Engineering Integrity Issue 56 March 2024

Page 1

Journal of the Engineering Integrity Society


March 2024 |

Issue No. 56


Proactive pipe management: Multiaxial fatigue of water pipe grey cast iron

Manufacturing process and geometry influence on fatigue design and assessment of forged components


Celebrating 40 Years of Innovation: The Evolution of The Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing Exhibition

Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing Exhibition 2024

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Contents: March 2024 Index to Advertisements ................................................................................... 5 Editorial 7 Director Changes 8 Diary of Events ...................................................................................................... 8 Obituary: Norman Thornton ............................................................................ 9 Celebrating 40 Years of Innovation: The Evolution of the Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing Exhibition .................................. 10 Technical Paper: Proactive pipe management: Multiaxial fatigue of water pipe grey cast iron 12 Industry News ...................................................................................................... 18 Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing Exhibition 2024 ....................... 20 University of Wolverhampton Racing ......................................................... 24 News from the Women's Engineering Society......................................... 26 Fatigue 2024 ........................................................................................................ 27 News from British Standards 31 How It Works: Optical Fibre Bragg Grating Technology for Structural Integrity ................................................................................................................. 32 News from MIRA Technology Institute 34 Young Engineers 35 Technical Paper: Manufacturing process geometry influence on fatigue design and assessment of forged components 36 Peter Watson Prize 2023 43 Product News....................................................................................................... 44 News from the Institution of Mechanical Engineers ............................ 46 ACM Hints and Tips ............................................................................................ 47 News from the Institute of Measurement and Control......................... 48 Group News .......................................................................................................... 49 Corporate Members 50 Committee Members 51 Corporate Member Profiles ............................................................................ 53 INDEX TO ADVERTISEMENTS Advanced Engineering ..... 17 CATS3 / ZwickRoell .............. 51 Data Physics.......................... 56 Delta Motion ........................ 47 EIS IA&T Exhibition 3 Evolution Measurement ... 25 HEAD acoustics ...................... 4 Intrepid Control Systems . 23 Ipetronik ................................... 2 Polytec 42 RMS .......................................... 31 Star Hydraulics ....................... 8 If you would like to receive this journal electronically, please contact the Marketing & Events Manager:


Dr Spencer Jeffs



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Engineering Integrity contains various items of information of interest to, or directly generated by, the Engineering Integrity Society. The items of information can be approximately subdivided into three general categories: technical papers, topical discussion pieces and news items. The items labelled in the journal as technical papers are peer reviewed by a minimum of two reviewers in the normal manner of academic journals, following a standard protocol. The items of information labelled as topical discussions and the news items have been reviewed by the journal editorial staff and found to conform to the legal and professional standards of the Engineering Integrity Society.


Copyright of the technical papers included in this issue is held by the Engineering Integrity Society unless otherwise stated.

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ISSN 1365-4101/2024

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Editorial Dr Spencer Jeffs, Honorary Editor

Firstly, I would like to pass on condolences to friends and family of Norman Walter Thornton. Norman was a distinguished engineer and a founding member of the Engineering Integrity Society, later serving as Director.

It has been an eventful period since the last issue, there are new and continued armed conflicts across the globe, with the war in Ukraine ongoing, the Israel–Gaza War and the crisis in the Red Sea. For the first time global warming has surpassed 1.5°C across an entire year. This brings us closer to the limit set by world leaders in the Paris Agreement in 2015, a limit seen as crucial to avoid the most severe impacts. As an example, ocean surface temperatures are now the highest on record. This emphasises the need for urgent carbon emission cuts and winning the race to net zero. Aerospace is one such industry that has significant challenges to reach net zero flight capability, although Boeing found itself in the headlines for unwanted reasons after a 737 Max 9 door blew out during an Alaskan Airlines flight, leading to serious questions around quality control needing to be answered. Thankfully, no one was critically harmed.

In the automotive industry there has been a variety of important items, UK government has delayed the ban on the sale of new petrol and diesel cars by five years, meaning the requirement for all new cars to be "zero emission" will not come into force until 2035. In addition, the tariffs on electric vehicles traded between the UK and EU will be delayed for three years. These changes have been met with mixed reviews, and there are several challenges to be considered on both sides, such as the

cost of living, inflation, imports and of course climate impact. It is great to see that Nissan has committed to manufacturing future electric versions of its bestselling models in Sunderland, supported by substantial investment and government funding, which should secure thousands of jobs.

On the topic of government funding, £500 million was formally announced for Tata Steel, who will add a £700m investment itself, with the goal of emission reduction, with the Port Talbot plant shifting to an electric arc furnace. Nonetheless, this effort could likely result in as many as 3,000 job losses nationwide, with the majority coming from South Wales, as the blast furnaces are scheduled to be closed by the end of the year. I hope that the strong and resilient community in Port Talbot finds a way to successfully navigate this uncertain future.

This issue marks 40 years since the first event that evolved into what is now the Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing exhibition. This year’s exhibition is scheduled for 26 March 2024, which alongside the technical showcases will host a mini seminar programme, titled 'The Drive to Net Zero’, something that will offer an excellent insight into aligned current and future challenges. Congratulations to the Peter Watson prize winner, Edward John from the University of Sheffield, a nice detail being that Edward’s work featured the Smith–Watson–Topper fatigue criterion. The 2024 event will take place at Fatigue 2024.

Two technical articles are found in this issue, both on the topic of fatigue, which fits nicely as we build up to the Fatigue 2024 conference at Jesus College, Cambridge, in June. The first article, from the Peter Watson prize winner, is on understanding multiaxial fatigue loading of water pipes, which could have real benefits towards informing replacement decisions. The second investigates fatigue life in relation to manufacturing processes and local component behaviour. I look forward to seeing many of you at Fatigue 2024 and learning about the latest developments in the field.

Lastly, a big thank you to Martin Bache, who has recently stepped down from his various roles at the EIS after concluding his academic position at Swansea University in 2021. Martin has had a significant influence on my career and I wish him all the best for the future.

Welcome to the Spring 2024 edition of the Engineering Integrity journal.

Professor Martin Bache Retires from the EIS

Having supported the Engineering Integrity Society for many years as both a Council and Durability & Fatigue committee member, Professor Martin Bache has stepped down from his roles within the society. Following a professional career spanning five decades, Martin bid farewell to the academic realm in 2021 to start a well-deserved retirement but continued to support the society until the end of 2023. A great advocate for the EIS, he encouraged many of his Swansea-based colleagues to actively participate at EIS events, including Spencer Jeffs who currently acts as Honorary Editor of this journal.

His academic journey commenced at the University of Keele in 1979 where he received a bachelor’s degree in 1983 and later a PhD in 1988. He then held a number of roles at Swansea University, latterly as Director of the Institute of Structural Materials (ISM), Director of the Rolls-Royce/Swansea University Technology Centre (UTC) in Materials and also CEO at Swansea Materials Research and Testing Ltd (SMaRT).

Martin was a longstanding EIS committee member and played a pivotal role in organising conferences, notably convening a number of international conferences in Cambridge as part of the society’s successful Fatigue series. His wealth of research experience and industrial application was greatly valued by everyone who worked with him. We wish him all the best in his retirement and thank him for his enthusiastic support over the past 25 years.

Diary of Events

EXHIBITION | Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing Exhibition, Silverstone Wing, Silverstone Race Circuit | 26 March 2024

SEMINAR | Maximising Insights from Data: Processing, Analysis and Beyond, ZwickRoell, Worcester | 25 April 2024

CONFERENCE | Fatigue 2024, Jesus College, University of Cambridge | 19–21 June 2024

AGM | June 2024

EXHIBITION | Advanced Engineering Show, NEC, Birmingham| 30–31 October 2024

SEMINAR | Young Engineers Forum | Events throughout 2024


Obituary: Norman Thornton

Norman Walter Thornton

5 March 1938 – 25 October 2023

It is with deep sadness that we report the passing of Norman Walter Thornton, a distinguished engineer, beloved family man and esteemed member of the Engineering Integrity Society. Norman passed away suddenly on 25 October 2023, leaving behind a lifetime of remarkable achievements.

Norman was born on 5 March 1938 in Middleton, Manchester. Known for his mischievous and spirited nature, Norman's early years were marked by a lively and adventurous spirit. As a youth, he excelled in various outdoor pursuits and displayed prowess as a talented footballer, earning trials for the Newton Heath school team, also known as Manchester United. Despite his success, Norman chose a different path, attending technical college with the belief that "there was no money in football!"

Throughout his adult life, Norman remained an active sports enthusiast, both as a participant and an avid spectator. In the 1980s, he dedicated himself to coaching and running football programmes for the children of Hagley, leaving an enduring mark on the community.

A distinguished engineer, Norman never truly retired, engaging in consultancy work well into his eighties. Passionate and skilled, Norman's contributions extended internationally, with travels across Europe, America and Korea. Colleagues remember his wealth of knowledge, his passion for engineering and his inspirational impact. During his career, Norman worked for quite a few companies, including Losenhausen, Dartec, Kelsey Instruments, ZwickRoell

Group and nCode as well as providing consultancy for Star Hydraulics, Marshall’s Cambridge for testing the Hercules transporter aircraft and British Leyland’s seat belt test and impact rigs.

Norman was a founding member of the Engineering Integrity Society and later in his career, he served as a Director, sharing his expertise and relishing the opportunity to mentor others. Often involved in holding EIS seminars and events, Norman’s enthusiasm for engineering was infectious and he loved nothing more than the opportunity to problem-solve and debate challenging topics. Committed to first principles in engineering, Norman was keen to focus on the fundamentals and especially supported many early-career engineers in gaining new knowledge and skills. He was widely known throughout the engineering community and many have contacted the EIS office to share their memories of a unique and talented engineer. Norman, a skilled raconteur, possessed a remarkable gift for storytelling and regularly relayed amusing anecdotes from his extensive career to his colleagues.

Our condolences go to his wife Joan, his children and grandchildren, and he will be very much missed by all who had the pleasure of working with him.



40 Years of Innovation: The Evolution of the Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing Exhibition

It's hard to believe that four decades have passed since the inception of the Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing Exhibition, a milestone that calls for reflection and celebration. The journey from its humble beginnings to the present day has been marked by technological advancements, evolving exhibition formats and a continuous commitment to enabling collaboration within the engineering community.

The Early Years

The inaugural exhibition, organised by the GVIG group before the establishment of the Engineering Integrity Society in 1985, took place at the Park Hall Hotel in Wolverhampton. GKN Technology, a major player in the engineering sector, played a pivotal role as sponsor of the event and our founder, Dr Peter Watson, was Chairman of GKN Technology at the time. Unlike today’s event, the early exhibitions were not only platforms for showcasing cutting-edge technologies but also served as social events, complete with a complimentary buffet lunch and bar.

The first exhibitions hosted around 20 exhibitors, including prominent names like nCode, Vishay

Measurements, Datamyte, Johne & Reilhoffer, Racal, Thorn-EMI Datatech, TEAC, and BSI, along with various strain gauge and accelerometer companies. Other participants included, MTS, Servotest and several load cell and displacement transducer manufacturers like RDP Electronics and Techni Measure. It is a testament to the quality of the exhibition that many of these companies, or their current incarnations, still exhibit today.

In the early years, the event had its share of memorable incidents: a lorry from GKN Technology made an unexpected impact when it knocked down the entrance arch to the hotel while delivering an exhibit; another incident involved a spontaneous snowball fight in the hotel's car park before retiring to warm up in the bar.


Differences & Similarities from Today's Exhibition

Compared to the present-day format, the early exhibitions had distinct features. While a complimentary bar and lunch was a highlight and helped attract visitors in their lunch break, there were no formal presentations and attendees did not need to pre-register. The emphasis was on creating a warm, comfortable, informal setting for professionals to share insights and discuss advancements in instrumentation, analysis, and testing. As the event grew, it spread into the car park of the hotel, culminating in Siemens having a massive double trailer articulated mobile exhibit powered by its own separate gas turbine generator! It was time to move to a bigger venue. The National Motorcycle Museum and the Heritage Motor Museum both became future venues, but the Park Hall Hotel, Wolverhampton, will remain for many the most memorable location.

Despite the changes, some key elements have remained consistent. The exhibition has always provided a valuable networking opportunity for professionals in the field. Attendees from the early years, like those today, were keen on learning new skills, discussing the latest developments and sharing information about their experiences and challenges.

Technological Evolution

The equipment on display at the first exhibitions was primarily analogue, with data recorded initially on reel-to-reel magnetic tape, then cassette and analysed using computers. Datamyte's introduction marked a transition from analogue to digital recordings, reflecting the broader trend of technological evolution within the instrumentation and testing sector. Over the years, the industry witnessed a significant shift towards digital technology, imaging technology, computer simulation and real-time testing.

As we celebrate the 40th anniversary of the Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing Exhibition, it's fascinating to trace the journey from its early days at the Park Hall Hotel to the dynamic and technologically advanced events of today. The exhibition has played a crucial role in enabling collaboration, sharing knowledge and showcasing the evolution of instrumentation and testing technologies. Looking ahead, we can only anticipate further advancements and innovations that will shape the future of this everevolving industry.

A special feature on the seventh Instrumentation Exhibition.

Technical Paper:

Proactive pipe management: Multiaxial fatigue of water pipe grey cast iron

Edward John, Joby Boxall, Richard Collins, Elisabeth Bowman, and Luca Susmel

Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK

Author correspondence:


The UK’s water distribution networks contain large numbers of decades-old grey cast iron (GCI) water pipes which are well known to deteriorate in service, develop leaks and ultimately burst. Reducing leakage has become a priority for UK water companies to provide a resilient water service in the face of climate change, population growth and other pressures. The huge number of GCI water pipes still in service coupled with very low pipe replacement rates mean the remaining GCI pipes cannot be replaced wholesale. This paper makes use of recently published multiaxial fatigue data for GCI pipes to investigate whether the multiaxial combination of loads experienced by a GCI water pipe could be used to identify pipes at a greater risk of failure. Based on a comparison of loading scenarios, this study concluded that considering the multiaxial combination of loads applied to a pipe does have the potential to help inform pipe replacement decisions, enabling high-risk pipes to be prioritised for replacement.

Keywords: Cast iron water pipes; multiaxial fatigue; fatigue testing; high-cycle fatigue; fatigue life estimation.

1. Introduction

Pipes made of grey cast iron (GCI) are common in many UK water distribution networks, and around the world, and are often identified as having high failure rates compared to other pipe materials [1]. The UK water industry has committed to halving leakage rates by 2050, compared to 2018 levels [2], but only replaces around 0.1 % of pipes per year [3]. As a result, old GCI pipes will not be completely removed from service in the foreseeable future. To help reduce leakage rates in a cost-effective way, techniques must be developed that enable the targeted replacement of old GCI water pipes before they start leaking [2]. Figure 1 shows an example of a GCI pipe that was exhumed after it had developed a leak.

GCI water pipes are vulnerable to corrosion, which can result in the formation of localised pits or uniform wall loss [4]. The reduction in wall thickness caused by corrosion increases the stresses experienced by the pipe material and can lead to the formation of leaking cracks under service loading [5]. Smaller diameter GCI pipes can experience biaxial stress states; internal water pressure causes a pipe to experience stress acting around its circumference [6], whereas bending loads, such as vehicles and soil moisture response, cause stress acting in the pipe’s axial direction [7, 8]. These loads are also time variable with the potential to cycle tens of times per day [9, 10] and frequently result in stress histories with a non-zero mean stress [10, 11].

In certain circumstances, the cause of GCI water pipe leakage may be high-cycle fatigue cracking due to multiaxial loading [11, 12]. Corrosion of GCI water pipes has been extensively researched [4, 13] but the fatigue response of the pipe material is less well understood and fundamental research is required to address this gap. Due to the focus of this work on replacing pipes before any leakage can occur, the fatigue processes of interest are crack initiation and growth to a size that allows water loss.

