Engineering Integrity Issue 51

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Journal of the Engineering Integrity Society


September 2021 | Issue No. 51

TECHNICAL PAPERS: Computed Tomography-Based Defect Characterization And Prediction Of Fatigue Properties Of Extrudates From Recycled Field-Assisted Sintered EN AW-6082 Aluminium Chips

Holistic Approach to Understanding Battery Degradation





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Contents: September 2021

Index to Advertisements.................................................................................... 5 Editorial..................................................................................................................... 7


Diary of Events........................................................................................................ 8 Young Engineers.................................................................................................... 8 Technical Paper: Computed Tomography-Based Defect Characterization And Prediction Of Fatigue Properties Of Extrudates From Recycled Field-Assisted Sintered EN AW-6082 Aluminium Chips ................................................................................................................................... 10

Advanced Engineering.....34

CaTs3 / Zwick........................ 4 Data Physics........................ 2 EIS............................................ 3

Inspiring the Next Generation........................................................................ 19

Evolution Measurement.... 28

Technical Paper: Holistic Approach to Understanding Battery Degradation.......................................................................................................... 20

HEAD acoustics................55

Instrumentation, Analysis & Testing Exhibition ....................................... 30 Towards a Local Property Assessment of Materials................................ 32 News from British Standards........................................................................... 35 Industry News....................................................................................................... 36 Fatigue 2021 Conference.................................................................................. 38

Ipetronik............................... 9 Micro-Epsilon....................45 M&P International...........56 Peli Products......................18 Sensor Technology..........19 Spectral Dynamics..........40

News from the Women’s Engineering Society.......................................... 40 News from Institution of Mechanical Engineers...................................... 41 University of Wolverhampton Racing.......................................................... 42 Photography Competition............................................................................... 44 Peter Watson Prize.............................................................................................. 45 Product News........................................................................................................ 46 News from the Tipper Group........................................................................... 48 Group News........................................................................................................... 49 Corporate Members........................................................................................... 50 Committee Members......................................................................................... 51 Corporate Member Profiles............................................................................. 53

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Engineering Integrity contains various items of information of interest to, or directly generated by, the Engineering Integrity Society. The items of information can be approximately subdivided into three general categories: technical papers, topical discussion pieces and news items. The items labelled in the journal as technical papers are peer reviewed by a minimum of two reviewers in the normal manner of academic journals, following a standard protocol. The items of information labelled as topical discussions and the news items have been reviewed by the journal editorial staff and found to conform to the legal and professional standards of the Engineering Integrity Society.


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PRINCIPAL ACTIVITY OF THE ENGINEERING INTEGRITY SOCIETY The principal activity of the Engineering Integrity Society is the arrangement of conferences, seminars, exhibitions and workshops to advance the education of persons working in the field of engineering. This is achieved by providing a forum for the interchange of ideas and information on engineering practice. The Society is particularly committed to promoting projects which support professional development and attract young people into the profession. ‘Engineering Integrity’, the Journal of the Engineering Integrity Society is published twice a year. ‘Engineering Integrity’ is lodged with the Agency for the Legal Deposit Libraries on behalf of the Bodleian Library Oxford University, the Cambridge University Library, National Library of Scotland, National Library of Wales and Trinity College Dublin.


Dr Spencer Jeffs, Honorary Editor materials and manufacturing; AI, digital and advanced computing; bioinformatics and genomics; engineering biology; electronics, photonics and quantum; energy and environment technologies; and robotics and smart machines. Hopefully, this will provide potential opportunities for EIS, its members and readership to lead in some of these areas, and it is important to remember that many of these are global challenges, so multinational collaboration will be a key aspect. A couple of billionaires have recently travelled to space (> 50 miles above the Earth’s surface) with different spaceship approaches as they look to commercialise the space industry as well as inspire. Both are excellent feats in engineering – let’s hope that their respective Welcome to the Summer 2021 edition of the investments into Earth funds, sustainability projects and combating climate change yield similar successes. Engineering Integrity journal. A big thank you to all those who presented, attended, organised, or took part in the Fatigue 2021 conference in any way in March. The live online and on-demand event proved to be a great success. COVID-19 continues to dominate the news as it overwhelms different countries and parts of the world to various extents. The degree of restrictions at any given time in a country largely depending on the daily infection, hospitalisation, and death figures, alongside their respective levels of testing, vaccine roll-out and uptake through the population. There are reports of COVID and/ or vaccine passports being implemented to enable more open travel, business, travel etc, although the privacy and digital literacy aspects need to be carefully considered should such passports be taken forward. The continued uncertainty is a huge challenge for people and businesses across all sectors; with the changing travel rules, supply chain difficulties, the socalled ‘pingdemic’ in the UK resulting in large numbers of isolating staff and the end of the furlough scheme scheduled for the 30th September. There were still 1.9 million people on the scheme in June with some estimates that unemployment will increase by 150,000 after its finish. There has been good news in recent months as the UK’s industry output is now at record growth levels and these are expected to continue as the lifting of all restrictions on activity take effect. Alongside this, the UK government has put forward its Innovation Strategy that commits to public investment to a record £22 billion on R&D and outlined seven strategic technologies to prioritise, which are: advanced

For students completing A levels and preparing for university, grades are once again being teacher-assessed rather than examined although with no algorithm being used on this occasion. What awaits in university itself will depend on the choices the institution has made, in many cases a blended approach to learning is anticipated. For engineering subjects, it is vital that the practical elements are maintained and preferably carried out in-person. From a student perspective I do wish that they all have a more typical year with social gatherings, group-working, sports and societies running to gain the life experiences that are a big part of university study. Two technical articles are found in this issue, one focussed upon defect and fatigue properties of recycled aluminium chips and was presented at the Fatigue 2021 conference. The ability to recycle aluminium is of huge benefit and industrial interest, particularly considering the typical high energy and cost-intensive process in producing aluminium in the first instance. The second covers a holistic approach to understanding battery degradation, an important topic, especially with the continued increase in popularity of electric vehicles as people consider their impact on the climate. Finally, this issue sees the launch of the EIS photography competition, with four prizes and categories on offer: people, future technology, vehicles, and abstract image. I am excited to see the variety of entries that come through.

Spencer Jeffs


Diary of Events WEBINAR | Model-based System Testing: Embed virtual simulation within physical testing for model-based development | 22 September 2021 1–2pm WEBINAR | Accelerometers | Autumn 2021 EIS Committee Meetings | Online | October 2021 Young Engineers Webinars | Various dates in 2021 and 2022 WEBINAR SERIES | Durability Advances in Renewable Energy and Storage Technology | October and November 2021

Young Engineers Latest News

Our Young Engineers webinar series has continued, and two further webinars have been held since the spring. In June we were pleased to work with one of our new corporate members, Plastometrex, to hold a webinar titled ‘The Importance of Mechanical Material Properties and a Critical Appraisal of Mechanical Testing Methods’. James Dean, CEO, spoke about the strength of metallic materials, mechanical testing and mechanical test data. He outlined what strength really means, and reviewed the common tensile test, discussed differences between true and nominal values, misunderstandings around ductility values, necking instabilities, and some limitations of the tensile test. He also covered hardness tests and explained why hardness numbers can be vague and ambiguous, despite their common and widespread usage in nondestructive testing. Finally, he covered Indentation Plastometry, an indentation-based test technique that can measure full stress-strain curves and metal strength parameters from measured indent shapes using inverse finite element methods. If you missed the webinar you can catch up on-demand via our website. A further webinar was hosted by Peter Bailey of Instron. Peter gave an insight into the basics of transducers for materials testing and how to use them. Force and displacement measurement are essential to materials characterisation, since these are the “raw” measurements from which we derive stress and strain. 8

Firstly, his talk covered the basic transducer technologies commonly used in materials testing machines and how they can and should be used for real tests. A large proportion are conventional strain-gauge and LVDT technologies, but piezoelectric and optical devices were also briefly addressed. Secondly, some of the less obvious factors which affect the accuracy of your measurements were discussed including the impact of environmental effects and some basic aspects of data acquisition and conditioning. Further webinars are planned for the autumn and we hope that in 2022 we will also return to running one day seminars for the Young Engineers Forum. The events held by the group are aimed at engineers at the start of their careers and we are always keen to welcome new members who may find attendance helpful. All the Young Engineers webinars and seminars are free of charge and part of the charitable activity undertaken by the society.

Measurement Data in Real Time. Alex Lands Dream Job Over the past few years, we have been following the career of one of our younger engineers, Alex O’Neill. We first came to know Alex when he presented his doctoral work at a tyre/road interface seminar at HORIBA MIRA in November 2018. He subsequently joined the EIS’ Simulation, Test and Measurement (STMG) committee, and at the start of the global pandemic helped form a small working group that relaunched and shaped the Young Engineers webinars, which have been extremely successful.

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His main research interests lie in tyre and friction modelling, and he is close to completing an Engineering Doctorate (EngD) with the University of Surrey and Jaguar Land Rover, where he has been based since 2017. His work aims to study the frictional interaction between tyres on different surfaces, so that tyre behaviour can be observed on one surface, and then predicted on another. This has significant implications on vehicle development for OEMs, as most tyres are tested on an artificial surface (sandpaper), meaning the resultant models that are used in driving simulators do not accurately represent driving on a real road surface (e.g., asphalt).

His work has been award-winning, with Alex coming in first place at the annual EIS Peter Watson Prize competition in 2019. In the same year, his paper was selected as the best at the prestigious IAVSD conference in Gothenburg, Sweden, and in 2020 he won TireTech’s Young Scientist of the Year award. With his doctorate finishing in September 2021, he reached out to the network formed through the EIS to assess his options after leaving Jaguar Land Rover. As a result, another STMG committee member who works for Siemens put him in touch with the company’s tyre research group, based in the Netherlands. Alex has now accepted an incredibly exciting role in that team and will be starting immediately upon completion of his doctorate. Alex commented: “I am absolutely delighted to be joining Siemens, and it just would not have happened without my involvement with the EIS. It really is a fantastic network of professionals, and I am so happy to continue working with them. I never would have known this job existed and it really feels like my dream role.” We wish Alex all the best in his new job and thank him for his important contribution to the society and in particular our EIS Young Engineer’s Forum.

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ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 51, SEPTEMBER 2021, pp.10–18. ISSN 1365-4101/2021

Technical Paper:

This article was presented at Fatigue 2021 in March 2021 and Alexander Koch was Highly Commended in the Peter Watson Prize competition, held as part of the conference.

Computed Tomography-Based Defect Characterization And Prediction Of Fatigue Properties Of Extrudates From Recycled Field-Assisted Sintered EN AW-6082 Aluminium Chips A. Koch1,, J. Ursinus2, B-A. Behrens2 & F. Walther1 1

Department of Materials Test Engineering (WPT), TU Dortmund University, D-44227 Dortmund, Germany


Institute of Forming Technology and Machines (IFUM), Leibniz University Hannover, D-30823 Garbsen, Germany

Corresponding Author:

Abstract Solid-state recycling processes such as direct extrusion processes to produce semi-finished products are promising alternatives for the energy-intensive remelting process. As a basis for the recycling process aluminium chips can be used, which normally are considered as scrap and therefore are much cheaper compared to common aluminium alloys. The innovative solid-state recycling process consists of a cold compaction process followed by a field-assisted sintering (FAST) process to consolidate the chips, and finally a forward rod extrusion process at room temperature. Necessary for good quality of the semifinished products is adequate welding of the chips and therefore removal of the oxide layers encasing the chips, which is achieved by pressure-superimposed diffusion mechanisms. Compared to other solid-state recycling processes used for aluminium chips which break the oxide layers by applying high shear stresses and deformations, quasistatic and cyclic properties are significantly increased. In this study, the static pressure during the FAST process was varied to increase the mechanical properties. The effects were analysed using computed tomography (CT) scans. Based on the CT scans, the fatigue life was estimated using the stress intensity factor. In contrast to other concepts measuring the crack initiating defect size after the mechanical testing, the initiating defect characteristics could be estimated by statistical analyses, which leads to a non-destructive fatigue life calculation model based on the CT-determined defect characteristics.

Introduction Since aluminium was discovered in the 19th century, it has gained more and more attention, mainly because of excellent properties (Apelian et al. [1]). Especially its high specific strength, the corrosion resistance and the high suitability for forming processes due to high ductility and low extrusion forces lead to an increased usage as a construction material (Boehm et al. [2]). In times of climate change and due to the increasing scarcity of resources, aluminium is more and more often used in lightweight relevant fields, such as the automotive and the aerospace industries (Shamsudin et al. [3]). Already today aluminium is the second-most10

used metal, with increasing trends. Studies predict a rise in the use of aluminium of about 30% until 2025 (Gronostajski and Matuszak [4]). One disadvantage of aluminium is the energy- and cost-intensive production (Schwarz [5] and Worrell et al. [6]). The primary aluminium production, which is realised by the melt flow electrolyse process, requires about 200 MJ per kg and therefore exceeds the specific energy demand of steel production by a factor of ten [6]. The high energy consumption can be significantly reduced by recycling the aluminium by remelting the material. The properties of this so-called secondary aluminium are comparable to primary aluminium (Stacey [7]). By recycling aluminium scrap, the amount of energy for the recycling process, which includes a melting process, can be reduced to 10 MJ per kg [7], depending on the type of recycled source material. To further reduce this amount of energy, solidstate-recycling processes, which do not require the remelting of the material, are subject of current research (Ab Rahim et al. [8] and Wan et al. [9]). Instead, the material is recycled by different operations and can, depending on the used process, be formed directly into semi-finished products. Since chips, which are scrap from the manufacturers' point of view, are used as a basis for the process, material costs are reduced compared to conventional stock material [7]. Another advantage of directly recycled aluminium chips is significantly reduced material loss. In this context, the recycling of small-sized scrap, like aluminium chips by remelting, leads to problems regarding material loss. Due to the high surface-tovolume ratio, oxidation processes occur during the remelting process. Besides, the surface of the chips often is contaminated with cooling lubricants, which further increases melting losses (Soo et al. [10]). All solid-state recycling processes bond the aluminium chips below the melting temperature and without brazing fillers. As a basis for the material cohesion, welding and diffusion mechanisms can be distinguished, depending on the process conditions [9]. The quality of the resulting products depends particularly on the quality of the interface between the individual chips. The oxide layers, encasing the single

chips, have to be broken up to enable metal-to-metal contact, which is necessary for an adequate bonding of the chips. To merge the chips, two main methods are known from the literature. On the one hand, the oxide layers can be broken up by using a combination of high strain and high pressure. To realize this, so-called severe plastic deformation (SPD) processes are used. During these processes, the chips are bonded by a welding process due to the high friction and high surface deformation. Stern was the first who developed the procedure in 1944 by recycling aluminium chips using an extrusion process (Stern [11]). Further approaches based on SPD processes use a hot extrusion process (Gronostajski et al. [12] and Gueley et al. [13]) or a friction stir extrusion process (El Mehtedi et al. [14]). Another approach was the combination of sintering and hot forging, but it has been shown that sintering had no effect due to strong oxide layer formation of aluminium chips (Behrens et al. [15]). In SPD processes the extrusion ratio was found to have a significant influence on the product quality since the shear forces as well as the pressure increases with increasing extrusion ratios which improves the break-up of the oxide layers (Haase et al. [16]). Nevertheless, the process window of SPD processes is relatively restricted, due to the necessary combination of high shear stresses and high pressure. A review of SPD processes used as a basis for solid-staterecycling is given by Ab Rahim et al. [8].

processes. In consequence, the microstructure of chipbased specimens produced by SPD processes shows highly inhomogeneous properties caused by the high gradient of the shear stress [19].

