies identification of potential issues, making it ideal for testing applications including gas turbine auxiliary equipment, environmental stress screening, automotive engines, and exhaust systems. A 'smart transducer', Type 1706 is very easy to integrate and setup in the measurement chain. Identification, calibration, and correction data are internally stored using a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS), which is automatically read by the analysis system. Type 1706 works in combination with a free-field or diffuse-field ½" microphone, and the data covering both the preamplifier and the microphone are stored on a TEDS. A CD shipped with every transducer contains detailed information on its calibration and the compensation necessary when using accessories such as windscreens - ensuring highly accurate measurements.

New 8-channel mixed-signal oscilloscope from Yokogawa - 500 MHz instrument offers comprehensive measurement capabilities for embedded, automotive, power and mechatronics applications. The new Yokogawa DLM4000 is the industry’s first mixed-signal oscilloscope to feature eight channels. Combining the large screen and

8-channel capability of Yokogawa’s earlier 8-channel DL7480 oscilloscope with the mixed-signal technology of the company’s pioneering DLM2000 Series, the new instrument is ideally suited to test and debugging applications in the embedded systems, power electronics, mechatronics and automotive sectors. The DLM4000 Series comprises two models, with bandwidths of 350 and 500 MHz and a sampling rate of 1.25 GS/s (gigasamples per second), expandable to 2.5 GS/s with interleaving. The channels can be allocated as eight analogue channels or seven analogue channels plus one 8-bit digital input. A future option will add 16 more channels of logic to allow seven channels of analogue plus a 24-bit digital input. The new instruments feature exceptionally long memory (up to 62.5 M points per channel and 125 M points in interleave mode), allowing both long recordings and multiple waveforms to be acquired. A history memory function, which does not reduce the oscilloscope’s high waveform acquisition rate, allows up to 20,000 previously captured waveforms to be saved in the acquisition memory, with any one or all of them displayed on screen for cursor measurements to be carried out. For further information about the DLM4000 Series visit www.tmi.yokogawa.com

UK noise technology goes global Engineers from the Industrial Noise and Vibration Centre (INVC) have developed the innovative ‘quiet fan’ noise control technology, which uses aerodynamic techniques to reduce fan noise at source and which can effectively be designed and installed remotely from their base in Slough. They have recently been commissioned to install the technology at several high profile organisations across the USA, following on from UK successes at organisations such as Corus.

Environmental noise legislation means that industrial sized fans have to be as quiet as possible, but traditional fan silencing technology can add millions of pounds to day to day running costs; using unnecessary energy and increasing the carbon footprint of the organisation. For industrial outfits where power consumption is a high percentage of their running costs, substantial savings can be made and fan efficiency increased through using the new ‘quiet fan’ technology. Representatives from a large oil refinery in the USA contacted the INVC, looking for ways to reduce drone from five large 1.4MW fans at their site, as the traditional fan silencers were not only high cost, but would also reduce fan efficiency, increasing their day to day running costs. Peter Wilson, INVC’s Technical Director, said: ‘The drone from these fans – each the size of a house – was causing a serious nuisance. Installing our technology required very little down-time and, as we were able to manage the project remotely from our UK office, we dispensed with site visits to further minimise costs for the client. Not only were they impressed by the energy efficiency of our technology compared with silencers, but it also reduced their capital costs by around 80% and was installed in a fraction of the time. For more information about the INVC and Quiet Fan technology, please see their website www.invc.co.uk call 01753 698800 or email consult@invc. co.uk

CD Automation’s newly launched Application product selector This new Application product selector effectively cross-tabulates different single and three-phase machine loads from 30A to 2700A for a comprehensive range of thyristor power controllers. The simplicity of the form presented to engineers hides the complexity