Uniaxial fatigue loading refers to a time variable stress or strain applied to a material in a single direction. Previous fatigue testing of water pipe GCI has been predominantly uniaxial [12, 14]. Cases where stresses or strains act in more than one direction are referred to as multiaxial fatigue loading. Different materials respond to multiaxial loading in different ways meaning this type of fatigue loading cannot usually be analysed using uniaxial fatigue models [15]. Multiaxial fatigue models are used to predict how a given material will respond to a particular multiaxial fatigue stress history, however, a wide range of these models are available and so it is important to validate a model for the material of interest, preferably using experimental data [16-18].

Comparing the relative fatigue damage caused by the multiaxial load history experienced by different GCI water pipes could be used to help select which pipes to replace, enabling water utility pipe replacement budgets to be spent more efficiently. However, this has not been possible because no multiaxial fatigue model had been calibrated and validated for water pipe GCI due to a lack of suitable fatigue data. Recently, the current authors addressed this gap by using an extensive series of fatigue test data to identify a suitable fatigue

ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 56, MARCH 2024, pp.12–17. ISSN 1365-4101/2024 DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.10650202
Figure 1: Example of a leaking cast iron pipe from Barton et al. [1].

criterion for water pipe GCI, as detailed by John et al. [19] and summarised in the following section. The study detailed in this paper aimed to build on this recent work by investigating whether the multiaxial combination of loads experienced by GCI water pipes could be used to identify pipes at a greater risk of failure. This was achieved by using the multiaxial fatigue criterion validated by John et al. [19] to compare the damaging effect of two different buried pipe loading scenarios.

2. Multiaxial Fatigue of Water Pipe GCI

The work summarised in this section was first reported by John et al. [19] in the InternationalJournalofFatigue. The aim of the work was to identify a fatigue criterion that was able to predict the multiaxial high-cycle fatigue (HCF) response of water pipe GCI. Due to the lack of multiaxial fatigue data available for GCI, a programme of fatigue experiments was carried out to provide the data needed to select a suitable criterion. In this section, the fatigue criteria that were tested are introduced. Then, the process used to generate the experimental data required to calibrate and validate the fatigue criteria are described. To validate each criterion, the predictions made by the calibrated criteria were then compared with the experimental fatigue data.

2.1. Fatigue Criteria

Due to the reported effectiveness of stress-based, critical plane, multiaxial fatigue criteria when predicting HCF cycles to failure [16], four different variants of this type of criteria were tested. The Smith–Watson–Topper (SWT) [20] and modified Marquis–Socie (MMS) [21] criteria both assume that fatigue crack growth is dominated by tensile crack opening. Both these criteria only require a fully reversed uniaxial fatigue curve for calibration. The Carpinteri–Spagnoli (CS) criterion [22] and modified Wöhler curve method (MWCM) [23] consider both the normal and shear stresses acting on the critical plane allowing them to be calibrated for different cracking modes. The expense of this flexibility is that these two criteria require the fully reversed uniaxial and torsional fatigue curves for calibration, and the MWCM also requires a mean-stress uniaxial fatigue curve. The mathematical expression for each of these fatigue criteria can be found in John et al. [19].

2.2. Fatigue testing

The experiments conducted by John et al. [19] aimed to generate the data required to calibrate the four fatigue criteria introduced above and test the ability of these criteria to predict the multiaxial fatigue behaviour of water pipe GCI. The stresses applied for this testing were intended to be straightforward to apply and provide

a good test for the multiaxial fatigue criteria, rather than to closely replicate realistic water pipe loading. A combination of tensile and torsional loads was used. GCI water pipes are no longer manufactured and exhumed water pipes are often heavily corroded [24]. It is also difficult to obtain large amounts of metallurgically similar pipe material and produce torsional specimens from pipe walls. To overcome these challenges, tubular fatigue specimens were produced from 16 new BS4162 [25] soil pipes sourced from the same foundry (Hargreaves Foundry, Halifax, UK). These pipes have very similar graphitic microstructures, tensile stress-strain, and fatigue properties to water pipes [19, 26].

The uniaxial R = -1, uniaxial R = 0.1, and torsional R = -1 fatigue curves (where R = min. stress / max. stress) were required for calibration purposes. To characterise these curves with sufficient certainty, five stress levels were tested with two repeats per stress level. Data from combined tension and torsion (TT) loading was used to test the fatigue criteria because this type of loading generates complex multiaxial stress histories. To provide both proportional and non-proportional multiaxial stresses specimens were testing using tension-torsion in-phase (TTIP) loading and tension-torsion 90° out-ofphase (TTOOP) loading. For these multiaxial loadings the aim was to generate some data points across a range of stress amplitudes to compare against the model predictions, not to characterise the curves fully, so three stress levels were tested with five specimens.

Examples of failed specimens under different loading conditions are shown by Figure 2. Key observations were that the material demonstrated sensitivity to mean stresses and that for TT loading the addition of a tensile load had a damaging effect relative to pure torsion. The different phasing of the TT loads appears to have had no clear effect.

2.3. Fatigue criteria validation

The SWT, MMS, CS, and MWCM fatigue criteria were used to predict the cycles to failure of each fatigue test. The fatigue criteria predicted cycles to failure are plotted against the measured cycles to failure in Figure 3 for all load types. The effectiveness of each fatigue criterion was quantified using the mean square error quantity, TRMS, as detailed by Walat and Łagoda [27].

The two TT load types (TTIP and TTOOP) were the only data not used to calibrate any fatigue criteria, while the uniaxial R = 0.1 data was only used to calibrate the MWCM. To compare the effectiveness of the fatigue criteria TRMS values were calculated for the TT loadings for each fatigue criterion (TRMS,TT ) and also for uniaxial R = 0.1 loading (TRMS,M), but for only the SWT, MMS and CS criteria. These TRMS values are given in Figure 3.

a) Figure 2: Examples of failed specimens tested under a) uniaxial loading, b) torsional loading, and c) out-of-phase tension-torsion loading from John et al. [19].
b) c)

The predicted cycles to failure for each multiaxial fatigue criterion are plotted against the experimentally observed cycles to failure for each specimen in Figure 3. Data points that fall on the solid diagonal line indicate perfect prediction. The dash-dot lines show the 10% and 90% probability of survival scatter bands derived from the uniaxial R = -1 experimental data. If all predictions for a given loading condition fall within these scatter bands then the prediction error is effectively no worse than the experimentally observed scatter. The TRMS values shown on Figure 3 for each criterion quantify the effectiveness of each criterion. For example, for both the SWT and CS criteria all the uniaxial R = 0.1 predictions fall within the scatter bands, however, the SWT criteria predictions are closer to the perfect prediction line. In reflection of this, the TRMS,M value for the SWT is lower than the CS value (3.3 compared to 11.5) indicating the SWT provides better predictions for this data set.

All four fatigue criteria investigated were able to provide reasonable fatigue life predictions for the GCI pipe material investigated with a very small number of data points falling outside the scatter bands for each criterion, as shown by Figure 3. The MMS criterion offered the best multiaxial fatigue predictions (TRMS,TT = 5.6), closely followed by the CS and SWT criteria (TRMS,TT = 6.2 and TRMS,TT = 6.7 respectively). However, both the MMS and CS criteria were unable to accurately predict the mean stress effect (TRMS,M = 22.8 and TRMS,M = 11.5 respectively) while the SWT criterion was able to predict this well (TRMS,M = 3.3) without needing mean stress calibration data. A significant proportion of the stress cycles experienced by GCI water pipes are thought to feature non-zero mean stresses [10, 11], therefore, the SWT criterion was considered to provide the best overall fatigue life predictions for the multiaxial fatigue of water pipe GCI in the HCF regime.

3. Methods

A multiaxial loading comparison was performed to test the sensitivity of the SWT criterion to multiaxial stresses reflective of in-service loading experienced by smalldiameter GCI water pipes. To test this sensitivity two load conditions were considered: uniaxial loading and out-of-

phase equibiaxial loading (see Figure 4). Uniaxial fatigue loading could reflect a pipe experiencing internal water pressure fluctuations, while equibiaxial fatigue loading could result from the same water pressure loading with the addition of bending caused by heavy road vehicles.

Reflecting the fact that fatigue stresses experienced by water pipes frequently feature a non-zero mean, the uniaxial stress was characterised by a stress amplitude of 65 MPa with a load ratio of R = 0.1 (see Figure 4b). The stress amplitude was chosen so that the predictions made using the SWT criterion were within the range the criterion had been validated for. To isolate the effect of an added biaxial stress, the biaxial condition featured a fatigue stress identical to the uniaxial stress in one direction (σa = 65 MPa, R = 0.1), but an additional fatigue stress was also applied perpendicular to this (see Figure 4c). So that both stresses would be equally damaging independently, the additional perpendicular fatigue stress was characterised by the same amplitude and load ratio (σa = 65 MPa, R = 0.1). To reflect a very simplistic alternating biaxial loading the two stresses were assumed to occur exactly out-of-phase. In other words, when the stress in one direction was at its maximum value the stress in the other direction was at its minimum, and vice versa. To test the sensitivity of the SWT fatigue criterion to the added biaxial stress predictions were made using this criterion for both load cases.

Using the same approach as John et al. [19], the SWT criterion was applied in a linear-elastic form [28]: (1) where σa,R=-1 is the equivalent uniaxial fully reversed stress amplitude; σn,max is the maximum value of normal stress on the critical plane; E is the material’s elastic modulus; and ε n,a is the normal strain amplitude on the critical plane. The critical plane is that experiencing the maximum value of εn,a. To apply the SWT criterion using a stress-based approach the normal strain on an aribtrary material plane, εX' , multiplied by the material elastic modulus, may be calculated from the plane’s stresses at any point during a load history using Hooke’s law:

Figure 3: Predicted cycles to failure vs measured cycles to failure for four fatigue criteria from John et al. [19]. Dashed lines show the fully reversed uniaxial scatter band.


where σX' , σY' and σZ' are the stresses acting on an arbitrary material plane defined by the axes X', Y', Z' where X' is normal to the plane; ν is the material’s Poisson ratio; and t is time. Eε n,a is calculated from EεX'(t) for each plane, and the critical plane is that which features the maximum value of Eεn,a. Cycles to failure are predicted using equation (3): (3)

where NA is the high-cycle reference cycles to failure; σA,R=-1 is the uniaxial fully reversed reference stress amplitude, determined at NA cycles to failure; and k is the uniaxial fully reversed negative inverse slope. The values used for σA,R=-1 and k were 85.8 MPa and 11.5, respectively [19].

4. Results

The SWT criterion predicted cycles to failure for the uniaxial and out-of-phase equibiaxial fatigue scenarios are plotted in Figure 5. The cross on this figure indicates the number of cycles corresponding to a predicted probability of survival (PS) of 50%, while the bars show the range between the PS = 90% and PS = 10% cycles, assuming the same degree of scattering observed for the uniaxial R=-1 experimental data. The overlap of the scatter bars indicates that a pipe experiencing outof-phase equibiaxial loading is not guaranteed to fail sooner than if it were experiencing uniaxial loading. However, the average cycles to failure and scatter range for out-of-phase equibiaxial loading is shifted downward by 74% relative to uniaxial loading, meaning that pipes experiencing out-of-phase equibiaxial loading are predicted to have a higher probability of failing first. Considering the predicted average values, 50% of the time uniaxial loading failures are predicted to occur by 2.47x105 load cycles, whereas this value drops to 6.54x104 load cycles for out-of-phase equibiaxial loading.

5. Discussion

The predicted 74% reduction in average fatigue life for equibiaxial loading does not mean that a real pipe’s total years-to-failure would be reduced by an average of 74%; fatigue damage accumulation can only begin once corrosion pits have grown to a sufficiently damaging size [11, 12]. However, the predicted reduction of average load cycles to failure of 74% does indicate that water pipe GCI is likely to be sensitive to biaxial fatigue loading and that biaxial fatigue loads have the potential to cause more damage, and therefore result in earlier failures, than either load independently. The practical implication of this is that, for a small-diameter pipeline with internal water pressure fluctuations, an individual pipe buried under a road used regularly by heavy vehicles has a greater chance of developing a fatigue crack before another pipe in the same pipeline that is away from the road, if all other conditions are identical. Uniaxial fatigue assessment alone could not have been used to make this distinction. Many GCI water pipes suffer from irregular corrosion pitting, which may significantly affect the fatigue response of biaxially loaded pipes by behaving as stressconcentrating notches. Therefore, before water utility asset managers are able to use pipe loading conditions to inform pipe replacement decisions, a deeper understanding is needed of the interaction between biaxial fatigue loads and the irregular corrosion pitting commonly found in GCI pipes. To address this gap, a unique experiment has been developed at the University of Sheffield that is able to simultaneously apply bending and internal water pressure fatigue loads to small diameter pipes (see Figure 6a). This experiment is being used to investigate how different corrosion pit shapes and biaxial fatigue load combinations affect the fatigue life and failure mode of GCI pipes. This experiment is also providing an insight into the very early stages of leak development, which usually occur unseen underground. An example of a fatigue-induced leak in a pitted pipe generated using this experiment is shown in Figure 6b.

4. Summary

The work detailed in this paper aimed to investigate whether the multiaxial fatigue loading experienced by grey cast iron (GCI) water pipes could be used to inform pipe replacement decisions. The findings of this paper show that considering the multiaxial combination of

Figure 4: (a) Schematic showing hoop and axial stress directions relative to a pipe and plots of a single stress cycle for the (b) uniaxial and (c) out-of-phase equibiaxial scenarios. Figure 5: SWT criterion predicted cycles to failure for uniaxial loading and equibiaxial loading. The error bars show the range between the PS=90% and PS=10% cycles.

loads applied to a pipe has the potential to help inform pipe replacement decisions where the aim is to prevent leakage. Applying the validated SWT multiaxial fatigue criterion to a simplistic but realistic scenario has shown that a small-diameter pipe buried under a road and subject to water pressure loading has a greater chance of developing a fatigue crack before a neighbouring pipe away from the road if all other conditions are identical. Uniaxial fatigue assessment alone could not have been used to make this distinction. Further investigation is required to fully understand the effect of fatigue load combinations and how these interact with other factors such as corrosion pitting.


This work was funded by UK Water Industry Research (UKWIR) and the ESPRC through the Water Infrastructure and Resilience (WIRe) Centre for Doctoral Training (EP/S023666/1). The authors would like to thank the technicians, Paul Blackbourne, Mario Dorna, Chris Todd, and Richard Kay, for their work that enabled the fatigue testing to take place. For the purpose of open access, the author has applied a creative commons attribution (CC BY) license to any author accepted manuscript versions arising.


[1] N.A. Barton, T.S. Farewell, S.H. Hallett, T.F. Acland, “Improving pipe failure predictions: Factors affecting pipe failure in drinking water networks”. Water Resources, Vol. 164, 2019.

[2] J. Sanders, D. Marshallsay, G. Mountfort, G. Fox, M. Butler, “A Leakage Routemap to 2050”. Water UK, 2022. milestone-leakage-routemap-to-revolutionisethe-reduction-of-leakage-from-pipes/ (accessed June 15, 2022).

[3] Economic Insight Ltd, “Options for a sustainable approach to asset maintenance and replacement”. 2022. (accessed September 11, 2023).

[4] Z. Soltani Asadi, R.E. Melchers, “Long-term external pitting and corrosion of buried cast iron water pipes”. Corrosion Engineering Science and Technology, Vol. 53, 2018.

[5] J. Farrow, D. Jesson, M. Mulheron, T. Nensi, P. Smith, “Achieving zero leakage by 2050: The basic mechanisms of bursts and leakage”. UK Water Industry Research, 2017.

[6] M. Larson, L. Jönsson, “Elastic Properties of Pipe Materials during Hydraulic Transients”. Journal of HydraulicEngineering, Vol. 117, 1991.

[7] D. Chan, C.P.K. Gallage, P. Rajeev, J. Kodikara, “Field performance of in-service cast iron water reticulation pipe buried in reactive clay”. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 52, 2015.