On the other hand, the single chips can be bonded by diffusion processes. Bonhage [17] used a field-activated sintering process in order to consolidate the chips followed by a cold forward rod extrusion process at room temperature, which means a further reduction of the energy requirements since most of the extrusion process used in SPD processes take place at elevated temperature (e.g. 550 °C in [13]). In a recent study, it could be found, that the quasistatic properties exceeded the reference material (Koch et al. [18]). The fatigue properties varied between a decade and only a few per cent from the reference material. It could be found, that the scattering of the process is relatively high and tests in HCF- and LCF-region show different fracture mechanisms. While the cracks in the LCF-region propagate between the chip boundaries, they propagate through the individual chips in the HCF-region. The study also showed the superiority of the FAST process over SPD processes, since the fatigue life could be increased compared to an SPD-based hot extrusion process with an extrusion ratio of about 30 (Koch et al. [19]). FAST-based solid-state-recycling processes also lead to a homogeneous microstructure, since low extrusion ratios are used compared to SPD

Material and processing route

In this study the static force used in the FAST process is increased in order to reduce the scattering of the product quality found in [18] and therefore increases the fatigue life and its predictability. In order to characterize the effects of the process adaptation, all specimens were analysed using computed tomography. Based on the defect distribution, it is investigated which parameter is suitable to describe the criticality of single defects. In a second step statistical interpretations of the defect distribution are evaluated in order to find the defect size that corresponds to the crack initiating defect size. Many studies (e.g. Tenkamp et al. [20] and Siegfanz et al. [21]) use scanning electron micrographs in order to measure the initiating defect size. Because of cracks propagating between chip boundaries this is not possible for this study. The findings regarding the non-destructive determination of the corresponding initiating defect size enable fatigue life estimations based on the stress intensity factor (Murakami and Endo [22]), which is calculated from the defect distribution determined by CT.

Experimental methodology

In the context of the investigations, specimens made of bulk reference material were compared with solid-staterecycled chip-based material. Therefore, milled chips from a bulk EN AW-6082 aluminium alloy were taken as a basis for the recycling process. The remaining bulk material was used to machine the reference specimens. The chemical composition of the investigated material, given in Table 1, was determined by means of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX). The requirements according to standard DIN EN 573-3 are fulfilled. As the use of cooling lubricants during machining leads to insufficient chip welding, the chips for the investigations were milled in a dry process The parameters of the milling process were set up to form spiral chips with an average length, width and thickness of 10.5 × 1.1 × 0.3 mm3. The chips were found to have a bulk density of 0.3 g/cm3 after the milling process. The process of solid-state-recycling by field-assisted sintering consisted of three steps. First, the chips were


Si (%)

Cu (%)

Fe (%)

Mn (%)

Mg (%)

Zn (%)

Ti (%)


DIN EN 573-3 EDX

0.7–1.3 1.11

< 0.1 –

< 0.5 0.41

0.4–1.0 0.62

0.6–1.2 1.11

< 0.2 –

< 0.1 –

Bal. Bal.

Table 1: Chemical composition of the investigated material.


Figure 1: Schematic representation of T6 heat-treatment process (a), specimen geometry for fatigue tests (b), extrudate with position of specimens (c).

pre-compacted by means of a cold-pressing process. For this, a pressure of 100 MPa was applied to 30 g of loose chips. The density of the green compacts amounted 1.6 g/cm3. In a second step, the field-assisted sintering (FAST) process was used to bond the green compacts to semi-finished blanks. Three green compacts were stacked and heated to 400 °C in a time of 330 s. The temperature was then kept constant at 400 °C for 250 s, followed by a cooling stage, in which the tool and blank were cooled down to nearly room temperature by the water-cooled electrodes in a timeframe of 1000 s. In order to reduce the scattering, determined in a previous study [18], and to investigate the influence of the static pressure, the applied static pressure during the FAST process was doubled and therefore chosen to be 80 MPa (state B) in this study. For comparison reasons additional specimens, produced with a static pressure of 40 MPa (state A), were tested. The relative density of the sintered blanks could be increased to about 99%. Due to the FAST process, the chips, as well as the individual green compacts, were firmly bonded by means of diffusion processes. As a result of the short cycle times, the microstructure of the milled chips is still visible, so that the single chips can still be distinguished and a recrystallization phenomenon did not take place. In the following, the FAST-blanks were sandblasted and coated with graphite lubricant (Bechem Berulit 936) in order to be prepared for the forward rod extrusion (FRE) process, while the FRE-die itself was separately lubricated by an extrusion oil (Bechem Berulit 722). The FRE was performed at room temperature. Figure 1a schematically shows the T6 heat-treatment strategy for the extrudates after the deformation. The specimens for the cyclic investigations of the solid-


state-recycled aluminium chips were extracted from the cold-extruded, heat-treated shafts, shown in Figure 1c. The shaft of the resulting extrudates had a diameter of 16 mm and a length of approx. 90 mm, which is sufficient for the extraction of the fatigue specimens. The inner field of the shaft shows a uniform microstructure due to the homogeneous deformation during FRE. Metallography For the characterization of the microstructure, samples of cross- and longitudinal sections were taken from the shafts. The samples were then embedded, ground and polished using SiO2 colloidal polishing suspension up to a grit size of 0.1 µm. In order to make the grain structure visible a Barker-etching process was carried out, according to Tamadon et al. [23] by using a Struers Lectropol electrolytic etching device. For the etching using Barker’s reagent, a direct current voltage of 20 V was applied to the specimen for a duration of 90 s with a flow rate of 12 l/min. After the etching, the microstructure, especially the grain and chip structure, was characterized using a Zeiss Axio Imager M1m stereoscopic light microscope under polarized light. Computed tomography For the characterization of the inner defect structure and in order to conclude the effects of the defects on the mechanical properties, a Nikon XT H 160 computed tomography (CT) scanner was used to analyse the specimens before the mechanical investigations. Volume Graphics VGStudioMax 2.2 software was then used to realize the volume reconstructions as well as the defect analyses. The CT-scans were conducted using the parameters according to Table 2. The volume reconstructions were carried out by using the threshold of the gray value as an indicator of defects.

Beam intensity

Beam current

Beam power

Number of frames

Exposure time


135 kV

98 µA

13.2 W


250 ms

13.5 µm

Table 2: Parameters used for computed tomography scans.

Figure 2: Micrographs of Barker-etched cross-sections: Overview of reference material (a), overview of chip-based material (b), detailed view of chip-based material (c).

Fatigue testing The fatigue tests were performed on an Instron 8872 servohydraulic fatigue testing system which is equipped with a 10 kN load cell. The stress-controlled tests were carried out under fully-reversed sinusoidal loading (load ratio R = -1) and a frequency of 10 Hz. The specimen geometry is shown in Figure 1b.

Results And Discussion Microstructure The etched cross-section of the reference material (Figure 2a) reveals round, unelongated grains, which is caused by the T6 heat-treatment and therefore a recrystallization phenomenon. The grain size, determined by the linear intercept method was found to be 53 ± 18 µm. The grain size of the chip-based material (Figure 2b) is smaller compared to the reference material, whereby state A (37 ± 12 µm) and state B (39 ± 9 µm) nearly have the same

Figure 3: Overview of different defect distributions of chip-based specimens (gage length section).


grain size and also show unelongated grains as well as a homogeneous grain structure. The detailed view of the chip-based material (Figure 2c) shows individual areas of small grains as well as groups of larger, coherent grains. Additionally, different grain structures as well as chip boundaries can be found within the single chips. Computed tomography-based defect structure characterization Figure 3 shows representative volume reconstructions of states A and B. While there seem to be more large defects in state A, the number of small defects in state B is higher. Furthermore, the scattering of defects is much higher for state A, which can also be stated based on the proportions of the defect volume (Figure 3). The results indicate a big spread between the parts in terms of their defect distribution for state A (see [18] for a a detailed analysis of the defect distribution for state A). In this context, it becomes clear that the best specimens of state A have nearly the same proportion of defects as the worst specimens of state B. In the reference specimens, no defects could be detected. As the volume reconstructions show, the delaminations seem to be mainly aligned into the extrusion direction. In order to compare the defect characteristics between state A and B, different characteristic values are used. In the literature, several characteristic values are described. Thereby it is discussed, which parameter is best suited to assess how critical defects are depending on the defect volume, the shape factor or the edge distance [19, 20]. As Figure 3 showed an alignment of the defects into the extrusion direction, it is questionable, how far the parameters are suited to estimate how critical the defects are. In Figure 4a the equivalent defect diameter is evaluated b for all defects of 5 specimens for each state and is defined according to equation 1. The equivalent diameter can be understood as the diameter of an ideal sphere with Figure 4: Histograms of equivalent defect diameter (a) and the same volume as the corresponding defect (Redik projected defect area (b). et al. [24]). The equivalent diameter is mainly used to describe pores, especially in aluminium cast alloys and could be found to be a suitable value to describe how equivalent diameter of 40 – 60 µm and about 37% are critical pores are to mechanical properties [24]. allotted in this fraction.

(1) It is also described in the literature [24] that the distribution of the equivalent defect diameter can be described by a log-normal distribution for the most defect distributions in aluminium alloys, which is also possible for both states in this study. While for state A a higher maximum equivalent defect diameter of 962 µm can be observed (state B: 549 µm), state B has more small defects in total. For both states, the most defects have an 14

In contrast to the concept of the equivalent defect diameter, Murakami and Endo [22] stated, that only defect areas perpendicular to the loading direction are relevant for the evaluation of how critical defects are. Therefore, the projected area of the defects perpendicular to the loading direction is another characteristic value, which is evaluated in the following. Due to the alignment into the extrusion direction, the projected area is much smaller compared to the defect area based on the equivalent defect diameter. Therefore, for elongated defects, the volume of the defect has less effect on the projected area compared to the equivalent defect diameter. Besides, Murakami and Endo [22] stated that for the application of a fracture mechanics concept, which is part of this study, precisely the projected defect area is decisive.

The histograms of the projected defect size in extrusion direction are given in Figure 4b. In contrast to the equivalent defect diameter the projected defect size is plotted logarithmically, which leads to a linear course. Analogously to the equivalent defect diameter state A shows higher values for large defect sizes compared to state B, but the differences are much higher compared to the equivalent defect diameter since state A reaches values four times as high as state B. In contrast, for state B more defects with a low projected defect area can be observed. These findings correlate well to the observation, that the defects are much more aligned into the extrusion direction for state A. Therefore, differences between the states become more clearly by considering the projected defect area, which is logical since the diameter is squared by using an area as a corresponding characteristic value.


Fatigue behaviour The results of the fatigue tests (Figure 5a) indicate a reduced fatigue life for the chip-based material compared to the reference material. This is caused by the initial delaminations leading to earlier crack formation (see Figure 3). Furthermore, the scattering is very high for state A, as the scattering of the distribution of delaminations is also high for state A. Some specimens are nearly free of defects, while others contain high proportions of defect volumes. The specimens with a low content of delaminations nearly reach the defect proportions and therefore the fatigue life of state B. At stress amplitudes of 250 MPa and 150 MPa, the fatigue life is reduced by more than a decade, as the corresponding specimens contain a high defect volume. Since the scattering of state B could be reduced due to the increased static pressure during the FAST process, the fatigue properties, as well as the scattering of the fatigue life, could be improved. The slope of the reference material can be determined with high accuracy since the scattering is very low. Compared to previous studies, which used SPD processes to break up the encasing oxide layers and lead to reduced fatigue life of about one decade [18], the FAST processbased specimens reach a higher fatigue life. Development of a computed tomography-based lifetime model Since especially large defects should be critical for crack initiation, it is questionable to what extent the small defects contribute to the crack initiation. In order to estimate the fatigue life of the chip-based specimens depending on the defect size, an estimation of the size of the defect, which will act as a crack initiator, based on the CT scans, is necessary. Hereby, many characteristic values, such as the size, the shape and the edge distance, are candidates to be relevant. Some studies measure the crack initiating defect after the fracture by means of scanning electron microscopy (e.g. [20]), but due to the crack propagation between the chip boundaries, this is not possible in this study. Besides, the presented method should be able to give an estimation of the fatigue life before the fatigue

b Figure 5: S-N-diagram for states A and B compared to the reference material (a), Coefficient of determination of ΔKN-curves for different fractions of defects (b).

tests and therefore by means of non-destructive testing methods, so that a determination of the crack initiating defect size by means of scanning electron microscopy is not taken into account in this study. In the following, the linear elastic fracture mechanics is applied. Therefore the stress intensity factor range ΔKI is used for the estimation of the fatigue life depending on the defect characteristics (see Smith and Miller [25]). The stress intensity factor is given by equation 2:




b Figure 6: ΔK-N-curves with mean of largest 150 (de,mean) (a) and 200 (Pz,mean) (b) defects as a basis for the estimation of the crack initiating defect characteristic value.

where Y is a geometric factor (0.5 for inner defects, acc. to [22]), Δ is the stress range and a is the crack length. Murakami et al. [26] could point out that the crack length can be approximated by the projected defect area perpendicular to the load direction for a wide range of defect sizes in materials with initial defects (see equation 3):


whereas the averaging of 200 defects is best suited for using the projected defect area as a basis for the calculation of the stress intensity factors. The averaging of even more defects then leads to decreasing coefficients of determination. Figure 6 shows the ΔK-N diagrams with the corresponding fractions which lead to the highest coefficients of determinations. It therefore gets clear, that the largest defect does not initiate the crack in most of the cases. In this context, it is questionable, if an averaging of such high numbers of defects leads to the correct estimation of the crack initiating defects. As described, the size of the crack initiating defects cannot be measured by SEM after the tests, since the delaminations are not visible after the tests anymore due to a crack propagation between single chips (see [18] for more details about the fracture surfaces of the

Therefore, the size of the defect causing the crack is estimated using statistical considerations. Different fractions of defects are used in the following in order to estimate the size of the crack initiating defect, whereby the equivalent defect diameter and the projected defect area are compared in order to find the best-suited defect characteristic value. The idea in this study is the estimation of the fatigue life based on the stress intensity factor range due to an estimation of the size of the crack initiating defects by averaging different numbers of the largest defects. By averaging the largest defects, the small defects, which are not relevant for crack initiation, are not taken into account and also the effect of very large defects, which are critical but not located in critical, surface near regions can be averaged. In Figure 5b, the coefficient of determination of the regression line of the ΔK-N diagram is presented for different numbers of averaged largest defects. As the results show, the averaging of different defect fractions leads to better coefficients of determination up to a specific number of defects. By taking the equivalent defect diameter into account, the averaging of 150 defects leads to the best coefficient of determination, 16

Figure 7: Comparison between estimated and experimental results of fatigue tests.

specimens used in this study). Nevertheless, the results show that the number of cycles to failure of state A and state B can be described by a common linear equation in a log–log representation by taking the stress intensity factor range into account and averaging leads to higher coefficients of determination, whereas the S-N curves (Figure 5a) show separate regression lines for both states. Additionally, also the averaging of fractions with fewer numbers of pores, which might lead to better estimations of the size of the crack initiating defects lead to high coefficients of determination. Nevertheless, the results of the study show that an averaging of the largest defects can be used as a basis for an estimation of the fatigue life based on pre-test CT scans. The equivalent defect diameter and the projected defect area nearly show the same results, while the best coefficient of determination arises, when the equivalent defect diameter is used. By using equation 4, proposed by the correlation between the stress intensity factor range and the number of cycles to failure, the fatigue life of FAST-recycled specimens can be calculated based on a few corresponding CT scans. Figure 7 shows the results of the estimation based on Equation 4. It can be stated that the fatigue life can be calculated with sufficient accuray. As the results show, it does not matter which state the specimens come from, as both states can be described by the same regression line.


be detected for state B. However, it could be shown that these small defects are not relevant for fatigue performance. Based on the defect distributions, a fatigue life calculation model could be set up in which the defect characteristics obtained from computed tomography scans are incorporated. In order to estimate the fatigue life, different statistical values were reviewed and the equivalent defect diameter was proven to give the best results. With the help of the calculation model, an estimation of the fatigue performance based on a few representative CT scans, even for different states, becomes possible. In further studies, in-situ computed tomography mechanical tests will be used to characterize the fatigue progress and develop a structural health monitoring system. Additionally, the process parameters of the FAST process will be further optimized in order to reduce the defect sizes and produce extrudates with cyclic properties, which are comparable to the reference.