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Product news of algorithms and processes, which combine to provide an optimal load configuration. First, using drop-down menus throughout, the engineer enters his choice from the application and element type: normal resistance elements; variable resistance with temperature using elements including molybdenum, platinum, quartz lamp, and super Kanthal among others; and transformer coupled with elements from graphite through short wave infrared to inductive loading. Next, if selecting a transformer coupled with tungsten elements for example, the engineer can select the load configuration from single, three-phase star with or without neutral, threephase delta and three-phase open delta. The next field is for the number of phases controlled, followed by fields for ‘input-control signal’, ‘firing mode’ and ‘required current (A)’. On the above configuration, selecting three phases and DC linear will offer up a choice of three firing modes: burst firing, single cycle or phase angle. The matching CD Automation thyristor products are then displayed below the form, and in the case of the transformer coupled with tungsten elements mentioned above, would show the REVO-E three-phase thyristor power controller up to 600A (14 current sizes available) and the Multidrive to 2700A (in 20 current sizes). The product selector is for guidance only and the engineer is encouraged to contact CD Automation to confirm this is the correct configuration.

Keighley Laboratories’ new heat treatment processes building Construction work is now underway on Keighley Laboratories’ new heat treatment processes building, at its West Yorkshire headquarters. After a detailed topographical survey, site clearance and levelling, the steelwork is now being erected and the building

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is due for completion in February, with the mechanical and electrical (M&E) services scheduled for completion by next summer. The site architects are 2H Architecture of Leeds, the main contractor is Triton Construction of Liversedge and the M&E services are being provided by Dualtec of Keighley. Representing a total capital investment in excess of £1 million, the purposebuilt unit will house furnaces, controls and ancillary equipment for new and complimentary processes, augmenting Keighley Labs’ existing array of heat treatment services. The interior will accommodate the heat treatment furnaces, programmable controllers, degreasing equipment and post-process wash units, with a main side entrance to suit the proposed workflow. Keighley Labs anticipates that the markets that will be served by these new processes will include products such as gears, crankshafts, valve parts, camshafts, cylinders, railway braking systems, pump components and pipeline fittings. Full-time positions will be created by the new heat treatment facility, together with several apprenticeship opportunities, adding to an existing headcount of 65 personnel. Further enquiries to Keighley Laboratories Limited, Croft House, South Street, Keighley BD21 1EG, tel 01535 664211, memmott@ keighleylabs.co.uk , www.keighleylabs. co.uk

Bosch Rexroth Launches High Pressure Pump to Power the Forging Press Market Bosch Rexroth has launched a new open loop axial piston pump, the A4VBO. The new pump works at a higher pressure than previously possible, making it ideal for applications in the open die forging industry. Specially designed to provide a long

service life and low level operating noise, the A4VBO pump keeps future maintenance, and therefore unexpected costs, to a minimum. The modular design and excellent power to weight ratio aids installation and ensures performance, whilst a short response time helps to assist productivity. Steve Smith, Bosch Rexroth Industry Sector Manager for Industrial Manufacturing Equipment, said: “The new A4VBO pump has been designed to deliver what we know is important to customers; improved bearing arrangements which provide durability, in addition to increased axial and radial loadings. An enhanced swashplate has created a fast acting controller which means the pump will reach full flow quickly. The new pump provides a higher power to weight ratio when compared to traditional A4VSO models. This means that we can now offer machine builders a compact and yet powerful solution. Rexroth pumps are acknowledged by the industry as the best in the market, making the A4VBO a perfect addition to our portfolio.” The A4VBO pump comes in sizes 71cc, 125cc and 450cc. The nominal operating pressure is 450 bar and peak 500 bar, in comparison to traditional A4VSO models which reach 350 bar. It also includes an electro proportional flow and pressure control option with various through drive options for mounting pilot and auxiliary pumps to the back of the A4VBO pump. Further information on Bosch Rexroth can be found at www.boschrexroth. co.uk.