[8] C. Randeniya, D.J. Robert, C.Q. Li, J. Kodikara, “Largescale experimental evaluation of soil saturation effect on behaviour of buried pipes under operational loads”. CanadianGeotechnicalJournal, Vol. 57, 2020.

[9] Department for Transport, “AADF Data - major and minor roads”, Gov.Uk, 2020. https://roadtraffic.dft. (accessed April 19, 2021).

[10] C. Jara-Arriagada, I. Stoianov, “High resolution water pressure monitoring for the assessment of fatigue damage in water pipes”. 2nd International Joint ConferenceonWaterDistributionSystemsAnalysis andControlintheWaterIndustry, Valencia, 2022.

[11] W. Brevis, L. Susmel, J. Boxall, “Investigating inservice failures of water pipes from a multiaxial notch fatigue point of view: A conceptual study”. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, Vol. 229, 2015.

[12] R. Jiang, S. Rathnayaka, B. Shannon, X.-L. Zhao, J. Ji, J. Kodikara, “Analysis of failure initiation in corroded cast iron pipes under cyclic loading due to formation of through-wall cracks”. Engineering FailureAnalysis, Vol. 103, 2019.

[13] R.E. Melchers, R.B. Petersen, T. Wells, “Empirical

Figure 6: (a) Cutaway render of the pipe biaxial fatigue test apparatus which is able to apply four-point bending and internal water pressure fatigue loads, and (b) an image showing a pitted pipe leaking as a result of water pressure fatigue loading.

models for long-term localised corrosion of cast iron pipes buried in soils”. Corrosion Engineering ScienceandTechnology, Vol. 54, 2019.

[14] J.B. Kommers, “The static and fatigue properties of some cast irons”. Proceedings of the American SocietyforTestingMaterials, Vol. 28, 1928.

[15] D.F. Socie, G.B. Marquis, MultiaxialFatigue. Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., Warrendale, Pa., 1999.

[16] A. Fatemi, N. Shamsaei, “Multiaxial fatigue: An overview and some approximation models for life estimation”. International Journal of Fatigue, Vol. 33, 2011.

[17] D.F. Socie, “Multiaxial fatigue damage models”. Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology, Transactions of the ASME, Vol. 109, 1987.

[18] E. Santecchia, A.M.S. Hamouda, F. Musharavati, E. Zalnezhad, M. Cabibbo, M. El Mehtedi, S. Spigarelli, “A Review on Fatigue Life Prediction Methods for Metals”. Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 2016, 2016.

[19] E. John, J. Boxall, R. Collins, E. Bowman, L. Susmel, “Multiaxial fatigue of water pipe grey cast iron”. InternationalJournalofFatigue, Vol. 178, 2024.

[20] P. Smith, K.N., Topper, T.H., Watson, “A stress–strain function for the fatigue of metals”. Journal of Materials, Vol. 5, 1970.

[21] G.B. Marquis, P. Karjalainen-Roikonen, “Long-life multiaxial fatigue of a nodular graphite cast iron”. Biaxial/Multiaxial Fatigue and Fracture, 2003.

[22] A. Carpinteri, A. Spagnoli, S. Vantadori, “Multiaxial fatigue assessment using a simplified critical plane-based criterion”. International Journal of Fatigue, Vol. 33, 2011.

[23] L. Susmel, Multiaxial notch fatigue: From nominal to local stress/strain quantities. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, 2009.

[24] H. Mohebbi, D.A. Jesson, M.J. Mulheron, P.A. Smith, “The fracture and fatigue properties of cast irons used for trunk mains in the water industry”. Materials Science and Engineering A, Vol. 527, 2010.

[25] British Standards Institution, “Discharge and ventilating pipes and fittings, sand-cast or spun in cast iron - Part 2: Specifications for socketless systems. BS 416-2:1990”. 1990.

[26] E. John, J. Boxall, R. Collins, E. Bowman, L. Susmel, “Investigating an alternative to exhumed grey cast iron water pipes for small-scale fatigue tests”. 2nd International Joint Conference on Water Distribution Systems Analysis & Computing and Control in the Water Industry, Valencia, Spain, 2022.

[27] K. Walat, T. Łagoda, “Lifetime of semi-ductile materials through the critical plane approach”. InternationalJournalofFatigue, Vol. 67, 2014.

[28] N.E. Dowling, C.A. Calhoun, A. Arcari, “Mean stress effects in stress-life fatigue and the Walker equation”. Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures, Vol. 32, 2008.


Industry News

Eatron Technologies and About:Energy win funding to extend electric vehicle battery lifetime

Eatron Technologies and About:Energy have been awarded funding from UKRI’s Faraday Battery Challenge to develop a first-of-its-kind AI-powered decision engine that delivers increased battery longevity, accelerates time-to-market, and cements the UK’s position as a global leader in AI-powered intelligent battery management systems. Current battery management systems (BMS) rely on simple, empirical methods that sacrifice accuracy in return for reduced computational effort. Conventional AI-powered methods, meanwhile, remain challenging to integrate within the BMS due to their complexity, demanding training process, and the need for large volumes of input data.

The new project – dubbed aiMAGINE – brings together About:Energy’s pioneering high-fidelity electrochemical battery models that achieve rapid and accurate calibration with Eatron’s unique edge and AI-powered cloud platform. Combined they will deliver highly accurate assessments of state-of-charge (SoC), stateof-health (SoH) and patented remaining useful life (RUL) predictions. AI complements the electrochemical models, enhancing predictions by accounting for complex physical behaviours that cannot be modelled. As a result, the pioneering new AI-powered decision engine (AI-DE) will provide highly accurate operational parameters to the BMS, significantly increasing battery pack longevity and simplifying integration.

About:Energy, is also launching ‘Formula Student: Drive to Recharge’, a new initiative to help address the UK's battery skills gap and support the development of 1,500 battery engineers by 2030.

Institution of Engineering and Technology responds to COP28 agreement

Stephanie Baxter, Head of Policy at the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET), said: “We are pleased that COP28 has agreed a new deal to move away from fossil fuels. But there still needs to be a clear timescale for phasing out fossil fuels completely. Low-lying islands will be amongst the first to suffer from rising sea levels, but climate change affects everyone. We are already feeling the effects of rising temperatures, and the impact on lives, well-being and economies will only deteriorate if action is delayed or watered down. We have the engineering and technological capabilities to deliver. We

urge the international community to stick to previous commitments to limit global heating to 1.5°C. All our futures depend on it.”

Hyundai Motor reveals vision for hydrogen energy and software solutions beyond mobility at CES 2024

Hyundai Motor Company today presented its vision for a hydrogen-powered, software-driven transformation beyond mobility applications at CES 2024. Under the theme ‘Ease every way,’ the company held its Media Day at the Mandalay Bay Convention Center in Las Vegas to highlight its future blueprint for a hydrogen energy ecosystem and a vision for software and artificial intelligence (AI).

In line with Hyundai Motor’s brand vision, ‘Progress for Humanity,’ the ‘Ease every way’ theme reflects the company’s aim to create a comfortable and peaceful living environment by providing three core universal values of freedom, safety and fairness for the global community. It goes beyond the mere physical utility value of technology and caters to the complex daily lives of people, providing freedom from various limitations, safety in communities from software security and reduced greenhouse gas emissions through hydrogen, and fair accessibility to clean energy and related services.

Cambridge Vacuum Engineering and Cranfield University project paves way for wider industrialisation of Laser in Vacuum welding

Cambridge Vacuum Engineering (CVE) – the power beam welding specialists – today announced the successful completion of a Knowledge Transfer Partnership (KTP)* with Cranfield University that will increase welding options available to engineers worldwide. Together, the two organisations have solved the undesirable optics contamination phenomenon associated with Laser in


Vacuum welding, paving the way for full-scale industrial exploitation of the technology. The conclusion of the KTP is set to yield tangible benefits for companies that want to achieve deeper penetration welds, while also improving weld quality, reducing oxidation, and minimising the time needed for part cleaning, post-welding.

Laser in Vacuum welding is a relatively new joining technique that can be used to tackle some of the most demanding welding tasks. The technique can achieve two to three times the depth of weld compared to conventional laser welding methods. However, to date, the issue of optics contamination has hindered its widespread adoption across industry.

Peak District National Park announces new electric vehicle chargers to help drive lower emission journeys

The Peak District National Park is charging forward enhancing its accessibility to electric vehicles (EVs), marking the completion of the installation of five new twin charging points, funded by BMW UK through its Recharge in Nature partnership with National Parks UK.

The new EV chargers are located at Millers Dale Station, Parsley Hay Bike Hire Centre & Car Park and the Moorland Visitor Centre at Edale. Millers Dale Station and Parsley Hay chargers will be available to the public, and those at Edale will serve guests of the Fieldhead Campsite at the Moorland Visitor Centre.

These are some of the busiest locations in the National Park, increasing the availability of EV charging options for both local communities and visitors. Each EV charging point can charge two cars simultaneously meaning that more EV drivers can travel with confidence to appreciate the Peak District’s picturesque views.

The Peak District’s ‘Peaks of Health’ project is also being supported by BMW UK from Spring 2024, enabling community-based health and well-being organisations to make the National Park a more accessible space to walk, cycle and enjoy. Its aim is to help combat barriers that prevent people from accessing the countryside around them, due to lack of transport, social isolation, a loss of confidence, older age, or physical and mental health challenges.

HBK VI-grade honoured with the 2023 Pirelli Supplier Award for Innovation

VI-grade, part of HBK’s Virtual Test Division and the global provider of human-centric simulation-driven vehicle development solutions, announced today that it was honoured with the prestigious 2023 Pirelli Innovation Supplier Award. The award was presented during the annual Pirelli Supplier Day, a distinguished event where Pirelli recognises the outstanding contributions made

by its top suppliers in the areas of sustainability, quality, innovation, performance, and service.

Out of Pirelli's extensive network of 15,000 suppliers worldwide, VI-grade emerged as one of the five suppliers that significantly contributed to the achievement of Pirelli's objectives throughout the year. The Supplier Day, held at Pirelli's headquarters in Milan, saw the participation of over 70 strategic suppliers from 18 countries, representing approximately 40% of the Group's global annual purchases. The 2023 Pirelli Supplier Day highlighted the alignment of VI-grade’s goals with Pirelli's focus on Innovation, Sustainability, Growth and Competitiveness. In his speech, Guido Bairati underscored VI-grade’s dedication to creating innovative and sustainable products. He stated, "Every year our simulators are driven over 9,000,000 kilometres worldwide, saving tons of CO2 emissions annually.”

World’s first hydrogen boat powered by printed circuit board fuel cell technology completes real-world testing

Bramble Energy, an innovator and disrupter in fuel cell technology, has achieved a milestone in marine history by launching the world’s first hydrogen-electric boat powered by a printed circuit board fuel cell (PCBFC™). As the lead partner in the HyTime project, working alongside custom engine builder Barrus, Bramble Energy has created a demonstration vessel that showcases the vast potential of its PCBFC™ technology to quickly and cost-effectively decarbonise the marine sector.

In a maritime first, the 57ft narrowboat was launched onto the water in Sheffield, Yorkshire, where it has successfully completed testing, emissions-free, using a custom marinised fuel cell system. The fuel cell system has the potential to provide the vessel with approximately 600 miles of range using the 14kg of hydrogen stored onboard, as well as additional power being supplied from solar panels on the boat’s roof to the 22kWh battery system.

The vessel, which has been built from the ground up, has been under construction in Sheffield where Bramble engineers have created a completely new design of a hydrogen system to meet marine requirements, and the boat has the potential to save each boat using this powertrain technology up to 12 tonnes of CO2 per year.

The global maritime sector contributes to 940 million tonnes of CO2 per year, equating to approximately 2.5% of global greenhouse gases. As such, the Clean Maritime Plan requires new vessels to be zero-emission capable from 2025.

Contributions to Industry News may be emailed to The nominal limit for entry is 250 words.


Exploring the Future of Engineering at the Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing Exhibition 2024

On Tuesday 26 March 2024, the prestigious Silverstone Wing at Silverstone Race Circuit opens its doors to host the eagerly anticipated EIS Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing Exhibition. From 10am to 4pm, this event promises to be a hub of innovation and knowledge exchange, showcasing the latest developments in measurement and analysis technologies. Headline Sponsor of this year's exhibition is Intrepid Control Systems.

With 70 tables featuring cutting-edge technologies, attendees will have the opportunity to see the latest advances in instrumentation, analysis and testing. Mini seminars held throughout the day under the theme "The Drive to Net Zero” will also provide a varied and interesting programme with presenters from a variety of fields sharing their expert knowledge.

John Yates, EIS Chairman, shared his insights into the future of this field, highlighting “the slow but steady progress of existing technology to adapt to new vehicle power units like battery power, hydrogen and alternative fuels. It is important to overcome concerns about digitisation and AI, ensuring a harmonious integration of these technologies without overshadowing essential human expertise”.

With an exciting mini seminar programme, attendees can expect to hear from a range of presenters each discussing novel ways to achieve net zero. “We’re delighted to welcome Robin Hall of Hall Engineering & Design”, explained John. “His work exemplifies innovation in electric vehicle design, demonstrating expertise in right-sizing batteries and integrating them seamlessly into the vehicle structure. From a 675 kg sports car to a 19-tonne refuse collection vehicle, Robin will demonstrate how meticulous EV architecture can minimise weight gains, optimising payload, range, and efficiency."

Sustainable goods transport through reduce, reuse and recycle will be another fascinating presentation. Presented by Ram Gokal of Innervated Vehicle Engineering, Ram will present the process to develop a hydrogen fuel cell powertrain to retrofit existing vans and how the transition to zero emissions can be more sustainable than constantly building new vehicles.

One past attendee commented, “The Silverstone show is a great way to explore the latest technologies and engage with industry experts. Nothing can replace

Meet our Headline Sponsor

Intrepid Control Systems Ltd, with over three decades of expertise in vehicle networking solutions. Their cuttingedge hardware and software tools are targeted to supporting OEMs and Tier 1s in developing and validating network architectures for Automotive, Heavy-duty and Industrial platforms.

Explore their wide array of applications in:

Vehicle Network Interfaces

Data Logging & Cloud Analysis

Simulation & Bench Testing

Gateways & Prototyping

Intrepid will be showcasing their latest demos towards supporting SoftwareDefined Vehicles including new network standards such as 10BASET1S. Meet the team at Stand 70 or visit

meeting face-to-face and having the opportunity to discuss problems and possible solutions in detail is extremely worthwhile. Often conversations I have at this exhibition lead on to future collaboration and having so many experts in one place enables me to effortlessly locate precisely what I'm looking for.”

Another attendee remarked, “If you need the latest products, the latest companies, the latest methodologies, then this is the place to come for inspiration. Everything you can imagine you might need in the world of data acquisition, analysis and test is going to be in the same place on this day. The exhibition offers free access to a near bottomless pit of knowledge and products and is not to be missed.”

In a rapidly evolving industry, the EIS Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing Exhibition 2024 brings together industry professionals to shape the future of testing and instrumentation. Registration is free along with free parking and complimentary refreshments for all attendees. Book your free delegate pass today using the online booking form on the website (


MIKA Displays Ground-breaking meon e Beach Buggy at Silverstone Exhibition

MIKA, the innovative new sports car manufacturer, is set to showcase its inaugural product, the meon e beach buggy, at this year’s exhibition. This marks MIKA's first foray into the automotive world with the meon e making waves as the lightest electric sports car in the world, weighing in at a mere 675 kilograms.

Powered by a 20 kWh battery, it achieves a commendable range of 120 miles without compromising on weight, thanks to its 'right-sized' battery design. The central placement of the battery pack ensures a low centre of gravity and even weight distribution between the front and rear axles, optimising ride, handling and agility.