Acknowledgements The authors gratefully acknowledge the funding by the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG) within the research project “Mechanism-based characterization and evaluation of the performance of resistively sintered semi-finished products based on recycled aluminum chips” (454199925).

References Conclusions and Outlook Within the scope of this work, investigations were carried out with the aim of the comparison of different static pressures during the field-activated sintering (FAST) process and the generation of a defect distributionbased fatigue life calculation model. The following may be concluded: The increase of the static pressure during the FAST process leads to a significantly lower scattering in the proportion of defect volume and therefore the fatigue properties. Furthermore, the fatigue life is slightly increased, since the specimens with the lowest proportion of defect volume from state A nearly reach the fatigue life of specimens from state B. Due to the lower scattering, the FAST process could be proven to be best suited for solid-state recycling purposes, especially since the process window of SPD processes is highly restricted due to specific requirements regarding the process parameters. The defects could be significantly reduced by increasing the static pressure. State A shows much more and larger defects, while much more small defects could


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19/07/2021 11:48:20

Inspiring the Next Generation Institute of STEAM Things in the world of STEM have been understandably quiet during the first half of 2021.

As schools have been adjusting to virtual learning, there are an increasing number of requests for remote support. The sessions can be anything from mock job interviews to virtual judging of science competitions. A local primary school requested a short careers session to talk about my job role to the Year 5 and 6 pupils. A lesson for any STEM ambassador is to setup a preparation meeting with the school prior to any event, which proved to be pertinent when I ran into some unforeseen IT issues. I was able to speak about my journey to becoming an engineer and mention my personal experiences that inspired me. After the talk, the pupils asked me questions about my job role and how I use science day-to-day. I particularly enjoyed that one pupil asked, “What is the most dangerous thing you do in your job?” The mischievous nature of such a question is one of the reasons I enjoy doing STEM events.

doing, especially practical learning, promotes more brain stimulation than learning by any other method. Over the coming months I am hoping to continue working with the museum to identify other potential areas of collaboration. Given my passion for 3D printing, I am postulating the idea of a 3D printing course. As ever if anyone is interested in knowing more about how they can get involved in STEM please do not hesitate to contact me or your local STEMnet contract holder. Grant Gibson EngD BEng (Hons) Materials Technologist, Surface Engineering Rolls-Royce plc 07469375700

Another question that arose (and not for the first time at a STEM event) was the subject of pay. Aspiring students are now asking about their potential career earnings and I positively support this. I am happy to divulge and discuss my pay with any student, if it will help them to make an informed decision about future career paths. I know that many of my colleagues might not be as comfortable answering this question, however it is my personal belief that providing open and honest information is an important tool to win over the hearts and minds of the next generation of engineers and scientists. In April this year, I began working in partnership with the newly refurbished and soon to open Museum of Making in Derby (formerly the Silk Mill Industrial Museum). The museum has received over £15 million of Heritage Lottery Funding to create the UK’s first museum of making. The emphasis of the museum is to engage with members of the public by providing a space, tools and know-how to learn by doing. The museum is supported by Rolls-Royce, which is sponsoring the creation of an “Institute of STEAM” where children, big and small will be able to attend sessions that encourage artistic creativity to solve problems. As a Materials Engineer I have been tasked with developing a workshop around the titanium fan blades used on RollsRoyce jet engines. The workshop is part of the wider offering from the museum – which is the first of its kind to curate the items within it, based not on a theme or era, but by the materials and processes used to manufacture the items. There have been virtual STEM sessions every two weeks, led by external STEM organisations and there is a growing body of research that shows learning by 19

ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 51, SEPTEMBER 2021, pp. 20–28. ISSN 1365-4101/2021

Technical Paper: Holistic Approach to Understanding Battery Degradation Richard Stocker1,2, Asim Mumtaz3, Neophytos Lophitis4 1

Horizon Scanning department, HORIBA MIRA, Nuneaton, CV10 0TU, United Kingdom.


Coventry University, Coventry, CV1 2JH, United Kingdom.


University of Liverpool, Department of Physics/EPRSC Centre for doctoral training in New & Sustainable PV, L69 7ZX.


Nottingham University Faculty of Engineering, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, United Kingdom.

Corresponding Author:

Abstract Li-ion cell degradation has a strong impact on electric vehicle performance both directly, through performance reduction, and indirectly through deviating behavior away from initial control system calibration. This necessitates a process for evaluating degradation causes and quantifying corresponding behavioral changes. This paper shows a holistic approach for achieving this, giving both an insight into the causes of cell degradation and the emulation of the resultant performance changes through a virtual tools platform which can be used for degradation algorithm development. Additionally, the paper is an overview of the novel methodology developed within the process including testing, data evaluation, modelling and electrical and chemical validation. The process makes use of electrical cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data to evaluate cell stoichiometry and individual impedance features to achieve a much more comprehensive ageing behavioral adaptation than is typically present in Li-ion cell equivalent circuit models. This is achieved while maintaining the versatility and computational efficiency of compact model approaches. The outlined process also gives a resolution of performance changes that allow for conclusions to be drawn on the root causes of ageing only through evaluation of electrical data, which is itself significant. Chemical analysis results are shown to verify the validity of the ageing cause conclusions shown by the process. Index Terms: Li-ion, Battery cell, degradation, ageing, modelling.

I. Introduction The automotive industry is in rapid technological transience with vehicle driving, ownership models and powertrain philosophy undergoing significant disruptive changes [1]. For vehicle powertrains the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) is declining in popularity due to vehicle emissions legislation [1,2]. Zero-emission powertrain alternatives are Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) [3] and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs) [4]. While battery cells are a clear requirement 20

for BEVs, they also provide benefits as part of a fuel cell powertrain by allowing for regenerative braking as well as smoothing load demand to allow optimal operation of the fuel cell stack. Automotive battery cell usage comes with many stringent targets and associated challenges including cost, energy density and lifetime. Li-ion battery costs project a strong decreasing predicted trend over the next 5–10 years [5,6] with energy density continually increasing [7], with economies of scale and new cell chemistries/designs enabling improvements in the latter areas. Degradation, however, is a much more challenging problem to solve, due to its inherent complexity and dependency on cell design and usage conditions [8,9]. It is however important for vehicle usage, with manufacturers typically providing warranty conditions of 5 years and above [10–13] or related mileage utilization. It is also important to quantify degradation during usage as it changes several aspects of cell behavior in complex and nonlinear ways as explained in section II. If this is not understood, the continued achievement of vehicle requirements throughout life, such as power capability and driving range, cannot be predicted at the design stage. In the usage stage, the complex behavioral changes will make the Battery Management System (BMS) uncalibrated relative to the real cell performance. This affects the ability of the BMS to estimate changes in State-ofCharge (SoC) during usage due to mis-estimation of capacity and therefore relative capacity throughput, as well as the mis-estimation of initial SoC through unrecognized changes in cell Open Circuit Voltage (OCV). Unaccounted changes in resistance can also lead to inaccurate forecasting of power limits, which can compromise vehicle power and create issues from a usage perspective. For this reason, battery cell ageing must be fully understood and quantified. A complex problem such as battery cell degradation estimation requires a sophisticated solution. A range of degradation estimation approaches have been created ranging from simple empirical measurements to data driven methods [14,15]. No approach thus far gives a completely satisfactory solution. Direct measurements are simple to implement and compatible with the limited computational power of a battery management

which apply to the impedance evaluation and the incremental capacity analysis (ICA) capacity and Open Circuit Voltage approach. This paper shows how the testing approach, data analysis algorithms and modelling approach combines to give a coherent and effective Li-ion cell ageing evaluation process to identify the ageing root causes and to quantify and model the changes in cell performance. The presented holistic approach is designed to work across the range of Li-ion cell designs and chemistries however the data included in the figures and results is taken from a case study by the authors using prismatic automotive NMC/graphite Li-ion cells. These cells were aged for 9 months at high temperature with varying SoC ranges and charge currents as explained in [20].

II. Li-Ion Fundamentals And Ageing Figure 1: Cross-section of a Li-on cell and its internal components.

system. The downside to simple methods, however, such as counting current throughput during charge, or measuring instantaneous voltage drop, give a simplified perspective of ageing. This simplified perspective does not inform of the ageing cause, is sensitive to sensor error and does not account for variations with parameters such as temperature. As a result, data driven methods are increasingly popular, made possible by the additional computational capability of cloud-based offboard analysis. These methods use machine learning techniques, for example neural networks [16] or support vector regression [17]. Data-driven approaches can give very powerful and accurate estimations of cell performance changes, however they are often ‘black box’ in their nature, i.e. they do not reveal their internal correlation model. This is important as a key advantage of monitoring degradation is being able to react to it effectively, which requires the understanding of its cause. Data-driven approaches also require a significant amount of datapoints, which, depending on vehicle usage patterns, may not give a full set of possible conditions. Between these are model-based approaches, which still rely on vehicle data but have an underlying structure with which to infer physical meaning. In every case, to develop and validate algorithms a large amount of testing is required which is not physically realizable due to time and cost. For this reason, an accurate yet computationally efficient battery emulation and an understanding of underlying ageing is required from a relatively small dataset as tools for training BMS algorithms. This paper shows an approach to create such tools. This paper outlines a holistic approach to understanding and quantifying the multiple aspects of Li-ion cell degradation. Section II introduces the aspects of cell ageing. Section III introduces the overall approach designed to quantify ageing, and the remaining sections explain the individual aspects of the process. Some aspects of the work from this paper have been included in the patent applications as cited in [18,19]

Lithium ion cells store and transport cells electrochemically. While the cell functions as a complete device, it is made up of multiple components shown in Figure 1. Li-ion cells work via the intercalation of lithium between each electrode, with lithium moving from the positive electrode (cathode) to the negative electrode (anode) during charging of the cell and the reverse when discharging. In each case, the Li-ion must move from its current electrode and flow through the electrolyte, crossing the separator. The separator plays an important role, permitting flow of Li-ions while being electrically isolating. Li-ions have a positive charge and therefore when moving between electrodes create a charge imbalance. To resolve this, negatively charged electrons also move between the electrodes, however they cannot go through the separator. Instead, they travel through the metallic current collectors and around an external circuit, giving or receiving work in the process. The rate of electron flow defines the current. Each electrode has a capacity for accepting lithium and its own electrical

Figure 2: Illustration of Li-ion cell stoichiometry through the interaction of the cathode, a, the anode, c) and the full cell Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) b). Cell b) shows the Open Circuit Voltage through the difference between the cathode and anode at a given SoC, In b) it is also shown the Incremental Capacity Analysis (ICA) curve which shows the relative differential capacity to differential voltage across the SoC range. In each case, the difference due to ageing in each curve is shown due to a reduction of cathode capacity and subsequent rescaling of 0-100% SoC. 21

potential as a function of its relative amount of lithium contained and the resistance to any current applied. The full cell voltage measurable at the cell terminals is then given by the difference between the electrode potentials as shown in Figure 2. Ageing in Li-ion cells is complex due to the multitude of mechanisms that occur across the different cell components as a function of usage and time. The evolution rate of each mechanism can depend on cell design conditions, such as electrode surface area. It can also depend on usage conditions such as temperature. For detail on cell ageing, there are many high-quality reviews explaining the mechanisms in detail [8,21–23]. This section gives a high-level overview with a focus on the implications on cell performance.

Aside from SEI formation and lithium plating, there are also several additional mechanisms that occur, such as mechanical damage from anode volume change at low SoC [22,32], cathode damage from lithium intercalation/deintercalation [33–35] and cathode surface layer formation [36–38]. These combine to cause a map of different condition sensitivities, an example of which is shown in Figure 3 that uses temperature and SoC as examples. Multiple ageing causes each with complex evolution profiles makes tracing individual ageing mechanisms difficult. A reduced framework grouping ageing into important features and locations helps simplify the problem while retaining useful information. To do this, the key performance changes must be known and included.

A dominant degradation mechanism for Li-ion cells is the formation and growth of the Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) layer due to anode–electrolyte surface reactions [23,24]. This SEI layer is formed by design, as it forms a barrier for further reactions. It cannot however completely prevent all further reactions with a small rate of reactions persisting throughout lifetime. These reactions consume lithium, reducing cell capacity, and the resultant SEI surface layer increases cell impedance. This mechanism causes a steady degradation throughout the cell life which is accelerated by higher temperatures and higher cell potentials.

A common ageing consequence is a reduction in the cells ability to store charge which is known as capacity fade. Capacity fade is caused by changes in cell stoichiometry, and what is often neglected is these changes also cause alterations in the Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) profile with SoC, and affect sensitivity to further ageing [39,40]. With the OCV curve typically used to define initial SoC, changes in the SoC-OCV relation are important to understand for effective control recalibration. An example change in electrode stoichiometry with ageing and the corresponding subtle change in SoC-OCV is shown in Figure 2.

Another significant mechanism is lithium plating. This mechanism is avoidable but has large consequences when it occurs. If anode potential drops below 0V Li/ Li+, or 0V relative to the lithium standard potential, then lithium deposits on the anode surface rather than intercalating into its bulk structure [25–27]. In cases where there is high thermal gradients in the cell, such as fast charging, the threshold for lithium plating can even be several mV higher than 0V [28]. Plated lithium can be recovered by stripping during discharge however if the lithium becomes electrochemically disconnected this is no longer possible and the plated lithium and associated capacity is permanently lost. This can also pose a safety risk as the lithium deposits on the surface and repeated deposition can form dendrites that can eventually pierce the separator, causing a short circuit in the cell [29,30]. The occurrence of this mechanism depends on the anode overpotential, which makes it more prevalent at low temperatures and high current dendrites [31].

The other important aspect of battery cell performance change with ageing is its ability to give and receive charge i.e. impedance change. Cell impedance itself is very complex, being made up of ohmic, charge transfer (CT) and diffusion contributions with each contribution occurring in multiple regions of the cell [41]. Ohmic resistance arises from material resistances within the cell, particularly the electrode materials and electrolyte [41,42]. Ohmic resistance acts instantaneously, and arises from material properties that are not dependent on current or SoC [43,44], although the electrolyte resistance has some temperature dependence [41]. Charge transfer impedance occurs due to the resistance at the electrode/electrolyte interface to Li-ion transfer into the electrodes. Charge transfer impedance has a fast-acting time constant of <1s, decreases significantly with temperature rise [43–45] and current magnitude increase [41], and is also sensitive to SoC dependent on

Figure 3 : The influence of temperature and State-of-Charge (SoC) on the types of cell ageing that occur, as illustrated by the physical effect and resultant ageing symptoms that occur at the high and low ends of temperature and SoC.


magnitude is shown in Figure 4. It can be seen that the absolute resistance value changes with month but also that the response-time profile changes, with the aged cells responding over a longer time period than when new. This effect is important, because changes in voltage evolution can affect heat generation and available power during the highly transient automotive drive cycles as well as the waiting period after loading before the cell is sufficiently relaxed for OCV measurements. The complexity of the combined changes in cell stoichiometry and impedance necessitate a process combining multiple aspects and algorithms, explained in section III.