News from the Institution of Mechanical Engineers and could lead to more dangerous water shortages around the world; • there is the potential to provide 60-100% more food by eliminating losses and waste while at the same time freeing up land, energy and water resources. As much as 2 billion tonnes of all food produced ends up as waste A new report by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers has found that as much as 50% of all food produced around the world never reaches a human stomach due to issues as varied as inadequate infrastructure and storage facilities through to overly strict sell-by dates, buy-one-get-one free offers and consumers demanding cosmetically perfect food. With UN predictions that there could be about an extra three billion people to feed by the end of the century and an increasing pressure on the resources needed to produce food, including land, water and energy, the Institution is calling for urgent action to tackle this waste. The report ‘Global Food Waste Not Want Not' found that: • between 30% and 50% or 1.2-2 billion tonnes of food produced around the world each year never reaches a human stomach; • as much as 30% of UK vegetable crops are not harvested due to them failing to meet exacting standards based on their physical appearance, while up to half of the food that’s bought in Europe and the USA is thrown away by the consumer; • about 550 billion m3 of water is wasted globally in growing crops that never reach the consumer; • it takes 20-50 times the amount of water to produce 1 kilogram of meat than 1 kilogram of vegetables; • the demand for water in food production could reach 10–13 trillion m3 a year by 2050. This is 2.5 to 3.5 times greater than the total human use of fresh water today

Dr Tim Fox, Head of Energy and Environment at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers said: “The amount of food wasted and lost around the world is staggering. This is food that could be used to feed the world’s growing population – as well as those in hunger today. It is also an unnecessary waste of the land, water and energy resources that were used in the production, processing and distribution of this food. The reasons for this situation range from poor engineering and agricultural practices, inadequate transport and storage infrastructure through to supermarkets demanding cosmetically perfect foodstuffs and encouraging consumers to overbuy through buyone-get-one free offers. As water, land and energy resources come under increasing pressure from competing human demands, engineers have a crucial role to play in preventing food loss and waste by developing more efficient ways of growing, transporting and storing foods. But in order for this to happen Governments, development agencies and organisation like the UN must work together to help change people’s mindsets on waste and discourage wasteful practices by farmers, food producers, supermarkets and consumers.”

added stresses caused by global warming and the increasing popularity of eating meat – which requires around 10 times the land resources of food like rice or potatoes. The world produces about four billion metric tonnes of food per year, but wastes up to half of this food through poor practices and inadequate infrastructure. By improving processes and infrastructure as well as changing consumer mindsets, we would have the ability to provide 60-100% more food to feed the world’s growing population. The Global Food Waste Not Want Not report recommends that: 1. The UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) works with the international engineering community to ensure governments of developed nations put in place programmes that transfer engineering knowledge, design know-how, and suitable technology to newly developing countries. This will help improve produce handling in the harvest, and immediate postharvest stages of food production. 2. Governments of rapidly developing countries incorporate waste minimisation thinking into the transport infrastructure and storage facilities currently being planned, engineered and built. 3. Governments in developed nations devise and implement policy that changes consumer expectations. These should discourage retailers from wasteful practices that lead to the rejection of food on the basis of cosmetic characteristics, and losses in the home due to excessive purchasing by consumers.

By 2075 the UN predicts that the world’s population is set to reach around 9.5 billion, which could mean an extra three billion mouths to feed. A key issue to dealing with this population growth is how to produce more food in a world with resources under competing pressures – particularly given the

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News from British Standards British Standards Committee TDW/4 This Committee and its supporting Subcommittees continues to mirror the structure of ISO/ TC 213 Dimensional and Geometrical P r o d u c t Specification and Verification (GPS) since 1991, to ensure UK industry requirements are considered within ISO standards in the context of Product Design, Manufacture and Verification. ISO/TC 213 objectives are to present a set of standards to enable product designers to specify their requirements unambiguously to the manufacturer and verifier by defining a common set of definitions and techniques understood by and used by all three disciplines. Not an easy task, as every country supports standards provided it is based on their standards hence, the meetings of ISO/TC 213 held biannually around the world, are interesting and sometimes heated with some countries threatening to “take their ball home” if they do not get their ideas accepted! All delegates to ISO/TC 213 are nominated by their national standards body and members of TDW/4 are nominates UK Principal Experts to ISO/TC 213 by BSI to champion UK