With a remarkable 160 kW of power, instant torque and a seamless lack of need for gear changes, the meon e accelerates from 0 to 60 mph in just 3.5 seconds. The vehicle's powerful brakes, benefiting from the ideal weight distribution, contribute to both performance and safety on the road. The fully independent suspension, featuring race-car style double wishbones all around, promises a dynamic and responsive driving experience

and this unique combination earned the company the prestigious Niche Vehicle Network Nick Carpenter Innovation trophy in 2023.

The vehicle embodies classic beach buggy style fused with a high-performance, fully electric drivetrain and an entirely new chassis design. By merging supercar-level performance with proper sports car handling, MIKA sets a new standard for niche vehicles that are lightweight, fun and emission-free. The buggy not only offers exhilarating acceleration but also boasts track-proven handling and braking capabilities within an iconic sports car silhouette. The vehicle is poised to redefine the niche vehicle sector, showcasing that zero-emission motoring can be both enjoyable and environmentally responsible.

To experience the meon e up close, visitors can view the vehicle on display outside the entrance to the Silverstone Wing on 26 March. Attendees can also join the mini seminar presented by MIKA Director Richard Hall, focusing on the Lightweighting of Electric Vehicles.

Why Attend?

Stay Informed: Gain knowledge about the latest trends in measurement and analysis.

Network: Connect with industry experts, developing valuable professional relationships.

Personal Development: Enhance your skills and stay at the forefront of industry advancements.

Innovation Showcase: View the latest innovations spanning various sectors.

The following exhibitors will be exhibiting at this year’s exhibition:

1g dynamics

Aircraft Research Association Ltd

Applied Measurements Ltd

Asset Instruments Engineering Ltd

Axiometrix Solutions


Concorde Publishing

Data Acquisition & Testing Services

Data Physics (UK) Ltd

Datron Technology Ltd

Delta Motion Ltd

Dewesoft UK Ltd

Enabling Process Technologies Ltd

GI Systems Ltd


IDT (UK) Ltd

IndySoft Europe Ltd

Innovatest UK

Interface Force Measurements

Intrepid Control Systems


Kemo Ltd

Kistler Instruments

m+p international UK Ltd




Müller-BBM VibroAkustik Systeme

Niche Vehicle Network


PCB Piezotronics Ltd

Peli Products (UK) Ltd

Photron Europe Ltd

Polytec Ltd

Prosig Ltd

RDP Electronics Ltd

Relyence UK Limited

RMS Reliability

Rohde & Schwarz UK Limited

Sensors UK Ltd

Servotest Testing Systems Ltd

Siemens Digital Industries Software

Sika Instruments Ltd

Spectral Dynamics (UK) Limited

Star Hydraulics

Strainsense Limited

Techni Measure

Technica Engineering GmbH

Texys International

Torquemeters Ltd

Ultrafine Industrial Ltd

Vector GB

Vibration Research Corporation

Vishay Measurements Group Ltd

Vision Research Inc




Instrumentation, Analysis & Testing Exhibition

26 March 2024, Silverstone Race Circuit

The Drive to Net Zero



What is Net Zero, how and where do we measure it? - Andrew Eastlake, Consultant

Using the UK transport sector (the biggest GHG contributor) as an example, this presentation aims to highlight how engineering principles and defining clear boundaries and measurements, are fundamental to understanding how the products and policies should be designed for a true net zero future and how Greenhouse Gas is not the only sustainability metric needed.

Lightweighting Electric Vehicles - Robin Hall, Hall Engineering & Design Electric vehicles come with the inevitable weight penalty of carrying the battery pack at all times, even when the energy is largely depleted. Petrol and diesel powered vehicles have the advantage of losing weight as the fuel is burnt off. Hall Engineering And Design now has four BEV designs under its belt and has learned how to right-size the battery, efficiently design the vehicle package and incorporate the battery casing into the vehicle structure. By showing real-world examples ranging from a 675 kg sports car to a 19 tonne refuse collection vehicle we aim to show how careful integration of the battery and drivetrain into a dedicated EV architecture can minimise the weight gains to the benefit of payload, range and efficiency.

Range improvement of EV thermal efficiency through physical and virtual evaluation – Ben Gale, HORIBA MIRA

In relatively cool weather, (-7C) up to ~40% of an EV’s range can be ‘lost’ to thermal management systems. At a time when energy and sustainability are critical, the optimisation of this previously ‘low priority’ system is key. Coupled with the continuous demand for high quality in-vehicle experience, OEMs and thermal system suppliers are striving to differentiate through attributes such as human comfort. Implementing this necessitates a substantial increase in complex development costs and additional time for delivery. This incisive presentation demonstrates how HORIBA MIRA is helping our customers to: (1) Tackle this challenge earlier through the use of virtual methodologies, (2) Reduce the cost/risk of this new development and (3) Making the overall development process more sustainable.

Alternative future technologies to replace conventional ICE: A brief Overview - Upul Wijayantha, Cranfield University

Phasing out of ICE based vehicles has already started in line with the commitments made by a number of governments. Alternative low-carbon fuels and carbon emission free vehicle technologies are being penetrated to replace conventional ICE vehicles. This short presentation provides an overview of those alternative technologies.

Sustainable goods transport through reduce, reuse and recycle - Ram Gokal, Innervated Vehicle Engineering

Ram will present the process to develop a hydrogen fuel cell powertrain to retrofit existing vans. They will describe how, by addressing the existing 37million vans on the roads of Europe that produce 148 million tonnes of CO2e per year, the transition to zero emissions can be more sustainable than constantly building new vehicles.

To pre-register: |


Experience the future of network innovation with Intrepid Control Systems Ltd. With decades of expertise in supporting many OEM’s and Tier 1 companies, explore our wide array of applications:

Vehicle Network Interfaces: Empowering engineers from early development to seamless integration, prototyping and validation.

Data Logging and Cloud Based Analysis: Specialising in capturing and analysing critical data, guiding engineers to optimise vehicle performance and investigate technical root cause analysis.

Simulation and Bench Testing: Advanced simulations for predicting real-world performance and cost-effective improvements.

Gateways and Prototyping: Facilitating rapid iteration and issue identification, accelerating product development.

Join us on this journey to shape the future of vehicle network technology. The Intrepid team will be showcasing the latest demos towards supporting Software-Defined Vehicles, including new network standards such as 10BASE-T1S. Meet us at Stand 70 to find out more.

University of Wolverhampton Racing

Sponsored by the EIS

Wolf RS - a new design, build and race project

Harry Needle, BEng Mechanical Engineering & WOLF RS Project

Nicholas Skidmore, Principal Technician, Department of Engineering

Through its Department of Engineering, the University of Wolverhampton has participated in the IMechE Formula Student competition since 2015, and with the help of the Engineering Integrity Society, our students have built a car for every competition (excluding the COVID year).

In 2024, our student engineers who participate in University of Wolverhampton Racing (UWR) are embarking on a new project titled Wolf RS - a multifaceted, multi-purpose design project that will culminate in the production of racing cars for a variety of conditions and competitions.

The goal of this project is over the course of five years, engineering students at the University of Wolverhampton will develop a competitive, low-cost, professional yet DIY race car that customers can purchase the plans for and manufacture in a small workshop. The team will be student-led, where all design, simulation,

manufacturing, and assembly is to be undertaken by the student body. All work that is in development is to be verified under the guidance of the University staff. Once the car design is complete, the plans will be for sale on the open market for engineering and racing entusiasts to purchase and build.

Over the next five years, three different race car variants will be produced. WOLF RS, WOLF RR and WOLF RP. WOLF RS is a dedicated sprint and Hillclimb car, focusing on sub-1-minute racing. This variant will have a very stiff suspension and aggressive aerodynamics.

WOLF RR is a single-seater variant focusing on longer 30+minute races such as Monoposto/moto. This variant will have more efficient downforce, optimising for straight line and higher average speeds. WOLF RP is a sports prototype specific variant. Similar to WOLF RR, this version will compete in longer races, but aimed at Prototype and similar series.

It will utilise the same underpinnings, yet have more bodywork and a lower drag coefficient, focusing on creating a streamline design over a high downforce design. As part of the design and build process, the team will liaise with industry to gain knowledge of the specific areas required to design and manufacture a racing car. This will develop relationships within the industry, potentially leading to partnerships with the team, as well as growing the team’s knowledge on the ‘business of engineering’ and allowing suppliers to be directly involved with the project.

Initial CAD Concepts: WOLF RS, WOLF, RR and WOLF RP

Key Rules

• MSUK Blue book & eventual FIA appendix J compliance. The MSUK Blue book is thestandardised rule book given to all UK motorsport competitions operating under the MSUKbanner. FIA appendix J compliance will be a purely theoretical experiment to allow for thechassis to sold throughout Europe if required. Appendix J is the standardised singleseater rule book for this application, and if the car followed this rule book, then it would allow for awider customer base.

• FIA compliance results in an uncompetitive car for MSUK due to minimum weightconstraints

• Utilising recognized chapters of single seater rules, from MSUK Blue book and FIAAppendix J

Design target setting/part selection and methods of achieving

The management team will make sure that all individual designs meet a high performance per cost index, making sure that easy assembly is possible by utilising standardised tools, standard practices, and readily available materials. Ensuring that the car can be manufactured by an individual or small team within a realistic time frame.

Version and part number control

The file directory consists of ‘Dxxx’ numbered files for each section of the car e.g. suspension and wishbone

parts. Inside each D file will be Archives, CAD files, Documentation (containing tracking documents and any other written information about the parts), drawings and sketches and finally prototyping. For example, ‘D023 – Suspension Kinematics’ would be the 23rd file in the directory and give instant access to all CAD files, data and documentation relating the that specific variants suspension kinematic design.

This was decided on to allow future members or customers to look through older designs or previous members work and easily be able to locate parts and information on a particular area with minimal effort.

Drawing templates

Industry standardised drawing templates are supplied to all members.

Tracking Documents

All design research for each part/subsystem will be collated into a tracking document.


Now the project is underway, the team is working on delivering the first variant, WOLF RS. Members are already liaising with industry professionals and have started to deliver their first concepts of parts. Therefore, management is looking forward to what comes next for the team and are excited to start manufacturing towards the end of this year.

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News from the Women's Engineering Society

As 2023 drew to a close, the Women’s Engineering Society (WES) was delighted to welcome Dr Katherine Critchley as our new President.

Dr Critchley took over from Dame Dawn Childs at the AGM in October 2023 and is hitting the ground running as 2024 is shaping up to be a fantastic year for us.

We are starting the year with a big celebration; it is the 20th anniversary of our MentorSET programme which uses specialist software to link up mentors and mentees. Thanks to our sponsor Ricardo we are delighted that for the anniversary year this programme is going to be free for members.

Each year we choose a theme for the focus of the year, which includes the Top 50 Women in Engineering and the International Day of Women in Engineering (INWED) on the 23 June and for 2024 the chosen theme is Enhanced by Engineering!

Engineering is in everything we do and there are countless examples of how women have improved our lives. From the introduction of ‘The All-Electric House’ 100 years ago, which encouraged women to see the benefits of electricity in the household items, to the implementation of windscreen wipers on a car, or the design of an eco-friendly alternative to herbicides by using designing a zero-chemical, electronic approach to kill weeds, engineering focuses on improving the world around us.

The chosen theme runs throughout the WES year and will be the theme for our Annual Conference. This two-day event will be held in Birmingham in April and, alongside the usual networking and learning opportunities, we will be highlighting women throughout history who have made a significant contribution to the world around us. A highlight of our calendar is always our Top 50 Women in Engineering Awards (WE50) and it will also be focusing on the Enhanced by Engineering theme. During 2024 we are going to highlight those women who are taking a project, process or object and applying engineering principles to enhance it. Nominations for WE50 will open on 11 February and the winners will be announced on 24 June.

For 2024 we are going to be running our first-ever INWED ‘Big Weekend’, starting with our International Webinar on Friday 21 June. We will spend the weekend showcasing the amazing women who use engineering to improve our daily lives before the weekend culminates in the

award ceremony for the WE50 winners on Monday 24 June. Each year, INWED continues to astound us by the impact and interest that it has, and we can’t wait to see what people do around the theme this year.

From pioneering developments in transportation, to innovations in healthcare and technology, female engineers in the United Kingdom have significantly enhanced people's lives. Every day there are examples of how engineering has improved the lives of people, from Caroline Haslett’s three-pin plug that is still in use today, to the airbags and seat belts that contribute to vehicle safety, and the burgeoning development of fast and safe, at-home testing for infections in cancer patients. We can’t wait to see what else women do in 2024.

Conference Information 19-21 June 2024 Jesus College, Cambridge, UK +44 (0)1623 884225 9th Engineering Integrity Society International Conference on Durability & Fatigue Fatigue 2024 Headline Sponsor Sponsors:



As engineering modelling and simulation tools become ever more powerful and sophisticated there still remains the challenge of correlating the virtual world with both idealised laboratory testing and the wide, and potentially unexpected, range of service conditions experienced by machines and structures. These challenges are compounded by the advent of new materials, new ways of manufacturing components, new applications and new test, measurement and characterisation techniques.

At Fatigue 2024 we will seek to explore not only the latest developments in engineering modelling and simulation, new test, measurement and characterisation techniques, innovations in manufacturing and developments in materials science, but also the complex interrelations between all these topics that give rise to improvements in fatigue performance, durability and structural integrity.


The conference will take place at Jesus College, Cambridge, UK. Set in 24 acres of gardens in the heart of Cambridge, it provides a beautiful setting for events in a purpose-built conference centre.

Established in 1496 on the site of the 12th Century Benedictine nunnery of St Mary and St Radegund it is protected from the noise and bustle of the town. The College has many notable buildings dating as far back as the 12th Century and the spectacular Hall with its vaulted ceilings provides a unique dining venue for our conference dinner.


There will be an accompanying exhibition of material testing systems, durability software tools and engineering services where delegates will have the opportunity to discuss the latest developments in the field of fatigue and durability.


Hotel standard accommodation is available at Jesus College and student standard accommodation is available at Wesley House subject to availability. Please select the accommodation option on the booking form. Prices include bed and breakfast.


The nearest airports are Stansted and Luton. Cambridge is easily reached by train. Jesus College is located about ¾ mile from the railway station and is served by regular buses and taxis.

+44 (0)1623


EIS as organiser is not liable for any changes in the programme due to circumstances beyond their control. The organisers are not liable for any losses, accidents or injuries to persons or damage to property of any kind. Participants must arrange their own insurance if considered necessary.


Visa applications must be applied for in your country of origin.