III. Holistic Approach To Battery Degradation Figure 4: Cell Voltage Response to step current at identical temperature and SoC conditions, with ageing month. In this figure it is shown that the voltage response to current changes in its overall magnitude, but it also changes in the evolution of that response with time after the change in current application.

the electrode stoichiometry of individual cells. Diffusion impedance arises from the buildup of concentration gradients within the electrolyte and electrodes due to continued current application and Li-ion transfer. The time taken to build up these gradients gives diffusion relatively long time constants (up to 100s of seconds) relative to the other impedance aspects. Diffusion impedance strongly decreases at higher temperature [44] due to improved electrode intercalation kinetics. It can also have a strong relationship with SoC as the electrodes undergo phase changes at different levels of lithiation which also affect electrode kinetics particularly for graphite anodes [46]. Each impedance aspect arises from different components and causes and is therefore sensitive to different ageing mechanisms. The consequence of ageing therefore is not just a change in absolute resistance, but a changing profile with usage parameters and a change in dynamic response to current. An evolution of dynamic response with ageing at a consistent temperature, SoC and current

The complexity of battery degradation and the resulting effects on cell performance make a solution both essential and challenging. Outlined in this section is a holistic process to understand, quantify and model Li-ion cell ageing. This process must provide a reliable and informative evaluation of ageing and its behavioral impact. To be practically applicable, the approach is also required to be versatile across different Li-ion cell designs and electrode chemistries, functional using only data accessible from electrical cycling, and intuitive in its process without strong domain knowledge user requirements. The elements of the developed approach are shown in Figure 5. To quantify ageing, three main aspects are required: characterization testing, data evaluation, and modelling of resultant cell performance. It is critical that these aspects are designed to be optimal together. The testing approach defines the input data available for the analysis algorithms, which in turn defines the results available for the model. It is therefore important that the entire approach is designed to achieve the objective of understanding the root causes of ageing and to quantify/ model the behavioral differences described in section II. It is also important to be able to validate the approach. It is important to both evaluate the underlying ageing causes and model the resultant ageing symptoms. These must be validated using separate approaches as described later in section VII.

Figure 5 : Overall holistic process that incorporates all of the required steps to evaluate ageing in Li-ion cells. 23

conditions must be condensed. Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization (HPPC) tests are useful for this, giving a wide range of information in a compact test profile [55]. Cell degradation cause and effect is highly sensitive to cell usage conditions, as discussed in section II. For this reason a design of experiments approach to cell ageing testing is used to evaluate the impact of different parameters [9,20,56]. The choice of variables can vary, but overall the most significant usage parameters on cell performance are temperature, cyclable SoC range and charge current [31,57,58]. When formulating a designof-experiments approach, the experimental matrix should consider that these parameters have both higher order and interaction effects, so multiple levels should be used [20]. Close control of the conditions, particularly temperature, is also crucial due to high sensitivity. For modern Li-ion cells lifetime performance is very high therefore even with continual 24-hour high temperature cycling it can take at least 9 months to approach end-oflife conditions, although this varies significantly with cell Figure 6: FUDS profile as defined in [54], chosen for its dynamic chemistry and design. profile spanning the full range of cell usage, and its inclusion of charge pulses representing regenerative braking.

IV. Characterization & Ageing Testing A fundamental aspect of the evaluation process is acquisition of representative data. This process achieves this through electrical characterization testing. Electrical testing is practically accessible in a way that cell dismantling, and chemical evaluation is not and does not need as significant adaption across different electrode chemistries and designs. The objectives of the electrical characterization are to characterize new cell behavior and acquire data on cell performance changes with ageing. For new cell characterization it is important to acquire data that depicts all behavior including capacity, OCV and dynamic impedance evolution. This is required across the usable range of cell conditions, such as temperature, SoC and current [41]. It is not necessary to emulate real automotive cycle profiles during characterization, instead optimizing cycling for key data acquisition and ease of analysis. Many methods exist for this, such as Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), Incremental Capacity Analysis (ICA) and time-based pulse relaxation analysis [47–53]. Each gives unique information; therefore, a combination of methods is recommended and applied during this process.

V. Data Analysis The data analysis stage uses the available characterization data to generate model parameters quantifying changes in cell performance and to inform on the underlying ageing causes. The cell performance results must also be output in a way that can be used in a modelling platform such as in section VI. Section II explained the complex landscape of Li-ion cell ageing and subsequent performance changes. To evaluate this several algorithms must be applied, each targeting a specific aspect of cell characteristics. The strategy taken in this holistic approach is summarized in Figure 7. Figure 7 shows how one algorithm is applied to evaluate cell stoichiometry and subsequently OCV and cell capacity changes. This algorithm infers information

It is not practically realizable to quantify ageing comprehensively across usage conditions due to the associated time and cost. Ageing characterization therefore must be efficient in giving informative data. This requires defining two aspects of ageing testing, the ageing cycles and the characterization cycles. The ageing cycles must be closely representative of the target use case. For automotive conditions when a cycle is not already known, the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) [54] is generally representative due to its inclusion of transient profiles, scalability to different Figure 7: Schematic showing the different aspects of cell cell designs, large current magnitude range and inclusion behavior that need to be incorporated and the different of regenerative braking. It is shown in Figure 6. range of techniques incorporated for quantification including The ageing characterization profiles can be based on the new cell characterization, but the range of tests and 24

Incremental Capacity Analysis (ICA), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and time domain pulse relaxation. The schematic also shows how each aspect quantifies information for the resultant equivalent circuit.

about the cell's underlying behavior, specifically changes in individual electrode capacities and lithium distribution within the cell. ICA is a powerful technique for achieving this through calculating the change of SoC relative to the change in voltage across the cell capacity range [40]. The resultant profile is dependent on the relative lithiation state of each electrode, as voltage change with lithiation is sensitive for each electrode to points in the lithiation curve at which phase changes occur [59]. This trait makes the ICA curve shape very sensitive to ageing, as shown by Figure 2 which compares a subtle change in OCV with ageing to a very pronounced change in the ICA profile. The ICA curve features change uniquely based on the cause of degradation being loss of lithium, anode capacity reduction or cathode capacity reduction [60]. The sensitivity of the ICA curve to cell internal stoichiometry means it can first acquire the baseline cell relationships. With the baseline established, changes in ICA curves at a consistent current can be used to track specific degradation modes within the cell. The subsequent knowledge of cell stoichiometry can then be used directly to give expected changes in OCV and cell capacity. Impedance is a very complex aspect to analyze due to the combination of ohmic, charge transfer and diffusion impedance acting across both electrodes, the electrolyte and current collectors [41,44,61,62]. The accumulation of these features span a large range of characteristic time constants with ohmic resistance being instantaneous and diffusion resistance acting over 1000s of seconds (see Figure 4). No one method can reliably evaluate the entire impedance range, so the high and low frequency aspects are evaluated separately. EIS is effective at ascertaining high and medium frequency impedance aspects such as ohmic and charge transfer [63]. It is fast to perform allowing coverage of a range of SoC and temperature values quickly. It is not however good at identifying low frequency effects such as diffusion [63,64]. EIS requires a net zero current to be valid, and at lower frequencies the longer current application causes sufficient OCV oscillation for the corresponding voltage change to appear on the resulting impedance estimate. As the frequencies get slower, the time of the test also elongates to the point of impracticality. For the generation of the analysis and modelling in this work, a range of 1mHz to 10kHz was used. Current interrupt through methods such as time pulse relaxation provide a good alternative for low frequency evaluation [63,64]. By applying a fixed current until cell impedance is fully evolved then allowing the cell to relax for an extended time period, the cell impedance behavior can be evaluated through the voltage-time profile as OCV is approached [53]. The high frequency aspect due to their fast characteristic time constants are difficult to separate using this method, but the zero current during relaxation allows for the slower diffusion behavior to be quantified well. This method can also be applied across multiple load currents, with the relaxation behavior reflecting the current magnitude before relaxation. The combination of frequency and time domain methods can be used to ascertain baseline impedance values and ageing changes in each contribution. These can be translated into virtual tools through the model platform

Figure 8: Link between ageing modes, mechanisms, and control aspects. The top row shows types of degradation modes, the middle row their underlying cause, and the bottom row the sensitivities of those mechanisms in terms of controllable usage conditions.

in section VI. The remaining cell behavioral changes are completed by the cell stoichiometry algorithm altering cell rest parameters. The combined knowledge of individual impedance contributions and cell stoichiometry also allows for the root cause of ageing to be evaluated. The understanding of how and why the cell ages can be used to predict lifetimes and adapt the cell usage and control approach, demonstrated in Figure 8.

VI. Modelling Platform The modelling platform is required to emulate cell performance under a range of conditions and to effectively model performance changes with ageing identified by the analysis methods in section V. The interaction between the algorithms and modelling platform is shown in Figure 7. An Equivalent Circuit Model (ECM) approach was used for the model structure, implemented within Matlab/Simulink [65]. This was chosen due to a wide range of possible cell and usage conditions combined with a requirement for emulation of cell behavior over the highly transient drive cycles. An ECM allows for a more accurate emulation of transient performance relative to empirical models while having versatility and ease of data population physical-chemical models lack. The approach also allows the structure to be flexible to incorporate the amount of impedance features shown as significant across the usage range by the ageing algorithms. The electrical ECM is combined in a closed loop format with a thermal model that calculates the irreversible ohmic and reversible entropic losses. This paper talks about the model structure as part of the overall ageing evaluation process. For more information on the model structure specifically and underlying theory see the authors previous papers [52,53].

VII. Validation Approach The dual purposes of the holistic ageing process are to identify root causes of cell ageing and emulate resultant 25

Figure 10: Mean absolute error of ageing model relative to test data at monthly intervals for Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization (HPPC) testing, C/3 charge and C/3 discharge tests, 5-90% SoC range.

Figure 9: Validation of ageing model against reference test profiles of a hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC) and a constant current (CC) discharge. Shown at beginning of life (Month 0), mid-life (Month 5) and near end of life (Month 8).

Figure 11: Chemical evaluation of new and aged Li-ion cells showing (a) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) results showing increased surface layer formation and (b) cathode half-cell curves for new and aged cells showing noticeable reduction in cathode capacity.

Figure 12: SEM images of anode and cathode samples under identical resolution for the new and both aged cells. All Graphite Anode images are at 5K magnification and NMC111 Cathode images are at 2k magnification. Images included to show clear deterioration of the cathode and minor deterioration of cathode at the aged cell condition of 9 months of cycling. 26

performance changes in virtual tools. Both aspects required separate validation roots. Model performance was verified by comparing outputs with test data variations on electrical profiles and ageing month. In addition to model outputs, the ageing algorithms also give conclusions on degradation cause. These cannot be proven by electrical testing and therefore must be validated via physical and chemical investigation of the aged cells as described in the second half of this section. The electrical validation of the model as applied to new cells is shown in [52,66] therefore the focus here is on the consistency of the results with ageing. The approach to validate the model was to use a variety of cycle data to show its accuracy in a range of conditions. In this work, the model was validated against constant current (CC) discharge and charge tests at 1/3 of the rated cell capacity to evaluate steady state performance across the SoC range with ageing as shown in Figure 9. In addition, it was explained in section II and Figure 4 that ageing can give a significant difference in the time-based voltage response to current change through evolving resistance. This is not easily visible through constant current testing therefore time-based current and relaxation pulses were applied through the Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization (HPPC) profiles. These tests were conducted at 25°C with temperature control through cooling plates connected to the cell, being performed prior to the ageing testing and then repeated once per month subsequently. The objective of the validation is not to see absolute model error but to see changes in model error at relative states of ageing therefore evaluating the effectiveness of the ageing model. Figure 10 shows the mean absolute error (MAE) of the ageing model relative to original Reference Performance Test (RPT) data for the monthly HPPC, C/3 discharge and C/3 charge tests. It can be seen that the error stays within a similar order of magnitude throughout life. Figure 9 compares the model to the validation test data at early, mid and late life. It can be seen the profile is followed well during the dynamic HPPC and CC tests. The main regions of error are the very low SoC regions and around 60% SoC where a phase change is occurring in the anode [59]. This is due to linear interpolation of insufficient datapoints in the model for the highly transient impedance and OCV behavior in these regions and can be resolved through more targeted RPT profiles. The chemical evaluation was performed based on a range of techniques. The stoichiometry changes involve changes in lithium distribution and active material capacity degradation. This is resolved by half-cell analysis of the electrodes in the new and aged cells, and techniques such as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) [67] to investigate the lithium consumed in surface layer formation. The impedance changes can be due to surface and structural changes in the electrode and electrode/current collector interfaces therefore surface and cross-sectional surface imaging through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) [68] is required. The key conclusions from the presented case study is a significant loss of lithium and loss of cathode capacity. In addition to this, there was a noticeable decrease in the cathode charge transfer impedance. The loss of lithium is confirmed by Figure 11 (a), which through NMR shows a larger quantity of lithium within the SEI meaning it is no longer contributing to cell charge storage [69]. The loss of cathode active material is confirmed by the

cycling of active material extracted from new and aged cell samples, showing a reduction of capacity within the cyclable cathode limits in Figure 11 (b). The SEM results in Figure 12 compare an example new and aged (end of 9-month cycling) cell for the anode and cathode surface. The graphite anode shows only minor changes in surface condition however the cathode shows significant deterioration and both inter-granular and intra-granular cracking. This increases cathode surface area, which in turn reduces its charge transfer impedance [70]. It is important to apply a range of chemical analysis methods when proving out an ageing evaluation approach to verify the conclusions are physically accurate. Once this is proven to be robust, the chemical analysis in future case studies is not essential.

VIII. Conclusions This paper shows a holistic approach for evaluating ageing in Li-ion cells and emulating the complex performance changes through virtual tools. Li-ion ageing is complex both in terms of multitude of ageing conditions and the resultant combined performance changes, however the metrics for evaluating and expressing this are often over-simplified. This approach resolves that issue by more fully evaluating ageing impact and in particular by expressing individual performance changes in capacity, OCV and individual impedance features. The approach involves the definition of representative testing, a suite of evaluation algorithms to cover the range of cell behavior and ageing, and a versatile equivalent modelling platform designed to be adaptable to the algorithm conclusions. The result was shown to be a model that retains consistency in accuracy over lifetime. It was also shown through chemical validation that it provides reliable conclusions on the root causes of cell ageing at least in high temperature cycling conditions.