Industry interests in formulating ISO standards. However, if UK industry interests are out voted, compromised or where alternative techniques are offered within ISO standards TDW/4 has issued a British Standard, BS 8888 Technical product documentation and specification, to guide UK industry in the preferred best practice for the UK. Within this discipline there are in excess of 200 ISO standards and to assist UK Industry Designers and Manufacturers in applying and interpreting these standards BS 8888 offers a useful “route map” through this plethora of standards to enable the user to quickly find the relevant standard to his application. In addition, BS 8888 contains basic extracts from ISO standards with examples of how to apply the requirements of the standard. With so many standards applicable to Product Specification and Verification being issued and updated, BS 8888 has a planned revision every two years with the next in 2013 thus, Subcommittee 8 is very dynamic with a heavy workload. Luckily we have an energetic chairman Iain Macleod who presides over monthly meetings of the Subcommittee. In addition to his BSI work, Ian also is Convenor of ISO/ TC 213 WG17 tasked with developing initiatives to introduce GPS to industry worldwide. Because of the high number

of ISO standards supporting GPS the workload is high and constant, falling on a small number of experts in 11 Subcommittees in BSI and 15 Working Groups in ISO/TC 213. Therefore, we are always looking for experts with “hands on” experience in Product design, Manufacturing and Verification. If you feel you could contribute to these challenges described above please contact Sarah Kelly at BSI (sarah. kelly@bsigroup.com). In addition to supporting standards of ISO/TC 213, TDW/4 has been supporting an initiative to produce a new UK standard BS 8887 Design for manufacture, assembly, disassembly and end of life processing (MADE) for industry to consider in the design phase the ever increasing need to reprocess our products at the end of their working life in this era of a “throw away society” which discards rather than “makes do and mends”. This work has been undertaken by Subcommittee 7 of TDW/4 ably chaired by Brian Griffiths who has presented this initiative to a number of interested parties around the world. This has led ISO/TC 10 to set up a Working Group to produce an International Standard based on the contents of BS 8887 so once again where BSI leads the world follows! Phil Childs, Chairman of TDW/4

MEMBERSHIP The Engineering Integrity Society is an independent charitable organisation, supported and sponsored by industry. The Society is committed to promoting events and publications, providing a forum for experienced engineers and new graduates to discuss current issues and new technologies. We aim for both company and personal development and to inspire newly qualified engineers to develop their chosen profession. Events run provide an ideal opportunity for engineers to meet others who operate in similar fields of activity over coffee and lunch. All of our events enable engineers to establish and renew an excellent ‘contact’ base while keeping up to date with new technology and developments in their field of interest. We are involved in a wide range of Industrial sectors including Automotive, Aerospace, Civil, Petrochemical etc and continue to be interested in new members from all sectors. Benefits: • EIS members receive a subscription to ‘Engineering Integrity’, mailed direct to their office or private address. • Discounts to EIS events. • Access to Task Groups, to take part, or to receive information and recommendations. Fees: Personal Membership (UK) £25 a year, .Personal Overseas Membership £30 a year Corporate Membership (1 April - 31 March). £400+VAT a year (pro rata) Application forms can be downloaded from the membership page at www.e-i-s.org.uk If your membership has expired or you are unsure if your membership is current, contact: eis2012@e-i-s.org.uk

32


Group News Sound & Vibration Product Perception Group The SVPP Group committee has continued to grow incrementally and now has an extremely active membership of fifteen, including some of those who have rejoined after leaving the previous NVHP Group a few years ago.

to minimise relevant adverse effects on comfort, health, or performance. The event provides an opportunity for those involved in the fields of vibration, transport or seating to present their research and to meet with those from industry and academia working to improve the performance of seats for road, rail, sea and air transport. I will be able to report on how the event went in the next issue.

Guest panels comprising industry experts will expand on the technical developments and take questions from the floor.

Further details are available by email from eis2012@e-i-s.org.uk

More information about the exhibition can be found at:

John Wilkinson Acting Chairman

http://e-i-s.org.uk/instrumentationanalysis-and-testing-exhibition/ and if you intend to visit, please pre register by emailing eis2012@e-i-s. org.uk or by visiting www.e-i-s.org.uk.