The booking form available at should be completed and emailed to the conference secretariat, Sara Atkin:


With over 100 presenters from across the globe the conference will offer a full programme across the three days. The full provisional programme including list of speakers is available at:


Advanced Concepts on Fatigue and Fatigue-Crack Growth of Metallic Materials

Prof James Newman, Mississippi State University

Characterising fatigue crack tip deformation states in nickel base superalloys: slip character, strain accumulation and oxidation effects

Prof Philippa Reed, University of Southampton

Design & Manufacturing Challenges for High Pressure Disc rotors in Aircraft Engines

Dr Mark Hardy - Rolls Royce


Roberto Cipolla, Professor of Information Engineering, Cambridge University











Accommodation costs are listed on the conference website. (0)1623 884225


Alan Hellier (Australia)

Alberto Campagnolo (Italy)

Alfredo Navarro (Spain)

Ali Fatemi (USA)

André Galtier (France)

Andrea Carpinteri (Italy)

Andrea Spagnoli (Italy)

Barbara Rossi (UK)

Chris Hyde (UK)

Christophe Pinna (UK)

Daolun Chen (Canada)

David Nowell (UK)

Ken Wackermann (Germany)

Fabien Lefebvre (France)

Filippo Berto (Norway)

Francesco Iacoviello (Italy)

Francisco A Diaz (Spain)

Frank Walther (Germany)

Harry Bhadeshia (UK)

Hellmuth Klingelhoeffer (Germany)

Hossein Farrahi (Iran)

James Marrow (UK)

James Newman (USA)

Jan Papuga (Czech Republic)

Johan Moverare (Sweden)

Liviu Marsavina – (Romania)

Luca Susmel (UK)

Marc Geers (The Netherlands)

Mark Whittaker (UK)

Martin Bache (UK)

Matteo Benedetti (Italy)

Matteo Luca Facchinetti (France)

Mike Fitzpatrick (UK)

Miloslav Kepka (Czech Republic)

Muhsin J Jweeg (Iraq)

Neil James (UK)

Pablo Lopez-Crespo (Spain)

Paul Bowen (UK)

Phil Withers (UK)

Philippa Reed (UK)

Reinhard Pippan (Austria)

Rob Ritchie (USA)

Robert Akid (UK)

Sabrina Vantadori (Italy)

Shahrum Abdullah (Malaysia)

Svjetlana Stekovic (Sweden)

Takashi Nakamura (Japan)

Thierry Palin-Luc (France)

Veronique Doquet (France)

Wim de Waele (Belgium)

Yee Han Tai (UK)

Yoshihiko Uematsu (Japan)

Youshi Hong (China)

Yukitaka Murakami (Japan)


Dr Amir Chahardehi

Andrew Blows

Assoc Prof Chris Hyde

Dr Chuanjie Cui

Dr Emilio Martínez-Pañeda

Dr Fabien Lefebvre

Dr Farnoosh Farhad

Prof Filippo Berto

Prof Francisco A Diaz

Dr Hassan Ghadbeigi

Dr Hayder Ahmad

Dr Hollie Cockings

Dr James Rouse

Dr John Yates

Prof Mark Whittaker

Dr Mohamed Bennebach

Dr Pablo Lopez-Crespo

Paul Roberts

Dr Peter Bailey

Robert Cawte

Dr Spencer Jeffs

Assoc Prof Svjetlana Stekovic

Yi Gao


Dr John Yates


Dr Hollie Cockings


Assoc Prof Svjetlana


Sara Atkin

Engineering Integrity Society

6 Brickyard Lane, Farnsfield

Nottinghamshire, NG22 8JS, UK

Tel. +44 (0)1623 884225



Registered Address: Engineering Integrity Society, c/o Hollis & Co., 35 Wilkinson Street, Sheffield S10 2GB Business Registration No. 1959979. VAT Registration No. GB 443 7696 18. Registered Charity No. 327121

News from British Standards

2023 was another busy year for BSI’s standards committees responsible for engineering design, specification and verification the TPR/1 – Technical Product Realization – area, whose Subcommittee for the BS 8887 standards on Design for Manufacture, Assembly, Disassembly and End-oflife processing (MADE) is chaired by Professor Brian Griffiths. And the year ahead will be equally packed with a large number of meetings, events and standards development projects on the horizon.

In terms of national committee activities, the major project running throughout 2024 will be the work to revise BS 8888, the UK’s national framework standard for technical product specification and documentation. When it was first published in 2000, BS 8888 replaced the UK’s much-loved engineering drawing standard BS 308, which had been in existence since 1927 and was the world’s first engineering drawing standard.

BS 8888 has been updated frequently since it was first published – revised as regularly as every two years in its early days – but it has now moved to a more stable fiveyear revision cycle. The current edition came out in 2020. The committee responsible – TPR/1/8 – will be meeting throughout 2024 to draft and refine new content for the document as well as reviewing and refreshing the existing content in order to enhance the standard for UK industry. Publication of the revised version is expected in early 2025, BS 8888:2025.

A key milestone in the standard's development process is the “draft for public comment” stage. The draft agreed by the committee will be made available on BSI’s Standards Development website (https://standardsdevelopment. Users of BS 8888 and anyone else with an interest in the standard will be able to review the latest draft and submit any comments, as appropriate. It is free to register to BSI’s Standards Development website, which also offers a whole lot more in the way of information about standards, committees and their work programmes as well as the public commenting portal.

On the international standards front, TPR/1 is gearing up to host the next round of international committee meetings for ISO/TC 213 – the committee responsible for “dimensional and geometrical product specifications and verification”. UK committee members at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in Teddington, just outside London, have kindly offered to host the first Plenary meeting series of the year in the first two weeks of March. The UK holds the Secretariat of the international committee and BSI runs the work programme in this area.

With all of this ongoing work and activity, the TPR/1 area committees are always looking for new committee members and experts to join its standards drafting groups, national committees and international working

groups. Further general information on taking part in BSI’s standards work can be found at:

If you would like more information on any of TPR/1’s projects or work programme – or if you would like to get involved in any way in the committee’s activities –please contact Sarah Kelly, lead standards development manager and committee manager for TPR/1, at BSI on


Optical Fibre Bragg Grating Technology For Structural Integrity

Bringing Light to Measurement

This section of the journal describes the HOW IT WORKS of a specific technique or piece of equipment.

Sensors based on Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) technology are easy to install, electromagnetically safe and suitable for highly explosive atmospheres. Optical sensors are the ideal choice for numerous applications across all industries. A single system can simultaneously acquire signals from a high number of sensors measuring different parameters and spread along the same or multiple fibres over several kilometres – a cost-effective solution for obtaining reliable meaningful data.

What is a fibre Bragg grating?

A fibre Bragg grating is a microstructure that is a few millimetres long and that can be photo-inscribed in the core of a standard single-mode telecom fibre using laser light. It consists of a periodic refractive index change that results in operation as a wavelength selective mirror. The reflected wavelength can be related with the environment surrounding the optical fibre, allowing the measurement of several physical parameters (strain, temperature, tilt, acceleration, etc.).

Fibre Bragg gratings as sensors

When optical fibre is illuminated by broadband light, a narrow spectrum of the incident light is reflected at the fibre Bragg grating (Figure 1). This reflection is centred at the Bragg wavelength, which is dictated by the period of the microstructure and by the effective refractive index of the optical fibre core. The remaining light is transmitted and can be used to illuminate other FBGs with different periods, which can be located close (within a few millimetres) or far (several kilometres). Measurements of physical parameters are based on the changes induced by the measurands on the Bragg wavelengths.

Strain and temperature

A FBG is intrinsically sensitive to strain and temperature. The sensitivity to strain arises essentially from the FBG period change when the fibre is stressed or compressed, since the contribution induced to the refractive index is small. Also, the

Bragg wavelength change with temperature is due to the thermal dependence of the fibre refractive index and to the thermal expansion of silica.


Due to the FBG’s intrinsic sensitivity to temperature, thermal effects require compensation when other measurements are performed. This can be attained by using a second FBG, being the thermal cross effect cancelled by calculation. Alternatively, temperature compensation can be directly integrated on the sensor, for example by using two FBGs in push-pull configuration.

Sensing other parameters

FBGs can be used to measure other physical parameters by mechanically transferring the displacement, acceleration, tilt, force, etc., into strain applied to the optical fibre, using different transduction mechanisms. Moreover, temperature sensors are usually designed to ensure isolation of any mechanical influence on the FBG, so that only the effect of temperature is measured.

Benefits of Fibre Bragg gratings

Fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) have become integral to various industries, offering a range of benefits that enhance efficiency, safety, and reliability in diverse applications. These advantages derive from the unique properties of optical fibres and the inherent stability of FBG sensors.

One significant advantage is the ability to multiplex and acquire many signals on the same fibre. With each sensor having its reflected wavelength, FBGs allow for simultaneous, multifunctional measurements. The success of optical fibres in telecommunications is in part due to their low attenuation that allows light to travel long distances with reliable transmission quality. This is also an advantageous feature for optical sensor technology as it allows the easy access to far and remote locations.

Figure 1: Fibre Bragg grating operating principle. Figure 2: Portable interrogator with a multipoint temperature probe signal.

Reducing total ownership costs is a key benefit of FBG technology. A single optical interrogator (Figure 2) can manage hundreds of FBG sensors simultaneously, drastically reducing the cost per measuring point. The installation process is simplified as distinct types of sensors can be installed in series over a single optical fibre, minimising cabling and installation time (Figure 3).

The long-term stability and accuracy of FBG sensors contribute to their reliability in critical applications. Unlike some sensors that require regular calibration, FBGs rely on the fixed periodic grating structure within the optical fibre, ensuring inherent stability over time. This feature makes FBGs ideal for structural health monitoring, aerospace, and industrial testing, where precise and reliable measurements are essential for decision-making.

The passive nature of FBG sensors makes them suitable for hazardous areas, as they pose no risk of triggering explosions. Additionally, their resistance to electromagnetic interference, cryogenic temperatures, radioactivity, and vacuum conditions makes them reliable in demanding environments. The use of optical fibres as inert materials allows FBG technology to withstand water and salty environments, making it adaptable for long-term monitoring in maritime settings.

FBG technology adapts seamlessly to advancements in materials science, excelling in high strain and fatigue resistance. This makes FBGs ideal for embedding into composite materials, facilitating accurate and reliable structural integrity testing for modern structures (Figure 4).

Application examples of fibre Bragg grating sensors

The versatility of FBG sensors is evident in their applications across various industries. Their adaptability allows engineers to efficiently monitor different measurands, including strain, temperature, displacement, acceleration, load, tilt, vibration and force. This widespread usage and capability to measure multiple parameters have cemented FBGs' position as an essential technology, revolutionising the way we assess and ensure the integrity and safety of critical infrastructure and components in diverse markets.

In structural health monitoring, FBGs detect and measure deformations, strain, and vibrations, providing real-time data for assessing the health of infrastructure such as bridges, tunnels, and buildings (Figure 5). In the oil and gas industry, FBG sensors monitor pipeline integrity while in offshore structures the technology provides valuable insights into the structures' performance under varying conditions. In the energy sector, they contribute to condition-based maintenance of power generation equipment (Figure 6) and temperature monitoring in power transformers, while in the wind industry, FBG sensors play a crucial role in monitoring wind turbine blades, foundations, and subsea cables. In transportation, FBG sensors on pantographs help assess overhead power line infrastructure quality, reducing wear on components and ensuring reliable train operations. The use of FBG-based technology for monitoring and condition assessment supports the early detection of issues and helps to optimise maintenance schedules by minimising downtime and enhancing overall efficiency in different structure types.

FBG technology finds applications in research and development, especially in material testing and cryogenic research. In various industries, FBGs optimise processes by providing controlled measurements, such as temperature gradients in capillary tubes or weight distribution on containers.


FBG-based measuring systems have proven to be highly adaptable and reliable solutions for structural integrity assessment in various markets and applications. From structural monitoring to energy, wind, transportation, research, and industry, FBG sensors continue to play a vital role in providing accurate and real-time data for critical decision-making, improving safety, efficiency and performance across a wide range of industries. Their ability to withstand harsh environments, offer long-term stability, and provide multiparameter measurements makes them an indispensable technology in the era of advanced and precise monitoring.

Figure 3: Installed preassembled arrays of Strain and Temperature sensors. Figure 4: Installing strain sensing fibres on the foils of competition sailboat. Figure 5: Measurements of embedded strain and temperature sensors taken during shotcrete application. Figure 6: Installed vibration sensors on power generators.

News from MIRA Technology Institute

The drive towards cleaner, greener energy is getting everyone talking about the potential of hydrogen as an exciting alternative fuel source, and earlier this year we heard from a leading organisation that is currently showcasing its hydrogen-fuelled hypercar at the MTI. Walk into our reception area and you will see the amazingly sleek Viritech Apricale taking pride of place.

As investment in hydrogen continues to grow, we will inevitably see broader access to refuelling and transportation infrastructure but in the short term, the benefits of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCEVs) are strongest for organisations operating commercial fleets.

The MTI is at the forefront of developing capacity in this area of skills development, helping businesses to understand and realise the potential of hydrogen as an alternative clean source of energy that can keep their vehicles on the road with the minimum of downtime while reducing their environmental impact. We cover the basics of hydrogen technology as part of our current electric vehicles course as well as an advanced one-day course covering hydrogen fuel cells more generally.

Tevva truck to boost EV skills

In November 2023, we welcomed the delivery of a brand-new electric truck to help them get to grips with the latest electric vehicle technology. The 7.5 tonne Tevva battery electric truck is based at the MTI’s stateof-the-art workshops and will be instantly accessible for every student enabling them to see how the technology works in practice.

With a course series developed to deliver vital skills to the automotive sector as part of the electric revolution, the MTI enables students to gain an awareness and understanding of electric and hybrid vehicles, so that they can learn how to inspect, diagnose, and rectify systems and components.

We chose to invest in a Tevva vehicle because the brand is spearheading the rapid shift to decarbonisation and cleaner greener freight. The Tevva truck is driven by two electric traction motors that use no rare earth materials and is equipped with a regenerative braking system that harnesses kinetic energy to boost vehicle range. The presence of the truck in our workshop will really help to contextualise students’ knowledge and enhance their learning experience and understanding of EV technology.

At the MTI, we have been building capacity and designing training specifically for hydrogen fuel cell technology for HGVs and LGVs as part of the Department for Education’s Strategic Development Fund. We are offering one-day and three-day training courses for businesses and individuals in the automotive and logistics sector to help them gear up for the switch to cleaner, greener energy.

The MTI is a result of a unique collaboration led by North Warwickshire and South Leicestershire College and its partners HORIBA MIRA, Coventry University, the University of Leicester, and Loughborough University. It is helping to create specialist skills in electrification, autonomous and connected vehicles, cybersecurity and safety.

Since it first opened its doors, the MTI has welcomed over 48,200 students and delegates. This includes over 3,600 studying for accredited qualifications from a Level 1 Institute of the Motor Industry (IMI) certificate up to masters’ degrees, and over 880 apprenticeships at all levels. More than 18,200 automotive professionals have taken part in professional development activities.

To find out more about how to access flexible training options visit or email


Empowering Tomorrow's Engineers: Young Engineers Forum Embarks on a New Chapter

The EIS Young Engineers Forum was established back in 2015 and has arranged numerous successful seminars and webinars in recent years.

2024 sees a rejuvenation of the group as new talented engineers join the organising committee. With existing members assuming key roles within the society as council members and directors, the need arose for a fresh wave of early career engineers brimming with ambition, enthusiasm and drive.

The inaugural meeting of the newly formed team took place in January, bringing together a diverse group of engineers from both industry and academia. This blend of backgrounds and experiences set the stage for a collaborative effort to shape the future of the Young Engineers Forum.

One of the primary goals of this revitalised committee was to identify specific topics that would be invaluable for individuals who are at the beginning of their engineering careers. They have held further meetings to share insights and challenges allowing the group to identify the key relevant topics to focus their future efforts on. The group’s passion for engineering, coupled with the shared commitment to empowering the next generation has set the scene for an exciting future and we look forward to seeing their plans come to fruition in the coming months.

The Young Engineers Forum is not just a committee, but a community dedicated to nurturing the growth and development of emerging talent in the field of engineering. For those keen to learn more about the committee or get involved in Young Engineers Forum events please contact Sara Atkin, Marketing & Events Manager at

New Members of the EIS Young Engineers Forum Organising Committee

35 Young Engineers Latest News
Arjun Singh Bansal Techni Measure Emmett Birch Techni Measure Rebecca Ellis HBK Sean Fitzakerley The Open University Olawale Kila University of Northampton Arpan Kumar Koley Techni Measure Martin Muus Rail-Ability Lazuardi Pujilaksono University of Oxford Robbie Rowland Techni Measure

Technical Paper:

Manufacturing process and geometry influence on fatigue design and assessment of forged components

Matthias Hell*†, Rainer Wagener*

* Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability and System Reliability LBF, Darmstadt, Germany

† RONAL GmbH, Forst, Germany

Author correspondence:

Steadily growing demands for efficiency and sustainability of vehicles and machinery can only be satisfied by a component design, which consequently increases the material utilisation without compromising reliability and safety requirements. At the same time, the development of competitive products requires a lean and robust design methodology, which allows reductions of time to market and production costs as well as quick reactions to changing material feed stocks. Strainbased fatigue design approaches with elasto-plastic material behaviour allow a quick decision on the impact of changes in geometry, material and even parameter changes in the production process on the durability of the component and provide criteria for a component optimization with respect to cyclic properties. Despite the possibility of including inhomogeneous property distributions, the consideration of load sequence effects on the local damage evolution especially improves the quality of the fatigue assessment noticeably.