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Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing Exhibition

14 September 2021, Silverstone Race Circuit The Society’s annual Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing Exhibition will be held on 14 September 2021 in Hall 3 at the Silverstone International Conference and Exhibition Centre overlooking the racetrack. The event has been successfully beem held for over 25 years and has grown substantially to host 65 companies and organisations throughout the hall. The event covers a wide variety of disciplines including aerospace, automotive, motorsport, rail, off-highway, mechanical handling, industrial and power generation industries. On show and being demonstrated will be a range of products, testing equipment, transducers, data acquisition and analysis systems as well as the latest digital imaging techniques. The exhibition is enhanced by mini seminars held throughout the day on important topics relevant to the visitors and exhibitors. The exhibition has become a key event in the engineering year and offers an ideal opportunity for engineers to meet face-to-face with equipment suppliers and get to see the latest developments in instrumentation, analysis and testing. This annual event has always been a great meeting point for engineers, allowing the exchange of ideas and contacts, as well as a perfect chance to hold discussions with experts to help to tackle the challenges facing industry today. The exhibition is free to attend, as are the mini seminars, and there is also plenty of free car parking available at the site. With a complimentary lunch voucher for all guests, visitors have the opportunity to make the most of the exhibition, mini seminars and the chance to meet with colleagues and exhibitors. This year, the theme of the mini seminars held throughout the day is ‘The Journey from IC to EVs: Challenges, Pitfalls and Opportunities’. John Yates, EIS Chairman commented “We have a fantastic line-up of presenters who are all experts in their field. These interactive sessions have proven to be very popular in recent years and feed into our series of one day seminar events.” With more than 10 million electric cars on the world’s roads in 2020, the growth of the electric vehicle market is being supported by advances in technology and increasing affordability. Alternatives to the internal combustion engine are clearly the future of transport and one of the drivers for change is the need to reduce air pollution and provide more sustainable ways of travelling. Battery-powered vehicles currently lead the way, although there are many competing, alternative technologies, some which may well dominate in the future. There are, of course, many short- and long-term challenges which need to be overcome, not least of which are battery life and cost, as well as new infrastructure for the emerging alternatives such as hydrogen and liquid fuel cells. The mini seminars at the exhibition will include the following presentations: • Road to EV: Spark to Revolution - Dyrr Ardash, Williams Advanced Engineering • Structural Power Composites in Electric Vehicle Design - Sang Nguyen, Imperial College • Electric Vehicle Batteries as Weapons of Mass Destruction - Colin Freeman, Potenza Technology • Decarbonising Rail Vehicles – what are the options? - Rory Dickerson, Network Rail The Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing Exhibition attracts visitors from all over the UK and is seen by many as the go-to event for testing and analysis technologies. For more information or to register your attendance, please contact the Marketing & Events Manager, Sara Atkin at or visit the website 32


Free Mini Semina throughout the da

The Journey from IC to EVs: Challenges, Pitfalls and Opportunities Mini Seminar Programme

KEYNOTE Road to EV: Spark to Revolution Dyrr Ardash – Williams Advanced Engineering

Structural Power Composites in Electric Vehicle Design Sang Nguyen – Imperian College London

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Electric Vehicle Batteries as Weapons of Mass Destruction Colin Freeman – Potenza Technology

Decarbonising Rail Vehicles – what are the options? Rory Dickerson – Network Rail

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GI Systems Ltd Plastometrex GOM UK Ltd Polytec Ltd HBK Prosig Ltd Head Acoustics UK Ltd Sensor Technology Ltd Imetrum Ltd Servotest Testing Systems Ltd Interface Force Measurements Sherborne Sensors Ltd Shimadzu UK Ipetronik GmbH Siemens Digital Industries Software KDP Electronic Systems Ltd Spectral Dynamics (UK) Ltd Kistler Instruments Star Hydraulics Ltd Lavision Strainsense Ltd M+P International Techni Measure Ltd Mecmesin Ltd Thermal Vision Research Moog Torquemeters Ltd MTS Systems Ltd TotalSim Ltd Niche Vehicle Network Transmission Dynamics Nprime Ltd United Electronic Industries GmbH PCB Piezontronics VBOX - Racelogic Peli Products (UK) Ltd Vishay Measurements Group Ltd Photo-Sonics International Ltd Zwick Photron (Europe) Ltd 33

Towards a Local Property Assessment of Materials C. M. Magazzeni

The past few decades have seen the rapid development of new manufacturing techniques and applications. The rise of this Industry 4.0, or more specifically advanced manufacturing, has enabled new designs and better performing materials for a wide range of applications [1]–[3]. Additive manufacturing has allowed for vastly complex designs ranging from hollow structures for waveguides to structural components with optimised shapes [4]–[7]. Friction welding (Figure 1) or composite materials have enabled materials with improved structural performance coupled with reduced design limitations [8]–[12]. As we incorporate more complex processes either through improved physical technology or through the incorporation of more advanced analytical methods such as Artificial Intelligence/Machine Learning (AI/ML), our focus becomes ever refined and small-scale. Two major driving forces can be thought of as pushing us in this direction: the drive for broadening a design space that is inaccessible through subtractive manufacturing, and the drive for producing materials with better properties. With more rapid development cycles, we are beginning to see prototypes of materials that have combined both exotic structures and shapes as well as internal material (micro-) structure – an application of Industry 4.0 on material microstructure itself. Our components and constitutive materials are becoming tailored to the desired designs and properties. Conventional assessment philosophy can experience a similar transition. In light of both faster prototyping of new processes, as well as increasing complexity, we can develop testing methods that explore shorter length scales whilst giving us scalable insights. In this sense, the aim is to reduce the assessment cycle of these materials in concurrence with the development cycle by generating a mechanistic understanding of the individual contributors to property. To do so must imply understanding not only how microstructure affects property, but also how process affects microstructure. Simply put, we must develop methods to more rapidly link process to structure to property. At the conference, I presented two methods that aim to add to the toolbox for rapid qualification at relevant length scales. 34

An article written following the EIS Fatigue 2021 conference, and the awarding of the Peter Watson Prize 2021 for the presentation “Local Fatigue Property Assessment of Linear Friction Welds”.

Rapid Local Structure-Property Relationships The first is correlative nanoindentation mapping. Consider material systems with significant degrees of anisotropy and inhomogeneity within the scale of microns: fibre composites, crystallographic anisotropy in materials such as titanium, multiphase systems such as dual phase steels, or surface layers with oxides or irradiation damage. Conventional indentation may provide the average response over representative volumes either as the mean response within a large volume or as a variation between individual indents across this material. However, should individual process parameters change (variations in the fibre/matrix/interlayer, texture components, phase volume fractions, or surface treatments in the examples above) then it becomes difficult to predict – or better yet, explain – observed changes to the property. With faster instrumentation on nanoindenters, it has become possible to produce maps of thousands of indents and cover mm2 areas at sufficient resolutions for the above features [13]–[17]. When combined with a signal describing the relevant structural features (such as phase, crystallographic orientation, or chemical composition), then these maps can produce structure–property relationships with unprecedented speed [18]. These insights can then feed into process models to better understand control and consistency in manufacturing, to say nothing of the value of discovery by being able to observe and analyse these maps.

Optimised Fatigue Sampling It is therefore important to collect data on length scales that reflect the structural variation within materials, and my primary project consisted of developing a small scale fatigue method. A pernicious and expensive failure mechanism, fatigue can be a time-consuming property to optimise in this context of new materials development. It is also particularly challenging to measure for locally varying materials, both due to its stochastic nature as well as due to the failure of weak links disguising the strength of stronger areas. In the first instance, consider the example of the friction weld: it is well known that weld-lines are more fatigue resistant than parent material, with conventional dog-bone tests failing outside of the weld regions [19]–[22]. For the purposes of generating complete information on these materials, there is a necessity to bring the length-scale of

testing methods to the relevant length scales of variable structure. To that end, alongside other members of our group we built an ultrasonic meso-scale fatigue setup allowing us to investigate small-scale fatigue specimens with stressed volumes in the order of 0.001mm3. More broadly, we can learn from our earlier discussion of Industry 4.0 and incorporate complex analyses not only in our experimental processes, but also in our experimental design. Consider how we collect the data relating to a material’s fatigue strength at High Cycle Fatigue (HCF): there are currently several conventional protocols, usually derived from either the Staircase (single test per sample), or stress step (multiple tests per sample) protocols. Both of these methods require testing parameters set on some assumptions of the system: what stress level to begin, what stress increment between tests to use, etc. With experience, experimenters can often make very good guesses for these initial values, reducing their impact on the quality of results and saving time on test campaigns. What if we could incorporate this approach? What if we could quantify the experience we gain from each sample about our system’s parameters? How efficiently could we collect this data? Can we formalise the inference that the mean value is likely below the test stress if we record a failure? This intuitive approach is not strictly new. In cases where experiments are very expensive (such as deep geological sampling sites, or tuning hyper-parameters in a neural network [23]–[25]), Bayesian Maximum Entropy Sampling methods have been used to rapidly arrive at a good understanding of systems. In experiments, this approach proved successful at efficiently estimating fatigue strength and spread: not only did this provide an unbiased accuracy independent of initial guesses on testing conditions, it arrived at an answer more quickly than conventional methods [26]. Our paper submitted shortly after Fatigue 2021 and refined in part from discussions with delegates, the conference hosted several discussions with the inclusion of either advanced experiments or analytical techniques in assessing materials. I believe these methods are a part of a wider body of work pushing towards a local, rapid, and systems-based approach by combining advanced characterisation methods with data-driven analytical tools. In

concurrence with this new industrial revolution, this class of correlative methods will be key for hastening the development cycle of the new class of materials for use in our built environments. Christopher Magazzeni is a DPhil student and Industrial Fellow in Materials Science at the University of Oxford funded by EPSRC, Rolls-Royce plc and the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851.

References [1] SmarTech, “Additive Manufacturing in Aerospace : Strategic Implications,” SmarTech Mark. Publ., no. August, pp. 1–5, 2014. [2] D. Wee, R. Kelly, R. Mathis, and M. Breunig, “Industry 4.0 after the initial hype Where manufacturers are finding value and how they can best capture it,” 2016. [3] M. Breunig, R. Kelly, R. Mathis, and D. Wee, “Getting the most out of Industry 4.0,” 2016. [4] W. Gao et al., “The status, challenges, and future of additive manufacturing in engineering,” CAD Comput. Aided Des., vol. 69, pp. 65–89, Dec. 2015. [5] D. Walton and H. Moztarzadeh,“Design and Development of an Additive Manufactured Component by Topology Optimisation,” Procedia CIRP, vol. 60, pp. 205–210, Jan. 2017. [6] S. Ren and S. Galjaard, “Topology Optimisation for Steel Structural Design with Additive Manufacturing,” Model. Behav., pp. 35–44, 2015. [7] J. Podroužek, M. Marcon, K. Ninčević, and R. WanWendner, “Bio-Inspired 3D Infill Patterns for Additive Manufacturing and Structural Applications,” Mater. 2019, Vol. 12, Page 499, vol. 12, no. 3, p. 499, Feb. 2019. [8] G. Constantinides, K. S. Ravi Chandran, F. J. Ulm, and K. J. Van Vliet, “Grid indentation analysis of composite microstructure and mechanics: Principles and validation,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, vol. 430, no. 1–2, pp. 189–202, Aug. 2006. [9] S. Singamneni, Y. Lv, A. Hewitt, R. Chalk, W. Thomas, and D. Jordison, “Additive Manufacturing for the Aircraft Industry: A Review,” J Aeronaut Aerosp. Eng, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 215, 2019. [10] P. D. Mangalgiri, “Composite materials for aerospace applications,” Bull. Mater. Sci, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 657–664, 1999.

Figure 1: Diagram showing the local link between process (panel 1), microstructure (panel 2), and mechanical property through nanoindentation mapping (panel 3) and meso-scale fatigue testing (panel 4). Panel 1 adapted from http%3A/”

[11] A. P. Mouritz, M. K. Bannister, P. J. Falzon, and K. H. Leong, “Review of applications for advanced three-dimensional fibre textile composites,” Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf., vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 1445–1461, Dec. 1999. [12] C. Soutis, “Fibre reinforced composites in aircraft construction,” Prog. Aerosp. Sci., vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 143–151, Feb. 2005. 35

[13] H. M. Gardner et al., “Quantifying the effect of oxygen on micro-mechanical properties of a near-alpha titanium alloy,” Sep. 2020. [14] P. Enrique-Jimenez et al., “Nanoindentation mapping of multiscale composites of graphene-reinforced polypropylene and carbon fibres,” Compos. Sci. Technol., vol. 169, pp. 151–157, Jan. 2019. [15] B. Vignesh, W. C. Oliver, G. S. Kumar, and P. S. Phani, “Critical assessment of high speed nanoindentation mapping technique and data deconvolution on thermal barrier coatings,” Mater. Des., vol. 181, Nov. 2019. [16] B. Merle, V. Maier-Kiener, T. J. Rupert, and G. M. Pharr, “Current trends in nanomechanical testing research,” J. Mater. Res. 2021 3611, vol. 36, no. 11, pp. 2133–2136, Jul. 2021. [17] Z. Liu, J. Zhang, B. He, and Y. Zou, “High-speed nanoindentation mapping of a near-alpha titanium alloy made by additive manufacturing,” J. Mater. Res. 2021 3611, vol. 36, no. 11, pp. 2223–2234, Apr. 2021. [18] C. M. Magazzeni et al., “Nanoindentation in multimodal map combinations: a correlative approach to local mechanical property assessment,” J. Mater. Res., vol. 36, no. 11, pp. 2235–2250, Jan. 2021. [19] S. Manteghi, D. Gibson, and C. Johnston, “Fatigue performance of friction welds manufactured both in air and underwater,” in Proceedings of the International

Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering - OMAE, 2017, vol. 4. [20] W. Li, A. Vairis, M. Preuss, and T. Ma, “Linear and rotary friction welding review,” International Materials Reviews, vol. 61, no. 2. Taylor & Francis, pp. 71–100, 17-Feb-2016. [21] N. Hiroshi, K., Koji, N., Tsukasa, W. and Kenji, “Application of linear friction welding technique to aircraft engine parts,” IHI Eng. Rev., vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 40–43., 2014. [22] J. C. Stinville, F. Bridier, D. Ponsen, P. Wanjara, and P. Bocher, “High and low cycle fatigue behavior of linear friction welded Ti-6Al-4V,” Int. J. Fatigue, vol. 70, pp. 278– 288, Jan. 2015. [23] Z. Wang and S. Jegelka, “Max-value entropy search for efficient Bayesian optimization,” in 34th International Conference on Machine Learning, ICML 2017, 2017, vol. 7, pp. 5530–5543. [24] P. Sebastiani and H. P. Wynn, “Maximum entropy sampling and optimal Bayesian experimental design,” J. R. Stat. Soc. Ser. B Stat. Methodol., vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 145–157, 2000. [25] P. I. Frazier, “A Tutorial on Bayesian Optimization,” 2018. [26] C. M. Magazzeni, R. Rose, C. Gearhart, J. Gong, and A. J.