Following three successful annual oneday events at University of Warwick, we are planning our next event for 2013 to be held at the University of Southampton’s Institute of Sound and Vibration. The presentations have been agreed by the committee after review of the abstracts received by the end of 2012, and the final programme has now been published. The subject of the one-day seminar, to be held on Thursday 11th April, is ‘Understanding Vehicle Seating Dynamics and Ride Comfort’ and it will feature 8 presentations from industry and academia, a small exhibition and a tour of the laboratories of the ISVR Human Factors Research Unit. There are many leading edge vibration and comfort research tools within the HFRU, including a unique man-rated 6 axis shaker rig for studies in areas concerned with human responses to vibration, including comfort and perception of vibration, postural stability, human body impedance, seat performance, and motion sickness. The theme of the seminar can be summarized as follows. To design and optimise a vehicle seat, many factors must be taken into account, including occupant characteristics, posture and activities, and seat dynamic properties. The dynamic response must be ‘tuned’

Testing & Predictive Process • KERS - Standard & Hybrid Systems • Past Successes & Future Challenges in Vehicle Dynamics

Simulation, Test & Measurement Group Building on the success of the 2012 event, the 30th EIS Instrumentation Analysis and Testing Exhibition will take place at the International Media Centre at Silverstone Race Track, on the 12th March 2013. Over 50 exhibitors will present the latest advances in measurement and analysis technology.

The STMG intend to focus on one day seminars during the next twelve months on subjects of topical interest. Potential subjects identified to date include; the measurement of residual strain, vehicle dynamics and alternatively powered vehicles and their associated engineering issues. We would be pleased to hear from our members about other potential areas that interest them and any ideas for these can be sent to the secretariat or myself. We are also looking forward to new members joining the working committees this year, to help with these events and expand the areas of activity of the Society. If you are interested in getting involved please contact the EIS secretariat. Richard Hobson Acting Chairman

As in previous years we have arranged for a number of open forums, these include: • •

Residual Strain - Effects & Considerations Improvements in the Whole

33


Committee Members President: Peter Watson O.B.E. Directors Peter Blackmore, Jaguar Land Rover............................................................................................................... 01926 923715 Robert Cawte, HBM United Kingdom................................................................................................................ 0121 7331837 Richard Hobson, Serco Technical & Assurance Services................................................................................. 01332 263534 Trevor Margereson, Engineering Consultant .................................................................................................... 07881 802410 Khaled Owais, TRaC Global.............................................................................................................................. 01926 478614 Norman Thornton, Engineering Consultant....................................................................................................... 07866 815200 John Wilkinson, Millbrook Proving Ground ....................................................................................................... 01525 842526 Chairman Trevor Margereson, Engineering Consultant .................................................................................................... 07881 802410 Vice Chairman Robert Cawte, HBM United Kingdom................................................................................................................ 0121 7331837 Treasurer Khaled Owais, TRaC Global.............................................................................................................................. 01926 478614 Company Secretary Robert Cawte, HBM United Kingdom................................................................................................................ 0121 7331837 EIS Secretariat Sara Atkin...........................................................................................................................................................01572 811315 Communications Sub Committee – ‘Engineering Integrity’ Journal of the EIS Honorary Editor Karen Perkins, Swansea University ................................................................................................................. 01792 513029 Managing Editor Catherine Pinder .............................................................................................................................................. 07979 270998

Durability & Fatigue Group Chairman Robert Cawte, HBM United Kingdom................................................................................................................ 0121 7331837 Secretary Khaled Owais, TRaC Global.............................................................................................................................. 01926 478614 Members John Atkinson, Sheffield Hallam University .......................................................................................................01142 252014 Martin Bache, Swansea University ................................................................................................................... 01792 295287 Peter Blackmore, Jaguar Land Rover............................................................................................................... 01926 923715 Feargal Brennan, Cranfield University ............................................................................................................. 01234 758249 Amirebrahim Chahardehi, Cranfield University................................................................................................. 01234 754631 John Draper, Safe Technology...........................................................................................................................01142 555919 Karl Johnson, Zwick Roell Group...................................................................................................................... 0777957 8913 Karen Perkins, University of Swansea ............................................................................................................. 01792 513029 Davood Sarchamy, British Aerospace Airbus.......................................................................................................0117 936861 Giora Shatil, Gamesa Wind UK................................................................................................................................................. Andy Stiles, Aero Engine Controls.................................................................................................................... 0121 6276600 James Trainor, TRW Conekt Engineering Services......................................................................................... 0121 6274244 John Yates, University of Manchester............................................................................................................... 0161 2754331