Influences On The Local Fatigue Behaviour Of Components

The majority of safety relevant components, for example chassis parts in passenger and commercial vehicles or structural parts in wind energy systems, are exposed to variable amplitude loading with purely elastic loading in the high cycle fatigue regime as well as elasto-plastic loading in the low cycle fatigue regime, see Figure 1. The fatigue life estimation therefore requires a continuous fatigue life curve [1]. The loads, which are imposed on the component

induce a local stress-strain state, which governs the local damage evolution. A multitude of influencing factors may accelerate or retard the damage process and affect the structural integrity of components. Figure 2 shows some selected influences on the fatigue behaviour, including manufacturing influences, the component geometry, the load time function and environmental conditions. In contrast to the methodology presented in state-of-theart guidelines, those influences are not acting as singular and distinguishable quantities but as a cumulative factor. In order to improve the transferability, the interaction between component geometry, material behaviour, load time function and environmental conditions have to be considered.

Depending on the manufacturing process, e.g. heat treatment, welding, forging or additive manufacturing techniques, metallic materials will exhibit more or less intensively pronounced gradients in the local material properties and the fatigue behaviour. In order to assess the influence of the manufacturing process on the fatigue behaviour, microscale testing with specimens extracted from actual components or thermomechanically treated specimens is the method of choice. The influence of the load-time function and the transient nature of the stress-strain behaviour has to be implemented in the fatigue design approach by numerical simulations with appropriate material. It is not always necessary to refer to very complex models for the mathematical definition of the stress-strain response. In most cases, a simple elastoplastic model with a kinematic-isotropic hardening rule is sufficient in order to understand the interaction

ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 56, MARCH 2024, pp.36–42. ISSN 1365-4101/2024
Figure 1: Load spectrum throughout the service lifetime and corresponding fatigue life curve for the damage accumulation.

between load time function, component geometry and the material response. The material model may be further simplified by a discretization of the isotropic hardening component over the accumulated damage as the field variable or simply the number of cycles.

Transferring material properties from the component to the specimen geometry also requires the consideration of size effects with the help of transfer functions. In linear-elastic approaches those size effects are usually treated as a cumulative effect, which is represented by different correction factors for the mechanical, the statistical, the surface-related and the technological size effect. [2] Because the material definition in linear-elastic approaches does not allow an explicit consideration of plasticity-related phenomena, the multiplicative superposition of those effects entails a huge testing campaign in order to investigate the interaction between the different effects and derive empirical formulae for their consideration. In most cases, the mechanical and statistical size effect will be treated as a simultaneous and non-differentiable effect [3,4,5].

With elasto-plastic approaches, it is possible to separate the influence of the elasto-plastic material behaviour on the local stress-strain state and the extension of highly loaded regions from the statistical size effect. Geometrydependent mechanical phenomena like the notch support effect [6] or stress averaging effects [7] can be interpreted as continuous modifications of the stressstrain state by localized plasticity within the notch root or a stress concentration. The mechanical size effects are in this case already covered by the numerical calculation of the stress-strain state provided that the numerical model has been set up correctly regarding the load assumption and the material definition. Remaining deviations between the numerical and the experimental fatigue life can then be attributed to statistical effects. The statistical size effect can be considered with the weakest link approach according to Weibull, calculating the required volume or area integrals during the postprocessing of the numerical analyses.

The size effects are strongly linked to the stress-strain

state, resulting from the load-time function and the component geometry. Particularly the load sequence of purely elastic and elasto-plastic loading acts on the local stress-strain state. In the presence of stressconcentrations, the elasto-plastic half cycles lead to a shift of the mean stresses and strains, which affects the following elastic load-cycles. In addition, during elastoplastic deformation, also the stress-strain relation may be altered by transient effects, such as, for example, cyclic softening or hardening. As local fatigue phenomena, as well as the local damage accumulation, are governed by the stress-strain state, the quality of the fatigue life estimation depends on the quality of the assessment of the local stress-strain state to a large extent. In order to consider the load sequence effects it was often proposed to execute a piecewise calculation of the complete load time history until failure of the component. On the basis of different assumptions regarding the local material behaviour, it is possible to extract only relevant elastoplastic load cycles from the load time function and reduce the numerical effort severely.

The following fatigue life estimation of a forged axle stub made of a precipitation hardening steel shows how an experimental determination of the local material properties may be included in a fatigue life estimation using an advanced transfer methodology for the consideration of size and load sequence effects in order to improve the quality of the fatigue life estimation.

Effect Of The Manufacturing Process On The Local Material Behaviour

Metallic materials in forged components experience a large number of manufacturing steps from the first casting over different rolling or drawing processes up to the final heating, the forging and consecutive heat treatments. During all manufacturing steps, the microstructure of the material and the material properties are constantly being modified, resulting in property gradients throughout the component volume. It is obvious that specimens extracted from the raw material, i.e. before the forging, will exhibit a totally

Figure 2: Selected influencing factors on the damage evolution, the fatigue behaviour and the structural integrity of components.

different fatigue behaviour than specimens extracted from the component. In order to achieve a good transferability from the specimen to the component geometry, those manufacturing processes have to be considered during the experimental campaign. In early product development stages, two different strategies may be applied in order to generate specimens with a representative material condition, see Figure 3. Both strategies strongly connect numerical simulations with the laboratory investigation of fatigue properties and a validation with experience from component testing.

The simulation-based strategy uses finite element simulations of the forging and cooling process to define relevant logarithmic strains and temperature gradients over time. A physical process simulation combines a mechanical deformation with simultaneous heat treatment of the material in the initial state, i.e. before the manufacturing process. From the deformed and heat-treated material, small-scale specimens are extracted and used for fatigue testing, deriving the stress-strain behaviour and the fatigue properties for a very well-defined material state. The experience-based

Figure 4: Extraction pattern for the investigation of the local material behaviour. Figure 3: Experience-based vs. simulation-based approach for the derivation of cyclic material properties with respect to the manufacturing process Figure 5: Stress-strain curves acc. to Ramberg–Osgood for two different extraction positions and three different cooling conditions, measurements in mm.

strategy in Figure 3 starts with the extraction of material specimens from an existing component for which the process parameters of the manufacturing must be known. In order to be able to interpret the fatigue test results with respect to the local logarithmic strain and the temperature gradient, a finite element simulation of the forging and the cooling process is required. Compared to the simulation-based strategy, the combinations of logarithmic strains and temperature gradients are limited. This does not affect the transferability as long as the material condition in the component to be assessed is

comparable to the material condition of the component used for the derivation of the material properties.

For the selected precipitation hardening ferritic-pearlitic steel with 0.38 wt-% carbon content, both strategies were examined. For the experience-based strategy, a circumferential pattern was chosen for the extraction of a sufficient number of specimens for the experimental derivation of a strain-life curve acc. to Basquin, Manson, Coffin, Morrow [7,8,9,10] and a stress-strain curve acc. to Ramberg–Osgood [11]. With respect to the process parameters, the axle stubs were manufactured on four different process routes with four respective cooling conditions, which were characterized by the local t8/5 times, i.e. the transition time from 800 to 500°C. Figure 5 shows the results of the investigation of the cyclically stabilized stress-strain relation for two different specimen locations and three different cooling routes. Although the curves nearly coincide in the Hookean regime, they differ significantly in the plastic part. If a homogeneous material behaviour is assumed for arbitrary combinations of process parameters, a misevaluation of the local strain response especially under large load amplitudes with significant damage contribution will be the consequence.

The results of the tests are plotted as strain-life curve according to Basquin–Manson–Coffin–Morrow in Figure 6. The curves nearly coincide and may be represented by a single approximation curve. In order to be able to analyze and interpret the relations between the process parameters in more detail, process simulations for the forging and cooling process were conducted. Therefore, the actual forging process, consisting of four strokes with two dies, was transferred to a finite element model, see Figure 7.

Figure 6: Stress-strain curves acc. to Ramberg-Osgood for two different extraction positions and three different cooling conditions. Figure 7: FE model of the forging process.

Interpretation Of The Fatigue And Stress-Strain Behaviour By Numerical Analysis Of The Process Parameters

For the experience-based, as well as for the simulationbased strategy, a finite element simulation of the forging and cooling process is required to be able to interpret the test results with respect to the manufacturing influence. Figure 8 shows the results of the forging and cooling simulation. With the help of the local logarithmic strain, a correlation analysis was carried out for the parameters of the strain-life curve according to Basquin–Manson–Coffin–Morrow, as well as the stress-

strain curve according to Ramberg–Osgood. For the strain-life parameters, no correlation could be found. The stress-strain behaviour shows a correlation with the logarithmic strain for the cyclic hardening coefficient K’ as well as for the hardening exponent n’, Figure 9.

Although differences in the strain-life relation are not as pronounced as in the stress-strain behaviour, they affect the fatigue life estimation by means of statistical influences. Figure 10 shows the scatter of all tests referring to a single approximation curve. Without consideration of the process parameters, all results for a range of the local logarithmic strain from =1…2.33 put together yield a scatter band of TN=1:4, invoking a statistical safety factor of jN=1.37. Selecting the points referring to a defined local logarithmic strain of =2.33 severely reduces the scatter band to TN=1.41 and the related safety factor to jN=1.19.

Implementation Of The Manufacturing Process Influence In The Fatigue Design Algorithm

The manufacturing process influence can be easily assessed either by the experience-based strategy, using specimens extracted from existing components with already defined process parameters, or with the simulation-based strategy in the laboratory environment. For the implementation in the fatigue design or assessment, the simple algorithm depicted in Figure 11 may be used. Starting with the definition of the process parameters and a generation of the required specimens for fatigue testing, the local material behaviour is investigated by strain-controlled tests, deriving a fatigue-life relation and the stress-strain behaviour of the material. Afterwards, the material behaviour is transferred to the component geometry during the course of the finite element simulation of the local stress-strain response to the external loadtime function, which acts on the component during

Figure 8: Results of the forging and cooling simulation Figure 9: Correlation between the local logarithmic strain and the cyclic hardening coefficient K’ and between and the hardening exponent n’ .

service. If the load-sequence is considered correctly, the application of linear damage rules on the rain-flow counted spectrum of the local stress-time function may

be used as a simplification in order to calculate the fatigue life under service loading conditions.

Figure 12 shows the comparison between the numerical and experimental fatigue lives of the investigated axle stub using the stress-strain relation for a local logarithmic strain of =0 (undeformed material) and a local logarithmic strain of =2.33 (manufactured state in the highly stressed region, position 1, see Figure 5). As the diagram shows, the numerical results for the fatigue life are not conservative, if the stress-strain behaviour for the undeformed material is assumed. If the stressstrain relation is chosen according to the local process parameters, the numerical fatigue assessment provides conservative results.

Figure 10: Effect of the consideration of the local logarithmic strain phi on the selection of results for the evaluation of the scatterband and the statistical safety factor. Figure 11: Fatigue design and assessment algorithm for the implementation of process-influenced material behaviour. Figure 12: Fatigue design and assessment algorithm for the implementation of process-influenced material behaviour.


For the examined precipitation hardening ferriticpearlitic steel, the analysis of the relation of selected process parameters has shown a correlation between the local logarithmic strain and the parameters of the stabilized cyclic stress-strain curves according to Ramberg–Osgood. An approximation by a linear fit could be established, allowing us to choose a stress-strain behaviour according to an arbitrary local logarithmic strain, ranging from =1…3. With the simple fatigue algorithm shown in Figure 11 and the approximation solution, a sufficiently accurate fatigue life estimation with a conservative result in comparison with the experimental fatigue lives could be obtained. The fatigue life estimation with material in the undeformed state (as delivered, before forging) did not yield conservative results.


The project AVIF A308 “Influence of the process parameters on fatigue behaviour of forged components” was funded by the charitable foundation Stiftung Stahlanwendungsforschung im Stifterverband für die Deutsche Wissenschaft e.V.. Detailed information about the project is available from Industrieverband Massivumformung e. V., Goldene Pforte 1, 58093 Hagen, Germany.


[1] Wagener, R., MaterialsTesting , Vol. 60, Iss. 10, 2018, pp. 924–930

[2] Kloos, K.-H., VDI-Berichte,Vol. 286, 1976, pp. 63–76.

[3] Siebel, E., Stieler, M., VDI-Zeitschrift, Vol. 97, 5, 1955, pp. 121–126.

[4] Kuguel, R., Proc.ASTM , Vol. 61, 1961, pp. 732–744.

[5] Sonsino, C.M., Konstruktion , Vol. 45, 1993, pp. 25–33.

[6] Neuber, H., Konstruktion , Vol. 20, 1968, pp. 245-251.

[7] Basquin. H.O., Proc.ASTM , Vol. 10, 1910, pp. 625–630.

[8] Manson, S.S., NACATech.Note,2933, 1953.

[9] Coffin, L.F. jr., Trans.ASME , Vol. 76, 1954.

[10] Morrow, J.D., ASTMSTP, Vol. 278, 1965, pp. 45–87.

[11] Ramberg, W., & Osgood, W. R., NACATech.Note , 902, 1943.

Can’t measure the vibration? Vibrometry may be the solution Non-contact, reactionless laser vibrometry measurement technology from Polytec supports you. +44 (0)2475 267 020

Edward John Wins the Peter Watson Prize for Young Engineers for 2023

The Engineering Integrity Society continues to champion and celebrate the achievements of young engineers through the prestigious Peter Watson Prize. Named after the EIS founding president, Dr Peter Watson, this award aims to provide support to emerging talents in the field of engineering, specifically those at the beginning of their careers. The 2023 award, held at Makeney Hall, Derbyshire, showcased exceptional presentations and culminated in the recognition of Edward John, a fourth-year PhD student from Sheffield University.

Interested engineers submit a one-page abstract summarising the presentation they would like to give, with topics including durability, fatigue, NVH, sound and vibration, simulation, test and measurement. Applications are then assessed by a panel and the shortlisted candidates are invited to present at the Final.

Edward John's victory at this year's Peter Watson Prize Final followed his outstanding presentation on "Proactive pipe management: Multiaxial fatigue of water pipe grey cast iron" (see page 12). The depth and relevance of his research impressed the judges, showcasing the calibre of his work in the field of engineering. Upon winning, Edward expressed his gratitude, stating, "The award has definitely given me a confidence boost for future presentations and it is nice to have my research recognised in this way. Hopefully, this kind of recognition will help when looking for roles after my PhD, in academia or industry."

Professor Luca Susmel, Edward's supervisor, praised his achievements, saying, "Ed is a top-notch PhD student. The research work he has done so far is outstanding and is going to have a huge impact on the water sector. Thus, this prize is very well deserved. At the same time, I'm sure this is just the beginning."

The competition was fierce, with Beth Eames of the University of Oxford highly commended for her presentation titled "Elastic Contact Solutions for the Flat and Rounded Punch." The judges faced a challenging task, as the standard of presentations covering a diverse range of topics was exceptional. John Yates, Chairman of the Society, remarked, "Once again, we have seen a really high quality of abstracts submitted for the award and shortlisting to seven finalists was a difficult task. The final presentations were varied and interesting and all the candidates did exceptionally well. It was extremely difficult to decide the winner and the judges deliberated long and hard, which is a testament to the high standard of presentation from our finalists."

Looking ahead, the EIS has announced that the Peter Watson Prize for 2024 will be held at the Fatigue 2024

conference at Jesus College, Cambridge, next June. This ongoing commitment to recognising and encouraging the next generation of engineering talent reinforces the importance of innovation and excellence in the everevolving field of engineering.

Engineering Integrity spoke to winner Edward John to find out a little more about him.