Wilkinson, “Bayesian Optimised Collection Strategies for Fatigue Testing-Constant Life Testing.” Preprint on:

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News from British Standards BSI’s standards committee area for engineering design, specification and verification, TPR/1 (Technical product realization) – whose subcommittee on Design for Manufacture, Assembly, Disassembly and End-of-life processing (MADE) is chaired by Professor Brian Griffiths – has been as busy as ever in the “new” online meeting era. All of its standards committee meetings continue to be held online-only with Zoom and Teams leading the way as the most popular tools for conducting online standards work. Virtual meetings, whilst lacking the social and networking aspects of face-to-face events – which our international standards groups in particular, miss most of all – allow us to discuss and progress documents, projects, and new work proposals. Both national and international standards committee meetings are being held online with higher than normal attendance rates across all of the sectors involved in the work. One area of the national committee that continues to be active and is engaging with new and existing UK manufacturing and engineering companies is the BS 8888 area – TPR/1/8, BS 8888, Technical product specification. The BS 8888 committee is holding regular joint online meetings with TPR/1/3, Digital product definition. TPR/1/3 was set up to look into all things 3D modelling, CAD, and digital product definition within the engineering drawings area. Over the last few years, in particular, there has been a growing trend for companies to move away from traditional 2D manual drawings and over to the 3D environment for all of their product design, specification and verification needs. Terms and concepts such as model-based definition (MBD), modelbased enterprise (MBE), and product and manufacturing information (PMI) are increasingly used across the UK’s engineering sector. TPR/1/3+8 have asked their committee members to approach the CAD vendors their companies deal with to ask if they would be able to give a presentation or update to the committees on the development work they are doing in this space. At the last two online meetings, a number of CAD vendors have presented information on how they are addressing issues such as geometrical tolerancing in 3D, 3D model design in a 2D conceptual approach, digital twin, machine readable standards, machine learning, and AI. Another CAD vendor is planning to present at the next committee meeting in October. In recent editions of the UK’s BS 8888 standard, Technical product documentation and specification, more information and requirements on 3D-related issues have been incorporated. In light of the increasing switch from 2D to 3D in industry, the next edition of BS 8888, which

is due to be published by BSI in 2025, will see this trend continue. By working jointly with TPR/1/3, it is hoped that a more meaningful set of 3D requirements will be drawn up for BS 8888. However, this might also lead to a new standard – or set of new standards – focussing specifically on model-based definition (MBD). As previously reported in this column, a number of international standards working groups are also developing and updating standards on 3D issues. The TPR/1 area, which is the UK’s national mirror committee for work taking place in ISO (the international standards organization), is sending UK experts to all of the relevant meetings. In ISO/TC 10, the international committee which covers Technical Product Documentation (TPD) – essentially everything you put on an engineering drawing or model – Working Group 16 is revising its ISO 16792 standard – Digital product definition data practices. The US-led working group tries to ensure that its requirements are closely aligned with ASME – the American Society of Mechanical Engineers – standards in this space. With all of this work and activity, the national committee is always looking for new committee members and experts to join its standards drafting groups, national committees, and international working groups. In particular we are keen to reach out to the CAD vendor community to contribute to the work and discussions on 3D modelling. Further general information on taking part in BSI’s standards work can be found at : If you would like more information on any of the TPR/1area projects or work programme or if you would like to get involved in any way in the committee, please contact Sarah Kelly, Lead Standards Development Manager – Committee Manager for TPR/1, at BSI on sarah.kelly@


Industry News

LEVC unveils world’s first electric campervan Ansty, 28 June 2021: Today LEVC (London Electric Vehicle Company) reveals first impressions of its new leisure vehicle, the new e-Camper. The world’s first electric campervan, e-Camper is optimised to offer both zeroemission capability with zero range anxiety – making it the perfect way to explore the great outdoors with the benefit of low environmental impact.

inexpensive energy storage. There is also rapidly growing demand for behind-the-meter (at home or work) energy storage systems. Sodium-ion batteries (NIBs) are attractive prospects for stationary storage applications where lifetime operational cost, not weight or volume, is the overriding factor. Recent improvements in performance, particularly in energy density, mean NIBs are reaching the level necessary to justify the exploration of commercial scale- up.

SYNETIQ joins the BVRLA as it continues its Johnson & Johnson Executes New Wind mission to lower emissions and Solar Power Purchase Agreements, Accelerating Progress Towards 100% SYNETIQ, Britain’s largest integrated salvage and dismantling company, has joined the British Vehicle Renewable Electricity Goal TUESDAY, 13 JULY/LONDON – Johnson & Johnson today announced that the company has executed three separate virtual power purchase agreements (VPPAs) in Europe, significantly accelerating progress towards the company’s ambitious goal to meet 100% of its electricity needs from renewable sources by 2025. The three VPPAs include a mix of wind and solar projects in Spain for a total generation capacity of 104 megawatts (MW) or approximately 270,000 megawatt hours (MWh) of renewable electricity annually. This amount of clean energy is equivalent to avoiding the carbon emissions from more than 41,000 passenger cars per year, or the annual electricity consumption of more than 82,000 homes. Developed by Enel Green Power, the wind and solar projects are expected to become operational in 2023, and would not have been financed and developed without Johnson & Johnson’s commitment, meaning the company is directly helping to accelerate the renewable energy transition in Europe.

Rental and Leasing Association, as it continues its mission for greener and more sustainable motoring in the UK.

A trusted supplier to leading fleet operators as well as rental and lease companies, BVRLA membership furthers SYNETIQ’s plan to work collaboratively with policymakers, public sector agencies, regulators and key stakeholders. Tom Rumboll, CEO of SYNETIQ, said: “The BVRLA is making great progress in its mission to ensure road transport delivers environmental and economic benefits, including the decarbonisation of vehicles. This aligns with SYNETIQ’s own sustainability roadmap, ‘Our Road to Tomorrow’, as well as key projects like Europe’s first EV processing and recycling centre. “We’ve been able provide fleet clients with clear cost savings, as well as considerable environmental benefits, and our membership of such an influential association will help us work as part of a collective to deliver real change.”

Sodium-ion batteries: inexpensive and Budding young engineers crowned FIRST® LEGO® League UK champions sustainable energy storage Sodium-ion batteries are an emerging battery technology with promising cost, safety, sustainability and performance advantages over current commercialised lithium-ion batteries. Key advantages include the use of widely available and inexpensive raw materials and a rapidly scalable technology based around existing lithium-ion production methods. These properties make sodium-ion batteries especially important in meeting global demand for carbon-neutral energy storage solutions. With an increasing need to integrate intermittent and unpredictable renewables, the electricity supply sector has a pressing need for 38

A team of young engineers from Scotland have been crowned champions of the Institution of Engineering and Technology’s (IET) FIRST® LEGO® League UK and Ireland competition. The winning team were the STEM Troopers from McLaren High School, who were not only Champion team, but also won the Robot Game Knockout Round Award and the Robot Performance Award! This season’s competition, called RePLAYSM, was all about exploring how people can become more active in their local communities, and the science and technology

challenge, which is aimed at 9–16 year olds, tasked teams to design a solution to getting people more active. The winning team’s solution to the challenge was the Side Glow Wired Hi Vis Jacket and they impressed the judges with their mission strategy, good market research and exemplary teamwork. The runners-up were Wallace High School in Belfast. Both STEM Troopers and Wallace High School have been invited to represent the UK and Ireland at the Asia Pacific Open Championship 2021 being held remotely in Australia later this month. Lucy Owen, IET FIRST® LEGO® League Education Manager, said: “FIRST® LEGO® League allows young people to experience engineering in action. As well as bringing excitement to STEM subjects, the students get hands-on experience with robotics and designing innovative solutions to real world problems. Developing computer programming, teamwork, problem-solving and communications skills has never been so much fun and gives students an insight into the creative and innovative careers that engineering presents. “There is a great need for young people with STEM skills to fill the next generation of engineering roles and we are excited to see such bright young engineering minds in FIRST® LEGO® League.”

Establishing a smart factory architecture An open-access digital architecture for manufacturing shop floors has simplified the way data can be handled across an organisation, showing how manufacturers of any size can build a scalable, fully connected smart factory. Factory+, designed by digital engineers at the University of Sheffield Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre (AMRC), provides an open framework to standardise and simplify the way valuable data is extracted, transported, stored, processed, consumed and protected across a manufacturing organisation. Following an initial Literature Review to evaluate the current landscape, engineers in the AMRC’s Integrated Manufacturing Group (IMG) at Factory 2050 have now written a Specification, a technical document outlining the high-level concepts and architecture of Factory+, and an Implementation Guide, a step-bystep instruction manual for deploying it. Together, the documents shape how an organisation could design a smart factory by demonstrating good architecture principles and approaches including openness, efficiency, security and scalability.

Hyundai Motor’s Elec City Fuel Cell Bus Begins Trial Service in Munich, Germany SEOUL, June 25, 2021 — In the coming weeks, Hyundai Motor Company will work with bus operators in Germany to run in-service trials of its hydrogen-powered Elec City Fuel Cell bus as the company explores opportunities to introduce the zero-emission bus to European markets.

Wendling, Irschenberg, Bavaria, Hyundai handed over the test bus to Busbetrieb Josef Ettenhuber GmbH (Ettenhuber) and Geldhauser Linienund Reiseverkehr GmbH & Co. KG (Geldhauser). The two bus operators will take turns running the Elec City Fuel Cell bus on existing routes in Munich, carrying actual passengers. The bus can travel over 500 kilometers when fully charged. Hyundai Motor plans to run demos with four more bus operators this year, collecting passenger and driver feedback along the way. Through the demo runs, the company expects to prove hydrogenpowered buses as a viable, efficient solution for commercial transportation. Elec City Fuel Cell has been commercially available in Korea since 2019 and a total of 108 units have been put into operation. The hydrogen-powered buses being used in various public bus routes in the country have avoided reduced carbon emissions by an estimated 7,700 tons to date compared to internal combustion buses. On a yearly basis, Elec City Fuel Cell buses that are currently in operation are expected to reduce carbon emissions by the equivalent amount of CO2 sequestered in a year by 1,500 hectares of forest.

Net-zero is possible: key industries identified to harness tech and slash emissions Resilience First in partnership with Intel have today published a new white paper on ‘Decarbonisation and the role of technology’. This paper outlines how technology and innovation can be harnessed to cut greenhouse-gas emissions and accelerate the path to net-zero by 2050 and shows that urbanisation, aviation, rail, manufacturing and defence can counter the threats and instability posed by climate change through resilience and sustainability best practice. These industries all face significant challenges to reducing their emissions but are well-positioned to pursue and incorporate technological development. Its key recommendations include: • • •

Investment in innovation to drive technologies that accelerate carbon-emission reductions. Investment in job upskilling and employment transition. Increased cross-silo working in order to deploy faster, more resilient and more universal technological solutions.

The paper includes contributions from experts at the Ministry of Defence, Intel, LSE, Make UK, Arup, Ernst & Young, among others, and follows on from a webinar series hosted by Resilience First and Intel that explored the same topics.

Contributions to Industry News may be emailed to Today, at OMV Hydrogen Refueling Station in The nominal limit for entry is 200 words.


Fatigue 2021 Conference

The society was pleased to run the 8th International conference on Fatigue at the end of March. Originally scheduled for July 2020, the conference had inevitably been postponed before evolving into an online and ondemand event.

We greatly appreciate the support from our sponsors and corporate members that allows us to continue to support the international fatigue and durability community in sharing knowledge and understanding the challenges of using high performance materials for reliable and cost-effective products. We were pleased to welcome seven sponsors and corporate members: Dassault Systèmes, GOM, Prenscia, Phoenix Materials Testing, Severn Thermal Solutions, StressSpace Ltd and Zwick Roell. The conference has increased significantly in size since the last event held in summer 2017. The 68 technical presentations took place over three days with parallel sessions held throughout the conference. A wide range of topics were covered including four keynote presentations from Professors Bob Akid from the University of Manchester, Filippo Berto from Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Rod Smith from Imperial College and Youshi Hong from the Chinese Academy of Sciences. With presenters and delegates attending from 16 countries there were 140 attendees from academic and industrial disciplines. As we were unable to meet in person, we made every effort to ensure the conference was as interactive as possible. This included the use of a Spatial Chat zone which allowed delegates to meet in a virtual environment. This was surprisingly successful and provided an extra element to the conference which undoubtedly contributed to its success. It was also useful to have all presentations available on-demand via the conference portal, enabling all attendees to catch up on any presentations from parallel sessions which they would have missed at an in-person event. The presentations examined the relationship between modern manufacturing processes, the mechanical properties of the materials, and the integrity and performance of the resulting components in challenging conditions. This complex interplay between materials and their processing, advanced


a) Congratulations to Chris Magazzeni from University of Oxford Winner of the Peter Watson Prize 2021

manufacturing methods, and the subsequent durability and reliability of the machines and devices formed a strong theme throughout the conference. The conference also included the Peter Watson Prize for the best young presenter. We were delighted to receive 23 applications, which represented a third of the conference, and was the largest entry we have ever had for this prize. The standard was extremely high and there was much deliberation by the judges to rank the many well-presented and varied presentations. The winner was announced online and we congratulate Chris Magazzeni of University of Oxford for his presentation on Local Fatigue Property Assessments of Linear Friction Welds. His presentation was outstanding, and the judges were impressed with his professional delivery and wellexecuted research. In addition, they chose to Highly Commend both Kris Hectors of Ghent University and Alexander Koch of TU Dortmund University and the judges commented on the overall outstanding quality of both the presenters and their research. After a turbulent year it was a relief to everyone involved in organising the conference that the feedback from delegates, presenters and exhibitors was overwhelmingly positive and the Society looks forward to running the conference again in the not-too-distant future.


News from the Women's Engineering Society

Celebrating An Amazing INWED International Women in Engineering Day (INWED) is an international awareness campaign which raises the profile of women in engineering and focuses attention on the amazing career opportunities available to women and girls in this exciting industry.

I can’t quite believe it, but International Women in Engineering Day celebrated its 8th year in 2021. The 2021 theme was #EngineeringHeroes, which provided us with the opportunity to celebrate the women who’d fought the global pandemic. We were stunned by the sheer volume and variety of stories that were shared on the day, featuring female engineers doing everything from making PPE and vaccines to keeping the lights on in homes and businesses across the world. It really brought home to us the incredible contribution engineers make to society.

even a fraction of the impact that it does. We’re also very grateful to UNESCO, whose patronage each year from 2016 has enabled us to build INWED from the UK national day it originated as in 2014, to the truly global celebration it has become today. In fact some of our top social posts were in Arabic, Japanese, Spanish and Portuguese. We look forward to celebrating again with you next year. Elizabeth Donnelly Chief Executive Officer

What touched us perhaps most of all was the impact that we could see these stories having as they were shared. Women of all ages, both engineers and not, really identified with the experiences on display, with many posting excitedly about having found a new hero or role model who’d inspired them. Another key highlight was the capacity to use the word unprecedented to describe something non-pandemic related. The impact of the day reached dizzying new heights. Our potential 7-day reach on social media exceeded 526 million, up from 103 million in 2020. INWED also featured in over 100 media articles across the globe and we hosted details of over 100 events being organised for the celebration on our website. We were thrilled to trend at number one on Twitter in the UK again and to receive public support from so many great names, including top tweets from F1, the IET, the UK Government Equalities Office, Mercedes-AMG Petronas F1 Team, Nissan Cars, Sky, the European Space Agency, Aston Martin Cognizant F1 Team, Females In Racing, the Royal Air Force, Sir Patrick Vallance, Stemettes, the UK Space Agency, the Royal Navy and the Australian Chief of Navy. Once again, the judges were blown away by the quality of the submissions for the WE50 top 50 women in engineering list. There were so many high scoring submissions and the achievements of the women who made the list are incredibly impressive. The winners were announced as part of our own official INWED event, which attracted nearly 900 sign ups from 32 countries. Finally, as I reflect on what INWED has achieved this year, it would be remiss of me to sign off without acknowledging that we owe a huge debt of gratitude to our sponsors. Without their support, INWED wouldn’t be able to achieve 42

Learn more at

News from the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Huge helium balloon offers low-cost rocket alternative for Hubble-rivalling telescope

A helium balloon the size of a football stadium will launch a new kind of astronomical telescope to the edge of space.