34


Simulation, Test & Measurement Group Acting Chairman Richard Hobson, Serco Technical & Assurance Services................................................................................. 01332 263534 Members Paul Armstrong, Amber Instruments.................................................................................................................. 01246 260250 Ian Bell, National Instruments .......................................................................................................................... 01635 572409 Steve Coe, Data Physics (UK).......................................................................................................................... 01323 846464 Colin Dodds, Dodds & Associates..................................................................................................................... 07880 554590 Dave Ensor, MIRA............................................................................................................................................. 02476 355295 Graham Hemmings, Engineering Consultant.................................................................................................... 0121 5203838 Trevor Margereson, Engineering Consultant..................................................................................................... 07881 802410 Ray Pountney, Engineering Consultant............................................................................................................. 01245 320751 Tim Powell, Bruel & Kjaer VTS.......................................................................................................................... 01763 255780 Nick Richardson, Servotest............................................................................................................................... 01784 274428 Paul Roberts, HBM United Kingdom ................................................................................................................ 0785 2945988 Jarek Rosinski, Transmission Dynamics........................................................................................................... 0191 5800058 Geoff Rowlands, MIRA ..................................................................................................................................... 02476 355517 Bernard Steeples, Engineering Consultant....................................................................................................... 01621 828312 Norman Thornton, Engineering Consultant....................................................................................................... 07866 815200 Jeremy Yarnall, Consultant Engineer................................................................................................................ 01332 875450 Conway Young, Tiab ......................................................................................................................................... 01295 714046

Sound & Vibration Product Perception Group Acting Chairman John Wilkinson, Millbrook Proving Ground ....................................................................................................... 01525 842526 Members Marco Ajovalasit, Brunel University................................................................................................................... 01895 267134 Joe Armstrong, Polytec .....................................................................................................................................01582 711670 Alan Bennetts, Bay Systems............................................................................................................................. 01458 860393 Dave Boast, D B Engineering Solutions ........................................................................................................... 01225 743592 Mark Burnett, MIRA .......................................................................................................................................... 02476 355329 Gary Dunne, Jaguar Land Rover ..................................................................................................................... 02476 206573 David Fish, JoTech ........................................................................................................................................... 01827 830606 Henrietta Howarth, Southampton University.......................................................................................... 023 8059 4963/2277 Paul Jennings, Warwick University ................................................................................................................... 02476 523646 Richard Johnson, Sound & Vibration Technology ............................................................................................ 01525 408502 Chris Knowles, JCB .......................................................................................................................................... 01889 593900 Jon Richards, Honda UK .................................................................................................................................. 01793 417238 Ian Strath, LMS International ............................................................................................................................ 02476 408120 Keith Vickers, Bruel & Kjaer UK ....................................................................................................................... 01223 389800

35


Profiles of Company Members Datron Technology Ltd

Techni Measure

5-7 Potters Lane Kiln Farm Milton Keynes MK11 3HE

Alexandra Buildings 59 Alcester Road Studley Warwickshire, B80 7NJ

Tel: +44 (0)1908 261655 Fax: +44 (0)1908 260108 Email: info@datrontechnology.co.uk Website: www.datrontechnology.co.uk Contact: John Grist

Tel: +44 (0)1527 854103 Fax: +44 (0)1527 853267 Email: sales@techni-measure.co.uk Website: www.techni-measure.co.uk Contact: Ian Ramage

Datron Technology was formed in 1990 and has been supplying specialised vehicle test systems and sensors to all forms of automotive, rail and motorsport engineers. Our main area of expertise is non-contact sensors, offering accurate vehicle speed, slip-angle, pitch, roll etc. We also offer a wide range of sensors, data acquisition systems and analysis software that covers applications from motorcycles to F1 or HGV to railways. GPS has become a large part of vehicular testing and we have products that overcome GPS limitations with inertial solutions.