Tell us a bit about yourself.

I am a fourth-year PhD student researching the causes of leakage for cast iron water pipes. Specifically, I'm investigating how fatigue cracking can cause these pipes to start leaking. My PhD is part of the Water Infrastructure and Resilience (WIRe) CDT and is sponsored by UK Water Industry Research (UKWIR). I studied Mechanical Engineering here at Sheffield for my undergraduate degree, and before starting my PhD I worked as an engineering consultant in the rail industry for two years. I'm originally from North Yorkshire.

How did you hear about the competition?

My primary supervisor, Luca Susmel, forwarded me an email advertising the competition and suggested that I enter.

Why did you choose to participate?

Presenting is an important skill so it's good to keep practicing and watch and learn from others. It was also an opportunity to share my research with a different audience.

What was your presentation topic and how is it connected to your research?

My presentation was titled "Proactive pipe management: Multiaxial fatigue of water pipe grey cast iron" and drew on the results of some fundamental fatigue research we had recently published to explore the sensitivity of buried water pipes to different load combinations.

Did you receive any support from the department?

My supervisors have been very supportive and have given me plenty of opportunities to practice my presentation skills, and have given helpful feedback.

What does the award mean for you and how do you hope to utilise it in your future career?

The award has definitely given me a confidence boost for future presentations and it is nice to have my research recognised in this way. Hopefully this kind of recognition will help when looking for roles after my PhD in academia or industry.

Any final thoughts?

I was unaware, until one of the judges informed me afterwards, that Peter Watson whom the prize is named after featured heavily in my talk through my use of the Smith–Watson–Topper fatigue criterion. This was a nice coincidence!

Chairman John Yates (centre) with winners Edward John (left) and Beth Eames (right).

Product News

A cutting-edge DoIP Dongle from ODOSOLUTIONS

With the automotive industry facing new challenges in ECU development and diagnostic testing for ZeroEmission Vehicles (ZEVs), ODOSOLUTIONS are thrilled to announce the upcoming Q2 2024 release of our cuttingedge DoIP Dongle.

Designed specifically for EV development and testing teams, this groundbreaking datalogger aligns with the requirements of SAE J1979-3. It’s not just a device; it’s a solution tailor-made to optimize the Design Verification Plan (DVP) process for ZEV software.

With the US market gearing up for mandatory compliance with the SAE standard, starting with the 2026 model year, our DoIP Dongle is set to be an indispensable asset to ensure your vehicles meet these critical standards. We’re here to support you in navigating these new compliance challenges. Looking forward to discussing your EV validation process at Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing Exhibition on 26 March 2024 at Silverstone.

Perfect harmony: the driving simulator as a virtual OEM

Driving simulators are extending the OEM’s traditional systems integration capabilities into the digital realm, combining tools and models from different suppliers to create virtual cars.

Vehicle OEMs rely on component suppliers to contribute their expertise to new products, but the car makers skilfully integrate the different elements and put the brand’s unique stamp on the finished design. That could mean finessing their signature ride and handling behaviour, evolving intuitive HMI and cabin controls or, increasingly, ensuring ADAS technologies work seamlessly to enhance active safety.

But as the volume of sensors and software in vehicles increases, it’s become important, and sometimes necessary, to perform that integration in the virtual world. The development challenges of software-defined vehicles can result in physical prototypes appearing at a later stage in the program than was previously the case. Disciplines in which tuning on the proving ground was the norm, such as vehicle dynamics, increasingly turn to driver-in-the-loop (DIL) simulators as a means of proving out their designs and setups before physical cars are available to drive.

But OEMs should not have to abandon their traditional engineering tools just because they’re now testing

their vehicles on virtual tracks. Cruden believes that a DIL simulator adds value if it can integrate multiple tools in a simple, standard and open way – whether it’s a tire model, a sensor simulation for ADAS, an acoustics development package or something else. By integrating the engineering tool chain and bringing together different models from different suppliers in the simulator, a driver can experience, and give feedback on, an integrated solution that would otherwise be offered only in a real car.

Simulator control software, such as Cruden’s Panthera, has two main purposes. The first is to manage what the driver experiences – the visual cues, motion, steering inputs, audio and more. But to accurately reproduce the vehicle in the virtual world, Panthera’s other function is just as critical: how it integrates with different engineering tools, including vehicle models through a simplified interface based on a software development kit (SDK).

New combined suspension, kinematics & compliance testing systems

Servotest hexapod Suspension Testers are the cutting-edge solution for precision suspension analysis and testing.

The Servotest hexapod systems are advanced and versatile tools designed to evaluate the performance and durability of suspension systems in various vehicles. Developed with engineering excellence and innovative technology, this state-of-the-art tester offers unparalleled accuracy, reliability and versatility, making it an essential tool for automotive manufacturers, research institutions and motorsports enthusiasts alike.


Key Benefits:

1. Two independent six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) motion platforms provide the ultimate in versatility – for suspension kinematics and compliance and durability testing.

2. The unique quad hexapod configuration enables simultaneous testing of both front and rear suspensions, significantly reducing testing time and enhancing productivity.

3. Servotest Dual/Quad hexapod systems provide precise and repeatable movements, replicating realworld road conditions with exceptional fidelity. This level of accuracy ensures reliable data for suspension performance evaluation by using Servotest hydrostatic bearing actuators and fibre-optic digital controls technologies.

4. Servotest Dual/Quad hexapod systems utilise Servotest hydrostatic bearing actuators to provide unmatched reliability. The robust frame is manufactured to withstand the rigours of continuous testing, ensuring these Dual hexapod systems will provide a lifetime of reliable testing in the most demanding environments.

Alfa Laval Free Rotating Retractor

The Free Rotating Retractor quickly eliminates and effectively removes residues from the interior surfaces of hard-to-clean vessels, limiting cross-contamination, minimizing downtime, and increasing productivity. It delivers up to 35% savings in water, chemicals and time for every CIP cycle compared to conventional static spray ball technology. Moreover, more efficient use of resources enhances sustainability throughout manufacturing operations.

Key benefits of the Free Rotating Retractor:

· Safety and productivity: Complete cleaning assurance, enhancing product safety while boosting uptime and productivity.

· Water savings: Up to 35% savings in water, chemicals and time for every CIP cycle compared to conventional static spray ball technology.

· Operation: Easy and economical to install, operate and maintain.

NEXDAQ 8 channel high speed data acquisition system

Strainsense are excited to present Dewetron’s new NEXDAQ 8 channel high speed data acquisition system. With up to 1 MHz per channel sampling, 24-bit resolution, and USB and Ethernet interfaces for PC connection it’s ideal for test and measurement applications.

Analogue inputs supported are voltage up to ±100V and full- or half-bridge strain gauges, with sensor power supply available and TEDS support. In addition, there are

4 advanced counter inputs, 2 CAN or CAN-FD interfaces and 8 digital IO channels. Plugin MSI modular smart interfaces for IEPE, current, quarter-bridge strain gauge, thermocouples, RTD, LVDT, high voltage (up to 600V RMS) and charge inputs expand capability.

Weighing just 1.25kg, with IP67 sealing against dirt and moisture ingress, and shock and vibration qualification, it provides high flexibility. A power supply is included, and Power over Ethernet can be used. Multiple units can be daisy-chained to increase channel count. The included oxygen software records and displays data in real time.

Standard instruments are charts, meters, scopes, a spectrum analyser and FFT maths. Analysis options include electrical power, order analysis and sound level. Export options include editable PDF reports, data and video files.

Accurately Measure Rotational Velocity with PCB’s New Triax Angular Rate Sensor: Introducing Endevco Model 7330 Triaxial Angular Rate Sensor

PCB Piezotronics (PCB®) is introducing our new Endevco® Model 7330 triaxial angular rate sensor. It provides accurate measurement of rotational velocity in a small, lightweight package rugged enough for extreme environments, such as automotive safety testing.

Model 7330 features:

• Wide bandwidth

• Excellent linearity

• Compact, lightweight package

• Rugged to 10,000g shock and IP 67 rated

• Wide operating temperature range of -40 to +105°C (-40 to 221°F)

Model 7330 has full-scale angular rate ranges including ±100, ±500, ±1500, ±6000, ±8000, ±12000 and ±18000 deg/sec, and provides full-scale voltage output of ±2V. Designed for automotive rollover and safety testing, this sensor also excels in a wide variety of shock and vibratory motion applications, including helmet, sports, and aerospace testing.

Contributions to Product News may be emailed to The nominal limit for entry is 250 words.


News from the Institution of Mechanical Engineers

Virtual showrooms in the ‘Iguverse’ prevent mistakes and cut emissions

Imagine a showroom where instead of just looking at products from the outside, you can stick your head inside them and see the internal mechanisms. Or you can shrink and expand objects in your hands, viewing them from all angles and inspecting fine details up close.

That is the premise behind the ‘Iguverse’, a virtual reality (VR) experience created by high-performance plastics manufacturer Igus. Like a virtual version of a sample box, the VR showroom is used to demonstrate parts and systems for potential buyers. The platform is streamlining the purchase and installation of products to prevent unexpected costs and help reduce carbon emissions, says Matthew Aldridge, director of Igus UK. It is already in use remotely and in-person – but it could look very different in future, as VR technology accelerates into the mainstream.

Into the Iguverse

One moment, I am standing in a plain, grey mezzanine room in the German multinational’s Northampton office and distribution centre. There is a square of blue tape surrounding me on the dark carpet below.

The next moment I am in the Iguverse, having pulled the VR goggles over my eyes. A partial human avatar across the virtual showroom is Aldridge, who talks me through the experience. The square of tape is replaced by a grid projected in my headset, warning me if I drift too far in the real world.

We are in the automotive room, one of more than 10 virtual environments focused on the different industries that Igus serves. Others include oil and gas, construction and machine tooling. A medical room has also recently opened.

Aldridge passes 3D models of parts back and forth, highlighting details in the smallest of bearings or minichains, which I can expand by simply stretching the product using my handheld controllers. Navigating around the space, I stick my head through a car seat to see the complex parts beneath. I do the same in a moving pick-and-place delta robot, seeing how the internal systems interact.

In the loop

Back in the physical world, Aldridge sets out the company’s vision. The Iguverse is designed to provide practical, useful information, he says, showing customers how products will move and interact when installed in the real world.

“I can give you a delta robot, you can pick it up and look into it. To do that physically is heavy, it's hard work,” he says. A 3D model on a screen could give you a similar experience, he admits, but the immersive perspective can provide a deeper understanding of how a new machine could slot into a company’s workflow.

The platform “really comes into its own” when customers test integration of Igus products with their own facilities, says Aldridge. He gives the example of working with the operator of an offshore rig.

“We did a job with a system that we call an e-loop, which is a special kind of circular chain for guiding hydraulic hoses and cables on offshore rigs. And we were able to take the CAD of that offshore rig, put in the e-loop, and invite the customer into the Iguverse and show them how it fitted,” says Aldridge. “When we showed them how it would work, they then made us aware of a part of the machine which was not in the CAD, but which they knew about, which would otherwise have fouled on the system. That would not have been picked up if we hadn't have gone through that 3D interactive experience.”

By preventing mistakes, the Iguverse could save customers time and money. Other benefits might include improved safety from virtual installation testing, and reduced carbon emissions from travelling to site visits or other physical testing.

Digital future

Iguverse demonstrations are held for customers in Northampton, including in a large new room across the road from the company’s main offices. Sales engineers can also bring headsets to client visits or send them directly to customers, enabling remote meetings in the platform.

The company’s website is even more ambitious: “In the Iguverse, customers, engineers, project managers and decision-makers will come together in future as avatars in the digital space. They will carry out entire projects there, from the idea to the finished product


– faster and more smoothly than is possible in the physical world alone.”

The platform is accessed using Meta’s Quest 2 goggles, but the pace of change in the VR and mixed reality market means the Iguverse could look different – on both the outside and the inside – in future.

Apple’s Vision Pro headset is due to launch in February, with a customary blend of high-tech hardware and slick user experience that could accelerate mixed reality uptake. The product’s 2023 launch video featured the Stages app from software and service firm PTC, which lets users review and approve new production lines in augmented reality. Other entrants to the scene include Siemens and Sony, who last week launched their vision for “immersive engineering” in the industrial metaverse.

“This technology is starting to be adopted by the big players in the game,” says Aldridge in Northampton. “Whether we will have the same style and design of headset in two years, five years’ time, I don't know. I doubt it.

“We're at the start of something here, a bit like CAD in the 1980s and early 1990s. Things were evolving very, very fast. I think we're at that point, really, with the whole virtual reality, Iguverse experience.”

ACM Hints & Tips With

David Ensor

A column with useful hints, tips or ideas on analysis, collection and measurement.

I was chatting to an engineer who had got quite bogged down in the frequency content, amplitude spectra and the other things we review to understand our time series data. He was surprised when I suggested he look at his data another way, in the “distance domain”.

We are often “trapped” into thinking there is only the time domain, data and obtaining a plethora of results in terms of duration, time at level and frequency content. But sometimes you can get a better picture of your problem having your data in distance increments.

Data collected at set time increments is analysed to provide frequency-type information, it is generally very long with information when nothing is happening and has to be sampled at high enough rates to be able to resolve the fastest event. More importantly, in this engineer’s case, it is difficult to overlay to see the differences in events at different speeds.

How do you collect data at set distance increments? Most data collection kits can trigger the ADCs externally; for instance, from a suitable sensor pickup on, say, the ABS or speedometer ring giving a number of pulses per revolution of the wheel (distance).

You can still use all the same analysis tools, but to provide distance at level information. A spectral analysis will not be in terms of frequency but repeats per metre or similar. You can even check or compare exactly where an event occurs even at differing speeds.

More importantly data collection is often more efficient. When the vehicle is stationary there is no data, and as you go faster the sample rate increases, automatically.It’s a similar story for angle domain data. Here events can be compared at exact crank angle or piston positions run-to-run.

Think BIG, or small. Fast, precise, elegant, servo-hydraulic control. BIG or small, get your next project running more quickly than you thought possible. One axis or fifty; position, velocity, force, or position-pressure/force, look to Delta RMC Motion Controllers and graphical RMCTools software to make complex motion easier, smoother, and more precise. RMC200 Standard (Up to 50 axis) RMC200 Lite (Up to 18 axis) 44(0)1926 485532 Distributor C M Y CM MY CY CMY K 07122023_Engineering_Integrety_Mag_Think_Big_or_Small_Ad.pdf 1 7/12/2023 1:32:04 PM

News from the Institute of Measurement and Control

After a huge amount of work and effort from a wide range of individuals, organisations and partner groups, we have now finalised the National Metrology Skills Alliance competency framework.

From that work, this industry-led new standard provides a detailed and comprehensive framework that will provide the foundations needed to standardise metrology skills in the UK and internationally.

Currently completed are the Core standard and associate guidance documents, as well as two subject-specific annexes, covering Manufacturing Metrology and Flow. The NMSA working groups have already started to work on additional annexes and have plans for several more. So far, the final documents have only been shared with those who have contributed to the project, but they will be publicly launched at the beginning of February, and then available from the InstMC website. Keep an eye on our NMSA page ( metrology_skills_alliance) for updates.

Our hope is that it will enable both the InstMC and other organisations to develop structured training programmes and skills pathways for metrologists who want to work towards the top levels of the qualification. Having an accepted professional standard and qualification for metrologists will not only highlight the hugely important role that good quality and robust measurement plays in science and engineering but will help promote metrology as a valid career choice.

We are also delighted to announce the launch of our brand-new InstMC network; Women in Measurement, Automation and Control (WiMAC). The aim of the group is to raise the profile of women engineers through discussion and engagement across a range of topics and activities, including Leadership, Professional

Now that the Core standard is complete, members of the Skills Alliance are turning their attention to the development of a recognised professional qualification for metrologists, based on the three levels contained within the standard. These will be competency-based and assessed in a similar manner to the Science and Engineering Council. The qualification will allow metrologists to prove their skills, which will be of great benefit to individuals and will also give confidence to the industry, especially in safety-critical areas, to know their staff can prove a defined level of skills and competence. It will also give people a basis for career development, allowing them to plan their learning, and identify gaps and areas for improvement.