Enabling much cheaper access to space than rocket launches, the balloon will carry the Superpressure Balloon-borne Imaging Telescope (Superbit) above 99.5% of the Earth’s atmosphere. The telescope is a collaboration between Durham University, NASA, the Canadian Space Agency, and Toronto and Princeton universities. It will make its operational debut next April, and its developers claim it will obtain high-resolution images rivalling those from the Hubble Space Telescope. Light from a distant galaxy can travel towards Earth unimpeded for billions of years, before hitting the planet’s turbulent atmosphere and giving us a blurred view of the universe. Observatories on the ground are built at high altitudes to overcome some of this, but until now only placing a telescope in space escapes the effect of the atmosphere. Now, the project will use a ‘superpressure’ balloon developed by NASA to carry the telescope to an altitude of 40km. Previous balloons could only stay aloft for a few nights, but the NASA balloon can contain helium for months. Made of many separate panels of thin film attached to 'tendons' that run from top to bottom, the balloon takes the shape of a squashed sphere when at float altitude. It is filled with enough helium to lift the system, and to pressurise the balloon when it reaches the desired height. Superbit will launch on a long duration balloon flight from Wanaka, New Zealand, in April 2022. Carried by seasonally stable winds, it will circumnavigate the Earth several times, imaging the sky using a 0.5m diameter mirror at night, then using solar panels to recharge its batteries during the day. Crucially, the telescope cost almost 1,000 times less than an equivalent satellite. Not only are balloons cheaper than rocket fuel, but the ability to return the payload to Earth and relaunch it means the design has been tweaked and improved over several test

flights – unlike satellites, which much work first time, and typically have very expensive redundancy. A final test flight in 2019 demonstrated “extraordinary” pointing stability, a Durham announcement said, “sufficient to thread a needle 1km away, and to hold it for an hour”. Such stability will let the telescope obtain images as sharp as those from Hubble, the announcement said. University of Toronto PhD student Mohamed Shaaban, who will be presenting the research at the Royal Astronomical Society’s National Astronomy Meeting today (21 July), said: “New balloon technology makes visiting space cheap, easy and environmentally friendly. As well as building a space telescope, our team has successfully tested all sorts of electronic and mechanical systems that could be used in future satellites.” The science goal for the 2022 mission is to measure the properties of dark matter particles. Although dark matter is invisible, astronomers map it by the way it bends rays of light, a technique known as gravitational lensing. Superbit will test whether dark matter slows down during collisions. No particle colliders on Earth can accelerate dark matter, but such behaviour has been predicted. Professor Richard Massey, from Durham’s department of physics, said: “Cavemen could smash rocks together to see what they’re made of. We’re going to use Superbit to look for the ‘crunch’ of dark matter.” Long term, the team hopes the balloon-launched Superbit telescope will be even better than Hubble. The iconic space telescope will not be repaired again when it fails, and other telescopes will only offer infrared or single optical band imaging – unlike Superbit, which offers multicolour optical and ultraviolet observations. The team already has funding to design a wider angle upgrade, and they hope it could form the basis for a ‘fleet’ of space telescopes accessible to astronomers around the world. 43

University of Wolverhampton Racing Sponsored by the EIS

University of Wolverhampton Racing Students Overcome Adversity at Silverstone

At the end of July, 13 students from the University of Wolverhampton racing team (UWR) travelled to Silverstone to compete in the IMECHE formula student competition. Using a car designed and built by students at the Telford campus, the team were able to achieve a top 25 finish in a highly competitive field. The competition opened with the team being judged on their cost and manufacturing documentation as well as on their engineering design. The students were able to communicate a clear strategy in developing the car and were commended on their resourcefulness as well as their high standard of organisation in an unpredictable year. The team was rewarded with their best ever result in design judging, a real testament to their dedication despite not being able to meet as a team for much of the year.

Working into the night, the team methodically tested different components until they were able to identify a malfunctioning sensor was at fault for the issue. With this replaced, the team quickly completed the rest of the technical inspections and were able to take to the start line for the endurance race. The car performed well on track and was setting competitive times until an issue with the pedal box meant that the car had to be stopped for safety reasons. Despite this upset, the team were able to take away their second-best result to date and showed great resilience to overcome the adversities shown to them. Team leader Reuben Inganni said “ I couldn’t be prouder of the

Wolf VI on track in the endurance event.

Having completed the static judging the team moved onto the dynamic element of the competition. Coming to the event with a well-tested car confidence was high and this was boosted further by only having to make small changes to the car through the first element of scrutineering. Unfortunately the cars engine developed an issue whilst passing through noise testing that took all of Saturday to diagnose. 44

team this year, after a challenging and unpredictable 12 months to have arrived at Silverstone with a welltested car is a real testament to everyone’s hard work and dedication. To achieve UWR’s best ever result in the design judging really shows the teams commitment to continuously progressing. Unfortunately we couldn’t show what we were truly capable of in the dynamic events but I couldn’t have

asked for anything more from the team who gave their absolute best to resolve the issues that faced us. I’m really proud of the car we brought to the event this year and am confident that the team will recoup, rebuild and come back even stronger next year.” UWR would like to thank the EIS and our other sponsors for their continued support and will return to the competition next year stronger than ever; hungry to achieve our best ever result. You can follow the teams 2022 development progress on their social media pages below. Images by Tryggvi Eidsson.

Going onto the tilt test where the car is tilted on a platform to 60°.

Wolf VI ready to race.

UWR formula student team 2021.


Photography Competition We are pleased to launch the EIS Photography Competition for 2021. The judges will be looking for strong images focusing on the areas of activity covered by EIS, including durability, fatigue, simulation, test, measurement, sound, vibration and product perception. The image may tell a story, view something from a different angle or capture the imagination, so think creatively! Entry to the competition Entry to the competition is free of charge and you may enter up to three images in each category. Entries should be sent to along with a completed entry form which is available from our website. Files should be sent as .jpg files and labelled with your name and category. There are 4 categories, and the winner of each section will be awarded a prize of £100. • • • •

People – sponsored by Moog Future Technology – sponsored by Prosig Vehicles – sponsored by HBK Abstract Image – sponsored by Interface Force Measurements

Each photograph must be accompanied by a caption of up to 100 words to describe the image and context. Before submission you should consult the full terms of entry available on our website. Key Dates Entries should be submitted between 1 August 2021 to midnight on 30 November 2021. Short-listing will take place in December 2021. Short-listed entries will be announced on the EIS website from December 2021. Winners will be announced in January 2022.


Peter Watson Prize This annual prize is named after our founder Peter Watson and was created to support young engineers at the start of their career, a cause Peter keenly supported throughout his working life.

This year’s Peter Watson Prize competition was incorporated into our Fatigue 2021 conference. With 23 applicants from across the globe the judges were impressed with both the high standard of presentation and the quality of content. Conference convenor Dr John Yates was pleased to announce the winner of the Peter Watson Prize at the society’s first online awards presentation. It was an extraordinarily difficult task for the panel of judges and they remarked on the outstanding presentations on a wide variety of topics from universities and companies throughout the world. The challenge was so great that not only did they award the Peter Watson Prize but also awarded two highly commended prizes to presenters they felt were worthy of recognition. Kris Hectors of Ghent University was highly commended for his high-quality paper with a strong industrial context

and broad range of analysis and experiments. The judges commented that this was a very competent piece of analysis and was extremely well-presented. Alexander Koch from Dortmund University was also highly commended for his fascinating contribution with a strong environmental impact which appealed to the panel. You can read Alexander’s full paper on page 10. On behalf of the society, John Yates was delighted to award Chris Magazzeni of University of Oxford the Peter Watson Prize for 2021. Chris gave an extremely wellpresented talk (Local Fatigue Property Assessments of Linear Friction Welds) with some very exciting science and the panel commented that they learned a great deal from his presentation. The Peter Watson Prize will be held once again in 2022 and further announcements will be published at the start of the year.

Measurement Sensors Micro-Epsilon designs and manufactures precision sensors and measurement systems for displacement, profile, gap, thickness, distance, vibration, temperature and colour measurements.  3D sensors  2D/3D Laser profile sensors  Thermal imaging cameras  Optical micrometers  Turbospeed sensors  Capacitive sensors  Laser triangulation sensors  Thickness sensors  Colour sensors Micro-Epsilon is an expert in sensor technologies. We offer free virtual demos, webinars and online consultations, so get in touch now!

+44 (0) 151 355 6070 | | 47

Product News Leclanché introduces a new generation of lithium-ion battery modules for e‑transport vehicles and vessels and unveils a highvolume European module production line Leclanché SA (SIX: LECN), one of the world’s leading energy storage companies, has developed a new generation of lithium-ion battery modules for energy intensive e-transport applications, such as marine, commercial vehicle and railway, and simultaneously inaugurated a dedicated new production line for their high volume manufacture in Europe. The new modules, called M3, represent the next generation in Leclanché’s module production with an increased energy and power density compared to the company’s previous module generation. They feature a very-high cycle life of up to 20,000 cycles (LTO) or up to 8,000 cycles (G/NMC) – allowing for significant reductions in total cost of ownership and making them ideal for commercial applications. The modules are designed for a wide range of current and voltage outputs, going all the way up to 800A continuous current and for battery system voltages of up to 1,200V with its functionally safe BMS. The module and production line have been designed to accept a high level of flexibility in product configurations while maintaining production efficiency and traceability.

Three new products from Polytec Ltd Truly portable laser vibration measurement VibroGo® is the truly portable, battery-powered digital laser vibrometer for field studies and quick and easy condition monitoring of machines and facilities on the go. With so many great features including wireless data transfer, autofocus, and a large touchscreen, and a frequency range from DC to 320 kHz up to 6 m/s velocity, portable non-contact vibration measurements have never been so easy.

PSV QTec – Reinventing full-field vibration mapping The new PSV QTec Scanning Vibrometers make fullfield vibration measurements up to 10 times faster. The patented QTec® multi-path interferometer design has been developed with technical surfaces and challenging measurements in mind. Available in 1D or 3D mode, the PSV-QTec scanning laser vibrometer is capable of measuring up to 25 MHz, with nanometers velocity resolution, and is the ideal 48

solution for determining operational deflection shapes and Eigenmodes for NVH, acoustics, structural dynamics, ultrasonics, FEM validation and NDT.

Table-top optical surface profiler TopMap Micro.View® is an easy to use, next generation optical 3D surface profiler. Choose Micro.View® as the cost-effective quality control solution for surface analysis of precision-engineered parts, for inspecting roughness, textures and fine surface details. Designed for modularity, this comprehensive workstation allows for customized and application-specific configurations. All you need is some space on your bench to start inspecting your precision engineered surfaces.

Plastometrex's Indentation Plastometer Plastometrex's newly launched Indentation Plastometer is a macro-mechanical test machine that measures full stress-strain curves and metal strength parameters from a simple 3-minute indentation test. The machine works by pushing a hard spherical indenter into a test piece under pre-programmed testing protocols, followed by measurement of the residual indent shape using an integrated profilometer. The measured shape data are then analyzed in a proprietary software package that converts the residual profile shape into a stress-strain curve in a matter of minutes. Plastometrex's Indentation Plastometer testing device was launched in late 2020. It is already being used globally in various industries to support more efficient testing, R&D activities, and failure analysis investigations. Dr Michael Coto CCO at Plastometrex said "We have been delighted with the level interest we have received since launching our Plastometer device - and we feel it's a strong testament to the strength of the underlying technology. If you'd like to learn more about the work we do at Plastometrex and the products that we offer, then we encourage you to get in touch.

ODU AMC® Series T - three locking options in one connector for additional security The "T" stands for 3-in-1 or the “Triple”. Three locking options fit on one connector or receptacle part: Push-

Pull, Break-Away or Screw Lock. Additional security is provided by the built-in trapezoidal threaded locking. The new ODU AMC® Series T connector is even more rugged, sealed, proven reliable and offers unlimited possibilities. Following the motto everything is possible, the customer chooses locking type, cable connection, size, insert and number of contacts. Its strengths include:

• high vibration resistance • waterproof according to MIL standard 810 • Sealed mechanical area, thus completely protected against water, dirt and dust • Easy to handle and install • Suitable for MIL backshell and MIL crimp contacts

The ODU AMC® Series T connectors are available in two sizes and are compatible with standard backshells. It is suitable for use in military, security and communications applications. The connectors are field terminable. Thus they are time saving. Even the individual contacts can be replaced or repaired in the field. It couldn't be simpler for the operators.

High precision 3D snapshot sensor measures geometry, shape and surface defects of objects in automated inline processes Precision sensor manufacturer Micro-Epsilon has introduced a new range of high precision 3D snapshot measurement sensors that are suitable for automated, inline measurement of geometry, shape and surface quality of objects. The sensors stand out due to their extremely high resolution and repeatability, as well as their large measuring area. The new surfaceCONTROL 3D 3500 is a 3D snapshot sensor with a compact design and extremely high resolution in the Z-axis (from 1.0 µm). With a repeatability up to 0.4µm, the sensor sets a new benchmark in high precision 3D measurement technology. Due to its high performance, the sensor is able to reliably detect even the slightest of deviations in planarity, for example, or height differences of very small components (e.g. IC pins) on printed circuit boards. A high data processing speed of up to 2.2 million 3D points per second enables the sensor to increase productivity in the respective application. For more information on the surfaceCONTROL 3D 3500, please visit or call the MicroEpsilon sales department on +44 (0)151 355 6070 or email

Ansible Motion and Continental pave the road ahead for connected, more sustainable, simulation-driven tyre testing Compact, lightweight class-leading Delta S3 Driver-inthe-Loop simulator will support Continental to reduce real world testing by up to 100,000 kilometres per year and use 10,000 fewer tyres for development. Continental is the first tyre manufacturer to order Ansible Motion’s all-new advanced Driver-in-the-Loop (DIL) simulator, the Delta S3. With an increased motion

space, higher resolution and the ability to benchmark tyres accurately in a virtual world, the S3 will enable Continental’s engineers to repeatedly and consistently test tyres across a range of virtual terrains, locations, scenarios and seasons. The simulator will support the company's goal is to be the most progressive tyre manufacturer in terms of environmental and socially responsible business practices by 2030, with the aim to reduce real world testing by up to 100,000 kilometres per year and use 10,000 fewer tyres for development. A pioneer in efficient, intelligent and affordable solutions in its 150th year of existence, Continental has chosen Ansible Motion’s Delta S3, which utilises highly immersive simulation motion and vision systems to develop and validate an increasingly complex mix of powertrain, safety and driver technologies. Now, looking to the future, Ansible Motion’s Delta S3 simulator will support the next generation of virtual objective and subjective testing needed for its OE car and commercial vehicle tyres. With the ability to test and validate considerably more iterations of compound and construction, the speed and accuracy of using a high-fidelity simulator enables Continental’s engineers to find better solutions to improve grip, wear and fuel efficiency, all in a more sustainable way.

Wood enables safer, more efficient field operations through apps integrating Microsoft Dynamics 365 and Power Platform Wood, the global consulting and engineering company, is creating a range of innovative digital solutions and apps, integrating Microsoft Dynamics 365, to allow field workers to embrace a digital future and empower clients to maximise value in deployment for safer and more effective operations. The ‘Connected Worker’ apps are part of a multi-year collaboration with Microsoft which will combine Wood’s experience in the energy sector with Microsoft’s technology to improve operational services worldwide. These new platforms are cost-effective, proven, tested and scalable and will allow fast track deployment to 10,000 field workers across Wood’s global operations. This will enable workers to access in-depth industry expertise and innovative, artificial intelligence (AI)powered data science solutions. This in turn will reduce the need for site mobilisations, streamline traditionally administrative work, improve collaboration and team engagement, ultimately driving value for both customers and employees alike. The collaboration builds on an existing strong relationship with Microsoft and demonstrates the power of Microsoft Dynamics 365. The project will leverage Dynamics 365 Field Services and Project Operations as well as Power Apps and Power BI solutions.