Techni Measure was founded over 40 years ago, and can supply a wide range of sensors for measuring various parameters. Strain gauges and bonding accessories are available, as well as strain gauge based transducers for load, pressure and displacement. Piezoelectric sensors measure vibration, dynamic force and dynamic pressure, and we have various ways of measuring displacement based on resistive, inductive or capacitive technology. Orientation, inertial, and various different wireless systems are available, as well as pressure seals and temperature sensors.

PDS Projects Ltd

Tiab

Badger House Enterprise Centre Oldmixon Crescent Weston Super Mare BS24 9AY

Upton Lodge Buildings Astrop Road Middleton Cheney Oxfordshire, OX17 2PJ

Tel: +44 (0)1934 444222 Email: Rachael.rayner@pdprojects.co.uk Website: www.pdsprojects.co.uk Contact: Rachael Rayner

Tel: +44 (0)1295 714 046 Fax: +44 (0)1295 712 334 Email: tiab@tiab.co.uk Website: www.tiab.co.uk Contact: Conway Young

PDS Projects is an advanced engineering consultancy and solution provider to the Aerospace industry.

Tiab are the only company worldwide to specialise exclusively in Digital Controllers for test, research, production and automation applications.

Employing state of the art tools, we work collaboratively with our clients to fulfil their task specifications. Our personable, pro-active style of working assures our clients that we are available when needed and able to work with them to the agreed specification - within the allotted timescale. Services provided include Conceptual and Detailed Design, Stress Analysis, Fatigue and Damage Tolerance Analysis and Acoustic Fatigue Analysis.

They can be used for new rig designs or as powerful upgrades. The benefits include: unparalleled flexibility and control, a huge range of application software; low maintenance and development costs; plug-&-play connection and, quite simply, a company that cares. Applications: vehicle safety, Formula One, component test, materials test, medical, aerospace, rail, R&D laboratories, test houses, universities, dynamometers, wind-tunnels and pharmaceutical.

36


RAL Space, Rutherford Laboratory

Stack Limited

Harwell Didcot Oxford OX11 0QX

10 Wedgwood Road Bicester Oxfordshire OX26 4UL

Tel: +44 (0)1235 445040 Fax: +44 (0)1235 445318 Email: giles.case@stfc.ac.uk Website: www.stfc.ac.uk/ralspace/Facilities/11324.aspx Contact: Giles Case

Tel: +44 (0)1869 240404 Fax: +44 (0)1869 245500 Email: sales@stackltd.com Website: www.stackltd.com Contact: Alan Rock, Managing Director

Space Research Facilities offering a full Environmental test and cleanroom facilities.

range

of

Thermal Vacuum, Orbital Simulation, Instrument Calibration combined with a large Cleanroom complex.

Safe Technology Willis House Peel Street Sheffield S10 2PQ Tel: +44 (0)114 2686444 Fax: +44 (0)114 303 0055 Email: enquiries@safetechnology.com Website: www.safetechnology.com Contact: Jessica Dawson Safe Technology Limited is a technical leader in the design and development of durability analysis software and develops fe-safe®. As a private company, we take a longterm view of software R&D to ensure cutting edge technology and unsurpassed levels of accuracy. fe-safe® allows fast, easy and accurate fatigue life predictions for FE models, includes a full signal processing suite and advanced loading definition and analysis capabilities. It includes specialist addon modules covering TMF, creep fatigue, the analysis of rotating components, welded joints (Verity®) composite and Rubber materials. fe-safe® directly interfaces to leading FEA suites and integrates into design optimisation software such as ABAQUS, ANSYS Workbench, DS Isight and FE-Design’s TOSCA.

Stack is a world leading manufacturer of instrumentation, data and video logging systems, TPMS and wireless sensors for motorsport and many other harsh environments including automotive test, defence and aerospace markets. Our products are used extensively on vehicles where the highest levels of accuracy, reliability and product quality are demanded. We supply our products to customers worldwide.

Zwick Roell Southern Avenue Leominster Herefordshire HR6 0QH Tel: +44 (0)1568 615201 Fax: +44 (0)1568 612626 Email: alan.thomas@zwick.co.uk Website: www.zwick.co.uk Contact: Alan Thomas

Zwick Roell is a leading, global supplier of advanced materials and component testing equipment. We offer a wide range of both electro-mechanical and servo-hydraulic testing products and controller/software modernisations to give older generation systems a new lease of life. We supply standard and bespoke testing solutions and collaborate with an extensive range of industrial customers and academic establishments where Zwick equipment is used for both teaching and research purposes.