Development, Mentoring, Outreach, Advocacy, Technical Knowledge, Diversity, Public Speaking and much more. Still in the early stages, we plan to host quarterly meetings throughout 2024, with a mix of online and inperson attendance, where future projects and activities will be formed. The network is currently open to InstMC members only, but as it evolves in the coming months, we hope to open it up to anyone who would like to join.


Group News

Durability & Fatigue Group

This year we are now looking forward to the main event of Fatigue 2024, to be held in June at Jesus College, Cambridge. Thanks to the industrious work of the organising committee, we expect this to be our largest conference to date with a range of highly interesting and commercially relevant topics. Our group members have made a great contribution by reviewing an excellent range of papers from the UK and international presenters; first abstracts, and now full papers for proceedings. There is still time to register as a delegate, if you haven’t already done so, so we hope to see you in Cambridge.

By the time of publication we will also have recently held a seminar on bolted joints. This has been quite some time in gestation, since an initial workshop on structural joints subjected to fatigue loading, back in 2019; we hope to follow on with another dedicated seminar on welded joints. The previous workshop really highlighted how important this family of topics is across all sectors, not only due to practical necessity in design, but due to how little published material is available on detailed phenomenology and analysis. These techniques often rely heavily on generally accepted practices which were developed empirically before the mid-20th century, so many engineers who deal with them tend to either assume the “rules” they have received are set in stone, or else recognise their ignorance but don’t have the resources available to investigate further.

Following on the underlying idea of continuity, our group seems quite representative of industry, in that, many of our previously “young engineers” now find themselves taking on significant responsibilities, as older colleagues retire. Many find that they inherit a status quo in which there are some ways of working that seem rather outmoded, while others seem sensibly aligned with “common knowledge”, but in both cases the original reasoning has been lost in the mists of time. This can be a great opportunity to re-evaluate and improve practices, although it also carries the risk of having to re-learn mistakes. Our aim, across the EIS, is to help bridge these sorts of gaps, by helping share knowledge and provide some continuity even if it becomes lost in an individual organisation – so that hopefully as professionals, we can spend more time making better wheels rather than reinventing them!

Simulation, Test & Measurement Group

As I write the STMG are currently focusing their efforts on two seminars on ‘Data Collection’ which will be held in February and April this year. The data collection seminars have been a popular and well-attended event in previous years and attracts both young

and more experienced engineers. The focus again will be on data acquisition, sensors, and processing and the first seminar will be held at MIRA Technology Institute (MTI) in Nuneaton on the MIRA Technology Park. MIRA will be demonstrating transducer installation and data acquisition using a rig first built and shown back in November 2019.

This year a couple of the MIRA graduates have invested time and effort to improve the rig and will demonstrate what they have learnt at the seminar as well as taking questions from delegates. It’s a great opportunity for them to talk to skilled engineers and discuss techniques with a range of delegates from a variety of sectors. The second seminar will be held at ZwickRoell at their offices in Worcester and full details will be released in the coming weeks.

The committee is also planning a seminar on tyres and we could potentially have access to a driving simulator, again based on the MIRA site. This would also be a fantastic opportunity for attendees to see how technology is shaping the way we access the ‘dynamics’ of a vehicle before a prototype is built, saving time and money which can be invested much later in the programme.

I’m really pleased to see younger members of the EIS step up to fill roles previously undertaken by longstanding members of the organisation. Our younger committee members are the future of the society, and it is vital that we gain new support to continue to grow and expand our activities. The Young Engineers Forum is critical to our pipeline and I am delighted that this committee has been re-energised with a number of enthusiastic early career engineers recently joining the group. You can read more about this on page 35. I understand that they are currently identifying suitable topics for future events and I look forward to hearing more about this as their plans develop.


Sound & Vibration Product Perception Group

By way of introduction, I thought I would briefly touch on NVH engineering and its place in the world of electric cars. Net zero engineering and NVH are, of course, not exclusive. In the advent of the modern electric vehicles there are significant NVH challenges in ensuring that the standards of vehicle refinement are retained. This may seem like a done deal, given that electric motors are (in general) quieter than internal combustion engines. However,

electric vehicles are typically 25% heavier than their petrol/diesel car equivalents, and so reducing vehicle weight is a constant challenge during the design and development process, putting pressure on acoustic material specifications for optimal sound attenuation and chassis designs for good structural dynamics and stiffness characteristics. These are just some of the issues that are presented to NVH engineers in the world of net zero vehicle engineering, and provides a backdrop to some of the challenges and initiatives that the Sound & Vibration Product Perception Group (SVPP) are concerned with in promoting education and sharing of knowledge in NVH through seminars and workshops.

The SVPP continues to work on organising a sound-quality-themed seminar looking at providing both education and insight into sound quality in the modern world and the technology supporting this. Although the exact format is yet to be determined, the focus will be on psychoacoustics and fundamentals (workshops and presentations) followed by case studies on real world applications. Please see the EIS website and LinkedIn for updates on this in the coming months.

Corporate Members

The SVPP Group is pleased that there will be a series of mini seminars at the EIS Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing Exhibition at Silverstone on 26th March 2024 under the banner "The Drive to Net Zero". This will include insightful and interesting technical presentations from a range of fields and disciplines in the world of net-zero engineering. Details for the exhibition and mini seminars can be found on pages 20–23 of this issue. We encourage you to attend these as well as the extensive exhibition itself of course!

If you are interested in supporting our activities in the future, whether through the Net Zero or Sound Quality initiatives or if you have your own ideas and initiatives in the world of NVH that you would like to progress that are complimentary to the aims of the EIS, please let myself or Sara Atkin (EIS Marketing & Events Manager) know.

The following companies are corporate members of the Engineering Integrity Society. We thank them for their continued support which helps the Society to run its wide-ranging events throughout the year.


Aircraft Research Association

AMETEK Vision Research

Axiometrix Solutions




Correlated Solutions


Dassault Systemes

Data Acquisition and Testing

Services Ltd

Data Physics

Datron Technology

Delta Motion


Frazer-Nash Consultancy

GI Systems


HEAD acoustics



Intrepid Control Systems

Interface Force Measurements



M&P International

McLaren Applied


Micro Measurements





PCB Piezotronics

PDS Hitech

Polytec Prosig

Relyence UK Ltd

Rutherford Appleton Lab

Sensors UK



Star Hydraulics



Technica Engineering GmbH

Techni Measure


THP Systems







Committee Members


Professor Roderick A Smith, FREng. ScD


Peter Bailey, Instron

Robert Cawte, HBK

Dave Fish, JoTech Ltd

Graham Hemmings, Engineering Consultant

Alex O'Neill, Siemens

Jamie Shenton, JCB

John Yates, Engineering Consultant


John Yates, Engineering Consultant


David Fish, JoTech

Marketing & Events Manager

Sara Atkin

Communications Sub Committee –‘Engineering Integrity’ Journal of the EIS

Honorary Editor

Spencer Jeffs

Managing Editor

Rochelle Stanley

Sound & Vibration Product Perception Group


David Fish, JoTech

Deputy Chairman

Keith Vickers, HBK


Dave Boast, DB Engineering Solutions

David Bryant, Bradford University

Mark Burnett, HORIBA-MIRA

Max Chowanietz, Aston Martin

Martin Cockrill, RLE International

Paul Francis, JCB

Jonathan Joy, UTAC

Amir Khan, Bradford University

Andrew McQueen, Siemens

Alexander Shaw, Swansea University

Tony Shepperson, HEAD acoustics

Jason Truong, UTAC

James Wren, Spectral Dynamics

Ying Yi, University of Southampton

Simulation, Test & Measurement Group


Steve Payne, HORIBA-MIRA

Deputy Chairman

Alex O'Neill, Siemens


Jack Allcock, Tata Steel

Connor Bligh, Rail-Ability Ltd

Marc Brown, Vibration Research

Darren Burke, Servotest

Steve Coe, Data Physics (UK)

David Copley, Consultant

David Ensor, Engineering Consultant

Graham Hemmings, Engineering Consultant

Richard Hobson, Engineering Consultant

Jerry Hughes, Moog

Ben Huxham, Prosig

Shak Jamil, Techni Measure

Chris Johnson, Wacker Neuson UK Ltd

Virrinder Kumar, Engineering Consultant

Trevor Margereson, Engineering Consultant

Anton Raath, CATS3

Gary Rands, Siemens

Paul Roberts, HBK

Raul Rodriguez, Hyster Yale

Jarek Rosinski, Transmission Dynamics

Darren Williams, UTAC

Scott Williams, Williams F1

Rob Wood, ZEISS

Jeremy Yarnall, Data Acquisition and Testing Services Ltd

Durability & Fatigue Group


Peter Bailey, Instron


Jamie Shenton, JCB


Hayder Ahmad, Safran

Andrew Blows, Jaguar Land Rover

Robert Cawte, HBK

Amir Chahardehi, Kent Energies

Hollie Cockings, Frazer Nash

Richard Cornish, Birmingham City University

Farnoosh Farhad, Northumbria University

Hassan Ghadbeigi, Sheffield University

Lee Gilbert, Element

Oliver Greenwood, Rolls-Royce

Karl Johnson, ZwickRoell Group

Angelo Maligno, IISE, University of Derby

Andrew Mills, Siemens

Giovanni De Morais, Dassault Systèmes Simulia

Giora Shatil, Darwind

Niall Smyth, Coventry University

John Yates, Engineering Consultant

Young Engineers Forum


Arjun Bansal, Techni Measure

Emmett Birch, Techni Measure

Rebecca Ellis, HBK

Sean Fitzakerley, The Open University

Olawale Kila, University of Northampton

Arpan Koley, Consultant

Martin Muus, Rail Ability

Lazuardi Pujilaksono, University of Oxford

Robert Rowland, Techni Measure

Committee members can be contacted via the Marketing & Events Manager, Tel: 01623 884225.


Corporate Member Profiles



Manton Lane, Bedford, MK41 7PF

PE29 6XU

Tel: +44 (0)1234 324600



Contact: Christopher Burke

We combine theory, computer simulations and real-world experiments to solve complex problems within tight budgets and timescales –delivering results to world class standards in which our clients can have well founded confidence.

Our capabilities have been developed to meet the requirements of international aerospace research and have broad applications across industry; they include design, simulation and analysis, precision manufacture, strain gauging, calibration, and testing. We work with you as part of your team to help you reach your goals.


Grosvenor House

11 St Pauls Square


B3 1RB

Tel: +44 (0)1323 332105



Contact: Rob Stockham

Specialises in testing, data acquisition, analysis, and condition monitoring. Product development, performance bench marking, validation, structural and equipment health monitoring, analysis, all typical applications for our partners. Gantner Instruments Q.Series X provides precision, high measurement speeds, flexibility and ‘openess’, working with industry standard plat-forms and applications, complemented by GI bench software for configuration, visualisation, logging and analysis. Manner Sensortelemetrie are experts in near field measurement telemetry for rotating parts and shafts, for torque, temperature, strain. Tell GI Systems your challenge.


Unit D1, Fens Pool Avenue, Brierley Hill, DY5 1QA

Tel: +44 (0)1384 480545



Contact: Vicki Wilkes

Darvick Ltd offers specialist, independent, subcontract testing services. We work collaboratively with customers to specify, design and deliver non-standard, complex or extreme testing requirements, including elevated and cryogenic temperatures, elevated pressures, gaseous and steam environments.

We have UKAS flexible scope accreditation, and a range of servo hydraulic test machines offering static and fatigue testing from 10N up to 1600kN.


MIRA Technology Park, Unit 5, Control Centre, Watling Street Warwickshire

CV10 0TU

Tel: +44 (0)247 718 0296



Contact: Carl Hills

Intrepid is a global provider of innovative tools for engineers in the vehicle networking, testing and embedded engineering fields.

Intrepid provides cutting-edge software and hardware solutions to support various sectors including Automotive, Heavy-duty, Industrial and many more. The UK office is based in the Midlands, our tools are used by our customers for a wide array of applications: data logging, vehicle network interfaces, simulation and gateways.



Nohabgatan 11D

46153 Trollhättan Sweden

Tel: +44(0)07989 136 283



Contact: Umesh Patel

ODOS is a market leader in CAN bus to CLOUD data logging solutions, offering a wide range of hardware to suit diverse needs, from CAN snapshot logging to full bus streaming. Our acclaimed software, CloudSoft, serves as an online engineering dashboard, empowering users with remote data monitoring, visualization, and analysis. Seamlessly integrated with our cloud platform, CloudSoft ensures secure data sharing and storage.


9 Church Street, Wednesfield, Wolverhampton, WV11 1SR

Tel: +44(0)121 794 2030



Contact: Simon Brailsford

Relyence UK Limited: Your Partner for Reliability Excellence. We specialise in supporting the Relyence® reliability analysis software products including FMEA, FRACAS, Fault Tree, Reliability Prediction, RBD, Maintainability Prediction, Weibull, ALT and RCM.

Relyence empowers you with invaluable insights into product performance, ensuring you surpass continuous improvement goals and meet compliance standards. Our modular approach allows each Relyence module to function independently or seamlessly together within Relyence Studio, facilitating data sharing for comprehensive solutions.


16 rue Edouard Branly

ZA des Chamonds

58640 Varennes-Vauzelles, France

Tel: +33 (0)3 86 21 27 18

Email: c.boulanger@texysgroup.


Contact: Charles Boulanger

For 25 years, Texys has been designing, developing, manufacturing, and distributing embedded and laboratory solutions for the measurement of physical quantities, including pressure, load, temperature, current and inertia. Texys has gained worldwide recognition by mastering various technologies such as infrared, fibre optics, extensometry, wireless communication and signal conditioning. Texys’ custom sensing solutions are widely used and relied upon in various industries, such as Motorsport, Aeronautics, Automotive, Energy and Railway, supplying OEMs, Tier 1-2-3 suppliers, R&D centers, testing facilities and many more.


Autodrome de Linas-Montlhéry, Avenue Georges Boillot, 91310 Linas, France

Tel: +33 (0)1 69 80 17 00



UTAC, a leading group in the field of development and validation testing, automotive homologation and new technologies related to the autonomous, connected and electric vehicle, provides vehicle testing and validation services and equipment to the automotive, transport, tyre, petrochemical and defence sectors. The group is active in the fields of testing, approval and regulation, special vehicle design, conception and manufacture of test systems, training, consulting, audit and certification, technical control, standardisation and events. UTAC is the only official Euro NCAP test centre in France and also has a unique position in Europe thanks to its ISO 17025 accredited test laboratories. The group has 8 test centres in France, the UK, Finland and Morocco (opening end of 2021), test laboratories in the USA and subsidiaries in Germany, Russia, China and Japan. UTAC currently employs around 1,280 people at its various sites.

01568615201 TechnicalEnquiries CONTROL CUBE & CUBUS For all your testing needs • D y n a m i c o r s t a t i c • L o w o r h i g h l o a d • F a s t o r s l o w YourPartnerinDynamicandStaticTesting Moderniseyourtestsystemswithourstate-of-the-art digitaltestcontrollersandsoftware Scantodiscover theadvantageof selectingtheCube foryourtesting needs.

Changing the World of High Channel Count Vibration Testing

Designed to specifically address high channel count testing challenges, the Data Physics 900 Series platform suffers none of the shortcomings inherent in competitive systems. Up to 72 channels per chassis. Combine and configure any number of chassis together in seconds. Run thousands of channels with zero data bottlenecks. Industryleading phase synchronization delivers the most true-to-life data. Scan the code for more.

Scan for more Data Physics (UK) Ltd. | South Road, Hailsham | East Sussex, BN27 3JJ, UK A member of the | |
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