Contributions to Product News may be emailed to The nominal limit for entry is 200 words. 49

News from the Tipper Group Are You Consciously Inclusive? We’ve all heard about unconscious bias, which refers to biased attitudes and stereotypes that operate outside of your conscious awareness and control. Many of us will have received training, read articles or attended talks on how to mitigate the impact of unconscious bias in the workplace. Despite years of conversation about how to challenge our unconscious biases, there remains a disparity in both gender and race at senior management level with only 6% of females holding a Chief Executive position in the UK and no black Chief Executives or Chief Financial Officers in any of Britain’s 100 largest companies (as represented by the FTSE-100 index) – so why is it so difficult for certain demographics to reach top positions? Recent government recommendations based on the findings from the 'Race and Ethnic Disparities' report suggest that using a training only approach to biases doesn’t go far enough to resolving equal access to opportunities. For greater impact, efforts should focus on actively designing and applying actions to reduce the influence of bias by targeting repeated patterns of behaviour that hold us back from achieving our intentions for greater inclusion. To some extent each and every one of us make assumptions and form stereotypes about other people and cultures based on personal characteristics, whether we easily admit it or not – it’s part of our human DNA. So, how can we shift our focus towards making meaningful change and being consciously inclusive? Let’s start by looking at what we mean by inclusion. Some people think this only relates to underrepresented groups and solely focuses on making these groups of people feel included, but inclusion goes further than this. Inclusion challenges the norm and stereotypes that exclude others, we need to be curious and open to differences and feel safe to do something new and speak up. Simply put, it is about ensuring that everyone feels valued and that they belong. When individuals are treated with equity, are accepted for what makes them unique and are supported to reach their full potential, it benefits everybody. Everyone should be given the chance to start running the career race on an equal footing. However this can be very difficult to achieve in reality when we have such different experiences of home-life, education and opportunities. That is why mentoring programmes, training and good leadership to allow growth are invaluable in creating a diverse wealth of talent and expertise for the future. It is also important to recognise that since the pandemic, the way we work has gone through a revolution and cultural shift. We are embracing new ways of communicating and working that are more flexible and inclusive. 'People first' leadership has played a crucial 50

part in this process, especially with the challenges that COVID has brought to both our workspaces and our personal lives. This has led to a greater necessity to understand individual's needs, unique circumstances, coping strategies and required support structures. With the changing models of working we will need to adapt as a business to attract and retain staff. We must learn to support and nurture our teams and create teams to thrive and succeed to the best of their ability, ensuring inclusion is at the heart of everything we do. This has highlighted that there are several things to consider when seeking to eliminate bias in the workplace. How can we cultivate conscious inclusion? • Seek to understand more about the people we employ or work with and the values they hold – ask questions, be curious, step outside of your comfort zone and have a conversation with someone you’ve never spoken to before. • Be an active ally – listen and learn from colleagues’ actual experiences, learn as much as you can about the challenges and biases they face/have faced. • Continuously reflect on moments of unconscious bias, be aware of blind spot bias, anchoring bias, or confirmation bias and think about how you may act differently next time. • Be courageous in calling out exclusionary behaviours in others. • Seek to change perception and relationships. • Be the change you want to see. Role model inclusive behaviours, encourage others to demonstrate these practices. Most people do not act unfairly towards others with any malicious intent, so let's encourage fairness in the way we behave towards each other. Diversity and inclusion is an ongoing journey and the landscape is ever changing, we may say the wrong thing at some point, especially when we are encouraging staff to make space to have courageous conversations with one another. Without listening and taking the time to truly understand others, we cannot expect to have a realistic perspective. Let’s be open to educating and learning from each other. Victoria Beckett & Seetle Patel Contact Us: The Tipper Group, TWI Ltd, Granta Park, Great Abington, Cambridge CB21 6AL Email: Twitter: @TheTipperGroup

Group News will be a good way to respond to a high-interest group of topics, under the ongoing uncertainty of travel and face-to-face meetings. Pragmatically, we also appreciate how it has become difficult for even junior professionals to take a full day out of the office, and over the last 18 months EIS has received a lot of positive feedback for the lunchtime webinars making seminar content more accessible to more of our members.

With the respite from lockdown, we are now actively looking to host a technical seminar next year drawing on the skills, expertise and ideas from within the SVPP Group. This is a work-in-progress for the Group, so watch this space.

Peter Bailey Chairman

Dave Fish Chairman

We always welcome new members to the SVPP Group, so if you would like to have an input into our ongoing activities, please contact us at the EIS.

Durability & Fatigue Group Durability and Fatigue Group meetings have continued to be fairly active this year, but above all I would just like to express our thanks to all those who contributed to Fatigue 2021 conference this spring. You will find a full write-up elsewhere in the journal, but it was an outstanding effort by all and a very successful conference. I have discussed thoughts on the durability challenges of various emerging technologies in several recent issues and I think all of those are still “circling”, but with an increasing number of businesses now starting to work down from the high level concerns to focus on specifics. With that in mind, we are very pleased to announce that D&FG is coordinating a series of webinars on Durability Advances in Renewable Energy and Storage Technology, including speakers from RollsRoyce, Horiba-MIRA, ITM Power, and Swansea University. There will be one presentation each week, starting in mid-November, on different aspects of battery and hydrogen systems, testing and integration. Taking the place of a full one-day physical seminar, we believe that this

Sound & Vibration Product Perception Group

Simulation, Test & Measurement Group

With a significant increase in representation from universities (Birmingham, Bradford, Brighton and Swansea) the Sound and Vibration Product Perception Group (SVPP) is working to put together further online webinars. Our first webinar was presented in February "Sound and Vibration Engineering: what, where and how?" This was well received and provided an awareness of the subject for young engineers who may be interested in a career in the field of sound and vibration.

As mentioned in March the STMG group were focusing on a number of new and varied seminars for the second half of 2021 and I’m pleased to report that a large number of presentations were suggested by several members of the group. From this we have created two or three sessions, focused mainly on modelbased system testing and measuring Electric Vehicles (EV’s). The topics should be of interest both to newlyqualified and more experienced engineers. The presentations will 51

discuss the ‘new’ varied types of measurements required and techniques that are being employed to predict and measure performance and efficiencies of the vehicle. In addition, David Ensor has agreed to run a presentation on ‘Certainty of Measurement’ as there is still much interest in the topic amongst our members. It’s great to have David back on board doing what he does best, presenting and sharing his vast experience with us all. Based on the experience of the Young Engineers Forum, we have decided to run the webinars live which we believe will provide a better experience and promote more involvement from the attendees. More information on the

webinars will appear in due course so please register your interest as soon as possible so we can gauge levels of interest. Looking forward to Silverstone, 63 tables have been booked and five more are being released for further bookings. Four mini seminars have been agreed and we will be publicising further details very soon. To have such a great response despite some caution around public events is fantastic and it is re-assuring that we are ‘hopefully’ getting back to some form of normality. There will obviously still be safe systems of working to adhere to but overall, this is brilliant news. At previous events the EIS has managed to secure some interesting

vehicles to exhibit at the front of the building and Sara is hoping to do so again this year. Again, this is due to the great effort of Sara and EIS members and I look forward to some interesting exhibits. I firmly believe that the next few months will be a more positive and encouraging end to the year. It is hoped that there will be greater social interaction, discussion and learning across the board, whilst adhering to government guidelines of course.

Steve Payne Chairman

Corporate Members The following companies are corporate members of the Engineering Integrity Society. We thank them for their continued support which helps the Society to run its wide-ranging events throughout the year. AcSoft CaTs3 CentraTEQ Correlated Solutions Dassault Systemes Data Acquisition and Testing Services Ltd Data Physics Datron Technology Dewesoft Frazer-Nash Consultancy Gantner Instruments GOM HBK World HEAD acoustics HORIBA-MIRA imc Test and Measurement


GmbH Imetrum Instron Interface Force Measurements iPetronik Kistler M&P International Mecmesin Micro Measurements Micro-Epsilon Millbrook Moog Nprime PCB Piezotronics PDS Hitech Plastometrex Polytec

Prosig Rutherford Appleton Lab Sensors UK Serco Servotest Siemens Star Hydraulics Strainsense StressMap Systems Services Techni Measure THP Systems Torquemeters UTAC Zwick/Roell

Committee Members

President: Professor Roderick A Smith, FREng. ScD Directors

Peter Bailey, Instron Robert Cawte, HBM United Kingdom Graham Hemmings, Engineering Consultant Richard Hobson, Serco Rail Technical Services Nick Richardson, Servotest Norman Thornton, Engineering Consultant John Yates, Engineering Consultant


John Yates, Engineering Consultant

Vice Chairman

Richard Hobson, Serco Rail Technical Services


Graham Hemmings, Engineering Consultant

Company Secretary

Nick Richardson, Servotest

Marketing & Events Manager Sara Atkin

Communications Sub Committee – ‘Engineering Integrity’ Journal of the EIS Honorary Editor Spencer Jeffs

Managing Editor Rochelle Stanley

Sound & Vibration Product Perception Group Chairman

David Fish, JoTech

Deputy Chairman Keith Vickers, Bruel & Kjaer UK


Dave Boast, DB Engineering Solutions David Bryant, Bradford University Mark Burnett, HORIBA-MIRA Pierfrancesco Cacciola, University of Brighton Martin Cockrill, Polytec Paul Francis, JCB James Herbert, Bruel & Kjaer UK Peter Jackson, European Acoustical Products Paul Jennings, Warwick University Amir Khan, Bradford University Chris Knowles, Consultant Andrew McQueen, Siemens Jon Richards, Engineering Consultant Alexander Shaw, Swansea University Tony Shepperson, HEAD acoustics

Simulation, Test & Measurement Group Chairman

Steve Payne, HORIBA-MIRA

Deputy Chairman Alex O'Neill, Jaguar Land Rover/University of Surrey


Jack Allcock, Tata Steel Carl Barcock, Data Acquisition & Testing Services Ltd


Dan Bailey, Instron Gian Matteo Bianchi, Warwick University Connor Bligh, JCB Marc Brown, Vibration Research Darren Burke, Servotest Lloyd Butler, DTR VMS Steve Coe, Data Physics (UK) David Copley, Consultant David Ensor, Enginerring Consultant Robin Garvie, Airbus Graham Hemmings, Engineering Consultant Richard Hobson, Serco Rail Technical Services Jerry Hughes, Moog Ben Huxham, Prosig Chris Johnson, Wacker Neuson UK Ltd Jonathan Joy, Millbrook Virrinder Kumar, HBM United Kingdom Trevor Margereson, Engineering Consultant Tim Powell, MTS Systems Anton Raath, CaTs3 Gary Rands, Siemens Nick Richardson, Servotest Paul Roberts, HBM Prenscia Raul Rodriguez, Hyster Yale Jarek Rosinski, Transmission Dynamics Norman Thornton, Engineering Consultant John Wilkinson, Engineering Consultant Darren Williams, Millbrook Proving Ground Scott Williams, Williams F1 Rob Wood, GOM Jeremy Yarnall, Data Acquisition and Testing Services Ltd

Durability & Fatigue Group Chairman

Peter Bailey, Instron


Jamie Shenton, JCB


Hayder Ahmad, Safran Martin Bache, Swansea University Andrew Blows, Jaguar Land Rover Robert Cawte, HBM United Kingdom Amir Chahardehi, Atkins Energy Richard Cornish, Birmingham City University Farnoosh Farhad, Northumbria University Hassan Ghadbeigi, Sheffield University Lee Gilbert, Element Oliver Greenwood, Rolls Royce Phil Irving, Engineering Consultant Karl Johnson, Zwick Roell Group Chris Magazzeni, Oxford University Angelo Maligno, IISE, University of Derby Andrew Mills, Siemens Giovanni De Morais, Dassault Systèmes Simulia Davood Sarchamy, Airbus Giora Shatil, Darwind Niall Smyth, Coventry University John Yates, Engineering Consultant Committee members can be contacted via the Marketing & Events Manager, Tel: 01623 884225. 54

Corporate Member Profiles Dewesoft


Tel: +44 (0)1234 381 261 Email: Website: Contact: Andy Hathway

Tel: +44 (0)2476 639920 Email: : Website: Contact: Rob Wood

Dewesoft supply flexible modular Data Acquisition Systems, for laboratory and mobile applications, with sample rates up to 1MS/s and signal conditioning for any type of sensor. Systems are also offered with IP67 rating for extreme environmental conditions.

GOM – Professional 3D optical measurement

1 Appley Court, Appley Wood Corner Haynes, Bedfordshire MK45 3QQ

Dewesoft instruments are supplied with turnkey data acquisition software addressing a wide range of measurement applications, including Power Analysis, NVH, Combustion Analysis, Road Load Data and many more. Dewesoft supplies systems to all industries, including Automotive, Aerospace, Defence, Power and Energy and transportation.


Watling Street, Nuneaton Warwickshire, CV10 0TU Tel: +44 (0)247 635 5000 Email: Website: Contact: Kristy Thompson, Marketing Manager HORIBA MIRA is a highly customer-focused, world-class, independent vehicle engineering consultancy, shaping everything we do around the partnerships we create. We harness the skills, experience and knowledge of our talented experts to provide our customers with intelligent solutions to their challenging problems. HORIBA MIRA offers full system design, test and integration expertise to the global automotive, defence, rail and transport industries. HORIBA MIRA’s technical facilities provide a truly global centre of excellence from which to innovate, engineer, test and implement market changing solutions.

14 The Cobalt Centre Siskin Parkway East Coventry, CV3 4PE

For material and component testing GOM Deformation products include Digital Image Correlation (DIC), point tracking and forming analysis. All systems are 3D and non-contact, DIC using a speckle pattern to give full field strain results, ideal for FEA comparison. The GOM ATOS 3D scanner is developed for reverse engineering and dimensional control of components. Fast, accurate scans are now an established way of reducing product development times and ensuring highest quality components.


The Courtyard Wraxall Hill, Wraxhall Bristol, BS48 1NA Tel: +44 (0)1275 464443 Email: Website: Contact: Joan Round Imetrum Limited was founded in 2004. Our expertise is in non-contact precision measurement using digital video technology. We measure everything from multispan bridges to specimens in an electron microscope. We work with a very wide variety of customers to provide measurement solutions in very taxing environments. In addition to our ranges of standard measurement products, we can provide bespoke solutions in situations where other providers have failed.



204 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ Tel: + 44(0)7724887650 Email: Website: Contact: James Dean Plastometrex is a Cambridge-based company developing novel mechanical testing systems that are designed to make mechanical testing simpler, faster and more versatile. Based on indentation testing, our systems leverage advanced numerical modelling, optimisation algorithms, and machine learning tools to convert indentation test data into stress-strain curves and metal strength parameters in under 3 minutes.

Harwell, Didcot Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX

Tel: +44 (0)1235 445040 Email: Website: Facilities/11324.aspx Contact: Giles Case Space Research Facilities offering a full range of Environmental test and cleanroom facilities. Thermal Vacuum, Orbital Simulation, Instrument Calibration combined with a large Cleanroom complex.

Servotest Testing Systems Ltd


Tel: +44 (0)1784 274410 Email: Website: Contact: Nick Richardson

Tel: +44 (0)1568 615201 Email: Website: Contact: Alan Thomas

Unit 1, Beta Way Thorpe Industrial Estate Egham, TW20 8RE

Servotest design, manufacture and supply servohydraulic systems for motion simulation, characterisation and endurance testing. Bespoke solutions can be provided for special testing requirements. The systems provided cover a wide spectrum of applications including for example: Damper testing, 4 & 7 post vehicle test rigs, MAST systems for automotive & earthquake simulation, high temperature high-rate deformation of materials and many more. The equipment includes hydrostatic bearing actuators, test frames, hydraulic supply & distribution, Pulsar digital controllers for single and multi-channel requirements.


RAL Space – S.T.F.C. Rutherford Laboratory

Southern Avenue, Leominster Herefordshire, HR6 0QH

ZwickRoell is a leading, global supplier of advanced materials and component testing equipment. We offer a wide range of both electro-mechanical and servo-hydraulic testing products and controller/ software modernisations to give older generation systems a new lease of life. We supply standard and bespoke testing solutions and collaborate with an extensive range of industrial customers and academic establishments where Zwick equipment is used for both teaching and research purposes.

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Experts in Vibration m+p international supplies high-performance software and instrumentation for vibration control on a shaker, noise and vibration analysis, data acquisition and monitoring. Our products combine efficiency, accuracy, flexibility and test safety. Above this, we also offer consultancy and support to ensure successful outcomes for all of your applications.

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