37


Corporate Members The following companies are CORPORATE MEMBERS of the Engineering Integrity Society. We thank them for their continued support which helps the Society to run its wide-ranging events throughout the year. AcSoft

National Instruments

Bruel & Kjaer

PDS Projects

Data Physics

Polytec

Datron Technology

RAL Space, Rutherford Laboratory

GOM

Safe Technology

HBM United Kingdom

Sensors UK

Instron

Servotest

Kemo

Stack

Kistler

Techni Measure

LMS UK

Tiab

Millbrook Proving Ground

TRaC Global

MIRA

Transmissions Dynamics

MOOG

Yokogawa

M端ller-BBM

Zwick


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©2013 Moog Inc. All rights reserved. Top automotive manufacturers listed in Automotive News Data Book, Global Sales Rankings.

85% OF TOP AUTOMOTIVE MANUFACTURERS RELY ON A MOOG ADVANCED TEST SOLUTION. Leading-edge automotive testing solutions allow test professionals to market new designs faster, manage increased regulatory pressures and maintain cost efficiencies through rapid, reliable and versatile testing. Our unsurpassed expertise—combined with close customer collaboration—make Moog a leader in providing both simple and complex structural and performance test solutions.

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Clevis Pin, Miniature Loadcell, Pancake Loadcell, Bolt or Stud Straingauged, Load Washer, Tension Link

Force Measurement IXTHUS have the solution!!! Production and Assembly Machinery... Aerospace...Automotive...Autosport... Military...Mining...Food...Medical...

Tel: 01327 353437 E: sales@ixthus.co.uk Web: www.ixthus.co.uk

testing

by HBM

• • • • • • • • •

1N to 20,000KN Custom Designs (Undertaken) C t D i (U d t k ) Full Calibration Fatigue Rated Down Hole Straingauged Proof Load Testing Amplier and Interfaces Excellent Environmental Protection Subsea to Space

Electrifying results Continuous and synchronous acquisition of electrical and mechanical power. Optimized eDrive testing with HBM: z Simultaneous measurement of high voltage signals, currents, torque and rotational speed z Continuous acquisition of raw data for detailed analysis z Power calculation per half cycle

www.hbm.com/edrivetesting

HBM United Kingdom Ltd. +44 (0) 208 515 6100 info@uk.hbm.com

Visit HBM at the EIS Exhibition, Silverstone on 12th March


Powertrain NVH engineering

“With the new LAN-XI Type 3056 we now have the ability to support highspeed tacho signals from angle encoders – essential for advanced NVH analysis of rotating machinery” Krestian Møller Pedersen Product Manager, Instrumentation

“Relating noise and vibration phenomena to crank angle and duty cycle, which we now include in our analysis software, offers critical insights to help resolve powertrain NVH issues” Fraser Henderson Product Manager, System Platform

ALL FRoM oNE PARTNER Brüel & Kjær has the world’s most comprehensive range of sound and vibration test and measurement systems

Crank angle analysis Visualise results as a function of crank angle • Cycle statistics • Duty cycle extraction Connect angle encoders directly alongside microphones and accelerometers • Log auxiliary parameters such as oil pressure and coolant temperature • 8 low-frequency auxiliary channels www.bksv.com/powertrain

United Kingdom: Bruel & Kjaer UK Ltd. · Jarman Way · Royston · Herts · SG8 5BQ Telephone: +44 (0) 1223 389 800 · Fax: +44 (0) 1223 389 919 · www.bksv.co.uk · ukinfo@bksv.com

44

HEADQUARTERS: Brüel & Kjær Sound & Vibration Measurement A/S · DK-2850 Nærum · Denmark Telephone: +45 77 41 20 00 · Fax: +45 45 80 14 05 · www.bksv.com · info@bksv.com Local representatives and service organisations worldwide

BN 1236 – 11

High-speed tacho/AUX

Engineering Integrity Journal 34  
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